Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.FIGLU Test: A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.United StatesPenaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.White Coat Hypertension: Phenomenon where BLOOD PRESSURE readings are elevated only when taken in clinical settings.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 188.8.131.52.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.CaliforniaDNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Piedra: Either of two diseases resulting from fungal infection of the hair shafts. Black piedra occurs mainly in and on the hairs of the scalp and is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra occurs in and on the hairs of the scalp, beard, moustache and genital areas and is caused by Trichosporon species.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Leukocytes (white blood cells; mainly neutrophils) are found within the fibrin deposits and intrapericardic. Vascular ... Inflammatory cells do not penetrate the myocardium (as is seen with other presentations of pericarditis), and as a result, this ...
Leukocytapheresis - removal of malignant white blood cells in people with leukemia and very high white blood cell counts ... This process is used for red blood cell diseases such as sickle cell crises or severe malaria. The automated red blood cell ... Leukapheresis - leukocytes (white blood cells). Leukopheresis is the removal of PMNs, basophils, eosinophils for transfusion ... Stem cell harvesting - circulating bone marrow cells are harvested to use in bone marrow transplantation. Single use kits - ...
... contains white blood cells. In particular, the lymph that leaves a lymph node is richer in lymphocytes. Likewise, the ... which occupies the spaces between cells. As the blood and the surrounding cells continually add and remove substances from the ... Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. Lymph also transports fats from the digestive system (beginning in ... However, as it flows through the lymph nodes it comes in contact with blood, and tends to accumulate more cells (particularly, ...
55 Neutrophilia white blood cells > 15 Calcium < 2 mmol/L Renal urea > 16 mmol/L Enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 600iu/L ... 60mmHg or 7.9kPa White blood cells > 15 Calcium < 2 mmol/L Urea > 16 mmol/L Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 600iu/L Aspartate ...
Norris, Jack (2013-05-09). "White Blood Cells in Vegans". JackNorrisRD.com. Davis, California. Archived from the original on ...
... white blood cells); musculoskeletal (muscles and bones); and neurovestibular (brains and nerves, eyes and inner ear). Other ...
White blood cells are often elevated. Surgical intervention is nearly always required in form of exploratory laparotomy and ...
Inflammatory response includes white blood cells. With only a small number of case reports, treatment can be difficult and ...
Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a ... Kneller, Alyssa (2007). "White blood cells are picky about sugar". Whitehead Institute. Retrieved 2013-08-09. Tak T, Tesselaar ... Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells in humans (approximately 1011 are produced daily); they account for ... type of white blood cells in most mammals. They form an essential part of the innate immune system. Their functions vary in ...
The other cells are white blood cells.) The spores are able to survive in harsh conditions for decades or even centuries. Such ... This was a cell-free vaccine instead of the live-cell Pasteur-style vaccine used for veterinary purposes. An improved cell-free ... which binds to two surface receptors on the host cell. A cell protease then cleaves PA into two fragments: PA20 and PA63. PA20 ... To enter the cells, the edema and lethal factors use another protein produced by B. anthracis called protective antigen, ...
... the good characters represent the cells that make up the body's systems and defense mechanisms, such as red blood cells, white ... White blood cells - The body's police force. Neutrophil granulocytes - represented by foot-patrol "policemen" which are ... Red blood cells - represented by red humanoids: elderly Professor Globus, who tells a lot about how the body works; Hemo; and ... "Cell Planet" "Birth" "The Body's Sentinels" "The Bone Marrow" "The Blood" "The Tiny Platelets" "The Heart" "Breathing" "The ...
White blood cells counts may demonstrate peripheral eosinophilia; this is common in many parasitic infections and is not ...
Platelets and white blood cells are also components. Platelets are not as prominent in venous clots as they are in arterial ... Inflammation is associated with VTE, and white blood cells play a role in the formation and resolution of venous clots. Often, ... Red blood cells and fibrin are the main components of venous thrombi, and the fibrin appears to attach to the blood vessel wall ... For unclear reasons, people of Asian descent have a lower VTE risk than whites. In North American and European populations, ...
... sometimes they are located inside white blood cells. The microscopic identification takes around 1-2 hours after specimen ... Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates ... fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacterium to the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx. It infects the cell by sticking to it ... It infects the cell by sticking to it with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc and ...
... is an endogenous opioid in humans that can be synthesized by and released from various human cells, including white ... Zhu W, Cadet P, Baggerman G, Mantione KJ, Stefano GB (2005). "Human white blood cells synthesize morphine: CYP2D6 modulation". ... Human cells that form in reaction to cancerous neuroblastoma cells have been found to contain trace amounts of endogenous ... One study successfully showed that dendritic cells, part of the innate immune system, display opiate receptors. Dendritic cells ...
... s are a type of white blood cells. Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of ... "Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at the single-cell level". Cell Stem Cell. 6: 361-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... The mast cell, another granulocyte, is similar in appearance and function. Both cell types store histamine, a chemical that is ... Heneberg, Petr (2011). "Mast cells and basophils: trojan horses of conventional lin- stem/progenitor cell isolates". Current ...
The forewings are sprinkled with brown and white anterior to the cell. The cell is brownish white. The hindwings are light ...
... veins and cell spot dark; fringe white. Adults are on wing year round. There are probably two generations per year. Larva ... hindwing pearly white with broad blackish outer border, containing a double whitish blotch between veins 2 and 4; ... redbrown, dorsal line darker, subdorsal band alternately black and white; a diffused brown sublateral band.The larvae are ...
All white blood cells (WBCs) are known as leukocytes. Leukocytes differ from other cells of the body in that they are not ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell receptors (TCRs), such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells exhibit ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ...
Dietary GLA leads to sharply increased DGLA in the white blood cells' membranes, where LA does not. This may reflect white ... autocrine and paracrine agents that bind receptors on the cell or its neighbors to alert the immune system of the cell damage. ... Many immune-system cells express multiple receptors that couple these apparently opposing pathways. Presumably, EPA-derived ... They activate phospholipidase to release AA from neuron cell membranes as a free fatty acid. During its short lifespan, free AA ...
White light induces activation of ganglion cells containing PACAP. This allows for the concentration in SCN to be lower during ... Only about two percent of all retinal ganglion cells are ipRGCs, whose cell bodies are in mainly the ganglion cell layer (and ... The retinohypothalamic tract consists of retinal ganglion cells. A distinct population of ganglion cells, known as ... Gooley JJ, Lu J, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Saper CB (2001). "Melanopsin in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract". Nat. ...
Thioguanine, like other thiopurines, is cytotoxic to white cells; as a result it is immunosuppressive at lower doses and anti- ... The plasma half-life of thioguanine is short, due to the rapid uptake into liver and blood cells and conversion to 6-TGN. The ... However, an assay of TPMT activity in red blood cells or a TPMT genetic test can identify patients with reduced TPMT activity, ... Thioguanine is incorporated into human bone marrow cells, but like other thiopurines, it is not known to cross the blood-brain ...
... is thought to be due to diurnal variation in the amount of circulating white blood cells and changes ... Neutrophils usually make up 50-70% of circulating white blood cells and serve as the primary defense against infections. There ... Ahokas A, Elonen E (June 1999). "Circadian rhythm of white blood cells during clozapine treatment". Psychopharmacology. 144 (3 ... if the antipsychotic medication were considered efficaceous then white cell counts may be repeated in the afternoon prior to ...
Form gamonts in white blood cells and/or erythrocytes. Gametocytes cause marked enlargement and distortion of the infected cell ... The large gametocytes tend to grossly distort the infected cells and make cell identification difficult. A pseudopigment known ... In some species this stage may occur in the endothelial cells instead of the liver. The nuclei of the schizonts is enclosed in ... The ookinete penetrates an intestinal cell of the fly and matures into an oocyst. After several days the oocyst produces ~100 ...
A complete blood count reveals increased white blood cells. Sepsis from prostatitis is very rare, but may occur in ... as evidenced by white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. Acute prostatitis may be a complication of prostate biopsy. Often ...
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ... Immature plasma cells. The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast. ...
A white cell count determines the total; a differential cell count estimates the numbers of each type. ... leucocytes* White blood cells , normally 5000-9000/mm3; includes polymorphonuclear neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, ... A white cell count determines the total; a differential cell count estimates the numbers of each type. Fever, haemorrhage, ... white blood cells A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ...
T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... White cells are found in the buffy coat, a thin, typically white layer of nucleated cells between the sedimented red blood ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ... All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ...
The follow-up to last years excellent De Stijl, White Blood Cells, instantly creates a clammy world of its own, Jacks ... White Blood Cells is the sound of a basement bedsit breakdown, a free-festival for the clinically furious. Offend In Every ... Conversely, it takes three seconds of [a]White Stripes[/a] third album to recognise that this is a band in thrall to rockn ... Yet somehow, sibling duo Jack and Meg White manage to make music that thrums with a biological rather than historical ...
Working with mice, the researchers say theyve shown that white blood cells, the bodys main line of defense against infection ... White blood cells are part of our bodys defense system. Their job is to attack invaders, and one of the first white blood ... Can White Blood Cells Spread Cancer? Reporting in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Lorenzo Ferri of McGill University ... Working with mice, the researchers say theyve shown that white blood cells, the bodys main line of defense against infection ...
White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote It is a neutrophil chasing ... White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life. Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote " It is a neutrophil chasing ...
The ab T cells are also good at reacting with other cells of the immune system, such as B cells. And the gd T cells react with ... KILLER T CELL binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell that is infected with a virus, causing the cell to be destroyed. ... During this division the T and B cells also create so-called effector and memory cells. Effector cells act to get rid of the ... One type of effector T cell, called a cytotoxic T cell, kills virus infected cells and thus prevents its spread. The memory ...
With only three northern white rhinoceroses left on Earth, scientists rush to develop new reproductive technology to save the ... Stem Cells May Save Northern White Rhinos. By Stephanie Pappas 2015-12-23T11:38:00Z. Animals ... So scientists plan to collect egg and sperm cells from the last living northern whites and combine them with induced ... The hope is that scientists can reverse-engineer body cells into sperm and egg cells. Fertilized embryos could then be made by ...
Science magazine founded by Australias chief scientist Alan Finkel makes the latest discoveries accessible to everyone with beautiful pictures and great
... comprising the B cells, T cells, macrophages, monocytes, and granulocytes. See more. ... any of various nearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate mainly in the blood and lymph and participate in ... white blood cells in Medicine Expand. white blood cell n. Abbr. WBC Any of the colorless or white cells in the blood that have ... white blood cells definition. Colorless cells in the blood that help combat infection. Some white blood cells act as scavengers ...
... s last male northern white rhino, Sudan, died in Kenya at the age of 45 in March, survived by just two females - his daughter ... Doomed northern white rhino CAN be resurrected: Frozen cells will be able to bring the species back from the brink of ... Scientists are hoping to use IVF and stem cell techniques developed for humans to resurrect the northern white rhino - but the ... In the new study, researchers investigated whether the northern white could recover using frozen cells stored at San Diego Zoo. ...
Boosting your white blood cell count. If you have a low white blood cell count, your doctor can prescribe medicines to help ... Things to consider if you have a low white blood cell count. If you have a low white blood cell count, consider taking the ... explains different types of white blood cells, how breast cancer treatment lowers their levels, and what low white blood cell ... White blood cells are produced by your bone marrow to help your body fight infection. If you have fewer than normal white blood ...
9 cells/L, but within that range, whats optimal? Several studies have reported that WBCs greater than 5 are associated with an ... Circulating levels of white blood cells (WBCs) are one of the 10 variables used to quantify biological age with PhenoAge ( The ... Optimizing Biological Age: White Blood Cells Posted by Paul Battista in categories: biotech/medical, life extension. ... Circulating levels of white blood cells (WBCs) are one of the 10 variables used to quantify biological age with PhenoAge (https ...
... a process in which the immune cell throws out genetic material (DNA, blue) and antimicrobial molecules such as elastase (green ... Lupus White Blood Cells Form Destructive Traps (image). University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine ... Lupus low-density granulocytes spontaneously undergo NETosis -- a process in which the immune cell throws out genetic material ...
... and my optometrist noticed that I had an unusually high number of white blood cells floating around in the back of my eye. I ... Excess white blood cells on retina?. Hi, I was getting fitted for new glasses the other day, and my optometrist noticed that I ... and my optometrist noticed that I had an unusually high number of white blood cells floating around in the back of my eye. I ... had an unusually high number of white blood cells floating around in the back of my eye. I had recently recovered from a ...
Definition A white blood cell (WBC) count determines the concentration of white blood cells in the patients blood. A ... differential determines the percentage of each of the five types of mature white blood cells. ... The white cell count detects dangerously low numbers of white cells.. Recovery from illness can be monitored by the white cell ... The white blood cell count and differential determine the number of white blood cells and the percentage of each type of white ...
white blood cells. blood count. desmoplaquin. Glioblastoma. immune system. carboplatin. Helping your kid brother die. ... This diluted blood is then put into a counting chamber called a hemocytomer and the white cells are counted. Then the number of ... A differential is the percentages of different types of white blood cells (neutrophils], esocinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, ... whole blood is mixed with a weak acid solution for the purpose of diluting the blood and gradually declining red blood cells ...
Australian researchers are positing that the malaria parasite works on the dendritic cells (DCs), warding off the body s immune ... "Our research has discovered how white blood cells called dendritic cells, malfunction and shield the malaria parasite from the ... "Dendritic cells normally function like generals of an army, giving orders to the bodys immune cells to fight infection," Dr ... The dendritic cells are found in most tissues of the body and are particularly abundant in those that are interfaces between ...
How White Blood Cells Affect Rosacea The potential role in rosacea of white blood cells, known as neutrophils, and the ...
Scientists have identified a protein that acts as a "master switch" in certain white blood cells, determining whether they ... COLUMBUS, Ohio -- A new study suggests that the presence of tumor cells in the circulating blood of patients with squamous cell ... Tumor cells in blood may signal worse prognosis in head and.... December 21, 2010. ... Breast cancer cells outsmart the immune system and thrive. February 1, 2011. ...
The transplantation of the cancer cells in these special mice provokes a massive infiltration of white blood cells that destroy ... By investigating the ability of combat-ready white blood cells (WBCs) to ingest and kill GAS, researchers have discovered new ... August 26, 2010) -- The term "macrophage" conjures images of a hungry white blood cell gobbling invading bacteria. However, ... These flexible stem cells, able to morph into a variety of cell types, are called "pluripotent," and before this Argonne ...
The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBCs (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBCs (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... White blood cells are a major component of the bodys immune system. Indications for a WBC count include infectious and ... White blood cell count - series-Indication. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100151.htm White blood cell ...
WBC - 4,500 to 10,000 cells/mcl. (Note: cells/mcl = cells per microliter). ... There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: *Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear ... This usually entails increased numbers of cells and an increase in the percentage of immature cells (mainly band zcells) in the ... White blood cell count - series-Results. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100151.htm White blood cell ...
"When you put these cells in the egg white preparation, it forms a structure like a duct. In the two-dimensional form, the cells ... "Understanding how the cell communicates, how protein work requires three dimensions.". For example, breast cells in the mammary ... Understanding cell signaling has become an increasingly important part of understanding how cells operate normally and what ... Egg whites are a good tool because they are easy and cheap to obtain and they are transparent, allowing the researchers to see ...
Overview covers possible causes of increased disease-fighting cells. ... A high white blood cell count is an increase in disease-fighting cells in your blood. ... for adults a count of more than 11,000 white blood cells (leukocytes) in a microliter of blood is considered a high white blood ... The exact threshold for a high white blood cell count varies from one laboratory to another. In general, ...
Phagocytosis is one such tactic wherein special types of cells called phagocytes ingest and kill invading organisms. Phagocytes ... also ingest dead cells and debris caused by tissue injury. ... Four types of white blood cells can act as phagocytes, namely ... Like neutrophils, these white blood cells can respond to a site of infection, activate and phagocytize invading bacteria. ... These white blood cells circulate in the bloodstream awaiting chemical signals of invasion and inflammation. Upon receiving ...
LymphocytesBasophilsMonocytesBoneCountsTissuesAntibodiesNeutropeniaProgenitor cellsGranulocytesMast cellsDestroyImmune cellsBlood and lymphaticResearchersAdiposeChemotherapyHematopoieticMiceNeutrophilPeripheral10,000Apheresis to collectDifferentiationLeukopeniaAbundant white blooDendriticTumor cellsViralInflammatoryBody's whiteDefenseCirculateBloodstreamTypeTypesFungiMicrobePatient's bloodPathogensImmatureImmunityTissueVirusesStem Cell Transplants
- Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The major types of white blood cells are granulocytes , lymphocytes , and monocytes . (dictionary.com)
- The calculation is made by multiplying the total white blood cell count (in thousands) by the percentage of total lymphocytes and then by the percentage of CD4. (thebody.com)
- For example, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks two sorts of white blood cells: macrophages, which play an early role in immune defense by phagocytosing and then digesting the invader, and certain lymphocytes (CD4 T lymphocytes), which come into play later in the immune response. (innovations-report.com)
- The avoidance of auto-immune disease requires that the body destroy abnormal lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that attack the person's own tissues (autoreactive lymphocytes. (rainbow.coop)
- In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (~6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120-150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- B lymphocytes are activated and controlled by "T" lymphocytes, which are in turn activated by macrophages and dendritic cells. (madsci.org)
- Lymphocytes are round white blood cells a bit bigger than a red blood cell . (wikipedia.org)
- There are three known types of lymphocytes, called T-cells , B-cells , and natural killer cells (NK cells). (wikipedia.org)
- From hematopoietic stem cells, blood cells differentiate along two major, distinct pathways: the lymphoid cell line which goes on to become lymphocytes, and the myeloid cell line , which gives rise to different types of PMNs, in addition to other blood cells. (verywellhealth.com)
- Though widely distributed, the highest levels of PrPC were found in a subpopulation of T lymphocytes: approximately 12,000 PrPC molecules were found per CD4+CD45RA-CD62L- effector memory T helper cell. (nih.gov)
- Lymphocytes (T-cells or B-cells) recognise foreign antigens and destroy invaders such as viruses and bacteria. (sciencephoto.com)
- This study will evaluate the safety and immune system effects of infusing HIV-infected patients with multiple doses of lymphocytes (white blood cells) from their non-infected identical twin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Monocytes make up 2-6% of all white blood cells. (divshare.com)
- Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cell precursors called monoblasts. (divshare.com)
- We were unable to find any evidence for PrPSc in purified granulocytes, monocytes, B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, nonclassical gamma delta T cells, or platelets. (nih.gov)
- All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells . (wikipedia.org)
- White blood cells are formed mainly in the bone marrow, and unlike red blood cells, have a cell nucleus. (dictionary.com)
- These flexible stem cells, able to morph into a variety of cell types, are called "pluripotent," and before this Argonne research, they have been found only in fetal tissue, which is limited, and in bone marrow, which is difficult to collect. (scienceblog.com)
- Both arise from the same type of stem cell in the bone marrow. (livestrong.com)
- The bone marrow continuously produces white blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The risk of low white blood cell counts is greater if chemotherapy and radiation therapy are given at the same time or if large areas of bone marrow are in the radiation treatment area. (cancer.ca)
- Mayo Clinic: "Low white blood cell count," "Neutropenia," "Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)," "Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. (webmd.com)
- A low white blood cell count, called leukopenia, may be caused by bone marrow problems, autoimmune disorders such as lupus, diseases involving the liver or spleen, certain viral illnesses or severe bacterial infections, states MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
- Growth factors are special proteins that can cause your bone marrow to make more white blood cells. (bccancer.bc.ca)
- Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. (phys.org)
- Bone marrow is the factory for white blood cells, which are then stored in the blood and lymphatic tissues. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Another potential cause is medications, such as AZT for example, which can suppress your bone marrow - where your blood cells are manufactured. (thebody.com)
- Several different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell . (wikidoc.org)
- White blood cells are produced within the bones in a substance called bone marrow, according to the Health Encyclopedia of the University of Rochester Medi. (reference.com)
- Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells. (myeloma.org)
- Red blood cell production in the bone marrow is a precarious process. (nature.com)
- The finding, Frenette says, "would suggest that methods to improve macrophage functional recovery might be useful in a situation such as bone marrow transplantation where you need to make more red blood cells faster. (nature.com)
- He told me that when your bone marrow doesn't really have ROOM for the fast expansion of white blood cells within the confined space of your bones, it will be very painful. (cancer.org)
- White blood cells are made inside the bone marrow and stored in your blood and lymphatic tissues. (ahealthyme.com)
- Because some white blood cells have a short lifespan of one to three days, your bone marrow is constantly making them. (ahealthyme.com)
- Your white blood cell count can be low for a number of reasons-when something is destroying the cells more quickly than the body can replenish them or when the bone marrow stops making enough white blood cells to keep you healthy. (ahealthyme.com)
- This includes white blood cells in the bone marrow. (ahealthyme.com)
- Cancers including leukemia and lymphoma can cause uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell in the bone marrow. (ahealthyme.com)
- This can result in an unhealthy balance of all types of blood cells in the bone marrow and too many or too few white blood cells in the blood. (ahealthyme.com)
- Stem cells are progenitor cells in the bone marrow and blood stream, meaning they can develop into a number of different cell types. (rxpgnews.com)
- Stem cells may be collected, or harvested, directly from the bone marrow, or from the circulating blood and infused into the patient's bloodstream. (rxpgnews.com)
- In vertebrates, the vast majority of hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and is derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
- The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In order to harvest stem cells from the circulating peripheral blood, blood donors are injected with a cytokine, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), that induces cells to leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
- This process indicates that, subsequent to bone marrow transplantation, symmetrical cell divisions into two daughter HSCs must occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
- For electronic WBC counts and differentials, interference may be caused by small fibrin clots, nucleated red blood cells (RBCs), platelet clumping, and unlysed RBCs. (encyclopedia.com)
- White cell counts are usually performed using an automated instrument, but may be done manually using a microscope and a counting chamber, especially when counts are very low, or if the patient has a condition known to interfere with an automated WBC count. (encyclopedia.com)
- White blood cell counts are highest in children under one year of age and then decrease somewhat until adulthood. (encyclopedia.com)
- Your physician may recommend medications to boost T cell counts when you are fighting an illness, but there are also foods you can eat to trigger production of these critical cells. (livestrong.com)
- You also take in a small amount of vitamin C in a serving of carrots -- 7.6 mg -- as well as small amounts of zinc and selenium, all of which contribute to T cell counts. (livestrong.com)
- People with particular blood cancers may also have high white blood cells counts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The lowest level that blood cell counts reach is called the nadir. (cancer.ca)
- The healthcare team may recommend measures to reduce the effect of cancer treatments on white blood cell counts. (cancer.ca)
- The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center: "Understanding Blood Cell Counts. (webmd.com)
- Absolute CD4 cell counts are calculated values that may fluctuate widely. (thebody.com)
- The authors used Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) to treat mice daily from youth to old age to see if it would change survival (longevity) or blood cell counts. (rainbow.coop)
- At UC San Diego Health, white blood cell reduction apheresis is primarily used as a treatment for patients with leukemia whose blood white cell counts are excessively high. (ucsd.edu)
- Blood tests showed very low white blood cell counts and the treatment was stopped. (oncolink.org)
- What is the normal range for white blood cell counts? (reference.com)
- What are the causes of low white blood cell counts? (reference.com)
- The dendritic cells are found in most tissues of the body and are particularly abundant in those that are interfaces between the external and internal environments (e.g., skin, lungs, and the lining of the gastrointestinal tract). (medindia.net)
- Pluripotent stem cells are important because they can generate all types of tissues found in the body, and the Argonne-developed technology can produce them from adult blood cells. (scienceblog.com)
- They continue to function as phagocytes in the tissues, and interact with other types of immune cells to protect the body and regulate inflammatory responses. (livestrong.com)
- The collateral damage of blood cells and tissues without MPO may cause long-term consequences such as accelerated aging and cancer, but this has not yet been systematically investigated," adds Nina Khanna. (medindia.net)
- In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. (divshare.com)
- mast cells are in the tissues). (verywellhealth.com)
- In the tissues, mast cells play an important role in respiratory and digestive conditions . (verywellhealth.com)
- B cells bearing antibodies and T cells bearing ab or gd receptors recognize the appearance of an invader in the body in different ways. (scientificamerican.com)
- B cell antibodies bind to the invading particle, such as a bacterium, in the form in which it enters the body. (scientificamerican.com)
- Others produce antibodies or destroy dead cells. (dictionary.com)
- A 3-oz. serving oysters cooked in moist heat contains 66.8 mg of zinc, a mineral that bolsters white blood cell production and helps these cells to produce greater quantities of antibodies. (livestrong.com)
- B cells hurl antibodies at virulent viruses to neutralize them so T cells can move in for the kill. (giantmicrobes.com)
- B cells make antibodies that bind to pathogens to enable their destruction. (wikidoc.org)
- B cells not only make antibodies that bind to pathogens , but after an attack, some B cells will retain the ability to produce an antibody to serve as a 'memory' system. (wikidoc.org)
- The antibodies that comprise the humoral immune response, however, are produced by a particular type of white blood cell, the "B" lymphocyte. (madsci.org)
- B-cells make antibodies , which are little molecules that attach to viruses or bad cells. (wikipedia.org)
- T-cells can either help make more B-cells, or kill cells with antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- T cells mature in the thymus and are involved in cell-mediated immunity, which does not rely on antibodies to fight antigens, but rather the activation of other immune cells. (sciencephoto.com)
- Plasma cells make antibodies against infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. (myeloma.org)
- Sunshine- after the white blood cell catch up to the bacteria they fight the bacteria and start developing antibodies to the bacteria. (workerscompensation.com)
- I knew the white fought bacteria but didn't know they built antibodies. (workerscompensation.com)
- A team led by Professor Klaus Rajewsky reports in Science that distinct progenitor cells are not required for the development of B1 cells. (phys.org)
- Stem cells, called "progenitor cells", exist naturally in many adult organs and have potential for use in disease treatment. (rainbow.coop)
- Stem and progenitor cells can be taken from the pelvis, at the iliac crest, using a needle and syringe. (wikipedia.org)
- Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by structure ( granulocytes or agranulocytes ) or by cell lineage (myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). (wikipedia.org)
- The next three types of white blood cells are referred to as granulocytes since they all contain rough, grain-like particles that assist in attacking viruses and bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
- We therefore investigated the effects of mast cells on UCP1 induction by adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- TIB64 mast cells responded to cold by releasing histamine and IL4, and this medium stimulated UCP1 expression and lipolysis by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Pharmacological block of mast cell degranulation potently inhibited histamine release by mast cells and inhibited adipocyte UCP1 mRNA induction by conditioned medium. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Together, these data show that mast cells sense colder temperatures, release factors that promote UCP1 expression, and are an important immune cell type in the beiging response of WAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Previously it was thought that the primary sources of lung histamine, in health as well as disease, was mast cells, which are classically associated with allergy," notes Caughey, who is also a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. (ucsf.edu)
- Even though there were no mast cells, histamine levels rose up to 50 times normal. (ucsf.edu)
- The wild-type mice suffered less severe infections overall because "as a number of recent studies, including ours, have shown, mast cells actually play a role in protecting against bacteria," Caughey explains. (ucsf.edu)
- When the infected mice without mast cells were given antihistamines, the level of histamine, and therefore the severity of the pneumonia, dropped in proportion to the amount of antihistamine given. (ucsf.edu)
- These processes include increased movement of blood cells to the place where the invader has entered the body, increased phagocytosis (eating) by blood cells and activation of enzymes in the blood that can create holes in bacteria and hence destroy them. (scientificamerican.com)
- The transplantation of the cancer cells in these special mice provokes a massive infiltration of white blood cells that destroy the cancer, said Zheng Cui, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and the lead scientist. (scienceblog.com)
- These are powerful white blood cells that destroy bacteria and fungi. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Re: How many white blood cells does it take to destroy a bacteria cell? (madsci.org)
- There isn't a strict ratio of white blood cells to bacteria, the whole immune system acts in concert to destroy infectious pathogens, whether they are bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. (madsci.org)
- These tell other cells to destroy the viruses or bad cells, like a flag. (wikipedia.org)
- When your body is in distress and a particular area is under attack, white blood cells rush in to help destroy the harmful substance and prevent illness. (ahealthyme.com)
- They attack and kill parasites, destroy cancer cells, and help with allergic responses. (ahealthyme.com)
- Scientists find the 'master switch' for key immune cells in inflammatory. (scienceblog.com)
- In some of these immune cells, viral stocks are not very accessible to antiviral therapy. (innovations-report.com)
- CNRS, Institut Curie and Institut Pasteur researchers investigating how HIV avoids being destroyed by immune cells have discovered that HIV alters the pH of the cellular compartments where it accumulates, thus stopping the activation of the very enzymes that would normally degrade it. (innovations-report.com)
- Survival depends on high levels of immune cells. (rainbow.coop)
- Although scientists long have theorized how immune cells recognize microbial debris sloughed from invading organisms at some distance from themselves, this study establishes a model to explain how immune cells determine when pathogens are directly in contact with their surface and thus pose a significantly greater risk, demanding rapid destruction. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- But here's where it gets interesting, because in a new study, researchers say they have shown that these nets might actually activate and spread the cancer cells. (npr.org)
- At a meeting in Vienna from Dec. 3 to Dec. 6, researchers developed a plan to use stem cells to create fertilized rhino embryos, which will be carried by surrogate southern white rhino females. (livescience.com)
- One of the researchers at the Vienna meeting was Katsuhiko Hayashi, a scientist at Kyushu University, who successfully bred mice from eggs created from mouse skin cells in 2012. (livescience.com)
- Researchers are now working to transfer this technology from mice to northern whites, according to a statement from the Dvůr Králové Zoo. (livescience.com)
- Researchers in Berlin and San Diego are using DNA samples collected from a dozen northern whites, including Sudan, and trying to apply techniques developed for humans to the animal. (dailymail.co.uk)
- The malaria parasite works on the dendritic cells (DCs), warding off the body's immune attack, say Australian researchers. (medindia.net)
- The researchers hope to create tiny particles that can interfere with the proteins that viruses such as HIV use to attach to cells. (scienceblog.com)
- Egg whites are a good tool because they are easy and cheap to obtain and they are transparent, allowing the researchers to see the cells under a microscope. (redorbit.com)
- A single gene called cylE within the important bacterial pathogen Group B Streptococcus (GBS), controls two factors that act together as a "sword" and "shield" to protect the bacteria from the killing effects of the immune system's white blood cells, according to researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine . (news-medical.net)
- In their study, the researchers also investigated cells from humans who lack the enzyme MPO due to a genetic defect. (medindia.net)
- Researchers want to use apheresis to collect plasma and white blood cells from healthy volunteers in Mali. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- ATHENS, Ohio - Scientists have developed biodegradable polymers that can mimic the ability of white blood cells to target inflamed blood vessel walls, according to a new study led by Ohio University researchers. (prohealth.com)
- Contrary to widespread belief that biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis is comparatively rare among black patients, researchers found the condition occurs at a similar rate among black and white patients, according to data published in JAMA Ophthalmology . (healio.com)
- In the study, researchers looked at the rate of stem cell transplants among African-Americans, Caucasians and men and women for the treatment of three types of cancer most commonly treated with stem cell transplants: leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. (rxpgnews.com)
- The next step is for researchers to determine why the stem cell transplant self-donation and relative-donation rates differ between Caucasians and African-Americans. (rxpgnews.com)
- Human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT) increases the expression of beige adipocyte genes in the winter. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This is due to the fact that the white adipose tissue produces cytokines or adipocytokines involved in this process. (scielo.br)
- Inflammatory cells have been shown to infiltrate the adipose tissue in obese humans, associated with increased production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to whole-body inflammation ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- If you have a low white blood cell count, your doctor can prescribe medicines to help stimulate your immune system after each round of chemotherapy. (breastcancer.org)
- Your doctor also may decide to stop your chemotherapy treatment for a little while so your body can recover and make more white blood cells. (breastcancer.org)
- Can I have sex if my white blood cells are low because of chemotherapy? (webmd.com)
- A low white blood cell (WBC) count, is one of the more serious side effects of chemotherapy . (oncolink.org)
- They are most effective when started the day after chemotherapy to prevent the white blood cell count from dropping too low. (oncolink.org)
- Stem cells can be damaged by disease, such as cancer, or treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation. (rxpgnews.com)
- That is, they are removed from the patient, conditioned, and reinfused in the patient after chemotherapy or other stem cell-destroying treatment. (rxpgnews.com)
- Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to blood cells through the process of haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
- The definition of hematopoietic stem cells has evolved since HSCs were first discovered in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
- The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
- In studies with mice and human blood samples, published in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of September 20, 2004, the UCSD scientists demonstrated the protective roles of two cylE-encoded factors, one that creates the unusual orange pigmentation of GBS, and another that produces a toxin called hemolysin that kills immune system cells as they surround and attack the bacteria. (news-medical.net)
- Altman and his co-workers found that infecting mice with the Armstrong strain sequesters white blood cells in the lymph nodes, while clone 13 does so less stringently. (innovations-report.com)
- Balanced (Bala) HSCs repopulate peripheral white blood cells in the same ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells as seen in unmanipulated mice (on average about 15% myeloid and 85% lymphoid cells, or 3 ≤ ρ ≤ 10). (wikipedia.org)
- S. H. Rezatofighi, K. Khaksari, and H. Soltanian-Zadeh, "Automatic recognition of five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood," in Proceedings of the International Conference of Image Analysis and Recognition , vol. 6112, pp. 161-172, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. (scielo.br)
- Surface expression of PrP C on human peripheral white blood cells (WBC). (nih.gov)
- There is some evidence that peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA contains epigenetic information that can be used to assess an individual's risk of breast cancer. (hindawi.com)
- Total peripheral white blood cells (WBC) count, a nonspecific marker of inflammation, has also been suggested to be associated with diabetes risk in some cohorts ( 14 - 16 ), but observations were not consistent ( 10 , 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- WBC - 4,500 to 10,000 cells/mcl. (medlineplus.gov)
- The UCSD experiments confirmed the importance of the antioxidant role of the orange pigment, as mutant GBS without the cylE gene was 10 to 10,000 times more susceptible to white blood cell oxidants than the disease producing strain. (news-medical.net)
- Dr Michelle Wykes and her team from Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) have recently published new findings demonstrating how the malaria parasite can survive in the dendritic cells in the spleen. (medindia.net)
- But finding its incubation in the dendritic cells could pave the way for new malaria drugs and vaccines. (medindia.net)
- Our research has discovered how white blood cells called dendritic cells, malfunction and shield the malaria parasite from the body's immune attack. (medindia.net)
- However, the problem with malaria is that the disease has found a way to block dendritic cells from doing their work, meaning that the disease over-rides our immune responses. (medindia.net)
- Tumor cells in blood may signal worse prognosis in head and. (scienceblog.com)
- COLUMBUS, Ohio -- A new study suggests that the presence of tumor cells in the circulating blood of patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck may predict disease recurrence and reduced survival. (scienceblog.com)
- CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Some of the viral proteins, however, are chewed up into peptides by the invaded cells. (scientificamerican.com)
- It is this combination of viral peptide and MHC protein that the ab T cell receptors recognize. (scientificamerican.com)
- The recipient twin will be monitored for general health status, immunologic improvement, depletions within the CD4+ T-cell repertoire, and HIV-1 viral load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The receptor called Dectin-1, studied in the laboratory of David Underhill, PhD, an associate professor in Cedars-Sinai's Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, detects fungi and instructs white blood cells whether to expend the energy needed to devour the invading pathogens. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. (wikidoc.org)
- Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. (scielo.br)
- Goetz, who next will study the drug delivery potential for chronic inflammatory conditions, hopes that the combined cell adhesion/drug delivery approach to addressing inflammation-related illnesses will progress in the next 10 years. (prohealth.com)
- In the current study, the scientists showed that the mutant GBS strain was rapidly cleared from the bloodstream of experimental animals and more easily killed by purified human and mouse white blood cells. (news-medical.net)
- About 90 percent of cancer deaths are related to metastases, but now we've found a way to dispatch an army of killer white blood cells that cause apoptosis - the cancer cell's own death - obliterating them from the bloodstream. (eurekalert.org)
- a 'differential cell count' estimates the numbers of each type. (encyclopedia.com)
- One type of effector T cell, called a cytotoxic T cell, kills virus infected cells and thus prevents its spread. (scientificamerican.com)
- A type of cell found in blood and lymph. (nih.gov)
- A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell. (fpnotebook.com)
- However, some people have a specific disease in which only one type of white blood cell is affected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If levels of one particular type of white blood cell increase, this may be due to a specific trigger. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Equally as important as the number of cells, is the type of cell that is either increased or decreased. (medhelp.org)
- A precursor cell that can also give rise to identical precursor cells: daughters of a stem cell can develop into a terminally-differentiated cell type or they can remain a stem cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Type I cells are simple thin squamous epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Type II cells secrete pulmonary surfactant. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Type II cells are smaller and more numerous than Type I cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A test called a differential count shows how many white blood cells there are in a person's blood, and how many of each type are there. (wikipedia.org)
- Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. (nih.gov)
- It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. (wikipedia.org)
- These are cells taken from the rhino's body and chemically induced to turn back the clock to an earlier developmental phase, when cells are capable of becoming many different types of body tissue. (livescience.com)
- A differential determines the percentage of each of the five types of mature white blood cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Phagocytosis is one such tactic wherein special types of cells called phagocytes ingest and kill invading organisms. (livestrong.com)
- Several types of white blood cell serve different functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- When viruses or infectious bacteria enter our body, the immune system is triggered to eliminate them, through a process involving various types of white blood cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Chemokines are specific kind of cytokines (See NOTE below) that "regulate the migratory activity of all types of leukocytic (white) cells. (rainbow.coop)
- Stem cells are cells that have the potential of development into various types of mature tissue cells for the purpose of tissue regeneration. (rainbow.coop)
- 1. In the lung, either of two types of epithelial cells lining the alveoli. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The objective of the experiment was to prepare a fresh blood smear and distinguish different types of blood cells using wright's stains. (divshare.com)
- There are two types of blood cells. (divshare.com)
- (B) Histograms show that both types of antigen-experienced T4 cells expressed significantly higher levels of surface PrP C than naïve T4 cells. (nih.gov)
- Both cell types have thin projections on their surface called filopodia, which are used for support and motility. (sciencephoto.com)
- This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. (nih.gov)
- Stem cell transplant (also known as blood and marrow transplant) is used to treat diseases of the blood and several types of cancer. (rxpgnews.com)
- HSCs can replenish all blood cell types (i.e., are multipotent) and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
- Scientists at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have discovered how a molecular receptor on the surface of white blood cells identifies when invading fungi have established direct contact with the cell surface and pose an infectious threat. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Our lab has been studying Dectin-1, which directs white blood cells to eat and kill the fungi that they encounter directly, but to ignore soluble material sloughed off of the fungal surface which does not pose an immediate threat,' says Helen Goodridge, PhD, first author on the study and a researcher in the laboratory headed by Underhill. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- A molecular structure that the Underhill lab calls a 'phagocytic synapse' forms at the surface of the white blood cell when Dectin-1 detects fungi. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This work was published in the 16 August 2007 issue of Cell Host and Microbe. (innovations-report.com)
- Each plush microbe includes a printed card with fun, educational and fascinating facts about the actual microbe or cell. (giantmicrobes.com)
- During phagocytosis, a white blood cell encounters a microbe, engulfs it, and eats it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Once inside the cell, the microbe can be killed using a combination of degradative enzymes, highly reactive chemicals, and an acidic environment. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Phagocytes also ingest dead cells and debris caused by tissue injury. (livestrong.com)
- A macrophage is responsible for many functions, including removing dead or damaged tissue, destroying cancer cells, and regulating the immune response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This could explain why the cells are less active in healthy body tissue. (phys.org)
- In these individuals, the hydrogen peroxide is not converted into hypochlorous acid and accumulates until it leaks out into the blood cells as well as the surrounding tissue. (medindia.net)
- HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, effector B cells, called plasma cells, secrete antibody molecules that bind to invading bacteria and viruses and help eliminate them from the body. (scientificamerican.com)
- For example, viruses must invade host cells to increase in number. (scientificamerican.com)
- Using nanotechnology to stop HIV viruses from entering cells is the ultimate aim of a new project at the University of California, Davis. (scienceblog.com)
- White blood cells travels throughout the body and detect the presence of bacteria, viruses and other intruders, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center. (reference.com)
- Lactoferrin and Stem Cell Transplants. (rainbow.coop)
- Patients who are candidates for stem cell transplants are most likely to find a matching donor in someone of their own ethnicity. (rxpgnews.com)
- The study also looked at gender differences and although men were somewhat more likely than women to receive autologous stem-cell transplants, the difference wasn't striking and may be just a statistical anomaly, said Dr. Horowitz. (rxpgnews.com)