Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
The consumption of edible substances.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An inflatable device implanted in the stomach as an adjunct to therapy of morbid obesity. Specific types include the silicone Garren-Edwards Gastric Bubble (GEGB), approved by the FDA in 1985, and the Ballobes Balloon.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Glucose in blood.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Activities related to WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with OBESITY. Treatment methods include DIET; EXERCISE; BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION; medications; and BARIATRIC SURGERY.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.
Abstaining from all food.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A person's view of himself.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A sport consisting of hand-to-hand combat between two unarmed contestants seeking to pin or press each other's shoulders to the ground.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
The physical measurements of a body.
The consumption of liquids.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The weights are measured in Kilograms. Teams Member of Kristy's team Member of Dave's team Game Week's Biggest Loser Immunity ( ... Since Carlo did not have as much time of training, Del's weight loss was added to the Red Team's. They led the entire weigh-in ... She reminded them that there will eventually be a plateau in the Blue Team's weight loss and to keep focus. Meanwhile, The Blue ... Del's weight loss was added to the Red Team's total. 2. Mietta was not weighed since she was taken to the hospital for a blood ...
Unlike the American version, weight loss is measured in tenths of kilograms instead of pounds. Personal trainers Michelle ... The starting weights ranged from 111 kg (Carrianne) to 206 kg (Garry). Applications for the third season opened at the end of ... Their entry into the house caused some upset, especially with newcomer Chris recording a big enough weight loss to see him ... On 27 April, Bob Herdsman, at 57 years old, with a record weight loss of 87.6 kilograms (52.2%), became the show's oldest ...
... indicating the proportion of children suffering from weight loss and / or reduced growth); and the mortality rate of children ... The ISHI is constructed in the same fashion as the Global Hunger Index which follows a multidimensional approach to measuring ... It combines three equally weighted indicators: the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population (reflecting ...
For people with NAFLD or NASH, weight loss via a combination of diet and exercise was shown to improve or resolve the disease. ... Histological diagnosis by liver biopsy is the most accurate measure of fibrosis and liver fat progression as of 2018. ... and fat appears bright in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Magnetic resonance elastography, a variant of magnetic ... Treatment of NAFLD is generally otherwise by dietary changes and exercise to bring about weight loss. In those who are severely ...
This caused a considerable loss of blood and body fluids, estimated to be about 6% of the total weight.[29] As a whole, blue ... The standard measuring technique is to measure in a straight line from the upper jaw to the notch in the tail flukes. This came ... Adult weights typically range from 45-136 tonnes (50-150 short tons).[30] There is some uncertainty about the biggest blue ... Pregnant females probably gain 60-65%. The fattened weight is 120% the average weight and the lean weight is 80%.[37] ...
Other preventative measures are to lose weight and to not work oneself past fatigue. Signs of fatigue include shaking, poor ... The nerve damage can result in loss of bowel and bladder control as well as sexual dysfunction. This disorder is called cauda ... T2-weighted images allow for clear visualization of protruded disc material in the spinal canal. ... Weight control. *Spinal manipulation: Moderate quality evidence suggests that spinal manipulation is more effective than ...
... of the Earth's crust measured by weight, making it the sixth most abundant element overall[52] and the most abundant alkali ... Thus, the trend for the densities of the alkali metals depends on their atomic weights and atomic radii; if figures for these ... 75 Their chemistry is dominated by the loss of their lone valence electron in the outermost s-orbital to form the +1 oxidation ... Standard atomic weight (u)[note 7][58][59]. 6.94(1)[note 8]. 22.98976928(2). 39.0983(1). 85.4678(3). 132.9054519(2). [223][note ...
Weight[edit]. For a given R-value, loose cellulose weighs roughly three times as much per square foot as loose fiberglass.[13] ... Weights of Building Materials Archived May 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Boise Cascade Engineered Wood Products Tech Note ... Building insulation is low-thermal-conductivity material used to reduce building heat loss and gain, and reduce noise ... which led to increased interest in energy conservation measures. Insulation gained significant national attention as a cheap ...
dB hearing level is used in audiograms as a measure of hearing loss.. dB Q. sometimes used to denote weighted noise level. dB ... In April 2003, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) considered a recommendation for the inclusion of the ... The unit for loss was originally Miles of Standard Cable (MSC). 1 MSC corresponded to the loss of power over a 1 mile ( ... with the measurement of this level frequency-weighted by a standard C-message weighting filter. The C-message weighting filter ...
A-weighting Berger, Elliot (1979). Single number measures of hearing protector noise reduction. EARlog 2. Aearo Company: ... Loss of these hair cells leads to hearing loss that may cause speech and sounds to be muffled or distorted. Tinnitus is often ... The A-weighting curve weights the mid frequency content, 500 to 4000 Hz, more than the frequencies outside that range. At lower ... Workers with hearing loss face additional risk factors on the job site such as an inability to hear warning signals or alarms, ...
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Some BCDs allow for integrated weight, meaning that the BCD has special pockets for the weights that can be dumped easily in ... By accurately measuring the partial pressure of oxygen, it became possible to maintain and accurately monitor a breathable gas ... In the 1960s adjustable buoyancy life jackets (ABLJ) became available, which can be used to compensate for loss of buoyancy at ... allowing a diver to gain a better overall weight distribution leading to a more horizontal trim in the water. Tank weights can ...
Agricultural groundwater banking can be associated with financial risk which may cause crop loss, so in the end, the loss may ... Saturated hydraulic conductivity measures soil permeability when the soil is saturated. When looking at root zone residence ... The weights were 27.5% deep percolation, 27.5% root zone residence time, 20% topography, 20% chemical limitations, and 5% ... To determine the feasibility of groundwater banking each of the five factors were assigned a weight to how significant it was, ...
18 this measure has not yet been tested in a weight loss treatment-seeking sample. Given the increased risk of victimization of ... providers should be aware that risk of WBV may be present for youth of diverse body weights and not just for those who are ... Weight-Based Victimization: Bullying Experiences of Weight Loss Treatment-Seeking Youth. Rebecca M. Puhl, Jamie Lee Peterson, ... Weight-Based Victimization: Bullying Experiences of Weight Loss Treatment-Seeking Youth. Rebecca M. Puhl, Jamie Lee Peterson, ...
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured weight and waist circumference at 0 and 12 months. ... received 1 face-to-face counseling session and the same core Internet programs and were instructed to submit weekly weights. ... Weight loss programs on the Internet appear promising for short-term weight loss but have not been studied for weight loss in ... Adding e-mail counseling to a basic Internet weight loss intervention program significantly improved weight loss in adults at ...
Weight loss self-efficacy was measured at enrollment and at the end of the intervention using a validated 10-item questionnaire ... I also lift weights to boost my metabolism.. Website (sources of stories). Number of stories. ... Stage of change for weight loss was assessed at enrollment and at the end of the intervention using the weight loss stages of ... Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were ...
Measure weight, body fat, BMI and muscle mass + track weight loss and health progress at home with the most accurate bathroom ... Accurately measures body weight, body fat, muscle mass, bone density, water weight, BMI and BMR to easily track your health ... For accurately measuring weight, body fat, muscle mass, bone density, water weight, BMI and BMR ... Can the scale measure regular body weight as well as body fat?. Yes, the scale provides seven measurements, including standard ...
Although these weights were not measured in a standardized fashion, any random measurement errors would bias results toward the ... Weight Loss. Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet maintained most of their 6-month weight loss, whereas those on a ... or active use of a weight loss program or weight loss medication. Between May 2001 and November 2001, 132 persons were randomly ... These calculations were based on an anticipated maximum weight loss by 6 months, with weight stabilization in both diet groups ...
Multiple regression model (R2=.158, P,.001) identified the following top 3 measures as significant predictors of weight loss at ... were analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on weight loss outcome. Results: Participants in the Retrofit weight loss program ... methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss ... Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention ...
... weight control and health risks associated with obesity. ... Measures. 2.2.1. Body Weight and Height. Weight was measured in ... Baseline observation carried forward was used for individuals missing 6-month follow-up weights [20, 21]. Completers-only ... weight loss of this magnitude is comparable to some of the best average weight losses reported to date in a behavioral weight- ... baseline weight, and the social contacts baseline weight (. , ), such that, as a social contacts weight loss increased, the ...
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This weight loss success story is from Florence who was successful at losing 165 pounds in 18 months by lifting weights, doing ... Fat Loss Are You Fat? Measuring Fat Percentage with Body Fat Testing. April 1, 2015. 0 ... Weight Loss Stories - Rajesh Lost 40 Pounds and 6 Inches. Popular January 18, 2015 0 Weight Loss Stories - John Mack Lost 130 ... 0 Cayenne Pepper and Weight Loss - Spice It Up To Lose Weight ... Weight loss tip #1:. Eat clean.. Weight loss tip #2:. Drink ...
You can use weight machines, weights such as dumbbells or barbells, resistance bands, or body weight. Strength training tones ... You can lose weight if you follow them.. *Your A1C, a measure of your long-term blood sugar control, can drop within to 6 ... Weight Loss Surgery. Weight loss surgery, or bariatric surgery, is a more extreme option for higher-weight individuals who have ... Best Weight Loss Health Coach App. You are putting in the work, so you deserve to maximize the benefits. A weight loss health ...
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  • Measured weight and waist circumference at 0 and 12 months. (
  • Adult Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator - Explains what body mass index measurement means includes BMI calculator for adults and how to measure your waist circumference. (
  • How To Measure Your Waist Circumference Properly - Learn how to quickly and properly measure your waist circumference to calculate your Body Mass Index. (
  • While there is a rising concern about the role of obesity in cancer recurrence and survival, this trial with its multi-arm design, motivational approach and use of a pedometer device will provide important insights regarding the most effective approach in promoting weight control in breast cancer survivors. (
  • In general, overweight and obesity indicate a weight greater than what is healthy. (
  • Such measures help to keep obesity under check. (
  • In fact, considering that many obesity patients have been found to be lacking in, or resistant to, the leptin hormone, indicates how important this hormone is in weight control. (
  • Ninety-five self-identified white participants underwent surgery and had follow-up weights obtained between 1 and 9.5 years after surgery. (
  • Findings indicate that 64% of the study participants reported WBV at school, and the risk of WBV increased with body weight. (
  • Participants who read indexed stories exhibited a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy for weight loss compared to the control group ( F 1,107 =5.5, P =.02). (
  • A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. (
  • Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. (
  • Participants in the Retrofit weight loss program lost a mean 5.14% (SE 0.14) of their baseline weight, with 44% (SE 0.01) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. (
  • National DPP participants' weight-related outcomes varied across glucose levels that are higher than normal but do not meet the demographic subgroups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, and in- threshold for diabetes (2). (
  • Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were read. (
  • The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. (
  • 001) were analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on weight loss outcome. (
  • Main outcome measures The primary outcome was weight loss at programme end (12 weeks). (
  • We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the long-term effects of weight loss on hypertension outcome measures in adults using literature published from 1966 to 2001. (
  • Adding e-mail counseling to a basic Internet weight loss intervention program significantly improved weight loss in adults at risk of diabetes. (
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. (
  • Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. (
  • This study examined the impact of having a social contact who participated in the same group behavioral weight-control intervention in the absence of specific social support training on women engaged in a weight-loss program. (
  • Links between weight change and interpersonal relationships have been demonstrated in both observational and behavioral intervention trials. (
  • We present the protocol of the InForma study, a trial testing the efficacy of an intervention on weight loss (≥5 % of the baseline body weight) in a group of overweight or obese breast cancer survivors. (
  • The surgical intervention studies exhibited huge weight losses with undramatic blood pressures changes. (
  • Instead, regardless of intervention, clinicians now encourage 5% body weight loss or more as being achievable and maintainable in the long term while resulting in health benefits. (
  • A previous paper reported the 6-month comparison of weight loss and metabolic changes in obese adults randomly assigned to either a low-carbohydrate diet or a conventional weight loss diet. (
  • A randomised trial of 400 overweight and obese adults in the United States showed that people offered two years' free use of a commercial weight management service lost 2.0 kg, whereas those offered two consultations with a dietitian and self help resources lost 0.2 kg at the end of two years. (
  • Primary outcomes were 6-month weight change and treatment adherence (session attendance and self-monitoring). (
  • as "aid and assistance exchanged through social relationships and interpersonal transactions" and social influence , the "process by which others' thoughts and actions are changed by actions of others," are commonly examined as functions of social networks that may be useful for improving weight-loss outcomes [ 3 ]. (
  • Secondary outcomes were weight loss at one year, self reported physical activity, and percentage weight loss at programme end and one year. (
  • No hour-by-hour newborn weight loss nomogram exists to assist in early identification of those on a trajectory for adverse outcomes. (
  • The weight/hypertension relationship is complex and needs well-conducted studies with long-term follow-up to examine the effects of weight loss on hypertension outcomes. (
  • The body mass index (BMI) equals a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared (more information will be found later in the article). (
  • Average Height to Weight Chart - Babies to Teenagers - Average height to weight ratio chart by age for kids and teenage girls and boys in inches - pounds and centimeters - kilograms. (
  • Previous reviews on shorter-term studies indicate a 1:1 drop in blood pressure (mm Hg) with weight loss (kilograms). (
  • The weights are measured in Kilograms. (
  • The goal of treatment should be to achieve and maintain a 'healthier weight,' not necessarily an ideal weight. (
  • Understanding them can help you overcome this frustrating impediment and finally reach a healthier weight. (
  • Whether you're trying to reach a healthier weight or simply maintain it, you'll find plenty of tips and strategies. (
  • According to recent research, body weight is one of the most common reasons that adolescents are bullied at school, with rates higher than bullying due to race, religion, or disability, and comparable to youth who are bullied because of their sexual orientation. (
  • Is the body fat scale actually measuring BMI or just use a formula? (
  • Using the BIA technology the scale sends a minute electric current through the body to measure body fat, muscle mass, bone density and water weight. (
  • Can the scale measure regular body weight as well as body fat? (
  • Yes, the scale provides seven measurements, including standard body weight. (
  • You can expect improvements in health with a loss of 5 to 10% of your total body weight, or 10 to 20 lb. if you weigh 200 lb. (
  • Summary body weight, approximately 8 pounds. (
  • A person's height and weight determines his or her body mass index. (
  • Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, there is a strong correlation with total body fat content in adults. (
  • Their theory was that if we consume fewer calories than our body burns, we are bound to lose weight. (
  • To compensate, the body burns stored fuel to make up for this energy shortfall, and weight is therefore lost. (
  • Pilates, resistance bands and body weight exercises like push-ups or planks also build muscle. (
  • Your quads carry your body weight when you walk and help you catch yourself if you trip, and studies show quad strength is a strong predictor of your likelihood of a fall. (
  • This is when you appear thin but are actually carrying around a very high percentage of body fat compared to your level of muscle tissue and overall body weight. (
  • Yes, I mean a comprehensive body fat test to assess where you are and to see if all your hard work in the gym training with weights, countless hours doing cardio and adhering to a strict nutritional plan is really paying off with decreased body fat levels and increased lean muscle mass. (
  • Record these levels along with your body weight each week and start to monitor these changes. (
  • By monitoring the changes of your lean body weight, you will be able to tell whether or not you are replacing adipose tissue (fat) with hard-earned muscle. (
  • Lean body weight (muscle) can be found by subtracting your body weight with your body fat weight. (
  • You body fat weight is calculated by multiplying your weight with your body fat percentage. (
  • Lifting weights, or programs that use your own body weight - Pilates, yoga , or T-Tapp - can help build muscle without being exhausting. (
  • Obese people are more vulnerable to osteoarthritis, as their expanding body weight can put excessive pressure over the knees. (
  • Exercises like jogging, swimming or lifting weights help to increase the heart rate in the body and burn calories. (
  • Patients are sometimes prescribed to go through strict diet plans or join weight-loss programs in order to cut down the excess body weight. (
  • It helps in reducing extra weight of the body in a natural manner. (
  • Combined with a healthy diet, taking steps to ensure that your body has sufficient amounts of these hormones can help take stubborn weight off and keep it off. (
  • Our body produces 50 different types of hormones, some of which regulate nutritional intake, metabolism and other functions that relate to weight gain and loss. (
  • In adults, the occurrence of hypertension rises with increasing body weight. (
  • Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. (
  • The National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence- based strategy to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in About 88 million people aged 18 years or older (34% of US adults at high risk through education and behavior modifications adults) are estimated to have prediabetes (1), a condition charac- that promote weight loss. (
  • Weight loss should not lead to malnutrition! (
  • In particular, weight loss and malnutrition, a set of frequently neglected non-motor symptoms, are indeed negatively associated with the life quality of PD patients. (
  • Moreover, comorbidity of weight loss and malnutrition may impact disease progression, giving rise to dyskinesia, cognitive decline and orthostatic hypotension, and even resulting in disability and mortality. (
  • Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of weight loss and malnutrition in PD remains obscure and possibly involving multitudinous, exogenous or endogenous, factors. (
  • What is more, there still does not exist any weight loss and malnutrition appraision standards and management strategies. (
  • Given this, here in this review, we elaborate the weight loss and malnutrition study status in PD and summarize potential determinants and mechanisms as well. (
  • In conclusion, we present current knowledge and future prospects of weight loss and malnutrition in the context of PD, aiming to appeal clinicians and researchers to pay a closer attention to this phenomena and enable better management and therapeutic strategies in future clinical practice. (
  • Specifically, WBV can increase the risk for behaviors that may contribute to weight gain (eg, increased caloric consumption, binge eating, unhealthy weight control behaviors, increased preference for sedentary activities, skipping physical education [PE] class). (
  • caloric restriction of high-fat diet-fed mice led to an initial increase in ATM recruitment, whereas ATM content decreased following an extended period of weight loss. (
  • So it's a downward spiral, as your fatigue reduces your activity, which reduces your muscle mass, which lowers your metabolism and caloric requirements , and makes it even harder to lose weight on fewer calories. (
  • 05) associated with weight loss trajectories, weight loss nadir, and weight loss 2 years after surgery. (
  • Research suggests that social networks, social support, and social influence are associated with weight trajectories among treatment- and non-treatment-seeking individuals. (
  • All programmes achieved significant weight loss from baseline to programme end (range 1.37 kg (general practice) to 4.43 kg (Weight Watchers)), and all except general practice and pharmacy provision resulted in significant weight loss at one year. (
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) invites applications to conduct Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to test the effectiveness of interventions delivered in routine clinical practice on achieving weight loss in obese patients who have other CardioVascular Risk Factors (CVRFs). (
  • Effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in routine clinical practice are the primary focus. (
  • Approaches directed at changing provider and patient adherence to weight loss interventions may also be used to improve provider and patient adherence to behavioral and pharmacotherapy components of the clinical practice guidelines for the other CVRFs ( ). (
  • When surgical interventions are excluded, the models suggest that for 10 kg weight loss, decreases of 4.6 mm Hg and 6.0 mm Hg in diastolic and systolic blood pressure, respectively, may be expected, about half of that predicted from the short-term trials. (
  • In this model, each additional copy of the minor allele was associated with nearly 5 % greater percentage weight loss. (
  • Conclusions Commercially provided weight management services are more effective and cheaper than primary care based services led by specially trained staff, which are ineffective. (
  • Here we characterized the response of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to weight loss and fasting in mice and identified a role for lipolysis in ATM recruitment and accumulation. (
  • A long-term study with mice shows that even with a high-fat diet combined with high cocoa content chocolate, the weight of laboratory mice remains low. (
  • Do people who follow the diet lose weight? (
  • These nutritionists, who have helped many people to control their weight, debunk many of the greatest diet myths and expose the dangers of many of the most popular fad diets. (
  • Or, you may be gaining weight despite no change to your diet or exercise plan. (
  • Undiagnosed hypothyroidism can explain - for some of you - why even the strictest diet and exercise program isn't working, or why you are gaining weight. (
  • In general, public discussions about weight loss tend to focus mainly on exercise and diet. (
  • There are two main methods of describing concentrations: by weight, and by molecular count. (
  • There are many different diets you can choose from, and many of them have a seemingly different focus, such as nixing carbs or adding protein, but all weight loss diets that work have something in common: they reduce calories in some way. (
  • Wagner A, DiOrio B, Kelly C. Weight Loss Disparities Among ganizations during July 2015 through June 2018. (
  • Last Revised/Updated: 2018-01-02 - Calculators graphs and charts for weights and measures distance conversions and health and fitness charts including height to weight ratio. (
  • The secondary focus of these effectiveness RCTs is to incorporate the weight loss strategies with approaches to improve the application of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to reduce the other CVRFs commonly present in obese patients. (
  • 10 ] demonstrated a 41 % increase in overall mortality in obese and 7 % in overweight women and a 35 % increase in breast cancer-specific mortality in obese women and 11 % in overweight women, as compared with patients who had normal weight at diagnosis. (
  • Our findings, based on studies with follow-up of ≥2 years, demonstrate blood pressure decreases less than this after weight loss. (
  • What made you decide to lose weight? (
  • What were the most important changes you made to lose weight? (
  • Why Lose Weight? (
  • You do not need to lose a lot of weight to get a lot of benefits. (
  • How Can I Lose Weight? (
  • If you are among the millions of Americans who want to lose weight, you need accurate information to learn about your options. (
  • The way to lose weight is to shift your calorie balance. (
  • Most people who lose weight regain the weight within five years. (
  • As all of us have no doubt overindulged in the Millennium celebrations, WDDTY asked three top nutritionists Dr Marilyn Glenville, Dr John Briffa and Udo Erasmus, author of Fats that Kill, Fats that Heal (see Second Opinion, back page), to suggest the best ways to lose weight. (
  • Since the 1930s, the medical profession has adhered to the idea that calorie reduction is the only effective way to lose weight. (
  • Anyone cutting back on the amount of food he eats is likely to lose weight initially. (
  • Some dieters think that skipping meals and going hungry must be the best way to lose weight. (
  • Exclusively breastfed newborns lose weight daily in the first few days after birth. (
  • You may find that even after cutting calories and increasing your exercise, it's difficult or impossible to lose weight. (
  • Insist on a complete thyroid panel - thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and free T3 at minimum-if you are frustrated by your efforts to lose or stop gaining weight. (
  • Even after being diagnosed with and treated for your hypothyroidism, you may still struggle with continuing symptoms, such as an inability to lose weight. (
  • Insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar also make it harder to lose weight and can contribute to further weight gain - a vicious cycle. (
  • When someone thinks, "I need to lose weight! (
  • It's hard to lose weight from exercise alone, but there are plenty of other benefits to recommend it as today's column shows. (
  • The show is a spin-off of the American programme The Biggest Loser, in which overweight and obese contestants attempt to lose weight for a large sum of money. (
  • Most now believe, particularly for the morbidly obese, it is unrealistic to expect weight reduction to a "normal" weight category. (
  • The beginning of June 2008, I hit my goal weight with a loss of 165 pounds. (
  • Given a collection of relevant personal health behavior change stories gathered from the Internet, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated indexing algorithm that could select the best possible story to provide to a user to have the greatest possible impact on their attitudes toward changing a targeted health behavior, in this case weight loss. (
  • In this issue of the JCI, Kosteli and colleagues demonstrate that weight loss is unexpectedly also associated with rapid, albeit transient, recruitment of macrophages to WAT and that this appears to be related to lipolysis. (
  • These newborn weight loss nomograms demonstrate percentiles for weight loss by delivery mode for those who are exclusively breastfed. (
  • The commercial programmes achieved significantly greater weight loss than did the primary care programmes at programme end (mean difference 2.3 (1.3 to 3.4) kg). (
  • One widely available option is a commercial weight management programme. (
  • They will usually stress on the importance of healthy eating and help track your food habits, as that is another key part of a weight loss programme. (
  • The widespread belief that a reduction in food consumption is a prerequisite for weight loss is based on the calorie principle of dieting. (
  • While calorie restriction will almost certainly produce some weight loss initially, this loss can be virtually unsustainable due to a variety of physiological and biochemical factors. (
  • Despite the medical profession's attachment to calorie based dieting, no studies exist to suggest that it is effective for long term weight loss at all. (
  • Daily Calorie Calculator for Women and Men - Online daily calorie calculator for females and males to assist in weightloss goals and for those with pre-diabetes. (
  • NOTE: I am almost positive that other countries than the US use the US units for measuring blood glucose. (
  • mmol/l is millimoles/liter, and is the world standard unit for measuring glucose in blood. (
  • mg/dl (milligrams/deciliter) is the traditional unit for measuring bG (blood glucose). (
  • These factors are specific for glucose, because they depend on the mass of one molecule (the molecular weight). (
  • Nutritional counseling can help overweight subjects to learn dietary behaviors for weight gain prevention. (
  • Few studies have comprehensively examined weight-based victimization (WBV) in youth, despite its serious consequences for their psychosocial and physical health. (
  • If you strength train, however, you can actually reverse age-related muscle loss, says Greg Hartley, a board-certified physical therapist in Miami and president of the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy. (
  • Weight Gain Calculator: Includes Tips for Gaining Weight - Online weight gaining calculator calculates how many extra calories you need to consume per day if you wish to gain weight. (
  • Yes, I know that you can lift weights in such a way that it is aerobic, but for purposes of this question, let's just say that you are lifting weights in more so of an anaerobic manner. (
  • Recognizing this neednausea and sometimes difficulty concentrating, budgets and skill level, use heavier loads that fatigue your muscles within 8-10 repetitions, but consumed the same amount at full throttle, should never endanger your health, no drastic weight loss measures of spread change to anything else, we suggest you read her book first for more details? (
  • Even a modest weight loss of 5%-10% of initial weight and the long-term maintenance of that weight loss can bring significant health benefits by lowering blood pressure and lowering the risks of diabetes and heart disease . (
  • Our free health and fitness charts include medical, weights, measures and distance calculators, statistics charts and graphs. (
  • Your thyroid symptoms, such as fatigue and weight gain, may be attributed to your lifestyle and other factors or misdiagnosed as depression, menopause, or other health and hormonal issues. (
  • To compare the effects of an Internet weight loss program alone vs with the addition of behavioral counseling via e-mail provided for 1 year to individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. (
  • were grouped based upon whether or not they reported a social contact enrolled previously/concurrently in our behavioral weight-control studies. (
  • Social networks may be a promising vehicle for recruiting and engaging women in a behavioral weight-loss program, particularly black women. (
  • In one study, rats were examined as they gained and lost weight. (
  • When it comes to tracking weight loss, most of us rely on the scale to tell us whether we've lost or gained weight. (
  • The amount of weight lost varies substantially among newborns with higher amounts of weight loss increasing risk for morbidity. (
  • 10% of those delivered by cesarean had lost ≥10% of their birth weight 48 hours after delivery. (
  • 25% of newborns delivered by cesarean had lost ≥10% of their birth weight. (
  • For better and faster weight loss results, doctors suggest to avoid consumption of meat. (
  • Objective To assess the effectiveness of a range of weight management programmes in terms of weight loss. (
  • Eligible Principal Investigators include those with the experience and expertise in the reduction of CVRFs, such as hypertension, and who are capable of leading a research team to conduct clinical studies in weight loss and management. (
  • Weight loss not only depends on an individual to make good choices with food, but you also need to practice portion control. (
  • 4 Among such exclusively breastfed neonates, enteral intake is low during the time of colostrum production, 5 - 7 and initial postnatal weight loss is nearly universal. (
  • 8 - 10 Although the brief period of low enteral intake and weight loss is well tolerated by most newborns, some develop complications of weight loss such as hyperbilirubinemia and dehydration, the 2 most common causes of neonatal morbidity. (
  • We examined the association of 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms with weight loss up to 9.5 years after Roux-en-Y surgery. (
  • Two years ago, I entered a weight loss clinic due to the "day of reckoning" where on a jet I couldn't fasten my seat belt. (
  • 2 years and weight changes recorded, were included. (
  • It aims to measure "sex differences in the opportunity to lead a long healthy and satisfied life that is grounded in educational opportunities. (
  • or greater weight loss. (
  • The nomograms can be used for early identification of neonates on a trajectory for greater weight loss and related morbidities. (
  • The nomograms have potential to be used for early identification of neonates on a trajectory for greater weight loss and related morbidities. (
  • 001). Attending 80% of expert coaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. (
  • Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. (
  • A Norwegian study showed that weight gain tended to increase blood pressure in women more significantly than in men. (
  • What you need to do is to take measures to increase insulin sensitivity. (
  • SNP rs4771122 was the variant most significantly associated with long-term weight loss after surgery in a repeated linear mixed model (p = .004) of long-term weight loss. (
  • The chances of long-term successful weight loss are enhanced if the doctor works with a team of professionals, including dietitians, psychologists, and exercise professionals. (
  • Many studies have assessed short-term effects of weight loss on blood pressure, whereas little attention has been paid to long-term effects. (
  • Both groups received 1 face-to-face counseling session and the same core Internet programs and were instructed to submit weekly weights. (
  • Breed standard birth weights used in performance testing programs Breed Within a herd, select replacements from among the larger (older and growthier) heifers. (
  • This means that the conversion factor depends on the molecular weight of the substance in question. (