Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The consumption of edible substances.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Glucose in blood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The consumption of liquids.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Female parents, human or animal.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The selection of one food over another.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
The physical measurements of a body.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
A non-steroidal estrogen analog.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/5722)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (2/5722)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (3/5722)

1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis.  (+info)

Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. (4/5722)

1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells.  (+info)

The Janus-faced aspect of 'dry weight'. (5/5722)

BACKGROUND: The goal of haemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is to correct the complications of the uraemic condition. Among the main complications are fluid overload and subsequent hypertension that are corrected by achievement of 'dry weight'. We report in this study the evolution of post-dialysis body-weight and blood pressure in patients who began their HD treatment in our unit. METHODS: We studied the monthly evolution of post-dialysis body-weight (expressed as a percentage of pre-dialysis body-weight at the first HD treatment) and predialysis mean arterial pressure (MAP) over 24 months in 61 patients (21 females, mean age 59.8 years; 20% diabetic), treated with cellulosic membranes for 8 h, 3 times a week. RESULTS: The post-dialysis body-weight decreased between the onset of HD and month 2 (M2) (-4.40+/-0.52%). Then it went up, reaching -1.56+/-0.96% at M6, +0.3+/-1.27% at M12, +1.27+/-1.38% at M18 and +1.64+/-1.33% at M24. The post-dialysis body-weight increased by 6% between M2 and M24. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 111.3+/-2.5 mmHg at M0 to 94.4+/-1.7 at M6, and then remained stable after M6. Between M2 and M6 the post-dialysis body-weight increased, whereas the predialysis MAP continued to decline. The incidence of hypotension episodes was maximal during the first 4 months of HD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the second month of dialysis treatment, the simultaneous increase of post-dialysis body-weight and decrease of pre-dialysis MAP are related to the effects of two processes, i.e. increased weight as the result of anabolism induced by the HD treatment on the one hand and normalization of blood pressure by fluid removal on the other. Continuous clinical assessment of the patient is necessary to provide adequate prescription of post-dialysis body-weight. During the first months of HD treatment, the nephrologist, like Janus, is a double-faced gatekeeper: he must be willing to decrease post-dialysis weight to achieve 'dry weight' and to normalize blood pressure, but he must also be prepared to increase it to compensate for anabolism and to avoid episodes of hypotension.  (+info)

A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (6/5722)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

The effect of age and teat order on alpha1-acid glycoprotein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, cortisol, and average daily gain in commercial growing pigs. (7/5722)

The objectives of the study were to evaluate age and teat order on a performance trait, average daily gain, and on physiological stress indicators, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N:L), and cortisol in commercial growing pigs from weaning to market age. Pigs (n = 129) from five commercial California farms were weighed and blood-sampled at 28-d intervals from 28 to 168 d of age. Laboratory assays were performed from blood samples to quantify cortisol, AGP, and N:L. Age and facility effects (P<.001), but not teat order effects (P>.05), were found for all three physiological traits and ADG. Pigs that routinely suckled from teats 1, 4, or 6 (numbered from anterior to posterior on the upper teat bank) had similar (P>.05) ADG and BW throughout the production cycle. No correlation (P> .05) was found between cortisol, AGP, and N:L. The use of these physiological and production traits as stress and health indices of growing pigs in commercial facilities has limitations in comparing data between facilities or different ages of pigs.  (+info)

Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions. (8/5722)

To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments.  (+info)

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

Fetal weight refers to the weight of a developing fetus during pregnancy. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is used to assess fetal growth and development. Fetal weight is calculated using ultrasound measurements, such as biparietal diameter (BPD) or head circumference, and can be used to detect potential growth restrictions or other complications during pregnancy.

Example Sentence:

The estimated fetal weight based on the ultrasound measurements was 250 grams, indicating that the baby was slightly smaller than average for gestational age.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Definition: Hyperphagia is a condition characterized by excessive hunger and overeating, often seen in individuals with certain medical or psychiatric conditions.

More Information

Hyperphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Hormonal imbalances, such as low levels of leptin or high levels of ghrelin
* Certain medications, such as steroids and some antidepressants
* Medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
* Psychiatric conditions, such as binge eating disorder and other eating disorders
* Sleep deprivation or disruptions in the body's circadian rhythms

Symptoms of hyperphagia may include:

* Increased hunger and desire to eat
* Overeating or consuming large amounts of food
* Difficulty controlling food intake
* Feeling anxious or irritable when unable to eat
* Weight gain or obesity

Treatment for hyperphagia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as hormonal imbalances or psychiatric conditions. This may involve medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes. In some cases, weight loss strategies and nutrition counseling may also be helpful.

It is important to note that hyperphagia can have serious health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hyperphagia, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

FTT is typically diagnosed when a child's weight or height is below the 10th percentile for their age, and they are not gaining weight or growing at a normal rate despite adequate nutrition and appropriate medical care. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake
* Genetic disorders that affect growth
* Chronic illnesses such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, or heart disease
* Environmental factors such as poverty, neglect, or poor living conditions
* Hormonal imbalances

FTT can have significant long-term consequences for a child's health and development. Children who fail to thrive may be at increased risk for:

* Delayed cognitive and social development
* Behavioral problems such as anxiety or depression
* Poor school performance
* Increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease later in life.

Treatment for FTT depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Nutritional supplements or changes to the child's diet
* Medical treatment for any underlying chronic illnesses
* Addressing environmental factors such as poverty or neglect
* Hormone replacement therapy if hormonal imbalances are suspected
* Psychosocial interventions to address behavioral problems or other issues that may be contributing to the child's FTT.

It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their child's growth and development and seek medical attention if they notice any signs of FTT, such as:

* Poor weight gain or growth rate
* Delayed physical milestones such as sitting, crawling, or walking
* Poor appetite or difficulty feeding
* Frequent illnesses or infections.

Some common causes of fetal macrosomia include:

1. Gestational diabetes: High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can lead to excessive fetal growth, increasing the risk of macrosomia.
2. Obesity in pregnancy: Overweight or obese mothers are more likely to have larger babies due to increased insulin resistance and altered metabolism.
3. Fetal genetic disorders: Certain conditions such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome can result in excessive fetal growth.
4. Maternal age: Elderly mothers (age 35+) may be more likely to have larger babies due to decreased egg quality and altered maternal metabolism.

Fetal macrosomia can increase the risk of complications during delivery, including:

1. Shoulder dystocia: This is a condition where the baby's shoulder becomes stuck in the mother's pelvis during delivery, which can lead to fractures or nerve damage.
2. Cesarean section: Macrosomic babies may require a cesarean section (C-section) due to their large size, which can increase the risk of complications for both mothers and babies.
3. Neonatal hypoglycemia: Newborns with macrosomia may experience low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin production, which can lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and other complications.
4. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: Macrosomic babies may have underdeveloped lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and respiratory distress.

Specialized care and monitoring during pregnancy and childbirth can help manage the risks associated with fetal macrosomia. This may include:

1. Regular ultrasound measurements to monitor fetal growth and detect potential macrosomia early.
2. Close monitoring of maternal blood sugar levels and nutrition to ensure optimal fetal growth and development.
3. Planned deliveries in a hospital setting with experienced healthcare providers, including obstetricians and neonatologists.
4. Timely delivery if macrosomia is detected, either by C-section or vaginal delivery with the assistance of medical professionals.

If you have any concerns about your pregnancy or suspect that your baby may be experiencing fetal macrosomia, consult with your healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management.

Anorexia Nervosa can be further divided into two subtypes:

1. Restrictive Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by restrictive eating patterns, such as limiting food intake and avoiding certain types of food. People with this type may have a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
2. Binge/Purge Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively. People with this type may feel a loss of control during binge episodes and may experience guilt or shame afterward.

Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa can include:

* Restrictive eating habits
* Obsession with weight loss or body image
* Denial of hunger or fatigue
* Excessive exercise
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight
* Osteoporosis or other medical complications

Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to help individuals with anorexia nervosa change their negative thought patterns and behaviors related to food and body image. Family-based therapy can also be effective in treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

It is important to note that Anorexia Nervosa is a serious mental health condition that can have life-threatening consequences if left untreated. If you or someone you know is struggling with anorexia, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with anorexia nervosa can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.

In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.

However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.

Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.


* A form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy
* Caused by hormonal changes and insulin resistance
* Can lead to complications for both the mother and the baby
* Typically goes away after childbirth

Types of Nutrition Disorders:

1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.

In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.

Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:

1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.

The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.

In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:

* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function

Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.

Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:

* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.

It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Morbid obesity is typically defined as a BMI of 40 or higher, but some experts define it as a BMI of 35 or higher with one or more obesity-related health conditions, such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, or sleep apnea.

Morbid obesity is different from simple obesity, which is defined as a BMI of 30 to 39. While simple obesity can also increase the risk of health problems, it is generally considered less severe than morbid obesity.

Morbid obesity is often treated with a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medications or surgery. In some cases, bariatric surgery may be recommended to help achieve and maintain weight loss.

It is important to note that BMI is not always an accurate measure of health, as it does not take into account muscle mass or body composition. However, it can provide a general indicator of whether an individual is at a healthy weight or if they are at risk for health problems due to their weight.

Overnutrition can also occur in individuals who have a poor understanding of appropriate portion sizes or who have difficulty regulating their food intake due to psychological or environmental factors. Some common causes of overnutrition include:

1. Overeating: Consuming more food than the body needs, often due to emotional or social reasons.
2. Consuming high-calorie foods and beverages: Foods and drinks that are high in sugar, fat, and salt can lead to overnutrition.
3. Lack of physical activity: Insufficient exercise can contribute to weight gain and overnutrition.
4. Poor portion control: Eating large portions or not understanding appropriate serving sizes can lead to overnutrition.
5. Psychological factors: Stress, emotional eating, or binge eating can contribute to overnutrition.
6. Environmental factors: Living in an environment that does not support healthy eating, such as having limited access to healthy food options or being surrounded by high-calorie foods.

To prevent or manage overnutrition, individuals should focus on maintaining a balanced diet, portion control, regular physical activity, and managing stress and emotions around food. Treatment for overnutrition may involve weight loss programs, nutrition counseling, and lifestyle changes.

Some common signs and symptoms of bulimia include:

* Frequent episodes of binge eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, or self-criticism
* Purging behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives, or excessive exercise to compensate for the binge eating
* Secretive or secretive behavior around eating habits
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight due to extreme calorie restriction or purging
* Constipation, bloating, or other gastrointestinal symptoms
* Tooth decay and gum problems from frequent acid exposure
* Hormonal imbalances and menstrual irregularities
* Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications from purging
* Social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and other emotional difficulties

Bulimia can be difficult to diagnose, as individuals with the disorder may try to hide their symptoms or deny that they have a problem. However, healthcare professionals can use the following criteria to diagnose bulimia:

* Recurring episodes of binge eating or purging behaviors at least once a week for three months
* Self-evaluation of body shape or weight that is distorted or excessive
* Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
* Denial of the disorder or secrecy around eating habits

If you suspect that someone you know may have bulimia, it's important to approach the situation with sensitivity and support. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with bulimia can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.

Some common types of growth disorders include:

1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.

Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.

Causes and risk factors:

1. Poverty and lack of access to nutritious food
2. Poor sanitation and hygiene
3. Inadequate healthcare and nutritional education
4. Conflict and displacement
5. Chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis


1. Wasting and stunting of children
2. Poor appetite and weight loss
3. Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
4. Increased susceptibility to infections
5. Poor wound healing and skin problems


1. Stunted growth and development
2. Weakened immune system
3. Increased risk of infections and diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria
4. Poor cognitive development and reduced educational attainment
5. Increased risk of mortality


1. Clinical evaluation of symptoms and physical examination
2. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight
3. Laboratory tests to assess nutrient deficiencies and infections
4. Dietary assessment to determine food intake and nutrient adequacy

Treatment and prevention:

1. Providing access to nutrient-dense foods, particularly protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, beans, and dairy products
2. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation
3. Implementing nutritional education programs to promote healthy eating habits
4. Providing micronutrient supplements and fortified foods
5. Addressing infectious diseases and providing appropriate medical care

In conclusion, protein-energy malnutrition is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. It can have severe consequences on physical growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term health problems and improve quality of life. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation is also essential to prevent the condition from occurring in the first place.

The most common types of eating disorders include:

1. Anorexia Nervosa: This is characterized by a severe restriction of food intake, leading to a significantly low body weight. Individuals with anorexia nervosa may have a distorted body image and may view themselves as being overweight, even if they are underweight.
2. Bulimia Nervosa: This is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging, such as vomiting or using laxatives, to rid the body of the consumed food. This can lead to a cycle of guilt and shame, and can have serious physical consequences such as electrolyte imbalances and gastrointestinal problems.
3. Binge Eating Disorder: This is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Unlike bulimia nervosa, there is no purging or compensatory behaviors to rid the body of the consumed food.
4. Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED): This category includes a range of eating disorders that do not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder. Examples include orthorexia nervosa (an obsession with healthy eating), avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (a lack of interest in eating or a fear of eating), and pica (eating non-food items).

Eating disorders can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:

1. Malnutrition: Eating disorders can lead to malnutrition, which can cause a range of health problems, including fatigue, hair loss, and poor wound healing.
2. Electrolyte imbalances: Eating disorders can also lead to electrolyte imbalances, which can cause heart problems, muscle weakness, and other complications.
3. Tooth decay and gum disease: Frequent vomiting can erode tooth enamel and lead to tooth decay and gum disease.
4. Digestive problems: Eating disorders can cause digestive problems such as constipation, diarrhea, and acid reflux.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Eating disorders can disrupt hormone levels, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and other hormone-related problems.
6. Anxiety and depression: Eating disorders can also contribute to anxiety and depression, which can make it more difficult to recover from the eating disorder.
7. Social isolation: Eating disorders can lead to social isolation, as individuals may avoid social situations where food is involved or feel ashamed of their eating habits.
8. Body image distortion: Eating disorders can also cause body image distortion, leading to a negative and unrealistic view of one's body.
9. Osteoporosis: Eating disorders can increase the risk of osteoporosis, particularly in individuals who have been suffering from the disorder for a long time or who have experienced significant weight loss.
10. Increased risk of suicide: Eating disorders can also increase the risk of suicide, as individuals may feel overwhelmed by their symptoms and struggling to cope with the emotional and physical consequences of the disorder.

It's important to note that these complications can be life-threatening and require prompt medical attention. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health professional, a registered dietitian, or a primary care physician. With proper treatment and support, individuals can recover from eating disorders and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

Anorexia can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:

* Malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies
* Osteoporosis and bone loss
* Heart problems and low blood pressure
* Hormonal imbalances
* Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders
* Social isolation and difficulties in relationships

There are two main types of anorexia:

* Restrictive type: Characterized by restrictive eating habits and a fear of gaining weight.
* Binge/purge type: Characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting or using laxatives.

Treatment for anorexia typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Family-based therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy are some of the common approaches used to treat anorexia. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

In conclusion, anorexia is a complex and serious eating disorder that can have long-lasting physical and emotional consequences. It is important to seek professional help if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with anorexia can recover and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

The exact cause of cachexia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and changes in metabolism. Treatment for cachexia often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the wasting, such as managing cancer or HIV/AIDS, as well as providing nutritional support and addressing any related complications.

In the medical field, cachexia is a serious condition that requires careful management to improve quality of life and outcomes for patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cachexia and to provide appropriate treatment and support to affected individuals.

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... but do not gain weight.", he wrote in prison. The autopsy notes anomalies present on his digestive prison that could perhaps ... the expression circulated in police stations without gaining much mainstream attention, but it was entered into popular ...
While working on the 1997 film Orgazmo, Parker and Stone wrote the script for what would later become the episode "Weight Gain ... Nevertheless, several reviewers felt "Weight Gain 4000" was a significant improvement over "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe" and ... Parker, Trey; Stone, Matt (2003). Commentary for "Weight Gain 4000". South Park: The Complete First Season (CD). Comedy Central ... "Weight Gain 4000", "Volcano", "Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride", "An Elephant Makes Love to a Pig" and "Death"-were released in ...
... his weight gain came later. The lyrics of the chant are: Who ate all the pies? Who ate all the pies? You fat bastard, You fat ...
"Eat Lots of Girl Scout Cookies? Be Prepared to Gain Weight". Scout News. 2005. Archived from the original on March 18, 2005. " ...
He ate an average of 5,000 calories a day during the weight gain and lost the weight by returning to his normal eating and ... The weight gain was real. Rob McElhenney has stated in interviews that he wanted to make Mac fat as his own way of fighting the ... When Dee points out that the avatar does not look like him because he has more muscle, Mac starts gaining weight in an attempt ... To gain the weight for Season 7 in the healthiest way possible, McElhenney worked with a nutritionist recommended by ...
Rod helps Steve gain the upper hand over the English, while Womp sets up his sniper rifle. In two minds about whether to help ... The Fist Team came from behind to win after the High School team incorrectly guessed Steve's weight, and Emily's head was ... The council arrives and the battle begins, and the council gains the upper hand. After disappointing Steve and being sent to a ... Ballistic Man battles Rod and gains the upper hand, but Tara, realising that fighting is in her nature, returns to assist. ...
She moved to Rice University for her graduate studies and gained her MA and PhD in chemistry, and worked on low-temperature ... allowing for improved device performance without compromising the flexibility or weight. From 2011 to 2016 Kafafi served as ...
Travers, Ben (October 7, 2015). "Review: 'American Horror Story: Hotel' Makes a Mockery of David Fincher For Its Own Gain". ... "all weight and meaning is gone". Gaga's performance has received mixed reviews from critics. Matt Zoller Seitz of Vulture ...
Traut TW, Jones ME (Feb 1979). "Interconversion of different molecular weight forms of the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. ... Transition-state geometric stabilization could also be gained through loop participation. Callahan & Miller (2007) summarize ...
Empty weight: 7,483 kg (16,497 lb) Gross weight: 12,535 kg (27,635 lb) Powerplant: 4 × Bristol Jupiter V 9-cylinder air-cooled ... Despite projected performance inferior to TB-3, it was hoped that TB-5 would gain an advantage by using less metal (in short ...
Livingston gained success with his 1984 hit "100 Weight of Collie Weed." In the 1990s, he recorded "Rumors" with Shabba Ranks, ... Carlton Livingston (born 1962) is a Jamaican reggae vocalist, known for his 1984 hit "100 Weight of Collie Weed". Livingston ...
On balance the weight of existing research supports there being a weak but none-the-less significant causal relationship. ... During the 1910s through to the 1920s in America, manual labourers often opted for blue shirts, so that stains gained from days ... These crimes are primarily small scale, for immediate beneficial gain to the individual or group involved in them. This can ...
Empty weight was 1,435 lb (651 kg) and the gross weight was to be 2,300 lb (1,043 kg) (land) and 2,200 lb (998 kg) (water). TSC ... First flown in 1968, production began after certification was gained in August 1969; the 16th and subsequent aircraft, which ... The projected empty weight was to be 1,450 lb (660 kg), with a gross weight of 2,300 lb (1,043 kg) (land & water). No TSC-1A3s ... The empty weight rose to 1,435 lb (651 kg), with a gross weight of 2,200 lb (1,000 kg) for both land and water. TSC-1A1/EW/EP ...
The concept gained traction at the Latin American level, starting to form a core element of research and policy proposals ... interest of the child such as recognizing that children has an evolving capacity to form their own views and giving due weight ... The postcolonial era in which colonized countries have gained independence and autonomy has been a means for the populace to ...
When I have thus got them all together in one View, I endeavour to estimate their respective Weights; and where I find two, one ... Franklin's commitment to teach these values was itself something he gained from his Puritan upbringing, with its stress on " ...
Weight saving measures such as a new carbon fibre blend and lightweight paint application have reduced the Imola's dry weight ... A fictionalized version, branded the Pegassi Osiris, is included in the Ill Gotten Gains: Part 1 DLC update of Grand Theft Auto ... and various weight saving measures have resulted in a lower dry weight of 1,050 kg (2,315 lb). Pagani plans a limited 30-car ... The dry weight is reduced by 132 kg (291 lb) to just 1,218 kg (2,685 lb), thanks to the use of a new material called 'carbon ...
The USGS's Atomic Weights series became standard references for the chemistry and geochemistry professions and academic fields ... his secondary schooling was gained at a boarding school in Stoughton and several schools in Boston. He attended Boston Latin ... one hundred and ten pounds in weight, with pale blue eyes, little hair and most of that under his ears, chewing his finger ... "Weights, measures, and money, of all nations", (1875) Online version The American Association for the Advancement of Science ( ...
After losing enough weight to be proud, she decides to treat herself and pigs out on a mountain of junk food from Starbucks. ... After a few attempts, she gains renown as a babysitter, and the calls come pouring in. One of her calls, however is to look ... Chelsea decides she needs to lose weight before her birthday and signs up for a private kickboxing class. ... In order to impress a fifth grade boy and to gain the respect of the girls at her school, Chelsea concocts a tall tale in which ...
... or not be able to be fed or gain weight. Bilirubin is an orange yellow bile pigment that is produced as a byproduct of ...
Soñé has since become the official face of Pantene shampoo, Avon, and Esbelle weight loss product. Soñé competed in the Miss ... Dominican Republic 2005 pageant on April 9, 2005, representing Distrito Nacional, where she won the title and gained the right ...
By acquiring foreign built ships, the Austro-Hungarian Navy would also gain experience building modern small cruisers. In fact ... Popper discovered that the designers had made a serious error distributing the weight of the ships, such that the difference ...
The steam engine was heavy and weighted 300 kg more than a standard V8 and gave about half the power. In October 1969, the ... Additionally, during the 'heyday' of steam cars, the internal combustion engine made steady gains in efficiency, matching and ... This must either be carried and frequently replenished, or the car must also be fitted with a condenser, a further weight and ... giving a gross weight of just 1,050 lb (476 kg). Uncomplicated and robust, the steam engine was claimed to give trouble-free, ...
He gained the nickname "Zé Maquina" ("José Machine") for his relentless performance, which later changed to "Zen Machine" in ... IBJJF World Championships 2017: Black Best Master 5 Super Heavy Weight: 1st place 2017: Black Belt Master 5 Absolute: 2nd place ...
The halberds were graded by weight from 72 kg to 48 kg, with the lowest grade weapon earning a pass. For the final portion of ... But the Manchu bannermen had no time or money to prepare for the exams, especially since they could gain advancement on the ... The proposal failed to gain support. Heian Japan did have a three-step exam system, with testing on the bureau, ministry, and ... Despite the six- or sevenfold increase in the numbers of men gaining jinshi, the sons of officials had better chances than most ...
Naina gains closure after learning the truth about her father's death. During Naina and Rohit's engagement, Aman has a heart ... Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, has given the film a score of 54 based on four reviews, indicating "mixed or average ... cinematography and performances gaining the most attention. Film critic and author Anupama Chopra praised Advani's direction, ...
During López's journey through the United States, she gained recognition for her anti-imperialist and pro-independence activism ... López encouraged American suffragist women to use their political weight to participate in and influence any American ...
... allowing a diver to gain a better overall weight distribution leading to a more horizontal trim in the water. Tank weights can ... Some BCDs allow for integrated weight, meaning that the BCD has special pockets for the weights that can be dumped easily in ... with or without integrated weighting or separate weight belts, and with or without a back mounted buoyancy compensator, which ... Diving weighting systems increase the average density of the scuba diver and equipment to compensate for the buoyancy of diving ...
Under the weight of the attack which began on June 30 the division, along with the 13th Guards and 169th Rifle Divisions, ... The advance continued overnight and into the next day, gaining just 3 km but also providing flank cover for the mobile forces ...
Empty weight: 37,200 kg (82,012 lb) Max takeoff weight: 95,000 kg (209,439 lb) Powerplant: 2 × Soloviev D-30KP-2 turbofan ... These incursions have gained international attention, especially in annual joint patrols between bombers of the Chinese 28th ... Thrust/weight: 0.24 Armament Guns: 2× 23 mm (0.906 in) Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 cannons in remote dorsal turret 2× NR-23 cannons ...
The new design reduced the size and weight of the heat sink, reducing the net system weight by 300 grams (0.66 lb), without ... Because of PS5's high-speed SSD and increased processing power, many PS4 games gain from improved loading times or gameplay ... furthering reducing the weight. The digital version now weighs 3.4 kg (compared to 3.9 kg for the original launch version) ...
Empty weight: 30,000 lb (13,608 kg) Gross weight: 62,000 lb (28,123 kg) Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Spey Mk.101 turbofan ... In 1984, it gained the additional role of laser designation support for Royal Air Force Germany (RAFG), and moved north to ... Thrust/weight: 0.36 Armament Hardpoints: 4 × under-wing pylon stations for up to 12,000 lb (5,443 kg) of bombs, and 1 × ...
Thus, in a more media-rich interview, interviewers have more ways to gather, remember, and interpret the data they gain about ... The negative treatment of overweight and obese individuals may stem from beliefs that weight is controllable and those who fail ... Interviewers still put more weight on Person-job fit questions over the Person-organization questions in these situations as ... Roehling, Mark V. (December 1999). "Weight-Based Discrimination in Employment: Psychological and Legal Aspects". Personnel ...
Eventually the core players finally gave out and collapsed under the sheer weight and complexity of the game and storylines as ... These included the Knights of the Krispy Kritter, which then chief of Imperial security Ivan Lebrunovar used to gain the ... gained "strakh" (a combination of chutzpah, moxie, "face" and style, the name of which was taken from a Jack Vance short story ... "The Moon Moth"), which was intangible but often led to tangible gains on the board (by being granted commands of fleets, armies ...
... which uses a weighted average, assigned a score of 44 out of 100 based on 7 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". ... Leads Non-Scripted Telecasts in Overall Raw Gains for Thanksgiving Week". Programming Insider. Archived from the original on ... Fall Finale Tops Broadcast Network Telecasts in Adults 18-49 Percentage Gains". Programming Insider. Archived from the original ... Top Broadcast Network Telecasts in Adults 18-49 Percentage Gains". Programming Insider. Retrieved October 30, 2019. Pucci, ...
1248-9 "Standard Atomic Weights: Neodymium". CIAAW. 2005. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 ( ... Certain transparent materials with a small concentration of neodymium ions can be used in lasers as gain media for infrared ... A neodymium magnet of a few tens of grams can lift a thousand times its own weight, and can snap together with enough force to ... "Standard Atomic Weights: Neodymium". CIAAW. 2005. Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce and Pm have been observed in the ...
... gestational weight gain and increased birth weight and postpartum weight retention but also between inadequate weight gain and ... the IOM recommendation for weight gain is 5-9.1 kg (11-20 lb) for all obese women. The gestational weight gain guidelines ... For twin pregnancy, the IOM recommends a gestational weight gain of 16.8-24.5 kg (37-54 lb) for women of normal weight, 14.1- ... Among severely obese women with weight loss or restricted weight gain during pregnancy, the possible risk of having small-for- ...
A recent study found that consumers could put on more weight than usual if they are eating unhealthy foods during stressful ... "Without NPY, the weight gain on a high-fat diet with stress was the same as weight gain in the stress-free environment. This ... What causes the weight gain?. The researchers used mice as their test subjects to determine how the body reacts differently to ... The next part of the study involved figuring out why NPY was increasing weight gain when stressed. In further tests on the mice ...
There have been hundreds of studies pointing to the fact that dieting causes weight gain, and these are just a few of the ... Theyre inherently setting you up to fail and gain even more weight than you had in the beginning. ... thats super restrictive will cause you to gain weight. (In fact, it wasnt until I stopped dieting that I lost 40 pounds .) ... RELATED: The Key to Weight-Loss Success That Has Absolutely Nothing to Do with Diet or Exercise ...
Scientists have accidentally discovered a drug that could let you eat as much as you want without gaining weight. The team at ... Instead of turning lipids in the diet into fat the genetically-modified mice expelled the lipids and didnt gain weight. ... Scientists accidentally discover drug that may stop weight gain By Andrea Downey, The Sun ... Scientists have accidentally discovered a drug that could let you eat as much as you want without gaining weight. ...
Wondering how much weight you should gain during pregnancy? For optimal health, heres how many pounds experts recommend new ... Pregnancy Weight Gain By Week First Trimester Weight Gain *Gain 0 to 1 1/2 pounds per month for a total of 1-4.5 pounds. ... Third Trimester Weight Gain *Gain 3/4 to 1 pound per week (weight gain often slows during the last month) for a total of 10 to ... Pregnancy Weight Gain Chart Then use your ranking to figure out how much weight you should gain in 40 weeks: *Underweight ...
If you know your calorie intake is going to increase, then your workouts must also increase (to avoid weight gain). Add in some ... co-worker or relative and see who can either keep the most weight off during the holiday season or even lose weight. The winner ... See all Articles by Wendy StollSee Wendy Stolls Expert PageGet Updates on Dieting and Weight LossGet Updates on Wendy Stoll ... The average person will gain 5-15 pounds during the holidays. Lack of time leads to more stress, less physical activity, and ...
... weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and ... and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation ... and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation ... Weight loss. Cymbalta and Effexor XR serious side effects. *Sexual dysfunction (decreased sex drive and delayed orgasm and ...
Summary Misinformation may contribute to weight gain in some people. It can also make weight loss more difficult. ... Although weight gain is largely a result of eating behavior and lifestyle, some people are at a disadvantage when it comes to ... Weight gain can be extremely frustrating, especially when you dont know whats causing it. Here are 9 reasons you may be ... This, in turn, contributes to weight gain.. Added sugar is half glucose, half fructose. People get glucose from a variety of ...
Later bedtimes on weekends are linked to weight gain in children. Children who go to bed later on the weekends than they do ... Staying up late on weekends may drive excess weight gain in school-aged children, possibly due to "social jet lag" disrupting ...
The amount of weight a woman gains during pregnancy, known as gestational weight gain (GWG), has important maternal and infant ... The weight a woman gains during pregnancy, known as gestational weight gain (GWG), has important health implications for both ... Phelan S, Jankovitz K, Hagobian T, Abrams B. Reducing excessive gestational weight gain: lessons from the weight control ... weight [kg]/height [m]2) (1). In a recent study, 21% of pregnant women gained less than the recommended amount of weight, and ...
Restricting sleep for just several days alters how we metabolize fats and changes how satisfied we are by a meal, according to new research conducted at Penn State and published in the Journal of Lipid Research.
... weight gain and 33% increased relative risk (95% CI: 1.12-1.58) for waist-circumference gain [60]. Fazzino et al. [61] ... Ultra-processed Foods, Weight Gain, and Co-morbidity Risk. *Anthony Crimarco ORCID: na1, ... Crimarco, A., Landry, M.J. & Gardner, C.D. Ultra-processed Foods, Weight Gain, and Co-morbidity Risk. Curr Obes Rep 11, 80-92 ( ... Associations of Ultra-Processed Foods with Weight Gain and Disease Risk in Adults. Although the majority of studies on the ...
... many are hyper-focused on fears of weight gain, but parents need to be concerned when children lose weight, especially during ... Not All Weight Loss is Good. We live in a culture that not only encourages weight loss, it assumes all weight loss is good, ... But often the first clue isnt losing weight, it is a child failing to gain expected weight. ... Tags: growth pattern weight loss BMI failure to grow anorexia APA Reference. Collins, L. (2010, June 14). Failure to Gain ...
What really annoys me is that both a friend and my sister are on Prozac as well and they havent gained weight. I know neither ... I wish someone (i.e. company) would do research and find out why these meds cause weight gain without eating more food. Then ... In reply to Re: Increasing Prozac dosage & weight gain, posted by Leslie on August 9, 1999, at 13:03:13 ... Re: Increasing Prozac dosage & weight gain. Posted by Bruce on August 13, 1999, at 9:07:00 ...
... small changes to calorie intake and physical activity levels do not prevent long-term weight gain better than monitoring alone ... Although the small change approach led to reduced weight at 3, 6, 12 and 15 months, by 24 months the prevention of weight gain ... "We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years ... "We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years ...
Weight gain is a common side effect for most contraceptives.. If you are suddenly gaining weight for what seems to be no reason ... Yet, the quest to lose weight often can do more harm than good. A reason why many women gain weight is because they dont eat ... There are a number of diseases and illness that can cause weight gain. Ovarian cysts can cause a woman to gain up to 30 pounds ... Most adult women at one time or another have struggled with their weight, and recent research suggests that weight gain in ...
... Dec 19, 2019 02:45 AM. By Johnny Vatican ... Artificial sweeteners also change the gut bacteria which may lead to weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes," he said. ... Brain Signals Cause Gender-Specific Weight Gain Patterns: Study. The study also investigates whether other clinical markers ... contend that people who use LCS are more likely to gain weight, which is the exact opposite of what consumers expect. ...
Dietitian sheds light on the notion that gaining weight as a freshman is common ... "By no means do all freshman gain 15 pounds.". According to Bauersfeld, most freshman gain about two to five pounds during their ... a supposed average amount of weight a first-time college students gain within their first year. ... first year, although some students may gain more based on numerous factors. Some of these include a change of environment, food ...
b,How do I increase my weight?,/b, Also, my legs seems to be very thin? Are there any particular types of exercise which will ... On measuring my weight, it appears that I am underweight. , ... How to gain weight?. Answered by: Ms Neeta Garg , Counsellor, ... Q: On measuring my weight, it appears that I am underweight. How do I increase my weight? Also, my legs seems to be very thin? ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » How to gain weight?. ...
These mice got the same fatty food as the regular obese mice but didnt gain much weight. At the end of eight weeks, Dando and ... One was a set of mutants that were practically incapable of gaining weight no matter how fatty their food. "Its a genetically ... Taste Buds Dull As People Gain Weight. Now Scientists Think They Know Why. ... why peoples sense of taste seems to dull as they gain weight. Doctors have known about the phenomenon for the last few years, ...
gluten free weight gain The Gluten-Free Muffin Top. While in my 30s, I would listen to my friends in their 40s speak about ... how little they ate and how much weight they had gained. "Youll see" they said and warned that a day would come when my ...
Eating To Gain Weight. How to Become a Great Coach, Cardio for Fat Loss, & Keeping Your Joints Healthy - Episode 294 Written by ...
Dual Effects of Weight and Weight Gain on Breast Cancer Risk. Author: Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, et al. ... For weight gain after age 18, the respondents who gained 20 kg or more had an increase RR of 1.4 for postmenopausal breast ... They were positively correlated with weight gain since age 18 years. In those that gained more than 20 kg, increased RR of ... The RR for weight gain greater than 20 kg versus change of 2 kg or less was 2.17. This was even stronger for those not on HRT: ...
Cross-talk between the microbiome and the circadian clock appears to determine weight gain by mice in response to a high-fat ... Gut bacteria may work with body clock to control weight gain: Study. By Tim Cutcliffe 17-Sep-2017. - Last updated on 18-Sep- ... Cross-talk between the microbiome and the circadian clock appears to determine weight gain by mice in response to a high-fat ...
It seems that the first reason for weight gain in Ramadan is not the food you eat at Iftar, but the sugar you consume from ... 6 tips to avoid weight gain in Ramadan. Al-Masry Al-YoumMarch 28, 2023 ... and if you want to maintain your weight in Ramadan, you should simply follow these simple tips that will help you lose weight ... While it may seem an impossible task with the long hours of fasting this year, hydration is key to losing weight this Ramadan, ...
From the National Interest: NATO has become the worst example of Americas junior-high foreign policy. Washington and its more traditional allies have welcomed a succession of new members which are security black holes, bringing with them geopolitical conflicts rather than security assets. Little pretense could be made that expanding NATO to Albania, Romania and similar states enhanced American security. ...
4 Simple Ways To Avoid Holiday Weight Gain This Year. by Tanner Baze. October 12, 2019 10:40 am. updated October 15, 2020 1:26 ... This seems a bit counterintuitive because building muscle sounds like gaining weight, which can be completely true. ... Just to prove that, here are 4 ways you can shed that weight gained over the holidays. ... The vast majority of the weight that people gain takes place exclusively during the holiday season. ...
UNHAPPY spouses are less likely to gain weight, or at least not gain as much. Why? Well, the researchers said that unhappy ... So chances are, if youre worried about your spouses weight gain, youve probably gained some too. And the best way to get ... HAPPY spouses gain a little weight, sometimes a lot. This, according to the study, is because they have a satisfying marriage ... Tip: Marriage, Weight Gain, and Happiness. The science of the ripple effect, plus some controversial research on why couples ...
  • According to research , women may gain an average of 5 pounds during menopause. (
  • In other words, you won't suddenly gain 10 pounds after your periods stop. (
  • If you want to drop pounds, you need to diet-or at least, that's what anyone who has a pulse would believe based on all of the messages bombarding us about weight loss. (
  • Gain 0 to 1 1/2 pounds per month for a total of 1-4.5 pounds. (
  • Gain about 1 pound per week for a total of 12 to 14 pounds. (
  • Gain 3/4 to 1 pound per week (weight gain often slows during the last month) for a total of 10 to 14 pounds. (
  • The average person will gain 5-15 pounds during the holidays. (
  • Most people who quit smoking gain 4 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) in the first 6 months after quitting. (
  • Some gain as much as 25 to 30 pounds (11 to 14 kilograms). (
  • The IOM recommendations for GWG are 28-40 pounds for underweight women, 25-35 pounds for normal-weight women, 15-25 pounds for overweight women, and 11-20 pounds for obese women ( 1 ). (
  • Some super-sized moms have reported weight loss from as little as 5 pounds to as much as 50 pounds after their baby is born. (
  • The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (1.2 kilograms). (
  • Also, switching from taking a water pill (diuretic) to a beta blocker as a treatment for high blood pressure might cause a gain of a few pounds of fluid that the diuretic kept off. (
  • If you're taking a beta blocker for heart failure, tell your health care provider immediately if you gain more than 2 to 3 pounds (about 1 to 1.4 kilograms) in a day or 5 pounds (about 2.3 kilograms) in a week. (
  • Even for children who have been medically determined to be above their healthy weight range, the recommendation is to slow the rate of growth, not lose pounds. (
  • The average weight gain during periods is around two to six pounds. (
  • I've been off Prozac for ten years and cannot lose any of the 30 pounds that I gained. (
  • Now I'm on Celexa which has completely killed my appetite (I have to force myself to eat and am probably consuming less than 900 calories a day) and yet I've gained five pounds. (
  • She says that she gained 3 pounds in one day. (
  • That translates to an average of two pounds of extra weight gained each year. (
  • There are many reasons why women put on the pounds and some of the factors that lead to weight gain in women are surprising. (
  • Ovarian cysts can cause a woman to gain up to 30 pounds over a short period of time. (
  • On the highly processed diet, people ate more calories and gained an average of 2 pounds. (
  • 18.5), 25-35 pounds for normal weight women (BMI = 18.5-24.9), 15-25 pounds for overweight women (BMI = 25.0-29.9), and 11-20 pounds for women with obesity (BMI ≥30.0). (
  • The updated guidelines by the Institute of Medicine regarding gestational weight gain provide clinicians with a basis for practice. (
  • Gestational weight gain recommendations aim to optimize outcomes for the woman and the infant. (
  • In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published revised gestational weight gain guidelines that are based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ranges for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese women recommended by the World Health Organization and are independent of age, parity, smoking history, race, and ethnic background Table 1 2 . (
  • For twin pregnancy, the IOM recommends a gestational weight gain of 16.8-24.5 kg (37-54 lb) for women of normal weight, 14.1-22.7 kg (31-50 lb) for overweight women, and 11.3-19.1 kg (25-42 lb) for obese women. (
  • Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations among overweight pregnant women does not appear to have a negative effect on fetal growth or neonatal outcomes. (
  • The gestational weight gain guidelines attempt to balance the risks of having large-for-gestational-age infants, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm births and postpartum weight retention. (
  • The weight a woman gains during pregnancy, known as gestational weight gain (GWG), has important health implications for both mother and child ( 1 ). (
  • Gestational weight gain was within the recommended range for 32% of women giving birth to full-term, singleton infants in 2015, with 48% gaining more weight and 21% less weight than recommended. (
  • Lifestyle interventions limit gestational weight gain in women with overweight or obesity: LIFE-Moms prospective meta-analysis. (
  • 3. Recommend revisions to the existing guidelines, where necessary, including the need for specific pregnancy weight guidelines for underweight, normal weight, and overweight and obese women and adolescents and women carrying twins or higher-order multiples. (
  • Approximately 44% of women who were underweight before pregnancy gained within the recommendations, compared with 39% of women who were normal weight, 26% of women who were overweight, and 24% of women with obesity before pregnancy. (
  • In a recent study, researchers posited that following a healthy diet during times of stress is crucial for consumers to avoid excess weight gain. (
  • Staying up late on weekends may drive excess weight gain in school-aged children, possibly due to "social jet lag" disrupting their ability to process food efficiently. (
  • Support for school nutrition policies helped kids avoid gaining excess weight. (
  • Your changing body composition may also make it more difficult to lose any excess weight. (
  • Individualized care and clinical judgment are necessary in the management of the overweight or obese woman who is gaining (or wishes to gain) less weight than recommended but has an appropriately growing fetus. (
  • The updated IOM recommendations have met with controversial reactions from some physicians who believe that the weight gain targets are too high, especially for overweight and obese women. (
  • Given the limited data by class, the IOM recommendation for weight gain is 5-9.1 kg (11-20 lb) for all obese women. (
  • One systematic review found that overweight and obese women who gain less weight than the ranges recommended by the IOM do not have an increased risk of having a low birth weight infant 1 . (
  • 18.5), normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30.0). (
  • Effect of third-generation beta blockers on weight loss in a population of overweight-obese subjects in a controlled dietary regimen. (
  • The participants whose weight was in the healthy range were more likely to avoid an increase in BMI during the study than those who started out overweight or obese. (
  • In a new study, behavioral lifestyle intervention programs that focused primarily on diet and physical activity limited weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese women. (
  • When the researchers treated obese mice with a drug called a DNA-PK inhibitor, they gained considerably less weight while fed a high-fat diet. (
  • The primary data source was 2013 National Vital Statistics System birth data, a census of all births, for jurisdictions using the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth,* which collects the maternal height, prepregnancy weight, and delivery weight data needed to examine GWG in relation to the BMI-specific IOM recommendations. (
  • Questionnaire data are linked with birth certificate data, including GWG, and are weighted to represent all women delivering live infants in each state. (
  • Prepregnancy BMI was calculated using height and prepregnancy weight from the 2003 birth certificate or the PRAMS questionnaire. (
  • Birth certificate and weighted PRAMS data were used separately to estimate state-specific prevalence and combined to estimate overall prevalence of inadequate, appropriate, and excessive GWG. (
  • Gaining too little weight when you're pregnant raises your baby's risks for early birth, and for low birth weight and size. (
  • When you begin taking a new birth control pill, you may notice an increase in your weight. (
  • for infants and children, in addition to low birth weight, consider early developmental impacts and obesity-related consequences (e.g., mental health, diabetes). (
  • Birth weight was 3.5 kg. (
  • There were no differences between the groups in pregnancy outcomes or infant birth weight. (
  • For the overweight pregnant woman who is gaining less than the recommended amount but has an appropriately growing fetus, no evidence exists that encouraging increased weight gain to conform with the current IOM guidelines will improve maternal or fetal outcomes. (
  • Review evidence on the relationship between weight gain patterns before, during, and after pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with particular attention to the prevalence of maternal obesity racial/ethnic and age differences, components of GWG , and implications of weight during pregnancy on postpartum weight retention, maternal and child obesity, and later child health. (
  • The researchers noted that there is a growing body of evidence reporting a lack of association between improved maternal weight gain with lifestyle interventions and reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that evaluating effects on the woman's body composition, as opposed to only measuring weight, might be more informative. (
  • Also, these perceived high weight gain targets do not address concerns regarding postpartum weight retention. (
  • For this report, women were included if they were U.S. residents delivering full-term, singleton infants and did not have missing values for prepregnancy weight, height, or GWG. (
  • While the research only showed a link - not a cause-effect relationship - between infants' sleep and weight, the findings suggest that newborns can reap some of the same health benefits that others get from consistent, quality shut-eye. (
  • After the first month, researchers found 30 of the infants (10.3% of the study sample) were overweight, although most - 21 - reached a normal weight at six months. (
  • An intervention to teach mothers of preterm infants how to interact with their babies more effectively results in better weight gain and growth for the infants, according to a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Preterm infants who fail to gain sufficient weight are at a higher risk for delays and even impairments in cognitive ability and motor skills," said Valerie Maholmes, Ph.D., chief of the Pediatric Trauma and Critical Illness Branch at the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, which funded the research. (
  • Also, if you already have a chronic illness like type 2 diabetes or hypothyroidism , weight gain can worsen your symptoms. (
  • In a single mechanistic study, consumption of UPFs led to increased energy intake and weight gain relative to whole foods. (
  • NIDDK researchers report results of the first randomized, controlled research on the effect of ultra-processed foods on energy intake and weight gain. (
  • A healthy woman with an average body weight should eat an extra 300 calories. (
  • When participants received the ultra-processed meals, they ate more calories and gained more weight than when they received the minimally processed meals. (
  • This is the first study to demonstrate causality-that ultra-processed foods cause people to eat too many calories and gain weight. (
  • A study found that when people consumed a diet of highly processed foods, they took in more calories and gained more weight than when on a diet of minimally processed foods. (
  • The study found that people who ate processed food ate more calories and gained more weight than when they consumed a whole food diet with foods that were unprocessed. (
  • This study at the NIH Clinical Center found that people ate significantly more calories and gained more weight when they were fed a diet that was high in ultra-processed foods - and was heavily covered by media outlets. (
  • Health care providers who care for pregnant women should determine a woman's body mass index at the initial prenatal visit and counsel her regarding the benefits of appropriate weight gain, nutrition and exercise, and, especially, the need to limit excessive weight gain to achieve best pregnancy outcomes. (
  • If you know your calorie intake is going to increase, then your workouts must also increase (to avoid weight gain). (
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the available data regarding the associations of Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with food intake and possible underlying mechanisms relating UPF consumption to weight gain and co-morbidities. (
  • BTW, I am a fitness buff, and having helped several people try to lose weight, I have noticed a strong tendency for the dieters to *VASTLY* underestimate their caloric intake and overstate their exercise. (
  • According to a trial done by researchers, small changes to calorie intake and physical activity levels do not prevent long-term weight gain better than monitoring alone. (
  • We had reasoned that the prevention of weight gain by making small changes in dietary intake or physical activity behaviours would be sustainable long term and would have clinical relevance, as even modest weight gain (0.5-1.0 kg/yr) in adults with overweight and obesity is negatively associated with important health outcomes," the authors wrote. (
  • Although the exact mechanism of antipsychotic associated weight gain is unclear, the impact of risperidone on the serotonergic system and on neuropeptide Y, a stimulator of food intake, might be implicated in the development of obesity. (
  • Study finds ultra-processed food leads to accelerated calorie intake and weight gain. (
  • The amount of weight gained during pregnancy can affect the immediate and future health of a woman and her infant. (
  • As a health coach, I work with women who've been dieting for decades, believing that it's their fault that these diets seem to bring on nothing but disappointment and even more weight. (
  • Talk to your health care provider or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set realistic weight goals. (
  • At approximately 4 months postpartum, participating mothers complete a questionnaire that assesses pregnancy-related health characteristics, including height and prepregnancy weight. (
  • Health care providers aren't sure exactly why some beta blockers cause weight gain. (
  • Your health care provider can help determine whether weight gain is from the buildup of fluid that may occur in heart failure. (
  • It's based on your health, your pregnancy, and your weight before pregnancy. (
  • Gaining too much or too little weight raises some health risks for you and your baby. (
  • We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years in adults with overweight or obesity," wrote Dr Robert Ross, lead author and professor of health kinesiology at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, with co-authors. (
  • A research team led by Dr. Jeannette Ickovics from the Yale School of Public Health and Dr. Marlene Schwartz from the University of Connecticut Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity wanted to see if helping schools implement their existing policies would lead to healthier weights for their students. (
  • To assess weight, the researchers used the World Health Organization's age and sex-specific growth charts. (
  • Sponsors asked the IOM 's Food and Nutrition Board and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Board on Children, Youth, and Families to review and update the IOM (1990) recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy and recommend ways to encourage their adoption through consumer education, strategies to assist practitioners, and public health strategies. (
  • From the 15 baseline factors that met inclusion criteria, Bayesian network modeling identified four baseline predictors for weight gain: younger age, higher carbohydrate consumption, higher trunk fat percentage, and higher perception of mental health quality of life. (
  • During this time, you may find it harder to maintain your weight without making changes in your eating patterns and exercise habits. (
  • Susan Redline, M.D., M.P.H., a study author who is also a senior physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital and a professor of sleep medicine at Harvard Medical School, said her colleagues were intrigued with the idea of studying associations between infant sleep patterns and weight. (
  • He suggested that future research could examine aspects of ultra-processed foods that lead to weight gain and whether reformulating processed foods would reduce their effect on body weight. (
  • While a drop in estrogen and progesterone (which occurs during menopause) certainly causes these symptoms, another notable change many women experience during menopause is weight gain. (
  • It's important to note that menopause-related weight gain doesn't happen overnight. (
  • While weight gain may be attributed to menopause, other factors can increase the total amount gained. (
  • If your mother dealt with weight issues during menopause, then chances are you also might have difficulties managing your weight as you go through it. (
  • So menopause can lead to weight gain, but it isn't the only cause during this stage of life. (
  • Significant weight gain during menopause means more than not fitting into your favorite dresses and jeans. (
  • Despite all of the supplements and other supposed solutions to menopause weight gain that are available these days, there's no magic formula for stopping it. (
  • Under your doctor's supervision, you can minimize menopause-related weight gain with a healthy lifestyle. (
  • While many women experience menopause-related weight gain, it doesn't happen to everyone. (
  • Menopause Weight Gain: Is Hormone Replacement the Answer? (
  • Menopause can be a trying time to lose weight or even maintain a healthy weight. (
  • During menopause, the hormonal changes may cause an increase in appetite and lead to weight gain. (
  • But don't worry, it is completely normal for weight fluctuation during your period and it is usually not anything to worry about. (
  • Also, women who undergo breast cancer treatments often experience a fluctuation in weight. (
  • We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years in adults with overweight or obesity. (
  • Eating processed food may make you gain weight. (
  • This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. (
  • Eating salty foods and simple carbohydrates can lead to fluid retention and result in extra water weight. (
  • Heavily processed foods lead to overeating and weight gain, according to a recent study conducted by NIDDK researchers. (
  • Data from this study suggest that limiting heavily processed foods could be an effective strategy for weight management. (
  • Parents also kept infant sleep diaries and shared insights about activities that could have impacted each infant's sleep pattern or weight, like how often they breastfed or whether the infant had eaten solid food before age four months. (
  • An infant was considered overweight if they were at or above the 95th percentile for weight and length. (
  • Also, if an infant was not getting enough high-quality sleep at night, they could have felt hungry and tired the next day - leading to more eating and less movement, which in turn could contribute to the infant's weight. (
  • Women who all already overweight are more likely to gain weight during this period in their life. (
  • Other changes include the removal of the previous recommendations for special populations and the addition of weight gain guidelines for women with twin gestations. (
  • The IOM guidelines recognize that data are insufficient to determine the amount of weight women with multifetal (triplet and higher order) gestations should gain. (
  • In my experience working with hundreds of women-and in my own struggle with my body and my weight-I've come to realize that any official "diet" that's super restrictive will cause you to gain weight. (
  • Because HRT is weight-neutral, we can use estrogen and progesterone to make it easier for women to lose weight with conventional methods such as diet and lifestyle changes. (
  • During pregnancy, lots of women wonder about how their body will change and how much weight they will gain. (
  • There are a number of reasons why you might gain weight during your period and these are all down to the changes that women experience in their bodies during their menstruation. (
  • Most adult women at one time or another have struggled with their weight, and recent research suggests that weight gain in women differs from that of men. (
  • Women are required to gain weight during pregnancy. (
  • Guided by the idea of "eating for two," many women overeat and gain more weight than is recommended by the medical community. (
  • A reason why many women gain weight is because they don't eat enough. (
  • Weight gain above the recommendations was highest among women who were overweight (61%) or had obesity (55%) before pregnancy. (
  • The percentage of women who gained more than the recommended amount of weight was significantly lower in the lifestyle intervention group than the standard care group (61.8 percent versus 75.0 percent). (
  • If you are suddenly gaining weight for what seems to be no reason, consider the above 11 factors. (
  • GWG was calculated by subtracting prepregnancy weight from delivery weight, and was categorized as inadequate, appropriate, or excessive if a woman gained below, within, or above the BMI-specific IOM recommendations, respectively. (
  • In studying two critical parts of the mice's brains -- the hypothalamus, which controls how much we eat, and the amygdala, which controls how we respond to things emotionally -- the researchers found that a molecule known as NPY is the driving force behind stress weight gain. (
  • This is particularly important because the researchers found that if this trend happens consistently, weight gain can become persistent. (
  • Researchers were surprised at the study results, which contrasted with those of a previous study that showed the small change approach prevented weight gain over 3 years in a large sample of young adults with overweight. (
  • Researchers have been testing strategies to help children maintain a healthy weight into adulthood. (
  • The researchers suspected that an increase in DNA-PK in middle age might lead directly to weight gain. (
  • In primarily observational studies, UPF consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk for weight gain among adults and children and increased risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities in adults. (
  • However, in a sub-analysis, the authors observed that weight gain was prevented in adults with overweight, but not those with obesity. (
  • Just like in adults, excess body weight puts kids at risk for diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases. (
  • I see the same pattern all the time: We think there's something wrong with our bodies or we're unhappy in our lives, and we think that everything will get better once we lose weight. (
  • Buddy up with a friend, spouse, co-worker or relative and see who can either keep the most weight off during the holiday season or even lose weight. (
  • If you have morning sickness and lose weight during your first trimester, your baby is unlikely to be affected. (
  • But the truth is that children should not lose weight. (
  • Being alert to change comes naturally, and our society is hyper-focused on fears of weight gain, but parents and pediatricians need to be alert to a lack of change and be concerned and not laudatory when children lose weight. (
  • Yet, the quest to lose weight often can do more harm than good. (
  • This can lead to unwanted weight gain. (
  • But given that regular sun exposure may prompt your body to store less fat-and the flipside being that insufficient sun may prompt your body to store fat and lead to weight gain-it's all the more reason to get outside and enjoy the fresh air today. (
  • BMI is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). (
  • Did you gain the weight quickly or slowly? (
  • Ideally, you will gain weight slowly over your whole pregnancy. (
  • Ask your doctor what your range is for healthy weight gain. (
  • 25 lb (11 kg) to 35 lb (16 kg) if you are at a healthy weight. (
  • The effect was strongest in children who started at a healthy weight, highlighting that nutrition policies can be an effective obesity prevention strategy in schools. (
  • Fiber is essential to losing and maintaining a healthy weight. (
  • The struggle to maintain a healthy weight is a lifelong challenge for many of us. (
  • Physicians should routinely monitor body weight, liver function, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles in children and adolescents at the beginning of risperidone therapy. (
  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of metformin treatment for weight gain associated with initiation of risperidone in children and adolescents. (
  • The next part of the study involved figuring out why NPY was increasing weight gain when stressed. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain at 12 months following kidney transplant in a cohort of 96 recipients. (
  • The purpose is to develop and test interventions to prevent obesity by decreasing weight gain during the high-risk transitional period from pre- puberty to puberty in African-American girls who are at high risk for developing obesity. (
  • Girls, who are in a critical phase of reproductive development, need to gain a significant amount of weight and increase their proportion of body fat in order to mature properly. (
  • Results: For the 52 (55.9%) recipients who gained weight, the average amount gained was 9.18 + 6.59 kg, with significant increase in trunk and whole body fat mass. (
  • Instead of turning lipids in the diet into fat the genetically-modified mice expelled the lipids and didn't gain weight. (
  • They found that a drug-like compound that blocked DNA-PK activity cut weight gain in the mice by a whopping 40 percent! (
  • They're inherently setting you up to fail and gain even more weight than you had in the beginning. (
  • A child who has always tracked at the 75th percentile, for example, may be malnourished if they fall to the 50th - an average weight class. (
  • Weight gain following kidney transplantation is an epidemic in the United States and worldwide with kidney transplant recipients experiencing an average weight gain between 5 and 10 kg (kg), which is linked to decreased patient and graft survival. (
  • But it will be some time before we see the drugs available as a weight loss technique for humans. (
  • In my pre-pregnancy studies, I have come across many accounts of actual weight loss in pregnancy . (
  • When most people think of anorexia , they think of weight loss. (
  • We live in a culture that not only encourages weight loss, it assumes all weight loss is good , even in children. (
  • It also paves the way for the development of a new kind of weight-loss medication designed to target this specific biochemical change that comes with middle age. (
  • There have been hundreds of studies pointing to the fact that dieting causes weight gain, and these are just a few of the reasons why. (
  • Anxiety related to hot flashes and mental changes (eg, brain fog) can increase cortisol, a stress hormone that causes weight gain. (