Body Mass Index
Institute of Medicine (U.S.)
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Failure to Thrive
Weight Reduction Programs
Analysis of Variance
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Ideal Body Weight
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Disease Models, Animal
Fetal Growth Retardation
Body Weights and Measures
Glucose Tolerance Test
Rats, Inbred Strains
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Body Fat Distribution
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
Adipose Tissue, White
Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/5722)BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation. (+info)
Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (2/5722)High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake. (+info)
Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (3/5722)1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis. (+info)
Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. (4/5722)1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells. (+info)
The Janus-faced aspect of 'dry weight'. (5/5722)BACKGROUND: The goal of haemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is to correct the complications of the uraemic condition. Among the main complications are fluid overload and subsequent hypertension that are corrected by achievement of 'dry weight'. We report in this study the evolution of post-dialysis body-weight and blood pressure in patients who began their HD treatment in our unit. METHODS: We studied the monthly evolution of post-dialysis body-weight (expressed as a percentage of pre-dialysis body-weight at the first HD treatment) and predialysis mean arterial pressure (MAP) over 24 months in 61 patients (21 females, mean age 59.8 years; 20% diabetic), treated with cellulosic membranes for 8 h, 3 times a week. RESULTS: The post-dialysis body-weight decreased between the onset of HD and month 2 (M2) (-4.40+/-0.52%). Then it went up, reaching -1.56+/-0.96% at M6, +0.3+/-1.27% at M12, +1.27+/-1.38% at M18 and +1.64+/-1.33% at M24. The post-dialysis body-weight increased by 6% between M2 and M24. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 111.3+/-2.5 mmHg at M0 to 94.4+/-1.7 at M6, and then remained stable after M6. Between M2 and M6 the post-dialysis body-weight increased, whereas the predialysis MAP continued to decline. The incidence of hypotension episodes was maximal during the first 4 months of HD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the second month of dialysis treatment, the simultaneous increase of post-dialysis body-weight and decrease of pre-dialysis MAP are related to the effects of two processes, i.e. increased weight as the result of anabolism induced by the HD treatment on the one hand and normalization of blood pressure by fluid removal on the other. Continuous clinical assessment of the patient is necessary to provide adequate prescription of post-dialysis body-weight. During the first months of HD treatment, the nephrologist, like Janus, is a double-faced gatekeeper: he must be willing to decrease post-dialysis weight to achieve 'dry weight' and to normalize blood pressure, but he must also be prepared to increase it to compensate for anabolism and to avoid episodes of hypotension. (+info)
A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (6/5722)BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant. (+info)
The effect of age and teat order on alpha1-acid glycoprotein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, cortisol, and average daily gain in commercial growing pigs. (7/5722)The objectives of the study were to evaluate age and teat order on a performance trait, average daily gain, and on physiological stress indicators, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N:L), and cortisol in commercial growing pigs from weaning to market age. Pigs (n = 129) from five commercial California farms were weighed and blood-sampled at 28-d intervals from 28 to 168 d of age. Laboratory assays were performed from blood samples to quantify cortisol, AGP, and N:L. Age and facility effects (P<.001), but not teat order effects (P>.05), were found for all three physiological traits and ADG. Pigs that routinely suckled from teats 1, 4, or 6 (numbered from anterior to posterior on the upper teat bank) had similar (P>.05) ADG and BW throughout the production cycle. No correlation (P> .05) was found between cortisol, AGP, and N:L. The use of these physiological and production traits as stress and health indices of growing pigs in commercial facilities has limitations in comparing data between facilities or different ages of pigs. (+info)
Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions. (8/5722)To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments. (+info)
There are several different types of weight gain, including:
1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:
1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.
Causes of weight gain:
1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.
Treatment options for obesity:
1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:
* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.
Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:
* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels
However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.
Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:
* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.
The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:
* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.
It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.
Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.
Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.
On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.
Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.
There are several different types of obesity, including:
1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.
Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.
Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:
1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.
Fetal weight refers to the weight of a developing fetus during pregnancy. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is used to assess fetal growth and development. Fetal weight is calculated using ultrasound measurements, such as biparietal diameter (BPD) or head circumference, and can be used to detect potential growth restrictions or other complications during pregnancy.
The estimated fetal weight based on the ultrasound measurements was 250 grams, indicating that the baby was slightly smaller than average for gestational age.
Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.
There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:
* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.
1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.
Definition: Hyperphagia is a condition characterized by excessive hunger and overeating, often seen in individuals with certain medical or psychiatric conditions.
Hyperphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Hormonal imbalances, such as low levels of leptin or high levels of ghrelin
* Certain medications, such as steroids and some antidepressants
* Medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
* Psychiatric conditions, such as binge eating disorder and other eating disorders
* Sleep deprivation or disruptions in the body's circadian rhythms
Symptoms of hyperphagia may include:
* Increased hunger and desire to eat
* Overeating or consuming large amounts of food
* Difficulty controlling food intake
* Feeling anxious or irritable when unable to eat
* Weight gain or obesity
Treatment for hyperphagia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as hormonal imbalances or psychiatric conditions. This may involve medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes. In some cases, weight loss strategies and nutrition counseling may also be helpful.
It is important to note that hyperphagia can have serious health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hyperphagia, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
FTT is typically diagnosed when a child's weight or height is below the 10th percentile for their age, and they are not gaining weight or growing at a normal rate despite adequate nutrition and appropriate medical care. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake
* Genetic disorders that affect growth
* Chronic illnesses such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, or heart disease
* Environmental factors such as poverty, neglect, or poor living conditions
* Hormonal imbalances
FTT can have significant long-term consequences for a child's health and development. Children who fail to thrive may be at increased risk for:
* Delayed cognitive and social development
* Behavioral problems such as anxiety or depression
* Poor school performance
* Increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease later in life.
Treatment for FTT depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Nutritional supplements or changes to the child's diet
* Medical treatment for any underlying chronic illnesses
* Addressing environmental factors such as poverty or neglect
* Hormone replacement therapy if hormonal imbalances are suspected
* Psychosocial interventions to address behavioral problems or other issues that may be contributing to the child's FTT.
It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their child's growth and development and seek medical attention if they notice any signs of FTT, such as:
* Poor weight gain or growth rate
* Delayed physical milestones such as sitting, crawling, or walking
* Poor appetite or difficulty feeding
* Frequent illnesses or infections.
Some common causes of fetal macrosomia include:
1. Gestational diabetes: High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can lead to excessive fetal growth, increasing the risk of macrosomia.
2. Obesity in pregnancy: Overweight or obese mothers are more likely to have larger babies due to increased insulin resistance and altered metabolism.
3. Fetal genetic disorders: Certain conditions such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome can result in excessive fetal growth.
4. Maternal age: Elderly mothers (age 35+) may be more likely to have larger babies due to decreased egg quality and altered maternal metabolism.
Fetal macrosomia can increase the risk of complications during delivery, including:
1. Shoulder dystocia: This is a condition where the baby's shoulder becomes stuck in the mother's pelvis during delivery, which can lead to fractures or nerve damage.
2. Cesarean section: Macrosomic babies may require a cesarean section (C-section) due to their large size, which can increase the risk of complications for both mothers and babies.
3. Neonatal hypoglycemia: Newborns with macrosomia may experience low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin production, which can lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and other complications.
4. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: Macrosomic babies may have underdeveloped lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and respiratory distress.
Specialized care and monitoring during pregnancy and childbirth can help manage the risks associated with fetal macrosomia. This may include:
1. Regular ultrasound measurements to monitor fetal growth and detect potential macrosomia early.
2. Close monitoring of maternal blood sugar levels and nutrition to ensure optimal fetal growth and development.
3. Planned deliveries in a hospital setting with experienced healthcare providers, including obstetricians and neonatologists.
4. Timely delivery if macrosomia is detected, either by C-section or vaginal delivery with the assistance of medical professionals.
If you have any concerns about your pregnancy or suspect that your baby may be experiencing fetal macrosomia, consult with your healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management.
Anorexia Nervosa can be further divided into two subtypes:
1. Restrictive Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by restrictive eating patterns, such as limiting food intake and avoiding certain types of food. People with this type may have a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
2. Binge/Purge Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively. People with this type may feel a loss of control during binge episodes and may experience guilt or shame afterward.
Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa can include:
* Restrictive eating habits
* Obsession with weight loss or body image
* Denial of hunger or fatigue
* Excessive exercise
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight
* Osteoporosis or other medical complications
Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to help individuals with anorexia nervosa change their negative thought patterns and behaviors related to food and body image. Family-based therapy can also be effective in treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
It is important to note that Anorexia Nervosa is a serious mental health condition that can have life-threatening consequences if left untreated. If you or someone you know is struggling with anorexia, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with anorexia nervosa can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.
However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.
Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:
1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.
There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:
1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.
There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:
1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.
Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:
1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.
It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.
Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:
* Increased thirst and urination
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:
* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation
The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:
* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.
* A form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy
* Caused by hormonal changes and insulin resistance
* Can lead to complications for both the mother and the baby
* Typically goes away after childbirth
Types of Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.
In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:
1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.
The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.
In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Morbid obesity is typically defined as a BMI of 40 or higher, but some experts define it as a BMI of 35 or higher with one or more obesity-related health conditions, such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, or sleep apnea.
Morbid obesity is different from simple obesity, which is defined as a BMI of 30 to 39. While simple obesity can also increase the risk of health problems, it is generally considered less severe than morbid obesity.
Morbid obesity is often treated with a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medications or surgery. In some cases, bariatric surgery may be recommended to help achieve and maintain weight loss.
It is important to note that BMI is not always an accurate measure of health, as it does not take into account muscle mass or body composition. However, it can provide a general indicator of whether an individual is at a healthy weight or if they are at risk for health problems due to their weight.
Overnutrition can also occur in individuals who have a poor understanding of appropriate portion sizes or who have difficulty regulating their food intake due to psychological or environmental factors. Some common causes of overnutrition include:
1. Overeating: Consuming more food than the body needs, often due to emotional or social reasons.
2. Consuming high-calorie foods and beverages: Foods and drinks that are high in sugar, fat, and salt can lead to overnutrition.
3. Lack of physical activity: Insufficient exercise can contribute to weight gain and overnutrition.
4. Poor portion control: Eating large portions or not understanding appropriate serving sizes can lead to overnutrition.
5. Psychological factors: Stress, emotional eating, or binge eating can contribute to overnutrition.
6. Environmental factors: Living in an environment that does not support healthy eating, such as having limited access to healthy food options or being surrounded by high-calorie foods.
To prevent or manage overnutrition, individuals should focus on maintaining a balanced diet, portion control, regular physical activity, and managing stress and emotions around food. Treatment for overnutrition may involve weight loss programs, nutrition counseling, and lifestyle changes.
Some common signs and symptoms of bulimia include:
* Frequent episodes of binge eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, or self-criticism
* Purging behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives, or excessive exercise to compensate for the binge eating
* Secretive or secretive behavior around eating habits
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight due to extreme calorie restriction or purging
* Constipation, bloating, or other gastrointestinal symptoms
* Tooth decay and gum problems from frequent acid exposure
* Hormonal imbalances and menstrual irregularities
* Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications from purging
* Social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and other emotional difficulties
Bulimia can be difficult to diagnose, as individuals with the disorder may try to hide their symptoms or deny that they have a problem. However, healthcare professionals can use the following criteria to diagnose bulimia:
* Recurring episodes of binge eating or purging behaviors at least once a week for three months
* Self-evaluation of body shape or weight that is distorted or excessive
* Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
* Denial of the disorder or secrecy around eating habits
If you suspect that someone you know may have bulimia, it's important to approach the situation with sensitivity and support. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with bulimia can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
Some common types of growth disorders include:
1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.
Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.
Causes and risk factors:
1. Poverty and lack of access to nutritious food
2. Poor sanitation and hygiene
3. Inadequate healthcare and nutritional education
4. Conflict and displacement
5. Chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis
1. Wasting and stunting of children
2. Poor appetite and weight loss
3. Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
4. Increased susceptibility to infections
5. Poor wound healing and skin problems
1. Stunted growth and development
2. Weakened immune system
3. Increased risk of infections and diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria
4. Poor cognitive development and reduced educational attainment
5. Increased risk of mortality
1. Clinical evaluation of symptoms and physical examination
2. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight
3. Laboratory tests to assess nutrient deficiencies and infections
4. Dietary assessment to determine food intake and nutrient adequacy
Treatment and prevention:
1. Providing access to nutrient-dense foods, particularly protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, beans, and dairy products
2. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation
3. Implementing nutritional education programs to promote healthy eating habits
4. Providing micronutrient supplements and fortified foods
5. Addressing infectious diseases and providing appropriate medical care
In conclusion, protein-energy malnutrition is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. It can have severe consequences on physical growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term health problems and improve quality of life. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation is also essential to prevent the condition from occurring in the first place.
The most common types of eating disorders include:
1. Anorexia Nervosa: This is characterized by a severe restriction of food intake, leading to a significantly low body weight. Individuals with anorexia nervosa may have a distorted body image and may view themselves as being overweight, even if they are underweight.
2. Bulimia Nervosa: This is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging, such as vomiting or using laxatives, to rid the body of the consumed food. This can lead to a cycle of guilt and shame, and can have serious physical consequences such as electrolyte imbalances and gastrointestinal problems.
3. Binge Eating Disorder: This is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Unlike bulimia nervosa, there is no purging or compensatory behaviors to rid the body of the consumed food.
4. Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED): This category includes a range of eating disorders that do not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder. Examples include orthorexia nervosa (an obsession with healthy eating), avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (a lack of interest in eating or a fear of eating), and pica (eating non-food items).
Eating disorders can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:
1. Malnutrition: Eating disorders can lead to malnutrition, which can cause a range of health problems, including fatigue, hair loss, and poor wound healing.
2. Electrolyte imbalances: Eating disorders can also lead to electrolyte imbalances, which can cause heart problems, muscle weakness, and other complications.
3. Tooth decay and gum disease: Frequent vomiting can erode tooth enamel and lead to tooth decay and gum disease.
4. Digestive problems: Eating disorders can cause digestive problems such as constipation, diarrhea, and acid reflux.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Eating disorders can disrupt hormone levels, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and other hormone-related problems.
6. Anxiety and depression: Eating disorders can also contribute to anxiety and depression, which can make it more difficult to recover from the eating disorder.
7. Social isolation: Eating disorders can lead to social isolation, as individuals may avoid social situations where food is involved or feel ashamed of their eating habits.
8. Body image distortion: Eating disorders can also cause body image distortion, leading to a negative and unrealistic view of one's body.
9. Osteoporosis: Eating disorders can increase the risk of osteoporosis, particularly in individuals who have been suffering from the disorder for a long time or who have experienced significant weight loss.
10. Increased risk of suicide: Eating disorders can also increase the risk of suicide, as individuals may feel overwhelmed by their symptoms and struggling to cope with the emotional and physical consequences of the disorder.
It's important to note that these complications can be life-threatening and require prompt medical attention. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health professional, a registered dietitian, or a primary care physician. With proper treatment and support, individuals can recover from eating disorders and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.
Anorexia can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:
* Malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies
* Osteoporosis and bone loss
* Heart problems and low blood pressure
* Hormonal imbalances
* Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders
* Social isolation and difficulties in relationships
There are two main types of anorexia:
* Restrictive type: Characterized by restrictive eating habits and a fear of gaining weight.
* Binge/purge type: Characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting or using laxatives.
Treatment for anorexia typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Family-based therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy are some of the common approaches used to treat anorexia. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
In conclusion, anorexia is a complex and serious eating disorder that can have long-lasting physical and emotional consequences. It is important to seek professional help if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with anorexia can recover and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.
The exact cause of cachexia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and changes in metabolism. Treatment for cachexia often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the wasting, such as managing cancer or HIV/AIDS, as well as providing nutritional support and addressing any related complications.
In the medical field, cachexia is a serious condition that requires careful management to improve quality of life and outcomes for patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cachexia and to provide appropriate treatment and support to affected individuals.
Weight Gain 4000
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- According to research , women may gain an average of 5 pounds during menopause. (healthline.com)
- In other words, you won't suddenly gain 10 pounds after your periods stop. (healthline.com)
- If you want to drop pounds, you need to diet-or at least, that's what anyone who has a pulse would believe based on all of the messages bombarding us about weight loss. (yahoo.com)
- Gain 0 to 1 1/2 pounds per month for a total of 1-4.5 pounds. (parents.com)
- Gain about 1 pound per week for a total of 12 to 14 pounds. (parents.com)
- Gain 3/4 to 1 pound per week (weight gain often slows during the last month) for a total of 10 to 14 pounds. (parents.com)
- The average person will gain 5-15 pounds during the holidays. (selfgrowth.com)
- Most people who quit smoking gain 4 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) in the first 6 months after quitting. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some gain as much as 25 to 30 pounds (11 to 14 kilograms). (medlineplus.gov)
- The IOM recommendations for GWG are 28-40 pounds for underweight women, 25-35 pounds for normal-weight women, 15-25 pounds for overweight women, and 11-20 pounds for obese women ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Some super-sized moms have reported weight loss from as little as 5 pounds to as much as 50 pounds after their baby is born. (everything2.com)
- The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (1.2 kilograms). (mayoclinic.org)
- Also, switching from taking a water pill (diuretic) to a beta blocker as a treatment for high blood pressure might cause a gain of a few pounds of fluid that the diuretic kept off. (mayoclinic.org)
- If you're taking a beta blocker for heart failure, tell your health care provider immediately if you gain more than 2 to 3 pounds (about 1 to 1.4 kilograms) in a day or 5 pounds (about 2.3 kilograms) in a week. (mayoclinic.org)
- Even for children who have been medically determined to be above their healthy weight range, the recommendation is to slow the rate of growth, not lose pounds. (healthyplace.com)
- The average weight gain during periods is around two to six pounds. (hollandandbarrett.com)
- I've been off Prozac for ten years and cannot lose any of the 30 pounds that I gained. (dr-bob.org)
- Now I'm on Celexa which has completely killed my appetite (I have to force myself to eat and am probably consuming less than 900 calories a day) and yet I've gained five pounds. (dr-bob.org)
- She says that she gained 3 pounds in one day. (celebrific.com)
- That translates to an average of two pounds of extra weight gained each year. (nih.gov)
- There are many reasons why women put on the pounds and some of the factors that lead to weight gain in women are surprising. (fitday.com)
- Ovarian cysts can cause a woman to gain up to 30 pounds over a short period of time. (fitday.com)
- On the highly processed diet, people ate more calories and gained an average of 2 pounds. (nih.gov)
- 18.5), 25-35 pounds for normal weight women (BMI = 18.5-24.9), 15-25 pounds for overweight women (BMI = 25.0-29.9), and 11-20 pounds for women with obesity (BMI ≥30.0). (cdc.gov)
- The updated guidelines by the Institute of Medicine regarding gestational weight gain provide clinicians with a basis for practice. (acog.org)
- Gestational weight gain recommendations aim to optimize outcomes for the woman and the infant. (acog.org)
- In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published revised gestational weight gain guidelines that are based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ranges for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese women recommended by the World Health Organization and are independent of age, parity, smoking history, race, and ethnic background Table 1 2 . (acog.org)
- For twin pregnancy, the IOM recommends a gestational weight gain of 16.8-24.5 kg (37-54 lb) for women of normal weight, 14.1-22.7 kg (31-50 lb) for overweight women, and 11.3-19.1 kg (25-42 lb) for obese women. (acog.org)
- Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations among overweight pregnant women does not appear to have a negative effect on fetal growth or neonatal outcomes. (acog.org)
- The gestational weight gain guidelines attempt to balance the risks of having large-for-gestational-age infants, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm births and postpartum weight retention. (acog.org)
- The weight a woman gains during pregnancy, known as gestational weight gain (GWG), has important health implications for both mother and child ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Gestational weight gain was within the recommended range for 32% of women giving birth to full-term, singleton infants in 2015, with 48% gaining more weight and 21% less weight than recommended. (cdc.gov)
- Lifestyle interventions limit gestational weight gain in women with overweight or obesity: LIFE-Moms prospective meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- 3. Recommend revisions to the existing guidelines, where necessary, including the need for specific pregnancy weight guidelines for underweight, normal weight, and overweight and obese women and adolescents and women carrying twins or higher-order multiples. (nih.gov)
- Approximately 44% of women who were underweight before pregnancy gained within the recommendations, compared with 39% of women who were normal weight, 26% of women who were overweight, and 24% of women with obesity before pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- In a recent study, researchers posited that following a healthy diet during times of stress is crucial for consumers to avoid excess weight gain. (consumeraffairs.com)
- Staying up late on weekends may drive excess weight gain in school-aged children, possibly due to "social jet lag" disrupting their ability to process food efficiently. (newscientist.com)
- Support for school nutrition policies helped kids avoid gaining excess weight. (nih.gov)
- Your changing body composition may also make it more difficult to lose any excess weight. (fitday.com)
- Individualized care and clinical judgment are necessary in the management of the overweight or obese woman who is gaining (or wishes to gain) less weight than recommended but has an appropriately growing fetus. (acog.org)
- The updated IOM recommendations have met with controversial reactions from some physicians who believe that the weight gain targets are too high, especially for overweight and obese women. (acog.org)
- Given the limited data by class, the IOM recommendation for weight gain is 5-9.1 kg (11-20 lb) for all obese women. (acog.org)
- One systematic review found that overweight and obese women who gain less weight than the ranges recommended by the IOM do not have an increased risk of having a low birth weight infant 1 . (acog.org)
- 18.5), normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30.0). (cdc.gov)
- Effect of third-generation beta blockers on weight loss in a population of overweight-obese subjects in a controlled dietary regimen. (mayoclinic.org)
- The participants whose weight was in the healthy range were more likely to avoid an increase in BMI during the study than those who started out overweight or obese. (nih.gov)
- In a new study, behavioral lifestyle intervention programs that focused primarily on diet and physical activity limited weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese women. (nih.gov)
- When the researchers treated obese mice with a drug called a DNA-PK inhibitor, they gained considerably less weight while fed a high-fat diet. (nih.gov)
- The primary data source was 2013 National Vital Statistics System birth data, a census of all births, for jurisdictions using the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth,* which collects the maternal height, prepregnancy weight, and delivery weight data needed to examine GWG in relation to the BMI-specific IOM recommendations. (cdc.gov)
- Questionnaire data are linked with birth certificate data, including GWG, and are weighted to represent all women delivering live infants in each state. (cdc.gov)
- Prepregnancy BMI was calculated using height and prepregnancy weight from the 2003 birth certificate or the PRAMS questionnaire. (cdc.gov)
- Birth certificate and weighted PRAMS data were used separately to estimate state-specific prevalence and combined to estimate overall prevalence of inadequate, appropriate, and excessive GWG. (cdc.gov)
- Gaining too little weight when you're pregnant raises your baby's risks for early birth, and for low birth weight and size. (cigna.com)
- When you begin taking a new birth control pill, you may notice an increase in your weight. (fitday.com)
- for infants and children, in addition to low birth weight, consider early developmental impacts and obesity-related consequences (e.g., mental health, diabetes). (nih.gov)
- Birth weight was 3.5 kg. (who.int)
- There were no differences between the groups in pregnancy outcomes or infant birth weight. (nih.gov)
- For the overweight pregnant woman who is gaining less than the recommended amount but has an appropriately growing fetus, no evidence exists that encouraging increased weight gain to conform with the current IOM guidelines will improve maternal or fetal outcomes. (acog.org)
- Review evidence on the relationship between weight gain patterns before, during, and after pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with particular attention to the prevalence of maternal obesity racial/ethnic and age differences, components of GWG , and implications of weight during pregnancy on postpartum weight retention, maternal and child obesity, and later child health. (nih.gov)
- The researchers noted that there is a growing body of evidence reporting a lack of association between improved maternal weight gain with lifestyle interventions and reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that evaluating effects on the woman's body composition, as opposed to only measuring weight, might be more informative. (nih.gov)
Postpartum weight retention1
- Also, these perceived high weight gain targets do not address concerns regarding postpartum weight retention. (acog.org)
- For this report, women were included if they were U.S. residents delivering full-term, singleton infants and did not have missing values for prepregnancy weight, height, or GWG. (cdc.gov)
- While the research only showed a link - not a cause-effect relationship - between infants' sleep and weight, the findings suggest that newborns can reap some of the same health benefits that others get from consistent, quality shut-eye. (nih.gov)
- After the first month, researchers found 30 of the infants (10.3% of the study sample) were overweight, although most - 21 - reached a normal weight at six months. (nih.gov)
- An intervention to teach mothers of preterm infants how to interact with their babies more effectively results in better weight gain and growth for the infants, according to a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
- Preterm infants who fail to gain sufficient weight are at a higher risk for delays and even impairments in cognitive ability and motor skills," said Valerie Maholmes, Ph.D., chief of the Pediatric Trauma and Critical Illness Branch at the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, which funded the research. (nih.gov)
Type 2 diabet1
- Also, if you already have a chronic illness like type 2 diabetes or hypothyroidism , weight gain can worsen your symptoms. (healthline.com)
Energy intake and weight gain2
- A healthy woman with an average body weight should eat an extra 300 calories. (fitday.com)
- When participants received the ultra-processed meals, they ate more calories and gained more weight than when they received the minimally processed meals. (nih.gov)
- This is the first study to demonstrate causality-that ultra-processed foods cause people to eat too many calories and gain weight. (nih.gov)
- A study found that when people consumed a diet of highly processed foods, they took in more calories and gained more weight than when on a diet of minimally processed foods. (nih.gov)
- The study found that people who ate processed food ate more calories and gained more weight than when they consumed a whole food diet with foods that were unprocessed. (nih.gov)
- This study at the NIH Clinical Center found that people ate significantly more calories and gained more weight when they were fed a diet that was high in ultra-processed foods - and was heavily covered by media outlets. (nih.gov)
Excessive weight gain1
- Health care providers who care for pregnant women should determine a woman's body mass index at the initial prenatal visit and counsel her regarding the benefits of appropriate weight gain, nutrition and exercise, and, especially, the need to limit excessive weight gain to achieve best pregnancy outcomes. (acog.org)
- If you know your calorie intake is going to increase, then your workouts must also increase (to avoid weight gain). (selfgrowth.com)
- The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the available data regarding the associations of Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with food intake and possible underlying mechanisms relating UPF consumption to weight gain and co-morbidities. (springer.com)
- BTW, I am a fitness buff, and having helped several people try to lose weight, I have noticed a strong tendency for the dieters to *VASTLY* underestimate their caloric intake and overstate their exercise. (dr-bob.org)
- According to a trial done by researchers, small changes to calorie intake and physical activity levels do not prevent long-term weight gain better than monitoring alone. (hindustantimes.com)
- We had reasoned that the prevention of weight gain by making small changes in dietary intake or physical activity behaviours would be sustainable long term and would have clinical relevance, as even modest weight gain (0.5-1.0 kg/yr) in adults with overweight and obesity is negatively associated with important health outcomes," the authors wrote. (hindustantimes.com)
- Although the exact mechanism of antipsychotic associated weight gain is unclear, the impact of risperidone on the serotonergic system and on neuropeptide Y, a stimulator of food intake, might be implicated in the development of obesity. (nih.gov)
- Study finds ultra-processed food leads to accelerated calorie intake and weight gain. (nih.gov)
- The amount of weight gained during pregnancy can affect the immediate and future health of a woman and her infant. (acog.org)
- As a health coach, I work with women who've been dieting for decades, believing that it's their fault that these diets seem to bring on nothing but disappointment and even more weight. (yahoo.com)
- Talk to your health care provider or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set realistic weight goals. (medlineplus.gov)
- At approximately 4 months postpartum, participating mothers complete a questionnaire that assesses pregnancy-related health characteristics, including height and prepregnancy weight. (cdc.gov)
- Health care providers aren't sure exactly why some beta blockers cause weight gain. (mayoclinic.org)
- Your health care provider can help determine whether weight gain is from the buildup of fluid that may occur in heart failure. (mayoclinic.org)
- It's based on your health, your pregnancy, and your weight before pregnancy. (cigna.com)
- Gaining too much or too little weight raises some health risks for you and your baby. (cigna.com)
- We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years in adults with overweight or obesity," wrote Dr Robert Ross, lead author and professor of health kinesiology at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, with co-authors. (hindustantimes.com)
- A research team led by Dr. Jeannette Ickovics from the Yale School of Public Health and Dr. Marlene Schwartz from the University of Connecticut Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity wanted to see if helping schools implement their existing policies would lead to healthier weights for their students. (nih.gov)
- To assess weight, the researchers used the World Health Organization's age and sex-specific growth charts. (nih.gov)
- Sponsors asked the IOM 's Food and Nutrition Board and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Board on Children, Youth, and Families to review and update the IOM (1990) recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy and recommend ways to encourage their adoption through consumer education, strategies to assist practitioners, and public health strategies. (nih.gov)
- From the 15 baseline factors that met inclusion criteria, Bayesian network modeling identified four baseline predictors for weight gain: younger age, higher carbohydrate consumption, higher trunk fat percentage, and higher perception of mental health quality of life. (nih.gov)
- During this time, you may find it harder to maintain your weight without making changes in your eating patterns and exercise habits. (healthline.com)
- Susan Redline, M.D., M.P.H., a study author who is also a senior physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital and a professor of sleep medicine at Harvard Medical School, said her colleagues were intrigued with the idea of studying associations between infant sleep patterns and weight. (nih.gov)
- He suggested that future research could examine aspects of ultra-processed foods that lead to weight gain and whether reformulating processed foods would reduce their effect on body weight. (nih.gov)
- While a drop in estrogen and progesterone (which occurs during menopause) certainly causes these symptoms, another notable change many women experience during menopause is weight gain. (healthline.com)
- It's important to note that menopause-related weight gain doesn't happen overnight. (healthline.com)
- While weight gain may be attributed to menopause, other factors can increase the total amount gained. (healthline.com)
- If your mother dealt with weight issues during menopause, then chances are you also might have difficulties managing your weight as you go through it. (healthline.com)
- So menopause can lead to weight gain, but it isn't the only cause during this stage of life. (healthline.com)
- Significant weight gain during menopause means more than not fitting into your favorite dresses and jeans. (healthline.com)
- Despite all of the supplements and other supposed solutions to menopause weight gain that are available these days, there's no magic formula for stopping it. (healthline.com)
- Under your doctor's supervision, you can minimize menopause-related weight gain with a healthy lifestyle. (healthline.com)
- While many women experience menopause-related weight gain, it doesn't happen to everyone. (healthline.com)
- Menopause Weight Gain: Is Hormone Replacement the Answer? (medscape.com)
- Menopause can be a trying time to lose weight or even maintain a healthy weight. (medscape.com)
- During menopause, the hormonal changes may cause an increase in appetite and lead to weight gain. (fitday.com)
Overweight or obesity1
- We found that the small change approach was not more effective than monitoring alone in preventing weight gain at 2 or 3 years in adults with overweight or obesity. (hindustantimes.com)
Make You GAIN Weight1
- Eating processed food may make you gain weight. (nih.gov)
- This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eating salty foods and simple carbohydrates can lead to fluid retention and result in extra water weight. (hollandandbarrett.com)
- Heavily processed foods lead to overeating and weight gain, according to a recent study conducted by NIDDK researchers. (nih.gov)
- Data from this study suggest that limiting heavily processed foods could be an effective strategy for weight management. (nih.gov)
- Parents also kept infant sleep diaries and shared insights about activities that could have impacted each infant's sleep pattern or weight, like how often they breastfed or whether the infant had eaten solid food before age four months. (nih.gov)
- An infant was considered overweight if they were at or above the 95th percentile for weight and length. (nih.gov)
- Also, if an infant was not getting enough high-quality sleep at night, they could have felt hungry and tired the next day - leading to more eating and less movement, which in turn could contribute to the infant's weight. (nih.gov)
- Women who all already overweight are more likely to gain weight during this period in their life. (healthline.com)
- Other changes include the removal of the previous recommendations for special populations and the addition of weight gain guidelines for women with twin gestations. (acog.org)
- The IOM guidelines recognize that data are insufficient to determine the amount of weight women with multifetal (triplet and higher order) gestations should gain. (acog.org)
- In my experience working with hundreds of women-and in my own struggle with my body and my weight-I've come to realize that any official "diet" that's super restrictive will cause you to gain weight. (yahoo.com)
- Because HRT is weight-neutral, we can use estrogen and progesterone to make it easier for women to lose weight with conventional methods such as diet and lifestyle changes. (medscape.com)
- During pregnancy, lots of women wonder about how their body will change and how much weight they will gain. (cigna.com)
- There are a number of reasons why you might gain weight during your period and these are all down to the changes that women experience in their bodies during their menstruation. (hollandandbarrett.com)
- Most adult women at one time or another have struggled with their weight, and recent research suggests that weight gain in women differs from that of men. (fitday.com)
- Women are required to gain weight during pregnancy. (fitday.com)
- Guided by the idea of "eating for two," many women overeat and gain more weight than is recommended by the medical community. (fitday.com)
- A reason why many women gain weight is because they don't eat enough. (fitday.com)
- Weight gain above the recommendations was highest among women who were overweight (61%) or had obesity (55%) before pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- The percentage of women who gained more than the recommended amount of weight was significantly lower in the lifestyle intervention group than the standard care group (61.8 percent versus 75.0 percent). (nih.gov)
- If you are suddenly gaining weight for what seems to be no reason, consider the above 11 factors. (fitday.com)
- GWG was calculated by subtracting prepregnancy weight from delivery weight, and was categorized as inadequate, appropriate, or excessive if a woman gained below, within, or above the BMI-specific IOM recommendations, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- In studying two critical parts of the mice's brains -- the hypothalamus, which controls how much we eat, and the amygdala, which controls how we respond to things emotionally -- the researchers found that a molecule known as NPY is the driving force behind stress weight gain. (consumeraffairs.com)
- This is particularly important because the researchers found that if this trend happens consistently, weight gain can become persistent. (consumeraffairs.com)
- Researchers were surprised at the study results, which contrasted with those of a previous study that showed the small change approach prevented weight gain over 3 years in a large sample of young adults with overweight. (hindustantimes.com)
- Researchers have been testing strategies to help children maintain a healthy weight into adulthood. (nih.gov)
- The researchers suspected that an increase in DNA-PK in middle age might lead directly to weight gain. (nih.gov)
- In primarily observational studies, UPF consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk for weight gain among adults and children and increased risk for adiposity-related co-morbidities in adults. (springer.com)
- However, in a sub-analysis, the authors observed that weight gain was prevented in adults with overweight, but not those with obesity. (hindustantimes.com)
- Just like in adults, excess body weight puts kids at risk for diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases. (nih.gov)
- I see the same pattern all the time: We think there's something wrong with our bodies or we're unhappy in our lives, and we think that everything will get better once we lose weight. (yahoo.com)
- Buddy up with a friend, spouse, co-worker or relative and see who can either keep the most weight off during the holiday season or even lose weight. (selfgrowth.com)
- If you have morning sickness and lose weight during your first trimester, your baby is unlikely to be affected. (cigna.com)
- But the truth is that children should not lose weight. (healthyplace.com)
- Being alert to change comes naturally, and our society is hyper-focused on fears of weight gain, but parents and pediatricians need to be alert to a lack of change and be concerned and not laudatory when children lose weight. (healthyplace.com)
- Yet, the quest to lose weight often can do more harm than good. (fitday.com)
- This can lead to unwanted weight gain. (healthline.com)
- But given that regular sun exposure may prompt your body to store less fat-and the flipside being that insufficient sun may prompt your body to store fat and lead to weight gain-it's all the more reason to get outside and enjoy the fresh air today. (oprah.com)
- BMI is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). (acog.org)
- Ask your doctor what your range is for healthy weight gain. (cigna.com)
- 25 lb (11 kg) to 35 lb (16 kg) if you are at a healthy weight. (cigna.com)
- The effect was strongest in children who started at a healthy weight, highlighting that nutrition policies can be an effective obesity prevention strategy in schools. (nih.gov)
- Fiber is essential to losing and maintaining a healthy weight. (fitday.com)
- The struggle to maintain a healthy weight is a lifelong challenge for many of us. (nih.gov)
Children and adolescents2
- Physicians should routinely monitor body weight, liver function, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles in children and adolescents at the beginning of risperidone therapy. (nih.gov)
- A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of metformin treatment for weight gain associated with initiation of risperidone in children and adolescents. (nih.gov)
- The purpose is to develop and test interventions to prevent obesity by decreasing weight gain during the high-risk transitional period from pre- puberty to puberty in African-American girls who are at high risk for developing obesity. (nih.gov)
- Girls, who are in a critical phase of reproductive development, need to gain a significant amount of weight and increase their proportion of body fat in order to mature properly. (healthyplace.com)
- Results: For the 52 (55.9%) recipients who gained weight, the average amount gained was 9.18 + 6.59 kg, with significant increase in trunk and whole body fat mass. (nih.gov)
- They're inherently setting you up to fail and gain even more weight than you had in the beginning. (yahoo.com)
- A child who has always tracked at the 75th percentile, for example, may be malnourished if they fall to the 50th - an average weight class. (healthyplace.com)
- Weight gain following kidney transplantation is an epidemic in the United States and worldwide with kidney transplant recipients experiencing an average weight gain between 5 and 10 kg (kg), which is linked to decreased patient and graft survival. (nih.gov)
- But it will be some time before we see the drugs available as a weight loss technique for humans. (nypost.com)
- In my pre-pregnancy studies, I have come across many accounts of actual weight loss in pregnancy . (everything2.com)
- When most people think of anorexia , they think of weight loss. (healthyplace.com)
- We live in a culture that not only encourages weight loss, it assumes all weight loss is good , even in children. (healthyplace.com)
- It also paves the way for the development of a new kind of weight-loss medication designed to target this specific biochemical change that comes with middle age. (nih.gov)