Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Child, Unwanted: The child who is not wanted by one or both parents.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Fetal Resorption: The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.United StatesFetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sexual Harassment: A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
... and a bill to mandate that how school curriculums address the topic of unwanted pregnancies." The bills have not been signed by ... "The Republican-controlled House of Representatives passed a bill to prohibit abortions after the 18th week of pregnancy; a bill ... this month Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed a controversial measure banning most abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy." In ... danger to subsequent pregnancies, including the ability to carry a child to full term, and any adverse psychological effects ...
She brings up a point that, "...ending a pregnancy 12 weeks into gestation is incalculably more moral than bringing an unwanted ... Moran recounts the pivotal time in which she discovers she is eleven weeks pregnant. In thinking that she has all the symptoms ... In a society that demonizes abortion, reasons for terminating a pregnancy exist on a "spectrum of wrongness" (How To Be A Woman ... has an inkling that even the staff have a stigma against terminating a pregnancy. Moran is quick to say that she knows she made ...
Usage during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of any major birth defects. There may be a ... physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking any tetracyclines to prevent unwanted pregnancy. ... They are, however, safe to use in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy. Some patients taking tetracyclines require medical ... Tetracycline and Pregnancy Archived 2011-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. from Organization of Teratology Information Specialists ...
... as long as the samples are taken after the seventh week of pregnancy.[43][44] ... Sex-selective adoption - Placing children of the unwanted sex up for adoption. Less commonly viewed as a method of social sex ... Sex-selective child abandonment - Abandoning children of the unwanted sex. Though illegal in most parts of the world, it is ... Sex-selective infanticide - Killing children of the unwanted sex. Though illegal in most parts of the world, it is still ...
"Dual protection against unwanted pregnancy and HIV / STDs". Sex Health Exch (3): 8. 1998. PMID 12294688. Cates, W.; Steiner, M ... After a vasectomy, there may be swelling and pain of the scrotum which usually resolves in a week or two. With tubal ligation, ... Comprehensive sex education and access to birth control decreases the rate of unwanted pregnancies in this age group. While all ... Delaying another pregnancy after a miscarriage however does not appear to alter risk and women are advised to attempt pregnancy ...
... believed that women should enjoy equality with men and that to achieve this they needed to be able to avoid unwanted pregnancy ... and with the support of the clinic doctors and a nurse she began to run an evening session each week for the large numbers of ...
... which would legalize abortion within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, finding that 61% support the law, 27% oppose the law, and ... "Do you approve of the termination of unwanted pregnancies through surgical abortion?" 65% of the Australians polled stated that ... when the pregnancy is a result of rape (80%) or the fetus has severe abnormalities (68%). Brazil: A March 2007 Datafolha/Folha ... pregnancy, including whether to have an abortion?" The results were: Among those whose response was "no" above, it was then ...
"MagicMum.com - View topic - FineGael TD : Fornication main cause of unwanted pregnancy". MagicMum.com. 19 April 2012. He told ... this was to a girl who lost her daughter Aoife at 22 weeks Sheridan, Kathy (17 April 2012). "System 'ignores and stigmatises' ... During the debate on the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013, the group called for an exception to allow termination ...
Abortions must be performed before a time limit of 28 weeks of pregnancy, however is only routinely accessible to 23 weeks ... Over time this has come to be broadly defined so as to include the mental health of the woman, to which an unwanted pregnancy ... In Tasmania, since 21 November 2013, abortions are allowed on request up to 16 weeks of pregnancy. After 16 weeks abortions can ... After 20 weeks of pregnancy abortions may only be performed if the fetus is likely to be born with severe medical problems - ...
Throughout history, naturally occurring herbs and plants have been used to induce abortion and end unwanted pregnancies in ... Late-term termination counts as anything after 10-weeks and requires a formal evaluation to be conducted by a committee of ... Abortion policy is instead based on risk factors for the woman seeking pregnancy termination. It is believed that, aside from ... In hopes of curbing high mortality rates among Cuban women attempting self-termination of pregnancies, the Cuban government ...
... unwanted-pregnancy http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0197048/ Author's entry in WorldCat Marilyn Reynolds on IMDb. ... www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2014/09/26/banned-books-week-the-10-most-challenged-books-every-year-since-2000/ ... Her books cover sensitive topics, including teen pregnancy, molestation, rape and issues of gender identity. Her book, I Won't ...
Thomson's variant of this argument draws an analogy between forcing a woman to continue an unwanted pregnancy and forcing a ... Good medical practice indicates that abortion should not be performed after the 20th week of pregnancy Lee, Ellie; Ann Furedi ( ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol. 100 (2): 505-506. PMC 1903536 . PMID 6773421. In ... In early pregnancy, levels of estrogen increase, leading to breast growth in preparation for lactation. The hypothesis proposes ...
Usage during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of any major birth defects.[21] There may be ... physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking any tetracyclines to prevent unwanted pregnancy.[ ... They are, however, safe to use in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy.[13][14] Some patients taking tetracyclines require medical ... "Tetracycline and Pregnancy" (PDF). Organization of Teratology Information Specialists. July 2010. Archived from the original ( ...
"Everybody tends to agree that preventing unwanted pregnancies is a good thing. I'm saying, let's take it to the next step and ... But this statement last week really does clear up the question for me. You are speaking like a demagogue in the worst tradition ...
Abortions were legal so long as the pregnancy had not exceeded twelve weeks, the ensoulment period - or, if it had, so long as ... contraception with the aim of reducing unwanted pregnancies among Iranian families. One of the reasons the legality of abortion ... Legal abortion is allowed only before 19th week of pregnancy. Much of the controversy has historically stemmed from Iran's ... and in all cases once the pregnancy passes the ensoulment time of 16 weeks, the government has expanded upon its earlier caveat ...
Unwanted pregnancy Low socioeconomic status Primiparous (first labour) Parenting (infant caring) problems Social support ... Symptoms of PTSD are common following childbirth, with prevalence of 24-30.1% at 6 weeks, dropping to 13.6% at 6 months. ... not having sexual intercourse in order to prevent another pregnancy, and avoidance of birth and pregnancy related issues. ... 2011). Premature birth: subjective and psychological experiences in the first weeks following childbirth, a mixed-methods study ...
The Therapeutic Abortion Committees often took days or weeks to make their decisions, pushing a pregnancy further along than it ... The report recommended better family planning to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies; but their main conclusion was that ... "After three months of pregnancy", 11% said "After six months of pregnancy", and 33% said "From the point of birth". In an April ... This is in contrast to the Roe v. Wade case in the United States where Roe had carried the pregnancy to term. That case, ...
There are a number of narrative scenes which show unwanted pregnancies essentially from the father's point of view, including ... dying three weeks later. Botticelli's Portrait of a Lady Known as Smeralda Brandini, 1470s, hand on bump and guarnello La Donna ... Pregnancy in art covers any artistic work that portrays pregnancy in women. In art as in life, it is often unclear whether an ... when any suggestion of pregnancy would be unwanted. In some well-documented cases, the subjects of portraits can be shown to be ...
Seasonique is another version in which the placebo week every three months is replaced with a week of low-dose estrogen. ... It is generally accepted that the health risks of oral contraceptives are lower than those from pregnancy and birth,[43] and " ... or unwanted side effects. With typical use, the estimated risk of getting pregnant is about 0.9%, or about 9 in 1000 women on ... If menstruation occurs, wait one week then start a new set of pills. If the pills do not use a monthly cycle, ask a doctor for ...
... "unwanted" pregnancies and their consequences. They say that women should not have to pay for abortion of the unborn child's ... The bill would allow abortion after 12 weeks (fetal age 10 weeks) in cases of rape or incest. President Jose Mujica has said he ... Abortion in Uruguay is legal on request before twelve weeks of gestation, after a five-day reflection period. Abortion has been ...
... that the pregnancy has not exceeded its twenty-fourth week and that the continuance of the pregnancy would involve risk, ... Of course, women did find themselves with unwanted pregnancies. Abortifacients were discreetly advertised and there was a ... In May 2008, MPs voted to retain the current legal limit of 24 weeks. Amendments proposing reductions to 22 weeks and 20 weeks ... It is lawful in the Isle of Man to have an abortion in the first 24 weeks of pregnancy so long as specific criteria are met. ...
Tucker, Ken (October 14, 2009). "'Glee': Unwanted pregnancy?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 27 October 2009. Martin, Denise ... 1 for the week, and the most-watched show on cable for the week, as well as the most-watched episode of the series at the time ... The pregnancy storyline was criticized by both Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly and Shawna Malcom of the Los Angeles Times. ... It was the 26th most watched show of the week in Canada, with 1.4 million viewers. In the UK, the episode was watched by 2.066 ...
While no harm has been found with use in pregnancy, it has not been well studied in this group. Streptokinase is in the ... Extra production of plasmin caused by streptokinase breaks down unwanted blood clots, for example, in the lungs (pulmonary ... CPR Major surgery less than three weeks ago Recent (within 2 to 4 wk) internal bleeding Noncompressible vascular punctures ... "Streptokinase Use During Pregnancy , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 14 ...
... in Bambalang is dented given that most of its sons and daughters drop out of school due to early and unwanted pregnancies, love ... This period is a week of peace (retreat) when there should be no quarreling, fighting, shouting and farming. The rest of the ... there are eight days of a week namely, Vi-Mitang, Vi-Ghei, Vi-Shaa, Vi-Nwi, Vi-Ngwong, Vi-Nkwi, Vi-Fongoung and Vi-Nkwa. There ...
Abortion is available on-demand for women whose pregnancies have not exceeded the tenth week, and in the case of risk to life ... coupled with little to no knowledge of contraception methods caused a large number of unwanted pregnancies, and with them, a ... In 2009, 23.2% of pregnancies in Serbia ended in abortion. The highest year on record was 1989, when 68% of pregnancies were ... Although abortions performed after 10 weeks must be done only if there is a specific approved reason, in practice, abortions on ...
... s (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk ...
... are health problems that are related to pregnancy. Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders. Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US[1] and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada.[2] In the immediate postpartum period (puerperium), 87% to 94% of pregnant individuals report at least one health problem.[3][4] Long-term health problems (persisting after six months postpartum) are reported by 31% of pregnant individuals.[5] In 2016, complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium resulted globally in 230,600 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of ...
... (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a day and feeling faint. Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy duration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are unknown. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of HG, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of eating disorders. Diagnosis is usually made based on the observed signs and symptoms. HG has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine. ...
... , also known as tubal pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.[4] Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.[1] Less than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms.[1] The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy.[1] Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred.[1] Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock.[4][1] With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.[5]. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology.[2] Those who have previously had an ectopic pregnancy are at much higher risk of having another one.[2] Most ectopic ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to care for an infant after the birth if the drinking continues. The use of alcohol during pregnancy is ...
... is a form of counseling that provides information and support regarding a women's pregnancy. Woman seeking pregnancy options counseling are typically doing so in the case of an unintended pregnancy. Limited access to birth control and family planning resources, as well as misuse of birth control are some of the major contributing factors to unintended pregnancies around the world. In 2012, the global rate of unintended pregnancies was estimated to be 40 percent, or eighty-five million pregnancies. Pregnancy options counselors educate women about the different options that are available and help guide them to a decision on how to proceed with their pregnancy. The options include abortion, adoption, or parenting. The job of a pregnancy options counselor is to neither encourage nor discourage a woman's ...
Most pregnant women can engage in sexual activity during pregnancy throughout gravidity. Most research suggests that, during pregnancy, sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease. However, these decreases are not universal: a significant number of women report greater sexual satisfaction throughout their pregnancies. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behaviour except when the physician advises that sexual intercourse be avoided, because it may, in some pregnancies, lead to serious pregnancy complications or health issues such as a high-risk for premature labour or a ruptured uterus.[citation needed] Such a decision may be based upon a history of difficulties in a previous childbirth. However, it has been observed that evidence in this area is ...
... , that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus. As a rule of thumb the vaccination with live virus or bacteria is contraindicated in pregnancy. BCG vaccine is used against tuberculosis and is contraindicated in pregnancy. Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for ...
Drug use during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a teratogen. Drugs may refer to both pharmaceutical drug and recreational drugs. The apprehension is not necessarily data driven and is a cautionary response to the lack of clinical studies in pregnant women. The indication is a trade-off between the adverse effects of the drug, the risks associated with intercurrent diseases and pregnancy complications, and the efficiency of the drug to prevent or ameliorate such risks. In some cases, the use of drugs in pregnancy carries benefits that outweigh the risks. For example, high fever is harmful for the fetus in the early months, thus the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally associated with lower risk than the fever itself. Similarly, diabetes mellitus ...
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. Ideally, women should not smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not the case, however, the daily number of cigarettes can be reduced to minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is particularly important for women in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child's overall nutritional status. It is recommended for women planning pregnancy to stop smoking. It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population ...
... follows a system of behavior determined by local beliefs, traditions and attitudes, and is also affected by economic conditions and limitations of available health care facilities. In Haiti, infertility carries a negative social stigma; women are expected to bear children. The period of pregnancy and birth is viewed as a happy, celebratory time for a family, not a medical health problem. Pregnant women are expected to fulfill their work obligations up until their delivery. It is normal for pregnant women to experience an increase in salivation and to spit frequently, since they do not believe in swallowing their excess saliva. Women may sometimes carry a spit cup with them and feel no embarrassment in using it in public. Pregnant women are restricted from eating spices, which they believe may irritate the fetus. However, they are encouraged to eat vegetables and red fruits, which are believed to build up the blood of the fetus. Pregnant women are also encouraged to eat ...
... is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus". In biology, the phrase describes the state of an embryo or fetus. In legal contexts, the phrase is used to referred to an unborn child, i.e., gestational age until birth. Under common law, unborn children are still considered to exist for property transfer purposes. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
Our advanced Laser Hair Removal can get rid of unwanted hair accurately and effectively from almost any part of the face or ... Fluctuating hormones can affect hair growth in women, particularly during pregnancy and menopause ... These hairs subsequently fall out naturally, up to two weeks after treatment. ... Pulses of intense light are delivered into the unwanted hair and absorbed by its melanin, which in turn damages the follicle, ...
Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study BMJ 2005; :bmj;bmj.38623.532384.55v1 ... Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2005; doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38623.532384.55 ...
The research focuses on first pregnancies and does not encompass unwanted pregnancies experienced by women who previously had ... having an unwanted first pregnancy). Finally, for some participants the time from first pregnancy to measurement of depression ... Delivering a first unwanted pregnancy is, however, associated with lower education and income and larger family size-all risk ... As in the previous study,7 we selected for pregnancies that were unwanted at the time or not wanted at all. Because these ...
Pro Life unexpected pregnancy options, abortion alternatives, find an adoptive family, open adoption. Youre not giving up by ... Pregnancy Calendar (Week by Week) Life Style Changes Pregnancy Health & Wellness Pregnancy Complications Pregnancy Labor and ... Week By Week Pregnancy Calendar Stages of pregnancy and week by week fetal development. Enter due date for calendar and know ... Unplanned or teen pregnancy? Read articles about teenage pregnancies, adoption options, abortion and unwanted pregnancy ...
Week-By-Week. Pregnancy Calendar. Sign up for the webs most entertaining (while informative) weekly newsletter on your ... I shave my upper lip once a week and pluck my chin as needed. Dont they have a cream to stop unwanted hair from growing + ... Amy also documented her second pregnancy (with Ezra) in our wildly popular Weekly Pregnancy Calendar, Zero to Forty. ... Eeeeeeeeeek Unwanted Facial Hair!. By Amalah Hi there,. I was reading a post where you invited readers to confess their beauty ...
Learn how to manage different pregnancy problems in dogs, including vaginal discharge, mastitis in dogs, mismating, dog culling ... Sulfa-Trimeth antibiotic for three weeks.. *Sulfa-Trimeth during next heat cycle, two weeks before and two weeks after next ... Mismating or Unwanted Pregnancy. Management is the best prevention here, but if it does happen, the goal is aborting the ... Preventing Ketosis is the reason why we put moms on puppy food the last two to three weeks of pregnancy.. Discharge. Uterine ...
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... mistimed and unwanted pregnancies together constituted unintended pregnancies.19. Unconditional logistic regression, with ... 37 weeks gestational age at delivery versus ≥37 weeks); and period (period I [before April 30, 1992] vs period II [after April ... Women who had a pregnancy after January 1990 were queried about the planning status of all pregnancies in the past 5 years, ... assistance during the pregnancy; whether Medicaid paid for the delivery; whether the pregnancy resulted in a live birth; ...
not pregnant within 6 weeks of death. was the pregnancy unwanted. any excessive night sweats. pregnancy ended within 6 weeks of ... to have died within 6 weeks of pregnancy ending (mean of individual likelihood values for death within 6 weeks of pregnancy ... The proportion of deaths identified by the probabilistic model as being during pregnancy or within 6 weeks of pregnancy ending ... pregnancy-related sepsis. was she , 3 months pregnant at death. any jaundice or yellowness of skin/eyes. non-pregnancy related ...
Your partner shares in the responsibility to avoid an unwanted pregnancy.. *Your first period will begin 4 to 6 weeks after the ... Do not have sex for 1 week.. *For surgical/in-clinic abortions, do not use tampons for 1 week. (After a medical abortion/ ... Please visit our Pregnancy Options Page or review our pregnancy options resource list for more information and resources on pre ... Most pregnancy symptoms begin to go away within 24 hours after the abortion, with nausea usually gone by the third day. ...
... pregnancy medicaid va, ovulation getting pregnant tips 2014, facts about pregnancy at 7 weeks baby, conception calendar ... doctor pregnancy first visit, early pregnancy symptoms 8 days past ovulation pregnancy, can i dye my hair when pregnant nhs, ... Early pregnancy symptoms 8 days past ovulation pregnancy,unwanted pregnancy movies,what is the right food to eat during ... Need Pregnancy Tests?Get low cost, reliable Early Detection Pregnancy Tests with free shipping! Create your public pregnancy ...
... suggests surrogate mothers there are unaware of the risks and often left out of key medical decisions about their pregnancy. ... A lethal solution is injected into unwanted fetuses around week 10 of pregnancy. ... "Pregnancy is the most dangerous time in a womans life," she told Reuters Health. "They have to know what they are agreeing to ... A twin pregnancy in India almost invariably leads to a C-section, she explained. Afterward, mothers shouldnt lift heavy things ...
The UN says more than 15 million deaths of children under five could be prevented; 33 million unwanted pregnancies could be ... Two weeks ago a the French newspaper Le Monde published the leaked contents of a draft UN report that accuses the Rwandan army ... Last week, President Obamas special envoy to Sudan Scott Gration met with leaders in Khartoum to present a package of ... says UK Ambassador Mark Lyall Grant who met with a group of journalists last week to preview the event. ...
Rick Perry said he expects the state legislature to finish their work as early as next week in a special session held in part ... And if a womans life becomes endangered by the pregnancy after 20 weeks? Shes supposed to just die so some right-wing nutjob ... There are free options to prevent unwanted pregnancy and if you can afford a condom you certainly cannot afford an abortion. ... First of all, 20 weeks is not five months. Its about 2 weeks less. The law used to say 24 weeks, so why the change? The right ...
Proportion experiencing denial of termination services on day of recruitment [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]. This will be defined as ... The effects of unwanted pregnancy on children, including children born prior to and subsequent to the unwanted pregnancy, are ... The objective of this project is to examine the health consequences of unwanted pregnancy and denial of legal pregnancy ... The objective of this project is to examine the health consequences of unwanted pregnancy and denial of legal pregnancy ...
Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. If you become pregnant and dont want to have a baby, there ... A drug-induced abortion can be done up to your 10th week of pregnancy. Mifeprex works by blocking the hormone progesterone. ... Unwanted pregnancy isnt uncommon. Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, according to a 2016 ... Even if the pregnancy is unwanted, the experience of having an abortion may be emotional. If you feel depressed or anxious, ...
I have been sexually active for 3 weeks (starting January 16, 2015). Ive been on the birth control pill for over a year and ... I was supposed to get my period last week (around January 27) but I am now approximately a week late. Ive taken two pregnancy ... This Unwanted Pregnancy Scare page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ... You have done everything right to try and prevent an unwanted pregnancy. You are probably not pregnant-you are on the pill and ...
Removing unwanted hair from the body and face is usually done safely and effectively using laser hair removal therapy. Some ... Pregnancy causes hormonal changes in a persons body. This can commonly cause extra hairs to grow in unwanted places. While ... Doctors may ask them to wait a few weeks after giving birth before they have the treatment. ... Laser hair removal during pregnancy. No studies have been done on the effect of laser hair removal during pregnancy. ...
Withdrawal of the penis prior to ejaculation and periodic abstinence does not prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually ... Today you are pregnant … days (… weeks and … days).. A medical abortion works best if the medicines are taken as early as ... Do you have an unwanted pregnancy? This online medical abortion service helps women get a safe abortion with pills. Read more » ... Pregnancy Calculator. The tool below will help you to estimate how far along you are in your pregnancy. Enter the date of the ...
Thus resulting in an unwanted jiggle thats more prominent than before. This leaves the woman in an awkward limbo of "Is she ... In pregnancy, the term "thickening" is the time when your uterus starts to push your belly fat further forward. Thus resulting ... Week 24: The thickening and the quickening. The thickening I reached the thickening before I was pregnant, but thats less ... In pregnancy, the term "thickening" is the time when your uterus starts to push your belly fat further forward. ...
Pregnancy tests are required before and during treatment with this medicine. Women who are sexually active must use 2 forms of ... Continue the birth control during treatment, even if the dose is stopped for a short time, and for at least 4 weeks after your ... Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.. Using this medicine while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby ... effective birth control together to avoid pregnancy. You should begin using birth control 4 weeks before starting treatment ...
Pregnancy and Birth control. over a year ago. Can anti-pregnancy pills (I-pill, Unwanted-72 etc) cause fever for 3 days. over a ... how to terminate pregnancy without pill?. over a year ago. I Lost my virginity a week ago, I am on birth control pills, but I ... Pregnancy Birth Control And Pregnancy: Is It Possible To Get Pregnant On The Pill? by Christopher Pavlinec, MD - 10 months ago ... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Questions, Sex. over a year ago. Can i get pregnant after stopping birth control one week and now ...
I dont know how you feel about this, but when I was in Hawaii I had a few friends that had unwanted pregnancies and they got ... Was it within the first six weeks. Erica: Yes. Elizabeth: Or was it beyond that? Erica: It was the first six weeks. Elizabeth: ... Can I ask how far into those unwanted pregnancies were they? Erica: First trimester. Elizabeth: First trimester. ... If it is a healthy pregnancy, supposedly you can needle all of those points and it wont do anything because that pregnancy is ...
There is no need for unwanted pregnancies. just use birth control. lucy · 2 weeks ago ... Its not for me to judge the individual circumstances under which people decide to terminate their pregnancies. All I know is ...
pregnancies.". Business is booming. Brieanne sees as many as 20 clients in a typical week. Describing herself as "100 percent ... There is no risk of disease, and there are no unwanted ... Fun Things to Do in San Antonio This Week (12/6-12/12) The ...
  • A lethal solution is injected into unwanted fetuses around week 10 of pregnancy. (reuters.com)
  • One woman who now wears a thought screen helmet along with her husband reports that she killed four alien-hybrid fetuses in a row by taking a gram of vitamin C every hour for weeks. (bullshido.net)
  • The group states, citing a review of current research , that human fetuses cannot feel pain before 24 weeks. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' report differs from Anand's assessment, and argues that fetuses younger than 24 weeks don't have the brain connections to register pain, and if they could register the chemical signals, they couldn't make out what they mean. (discovermagazine.com)
  • What if the during these first 8 weeks, fetuses could be extracted and frozen for reimplantation instead of aborted! (blogspot.com)
  • As a consequence, over 99% of our patients are off most medications by the time they reach approximately 20-23 weeks gestation. (centerforhumanreprod.com)
  • The report on pain perception says: "It was apparent that connections from the periphery to the cortex are not intact before 24 weeks of gestation and, as most neuroscientists believe that the cortex is necessary for pain perception, it can be concluded that the foetus cannot experience pain in any sense prior to this gestation. (discovermagazine.com)
  • She told me that if my baby was born at 22 weeks gestation he would have no chance of survival. (preschoolersandpeace.com)
  • Reversibility of drug-induced anovulation has been shown by spontaneous ovulation resumption 12-42 weeks after cessation. (popline.org)
  • At the end of the day, September 10, I was lying in a hospital bed, flat on my back with a monitor on my belly, listening to the heartbeat of my unborn son, praying that I would stay pregnant for the next 10 weeks. (preschoolersandpeace.com)
  • He faced 14 years in prison but last week the star swimmer was sentenced to JUST six months jail after being found guilty of assault with intent to commit rape of an intoxicated woman, sexually penetrating an intoxicated person with a foreign object and sexually penetrating an unconscious person with a foreign object. (amazonaws.com)
  • I have been sexually active for 3 weeks (starting January 16, 2015). (empowher.com)
  • Withdrawal of the penis prior to ejaculation and periodic abstinence does not prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted diseases. (womenonweb.org)
  • Services include post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as psychosocial support. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Babies from multiple pregnancies are more likely to be premature or have cerebral palsy or learning disabilities, and mothers have higher risks of high blood pressure, diabetes or postpartum bleeding. (reuters.com)
  • Montana may become the first state to force abortionists to provide anesthesia to preborn babies aged 20 weeks and older who they are about to dismember. (jillstanek.com)
  • So they lie, ludicrously claiming babies don't feel pain at 20 weeks, despite the fact babies 18-wks-old and up routinely receive anesthesia when undergoing prenatal surgery. (jillstanek.com)
  • Before you look at the pictures of the babies aborted at 10 weeks, I want to share something with you. (clinicquotes.com)
  • And in the backroom, she handled the broken pieces of the babies, holding the aborted babies feet up to a little chart to verify how far along the pregnancies were for the clinic's paperwork. (clinicquotes.com)
  • The proportion of subsequent children born to participants after the index pregnancy who having stunting, or low height-for-age, defined according to the World Health Organization as less than two standard deviations of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants were assessed prenatally and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum using questionnaires and a semi-structured interview about unwanted thoughts of harm related to the newborn. (springer.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. (biomedsearch.com)
  • That is why it is recommended that all patients who engage in sexual intercourse rely on two methods of birth control to make sure they totally safe from unexpected pregnancies. (steadyhealth.com)
  • But last week, when her annual grant award letter arrived from the Office of Adolescent Health, the HHS arm that administers the teen pregnancy prevention program, she found one gut-sinking sentence: "This award also shortens the project period to end June 30, 2018, and the end of this budget year. (wired.com)
  • Pregnancy is the most dangerous time in a woman's life," she told Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
  • Terminations can be carried out at any stage of a pregnancy if a woman's life is in danger or when it is clear that the foetus is sufficiently damaged for it to be unable to survive. (angloinfo.com)
  • She said policy makers should identify signs of gender discriminatory practices in pregnancy and childbirth and strengthen efforts to promote gender equality. (edu.au)
  • The rape of a 23 year old college student, and subsequent disgustingly light sentence of her attacker is making news this week. (amazonaws.com)
  • The minor is a victim of rape who has undergone and is continuing to suffer from deep trauma and anguish both as a result of the rape and the consequent pregnancy and is in no fit mental or physical state to bear a pregnancy to term. (business-standard.com)
  • Unplanned or teen pregnancy? (adoption.com)
  • But buried in a Health and Human Services appendix, there it was: a $100 million line through the nation's teen pregnancy prevention program. (wired.com)
  • In the HHS appendix, which outlines budget justifications, the stated reason was that while the teen pregnancy rate has declined significantly over recent years, "it does not appear this program has been a major driver in that reduction. (wired.com)