Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Steryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.SulfatasesIduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Acids, Heterocyclic: A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.Water SofteningGlucosamineDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Heparin Cofactor II: A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PolysaccharidesGlucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mucopolysaccharidosis II: Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)EstersDehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.GlucuronidaseCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Syndecan-1: A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.United StatesSoil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Water Pollution, Radioactive
... is a white crystalline powder. It is very soluble in water and methanol. Each capsule contains sulfate salt in ... The type that is widely used and created by Merck is indinavir sulfate. The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold ... "Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2018-11-08.. ... In both cases, the drugs must be taken with plenty of water one or two hours after a meal. It is recommended that users drink ...
Sulfates give a white precipitate of BaSO4 with BaCl2 which is insoluble in any acid or base. Phosphates give a yellow ... This group can be determined by adding the salt in water and then adding dilute hydrochloric acid. A white precipitate is ... crystalline precipitate upon addition of HNO3 and ammonium molybdate. Borates give a green flame characteristic of ethyl borate ... These gases burn with a bluish flame and turn lime water milky. Oxalates also decolourise KMnO4 and give a white precipitate ...
Crushed minerals are treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid to produce water-soluble sulfates of rare earths. Thorium ... Aqueous solutions of most lutetium salts are colorless and form white crystalline solids upon drying, with the common exception ... The only denser white material is thorium dioxide, with density of 10 g/cm3, but the thorium it contains is radioactive. Like ... It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the ...
white crystalline solid hygroscopic Density 2.672 g/cm3 (anhydrous) 1.62 g/cm3 (octadecahydrate) ... Aluminium sulfate is used in water purification and as a mordant in dyeing and printing textiles. In water purification, it ... Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3. It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating ... in order that any calcium sulfate and basic ferric sulfate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulfate ...
It is a hydrated potassium-magnesium sulfate-chloride, naturally occurring in irregular granular masses or as crystalline ... This mineral is dull and soft, and is colored white, yellowish, grey, reddish, or blue to violet. Its name is derived from ... Kainite is of bitter taste and soluble in water. On recrystallization picromerite is deposited from the solution. Kainite was ... Kainite (/ˈkaɪnaɪt/ or /ˈkeɪnaɪt/) (KMg(SO4)Cl·3H2O) is an evaporite mineral in the class of "Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with ...
... is a blue crystalline solid that when exposed to air, slowly loses water of crystallization from its surface to form a white ... layer of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate. Sodium carbonate deca hydrate (Na2CO3.10H2O) will lose water when exposed to air. Senior ... As the water evaporates, it leaves the salt behind, which forms a white, fluffy deposit, that can normally be brushed off. The ... Today's water repellents help create a vapor permeable barrier; liquid water, especially from wind driven rains, will stay out ...
It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main ... The majority of synthetic barium sulfate is used as a component of white pigment for paints. In oil paint, barium sulfate is ... In the laboratory barium sulfate is generated by combining solutions of barium ions and sulfate salts. Because barium sulfate ... that contains a mixture of titanium white pigment (TiO2) and barium sulfate. The combination of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide ...
Ammonium alum, NH 4Al(SO 4) 2·12H 2O, a white crystalline double sulfate of aluminium, is used in water purification, in ... in order that any calcium sulfate and basic ferric sulfate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulfate ... Chrome alum, KCr(SO 4) 2·12H 2O, a dark violet crystalline double sulfate of chromium and potassium, was used in tanning. ... This property seems to characterize a solution of iron sulfate in water; a solution of ordinary (potassium) alum would possess ...
... normally encountered as the tetrahydrate, [Be(H2O)4]SO4 is a white crystalline solid. It was first isolated ... 42+ unit and sulfate anions. The small size of the Be2+ cation determines the number of water molecules that can be coordinated ... Beryllium sulfate may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of any beryllium salt with sulfuric acid, followed by ... A mixture of beryllium and radium sulfate was used as the neutron source in the discovery of nuclear fission. Weast, Robert C ...
It is a white crystalline powder and occurs in nature as the mineral celestine. It is poorly soluble in water to the extent of ... Strontium sulfate is a polymeric material, isostructural with barium sulfate. Crystallized strontium sulfate is utilized by a ... Strontium sulfate (SrSO4) is the sulfate salt of strontium. ... Strontium sulfate is of interest as a naturally occurring ...
It is an odorless solid that forms white granules or crystalline powder. In water, it separates into an insoluble sulfate with ... If mercury sulfate is exposed to the skin it may cause sensitization dermatitis. Lastly, ingestion of mercury sulfate will ... Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate, is the chemical compound HgSO4. ... Mercury sulfate, HgSO4, can be produced By heating concentrated H2SO4 with elemental mercury: Hg + 2 H2SO4 → HgSO4 + SO2 + 2 ...
All forms are white solids that are poorly soluble in water. Calcium sulfate causes permanent hardness in water. The compound ... The dissolution of the different crystalline phases of calcium sulfate in water is exothermic and release heat (decrease in ... It is also convenient that calcium sulfate is poorly soluble in water and does not readily dissolve in contact with water after ... So, to dissolve higher amounts of calcium sulfate or calcium hydroxide in water, it is necessary to cool down the solution ...
... is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. The chemical compound is commonly used in fertilizers, ... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically ... When potassium sulfate is heated in water and subjected to swirling in a beaker, the crystals form a multi-arm spiral structure ... Potassium sulfate could be used to study spiral structures in the laboratory. Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) has been known since ...
It is a white, glassy solid with the formula B2O3. It is almost always found as the vitreous (amorphous) form; however, it can ... The crystalline form (α-B2O3) (see structure in the infobox) is exclusively composed of BO3 triangles. This trigonal, quartz- ... At temperatures above 750 °C, the molten boron oxide layer separates out from sodium sulfate. It is then decanted, cooled and ... Carefully controlled heating rate avoids gumming as water evolves. Molten boron oxide attacks silicates. Internally graphitized ...
white crystalline solid Odor odorless Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous) 2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate) 1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate). 1.512 ... Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up ... Beryllium sulfate. Calcium sulfate. Strontium sulfate. Barium sulfate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ... Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may be used in the same way. ...
It is a white crystalline material but often is encountered in an impure form that is brown and non-crystalline powder. It is ... It reacts with oxygen to form the corresponding sulfate, magnesium sulfate. MgS reacts with water to give hydrogen sulfide and ...
... ethanol and dichloromethane and appears as a white/almost white crystalline powder. Its storage is restricted by its ... It usually comes in its hydrochloride hemihydrate salt form; in this form it is highly soluble in water, ... is equianalgesic to approximately 20 mg morphine sulfate orally. It is administered orally (by mouth), rectally (by a ...
... off-white-to-brown colored, amorphous material that contains sodium carbonate, entrapped water, and other by-products as the ... The hydrochloride (HCl) salt of cocaine is by far the most commonly encountered, although the sulfate (-SO4) and the nitrate (- ... It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine - a tropane alkaloid ... It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional ...
Ammonium alum, NH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O, a white crystalline double sulfate of aluminium, is used in water purification, in vegetable ... in order that any calcium sulfate and basic ferric sulfate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulfate ... The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulfate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared. ... Alum has been used at least since Roman times for purification of drinking water[2] and industrial process water. Between 30 ...
This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it ... As a bulk metal, cadmium is insoluble in water and is not flammable; however, in its powdered form it may burn and release ... Cadmium burns in air to form brown amorphous cadmium oxide (CdO); the crystalline form of this compound is a dark red which ... Cadmium is isolated from the zinc metal by vacuum distillation if the zinc is smelted, or cadmium sulfate is precipitated from ...
All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is ... These cations are linked to the sulfate anions via hydrogen bonds. The Na-O distances are about 240 pm.[14] Crystalline sodium ... Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as ... Sodium sulfate has unusual solubility characteristics in water.[13] Its solubility in water rises more than tenfold between 0 ° ...
This white crystalline solid is a laboratory reagent and a molecular compound. Once used as a treatment for syphilis, it is no ... For example, it will dissolve in water (this can be dangerous, as hydrogen gas and heat are generated). Halocarbons react with ... Furthermore, alternative treatment processes, such as copper sulfate, zinc chloride, and ultimately creosote; were found to be ... This use of "salts of white mercury" is referred to in the English-language folk song "The Unfortunate Rake". Yaws was treated ...
... , also known as ammonium alum or just alum, is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered ... It is used in water purification, in vegetable glues, in porcelain cements, in deodorants and in tanning, dyeing and in ... Aluminium sulfate, closely related to ammonium alum, is considered nontoxic up to LD50 of 6207 mg/kg. For reduced ... Ammonium alum is made from aluminium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. It forms a solid solution with potassium ...
... water glass) and a water-soluble magnesium salt such as magnesium chloride, magnesium nitrate or magnesium sulfate. The ... Synthetic magnesium silicates are white, odorless, finely divided powders formed by the precipitation reaction of water-soluble ... Unlike natural magnesium silicates like talc and forsterite olivine which are crystalline, synthetic magnesium silicates are ... Synthetic magnesium silicates are insoluble in water or alcohol. The particles are usually porous, and the BET surface area can ...
Glauber's salt, Na2SO4(H2O)10, is a white crystalline solid with greater than 50% water by weight. Consider the case of nickel( ... The water in these salts typically is coordinated, together with sulfate to the metal center. The sulfates of these same metals ... water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water that occurs inside crystals. Water is often ... Classically, "water of crystallization" refers to water that is found in the crystalline framework of a metal complex or a salt ...
... which are white ionic crystalline compounds that are all soluble in water except lithium fluoride (Li F).[30] The alkali metals ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate". Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, ... They are all white ionic crystalline solids that have high melting points.[30][85] All the alkali metal halides are soluble in ... lake or other body of water, not the initial reaction of the metal with water (which tends to happen mostly under water).[75] ...
WHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER. Physical dangers No data. Chemical dangers Decomposes at 450°C. This produces very toxic fumes of ... The solution in water is a medium strong acid. Reacts with hydrogen halides. Attacks metal in the presence of moisture. Formula ... Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical ... Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer immediately for medical attention . ...
Make research projects and school reports about sodium sulfate easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about sodium sulfate at Encyclopedia.com. ... It is a white, orthorhombic crystalline compound at ordinary ... Sodium sulfate is soluble in cold water and very soluble in hot water. It forms two hydrates; the decahydrate is Glaubers salt ... Glau·bers salt / ˈgloubərz/ • n. (also Glau·bers salts) a crystalline hydrated form of sodium sulfate, used chiefly as a ...
Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in people with reversible obstructive airway ... Albuterol sulfate is a white to off-white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. PROVENTIL ... Albuterol sulfate was not mutagenic in the Ames test or a mutation test in yeast. Albuterol sulfate was not clastogenic in a ... Albuterol Sulfate belongs to a class of drugs called Beta2 Agonists.. It is not known if Albuterol Sulfate is safe and ...
Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. It is a white, odorless crystalline powder. It has a ... It is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.. Each tablet, for oral administration contains 5 mg or 10 mg of ... Evekeo (amphetamine sulfate tablets, USP) is supplied as follows:. 5 mg: White, round tablet, debossed "EVK" on one side, and " ... EVEKEO- amphetamine sulfate tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ...
WHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER. Physical dangers. No data. Chemical dangers. Decomposes at 450°C. This produces very toxic fumes of ... The solution in water is a medium strong acid. Reacts with hydrogen halides. Attacks metal in the presence of moisture. ... Solubility in water: reaction The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Bioaccumulation of this chemical may occur in ... Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical ...
Stannous Sulfate (CAS: 7488-55-3) - Electroplate offered by WUHAN BRIGHT CHEMICAL CO., LTD. is available with multiple payment ... Buy low price Stannous Sulfate (CAS: 7488-55-3) - Electroplate in East of Hankou Railway Station, Wuhan. ... white or light yellow crystalline powder. stannous sulfate can dissolve in water and dilute sulfuric acid. above 360°C stannous ... Product Name Stannous Sulfate. Items Index. Appearance white or light yellow crystalline powder. Content(SnSO4) 99%min. ...
Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets, USP) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews ... Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. It is a white, odorless crystalline powder. It has a ... Its solutions are acid to litmus, having a pH of 5 to 8. It is freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol and ... Evekeo (amphetamine sulfate tablets, USP) is supplied as follows:. 5 mg: White, round tablet, debossed EVK on one side, and ...
... as a water softener and as a flocculating agent in water purification. The crystalline sulfate is known commonly as white ... Albumin- Water-soluble proteins that can be coagulated by heat and are found in egg white, blood serum, milk. ... Albumin -Water-soluble proteins that can be coagulated by heat and are found in egg white, blood serum, milk. ... During operation in water, especially salt water, the oxidation forms a weak electrical current, which may corrode the hull and ...
Albuterol sulfate is a white to off-white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. Albuterol ... The white actuator supplied with Albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol should not be used with any other product canisters, and ... Albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol is supplied as a pressurized aluminum canister with an attached dose indicator, a white ... Priming your Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Aerosol inhaler:. Before you use Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Aerosol for the first ...
Distilled water is distributed for use in laboratories and for ordinary consumption. Sterile water... ... Sterile and distilled water are both essentially pure H2O, but each is used for different purposes. ... Is BaSO4 soluble in water?. A: Barium sulphate, or BaSO4, is insoluble in water. It is a white crystalline solid. Barium ... Sterile water used for medical purposes has a very specific pH and osmolarity. Because sterile water is so pure, it can ...
Indinavir is a white crystalline powder. It is very soluble in water and methanol. Each capsule contains sulfate salt in ... The type that is widely used and created by Merck is indinavir sulfate. The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold ... "Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2018-11-08.. ... In both cases, the drugs must be taken with plenty of water one or two hours after a meal. It is recommended that users drink ...
It is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. The World Health Organization recommended ... Albuterol sulfate. Pregnancy Category C. Albuterol sulfate has been shown to be teratogenic in mice. A study in CD-1 mice given ... It is a white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and lower alcohols, and insoluble in lipophilic solvents such as ... Albuterol Sulfate In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the ...
An odorless white crystalline salt, 2SO4, used in fertilizers, fire retardants, and water purification. n. a white, crystalline ... ammonium sulfate synonyms, ammonium sulfate pronunciation, ammonium sulfate translation, English dictionary definition of ... ammo′nium sul′fate. n. a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, (NH4)2SO4, used chiefly as a fertilizer. ... ammonium sulfate. n.. An odorless white crystalline salt, (NH4)2SO4, used in fertilizers, fire retardants, and water ...
It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water and alcohol. ... Calcium sulfate, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and povidone.. The 5 mg strength also contains alginic ... Gastric lavage is indicated for the reduction of absorption of Moban which is freely soluble in water.. Since the adsorption of ... The physician should be aware that this tablet preparation contains calcium sulfate as an excipient and that calcium ions may ...
It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main ... competitive analysis of the precipitated barium sulfate market. Barium sulfate (or Sulfate) is the inorganic compound with the ... Who are the key manufacturers in Precipitated Barium Sulfate market space?. *What are the Precipitated Barium Sulfate market ... Precipitated Barium Sulfate Market in Latin America, Precipitated Barium Sulfate Market in Middle and Africa. This report ...
It occurs as white, odorless crystals or as a crystalline powder. Hyoscyamine sulfate is deliquescent and affected by light. It ... The hydrated form may contain up to 8.8% water, and the pH of a 1% w/v aqueous solution is about 2.2. Citric acid has a density ... Citric acid (citric acid monohydrate, C6H8O7.H2O) occurs as colorless or translucent crystals or as a white, crystalline, ... Natural, nontoxic, and safe, stevia occurs as a white, crystalline, hygroscopic powder. It may be used in both hot and cold ...
White crystals Mass fraction of water, %, not more than 0.5 Hydroxylamine sulphate mass fraction, %, not less than 99 ... Crystalline hydroxylamine sulfate. TU RB 00203832.083-97. Is applied for manufacture of photo reagents, film-photographic ...
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... a white crystalline salt used in the paper, textile, and dyeing industries and in the purification of water. Formula: Al2(SO4)3 ... aluminium sulphate can be prepared by the action of sulphuric acid upon aluminium hydroxide. ...
... solid bleached sulphate wholesalers & solid bleached sulphate manufacturers from China manufacturers. ... Sodium Thio Sulphate (An Hydrous / Hypo) is a white crystalline solid, formulated... ... Specifications: Product VP/VA Ration K Value pH Value(5% in water) Water Solid Content Sulphated Ash(%,max.) Residue NVP(%,max ... solid bleached sulphate. All solid bleached sulphate wholesalers & solid bleached sulphate manufacturers come from members. We ...
It is an odorless solid that forms white granules or crystalline powder. In water, it separates into an insoluble sulfate with ... If mercury sulfate is exposed to the skin it may cause sensitization dermatitis. Lastly, ingestion of mercury sulfate will ... Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate, is the chemical compound HgSO4. ... Mercury sulfate, HgSO4, can be produced By heating concentrated H2SO4 with elemental mercury: Hg + 2 H2SO4 → HgSO4 + SO2 + 2 ...
... insoluble in water; used in Keenes cement, in pigments, as a paper filler, and as a drying agent. Either of two hydrated... ... calcium sulfate. [′kal·se·əm ′səl‚fāt] (inorganic chemistry) CaSO4 A white crystalline salt, insoluble in water; used in ... calcium sulfate. Anhydrite or gypsum dihydrate which has been calcined to the point at which all the water of crystallization ... when mixed with water, it hardens rapidly, converting into CaSO4««2H2O. Calcium sulfate is used in the manufacture of figures ...
Characteristic: clear monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder; sulfa dioxide odor; specific density: 1.48; dissociate ... upon heating; water soluble; acidic aqueous solution; slightly soluble in alcohol; readily oxidized into sodium sulfate in air ... Antimony Suppliers Antioxidant Food Suppliers Ironless aluminium sulphate Suppliers Cacl2 Suppliers Sulphite Suppliers ... China Manufacturer with main products: Sodium Sulphate, Sodium Metabisulfite, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium ...
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.]: description, uses, side effects and safety, label, interactions ... Find patient medical information for Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets, USP , ... Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is an odorless, white or practically white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water; practically ... Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Tablets, USP contain 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, equivalent to 155 mg base, are white to ...
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [McKesson Corporation]: description, uses, side effects and safety, label, interactions, warnings , ... Find patient medical information for Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets, USP , ... Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is an odorless, white or practically white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water; practically ... One hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet contains 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which is equivalent to 155 mg base. ...
It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main ... The majority of synthetic barium sulfate is used as a component of white pigment for paints. In oil paint, barium sulfate is ... In the laboratory barium sulfate is generated by combining solutions of barium ions and sulfate salts. Because barium sulfate ... that contains a mixture of titanium white pigment (TiO2) and barium sulfate. The combination of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide ...
  • Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. (rxlist.com)
  • Each tablet, for oral administration contains 5 mg or 10 mg of amphetamine sulfate. (rxlist.com)
  • Anhydrite or gypsum dihydrate which has been calcined to the point at which all the water of crystallization has been removed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In agriculture sector calcium sulphate (gypsum) has beneficiary effect as a soil conditioner which helps improving the soildrainage, texture and aeration. (openpr.com)
  • That can't be said for other gypsum seen on Mars or for other water-related minerals Opportunity has found. (asdnews.com)
  • A dune field of windblown gypsum on far northern Mars resembles the glistening gypsum dunes in White Sands National Monument in New Mexico. (asdnews.com)
  • The answer may be that rising groundwater coming from the ancient crust moved through material adjacent to Cape York and deposited gypsum, because this material would be relatively insoluble compared with either magnesium or iron sulfates. (asdnews.com)
  • The EBFGT technology is aimed at achieving higher rates of removal of pollutants for better economic competitiveness in the generation of useful byproducts such as ammonium nitrate and Ammonium sulfate in addition to the lower operating costs by 25 per cent of other competitive technologies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since 1 pound of any dry fertilizer equals about two cups, that is about four cups of ammonium sulfate , two overflowing cups of ammonium nitrate, or 1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrogen is found in many places including in gas planets, stars and in water. (reference.com)
  • Hydrogen is one of the two elements found in water, which is created with tw. (reference.com)