The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The consumption of liquids.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Glass corrosion tests[edit]. Effect of addition of a certain glass component on the chemical durability against water corrosion ... The standard procedure ISO 719[17] describes a test of the extraction of water-soluble basic compounds under neutral conditions ... The volume of HCl required for neutralization is classified according to the table below. ... Chemicals that inhibit corrosion include some of the salts in hard water (Roman water systems are famous for their mineral ...
... physical tests: Color & Appearance Breakdown Voltage Water Content Acidity (Neutralization Value) Dielectric Dissipation Factor ... Some transformer oil tests can be carried out in the field, using portable test apparatus. Other tests, such as dissolved gas, ... Suggested intervals for these test are: General and physical tests - bi-yearly Dissolved gas analysis - yearly Furan testing - ... During the test, a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. The test voltage is continuously increased up to the breakdown ...
... incineration chemical neutralization followed by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) chemical neutralization followed by ... "Crew Tests Equipment Procedures with Conventional Munitions". "First chemical weapon destroyed at Kentucky Army facility". WKYT ... Hydrolysate is held and tested to ensure agent destruction. The agent hydrolysate will be shipped to a permitted hazardous ... BGCAPP is using neutralization to destroy the remaining stockpile in the main plant and Static Detonation Chamber technology to ...
"Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed from Hanford's 300 Area". Department of Energy. ... From 1944 to 1971, pump systems drew cooling water from the river and, after treating this water for use by the reactors, ... and was one of several sent to Hanford for optimization tests of the T-Plant until Hanford could produce its own plutonium. ... neutralization, metal fab, fuels manufacturing Tank Farms - storage of liquid nuclear waste Metal Recovery Plant / U Plant - ...
Acid neutralisation[edit]. Carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid when dissolved in water, so ocean acidification is a significant ... 2 reacts with the basalt to form solid carbonate minerals.[103] A test plant in Iceland started up in October 2017, extracting ... This process is undergoing tests as part of the CarbFix project, resulting in 95% of the injected 250 tonnes of CO2 to solidify ... "Carbon Sequestration in Wetlands , MN Board of Water, Soil Resources". bwsr.state.mn.us. Retrieved April 28, 2021.. ...
Tests for these specifications can be found in the Food Chemical Codex. Acceptance criteria for these two regions are as ... It is slightly soluble in hot water. The pH of a 2% aqueous suspension is approximately 4.7. To be labeled as CSL for sale ... CSL is currently manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid and lactic acid with partial neutralization using food- ... Ready Biodegradability by the Carbon Dioxide Evolution Test Method, Project No. 645E-101 for Caravan Ingredients". Easton, ...
Therefore, the test material met the criteria to be considered readily biodegradable. In the presence of water, lactylates will ... Patch tests showed a strong positive reaction from a 5% SSL in petrolatum solution. The patch tests were extended to include 26 ... the degree of neutralization, and the nature of the base(s) used for neutralization (if applicable). As of 2004, there was no ... The test group showed no adverse effects and all test results were normal. When one dog was given 7.5% CSL for one month, 12.5 ...
Acid neutralisationEdit. Carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid when dissolved in water, so ocean acidification is a significant ... This process is undergoing tests as part of the CarbFix project, resulting in 95% of the injected 250 tonnes of CO2 to solidify ... A test plant in Iceland started up in October 2017, extracting up to 50 tons of CO2 a year from the atmosphere and storing it ... This protects soil from the sun and allows the soil to hold more water and be more attractive to carbon-capturing microbes.[21] ...
For example, the Microscale Flocculation Test developed by LaRue et al. reduces the scale of conventional jar tests down to the ... Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does ... The jar test involves exposing same volume samples of the water to be treated to different doses of the coagulant and then ... Alum Electrocoagulation Flocculation Industrial wastewater treatment Industrial water treatment Water treatment Jiang, Jia-Qian ...
Neutralization assays assess whether sample antibodies prevent viral infection in test cells. These tests sample blood, plasma ... mixture of ethanol and water. Because various conditions can lead to the loss of the sense of smell, a sniff test would not be ... "Rapid Tests". Rapid Tests. Shaw, Jonathan (3 August 2020). "Failing the Coronavirus-Testing Test". Harvard Magazine. Office of ... "There will never be the ability on a [PCR] test to do 300 million tests a day or to test everybody before they go to work or to ...
The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... Contaminated water supply with droppings and litters of the natural host contributes to the horizontal spread as well. Insect ... Potential contaminated water should also be chlorinated. Vaccination: An inactivated vaccine with oil adjuvant can be ...
1 August 1934: VP-7F conducted an exercise with VP- 9F in Alaskan waters to test the ability of tenders to provide advance base ... Results of the tests showed major estimated damage to the Black Force by the attacking air elements of White Force. 25 June ... On 8 December 1941, the Konishi Midway Neutralization Force consisting of two Japanese destroyers approached Midway and began ... 21 April 1934: VP-7F participated in a fleet exercise with VPs 2F, 3F, 5F and 9F to test the ability of the aircraft tenders to ...
Preliminary tests of samples of freshwater drum collected on May 2 were positive, and the announcement came amidst a die-off of ... VHSV can be spread from fish to fish through water transfer, as well as through contaminated eggs, and bait fish from infected ... The sample was not tested for VHS until 2005, after the disease was detected in Lake Ontario. 2005 samples of Lake Ontario ... Virus neutralisation is another important method of diagnosis, especially for carrier fish. Thoroughly cleaning boats, trailers ...
Phu Cat AB was the field test site for the six-month combat evaluation of the 1041st USAF Security Police Squadron (Test) from ... The second or secondary defense zone, a penetration containment defense (interception and neutralization by mobile reaction ... and Water Buffalo) vs human movements. It could detect specific numbers and direction and was highly instrumental in detecting ... 37th SPS contributed approximately 12,500-man-hours simulating infiltrations for tests of the sensors. The high maintenance ...
Plaque neutralization tests and immunofluorescence tests demonstrated that the new isolate was serologically unrelated to ... Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is a novirhabdovirus that affects warm water wild and pond-cultured fish of various species in ... identified as a rhabdovirus based on images and measurements taken via transmission electron microscopy and biochemical test ... SHRV in distilled water can be completely inactivated by less than five minutes of exposure to 12.5 ppm chlorine, 50 ppm iodine ...
When engaged during the test that occurred off the coast of Central California in the Pacific Ocean test range, the laser gun ... Tests performed on mice show the threshold for both lung and liver damage occurs at about 184 dB. Damage increases rapidly as ... The ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System) is the first laser and the first energy weapon of any type to be ... Active Denial System is a millimeter wave source that heats the water in a human target's skin and thus causes incapacitating ...
This test is similar to current PCR tests; however, amplification of genetic material is unbiased rather than using primers for ... gave warnings about how contagion can contaminate water, food, and garments, and could spread through the water supply, and may ... neutralization of viruses so that these organisms cannot enter cells,. *or by T lymphocytes, which will kill a cell parasitized ... Biochemical tests[edit]. Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic ...
MSG is freely soluble in water, but it is not hygroscopic and is insoluble in common organic solvents (such as ether).[40] It ... MSG is safe to consume.[21] A popular belief is that MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort but Blinded tests ... 2000) tested the reaction of 130 subjects with a reported sensitivity to MSG. Multiple DBPC trials were performed, with ... Sodium is added later, for neutralization. During fermentation, Corynebacterium species, cultured with ammonia and ...
The test was conducted in a high vacuum test chamber. Over the course of the 5 1/2 + year test, the engine consumed ... Suborbital tests were conducted during the 1960s and in 1964, the engine was sent into a suborbital flight aboard the Space ... "In-FEEP Thruster Ion Beam Neutralization with Thermionic and Field Emission Cathodes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) ... Xenon, iodine, water[49] 0.01 690[50][51] 1.1-2 ,1 (73 mN/kW)[49] ...
... and virus neutralization (VN). Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation ... The other four tests detect group antigens.[15] Maternal antibodies[edit]. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection ... Avian reovirus can survive for up to ten days on these common areas in addition to up to ten weeks in water.[2] ... Confirming infection of avian reovirus can be detected through an ELISA test by using and observing the expression of σC and σB ...
Diagnosis is by stool culture or testing for the bacteria's DNA or toxins.[1] If a person tests positive but has no symptoms, ... C. difficile toxins have a cytopathic effect in cell culture, and neutralization of any effect observed with specific antisera ... In addition, washing with soap and water will wash away the spores from contaminated hands, but alcohol-based hand rubs are ... Other stool tests[edit]. Stool leukocyte measurements and stool lactoferrin levels also have been proposed as diagnostic tests ...
However, a caesium-water explosion is often less powerful than a sodium-water explosion with a similar amount of sodium. This ... Marcucci, M. G.; Polk, J. E. (2000). "NSTAR Xenon Ion Thruster on Deep Space 1: Ground and flight tests (invited)". Review of ... As a daughter product of fission bomb testing from the 1950s through the mid-1980s, caesium-137 was released into the ... In-FEEP Thruster Ion Beam Neutralization with Thermionic and Field Emission Cathodes. 27th International Electric Propulsion ...
One endurance test involves martial arts, target shooting at the end of an obstacle-ridden cross-country run. This is meant to ... Sniper teams armed with Heckler & Koch PSG-1 rifles with night scope took up positions, including atop a 300-foot water tower. ... Those who successfully complete the tests are sent for nine months of advanced training. ... and neutralization of IEDs); PBI (Post Blast Investigation) and Hostage Rescue missions. ...
... this assists in water conservation.[59] The dromedary can conserve water by reducing perspiration by fluctuating the body ... causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the ... of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange.[53] In another study, dromedaries were found to have natural ... "Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high ...
Early diamond identification tests included a scratch test relying on the superior hardness of diamond. This test is ... Diamonds are naturally lipophilic and hydrophobic, which means the diamonds' surface cannot be wet by water, but can be easily ... Experiments on the Histosol deacidification with the alkaline clay slurry demonstrated that neutralization with the average pH ... This test takes about two to three seconds.[148] Whereas the thermal probe can separate diamonds from most of their simulants, ...
This test is similar to current PCR tests; however, amplification of genetic material is unbiased rather than using primers for ... Vehicle Transmission, transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, soil).[21]. *Vertical transmission, directly from ... neutralization of viruses so that these organisms cannot enter cells,. *or by T lymphocytes, which will kill a cell parasitized ... Biochemical tests[সম্পাদনা কৰক]. Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of ...
Laboratory tests are rarely needed and there is no specific test for the venom or latrodectism.[102] ... "Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities: Species Bank. Canberra, Australian Capital ... Daly, Frank; Hill, Robert E.; Bogdan, Gregory M.; Dart, Richard C.; Dart, Richard C. (1 January 2001). "Neutralization of ... having successfully been tested against venom from L. mactans, L. hesperus, and L. tredecimguttatus (synonym L. lugubris).[79][ ...
I guess I should look for a mobile testing site then. I've gotten the vaccine so I don't know how good antigen tests would be. ... Using the molar mass of water, that gives us ~0.0231 grams of water per liter of atmosphere, or 23.1 mg of water per liter of ... Neutralization was decreased by anywhere from about 2-fold to about 6-fold depending on the exact delta variant tested. This ... So there's just over 2×1018 kg of water vapor. 1 g of liquid water has a volume of 1 cm³, so 1 kg has a volume of 1 L, and so 2 ...
This test is similar to current PCR tests; however, amplification of genetic material is unbiased rather than using primers for ... gave warnings about how contagion can contaminate water, food, and garments, and could spread through the water supply, and may ... neutralization of viruses so that these organisms cannot enter cells,. *or by T lymphocytes, which will kill a cell parasitized ... Biochemical tests[edit]. Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic ...
It is slightly soluble in hot water. The pH of a 2% aqueous suspension is approximately 4.7.[2] ... Tests for these specifications can be found in the Food Chemical Codex.[1] Acceptance criteria for these two regions are as ... CSL is currently manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid and lactic acid with partial neutralization using food- ... Ready Biodegradability by the Carbon Dioxide Evolution Test Method, Project No. 645E-101 for Caravan Ingredients". Easton, ...
... provocation-neutralization testing, autoantibodies, the Epstein-Barr virus, testing for evidence of exposure to pesticides or ... Many other tests have been promoted by various people over the years, including testing of the immune system, porphyrin ... Anti-fluoridation/Water fluoridation movement. *Anti-vaccination. *Big Pharma conspiracy theory. *GMO conspiracy theories ... Neuropsychological tests are sensitive but not specific, and they identify differences that may be caused by unrelated medical ...
Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Influenza testing is recommended for anyone hospitalized with symptoms resembling influenza during flu season or who is ... Water treatment, indoor raising of animals, quarantining sick animals, vaccination, and biosecurity are the primary measures ... Common serological assays include hemagglutination inhibition assays that detect HA-specific antibodies, virus neutralization ...
... blood tests are very safe, since the person is not exposed to any allergens during the testing procedure. The test ... Gutworms and similar parasites are present in untreated drinking water in developing countries, and were present in the water ... and provocative and neutralization (subcutaneous) testing or sublingual provocation. Before a diagnosis of allergic disease can ... When this type of testing is chosen, it must be closely supervised by an allergist. Elimination/challenge tests: This testing ...
The dromedary is able to close its nostrils voluntarily; this assists in water conservation. The dromedary can conserve water ... In a 2000 study in Jordan, 83% of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange. In another study, dromedaries were ... causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the ... "Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high ...
At tests between 20 and 30 volts, alkali metals were known to move between 50 and 60 cm per day per volts whereas heavy metal ... If neutralization occurs the potential between the system drops. Local flattening of the electrical potential profile can also ... 1. Small Field Test". Environmental Science & Technology. 33: 1086-1091. doi:10.1021/es980332s. Purkis, J.M.; Warwick, P.E.; ... Just like in hard water stains this layer may be the insoluble salt and other impurities that inhibit conductivity. ...
In there, all the toxicity testing results were lumped in together, regardless of the mode of testing (e.g. subcutaneous vs. ... Recovering from this takes many hours after venom neutralisation has been achieved with antivenom. Taipan snake procoagulants ... "The venom of the Inland Taipan is extremely potent and is rated as the most toxic of all snake venoms in LD50 tests on mice". ... Water and Natural Resources (South Australia). Retrieved November 8, 2013. South Australia arid lands natural resources ...
... tests and mouse inoculation or feeding trials. The toxins can be typed with neutralization tests in mice. In toxicoinfectious ... These tests may include a brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test (electromyography, or EMG), and an ... The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low ... Confirmation of the diagnosis is made by testing of a stool or enema specimen with the mouse bioassay. In people whose history ...
The overuse of water resources seems a limited problem in general in São Paulo, particularly because of the relatively high ... After testing in government fleets with several prototypes developed by the local carmakers, and compelled by the second oil ... The study also concluded that the neutralization of the carbon released due to land-use change was achieved in 1992. In another ... Holly Jessen (2010-01-04). "Petrobras tests flex-fuel turbine generator". Ethanol Producer Magazine. Retrieved 2011-02-05. De ...
... neutralization test), and CF (complement fixation test) tests and in-house-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for total ... This can be accomplished by reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled habitats and encourage the midge larvae ... Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral ...
The USN will test a combination of this unit, derived from the Sonar 2087 on British Type 23 frigates, with the TB-37 ... The ALMDS detects mines near the top of the water, and the RMS will detect them below the waterline. To destroy mines, the AMNS ... "US Navy gears up for more at-sea tests of LCS mission modules." Janes, 5 November 2012. CAVAS, CHRISTOPHER P. (30 August 2014 ... The MCM module includes the Airborne Laser Mine Detection system, the Airborne mine neutralization system, the AN/AQS-20A ...
... and drain monitoring tests. These testing kits are used to detect alkalinity, caustic, acidity and detergent levels. ... We provide professional grade water quality testing kits for wastewater, corrosion, ... Reagents for 50 tests. These water quality testing kits uses neutralization test method. ... All test kits are professional grade. We offer an extensive line of water analysis instruments, test kits, reagents, test ...
Validation of neutralization methods. *Water tests. *Disinfectant qualification. Package Details. *User-friendly design with a ... Test Method. *. Antibiotic-Microbial Assays. *. Antimicrobial Effectiveness/Preservation Efficacy Testing. *. Antimicrobial ...
... we ensure reliable and predictable access to test water from March until October. Any toxicity tests required for certification ... We offer tests for IMO and USCG type approval as well as R&D for your ballast water management system. The facility is uniquely ... Wageningen Marine Research has operated a testing facility for ballast water management systems (BWMS) in Den Helder. ... At discharge, a second UV dose or chemical-neutralisation step is performed. For type approval, it must be demonstrated that ...
Glass corrosion tests[edit]. Effect of addition of a certain glass component on the chemical durability against water corrosion ... The standard procedure ISO 719[17] describes a test of the extraction of water-soluble basic compounds under neutral conditions ... The volume of HCl required for neutralization is classified according to the table below. ... Chemicals that inhibit corrosion include some of the salts in hard water (Roman water systems are famous for their mineral ...
Mice were administered with HW and purified water (PW) for 25 days. We evaluated the serum concentration of pro-inflammatory ( ... produced by electrolysis of water has characteristics of extremely low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value and high ... indicate significant differences tested with ANOVA. Tukeys test was used for post hoc tests. ... pH of HW was regulated to 7.30 ± 0.02 through neutralization of OH− generated during electrolysis in cathode water tank. HW ...
Tests such as water content, neutralization number, oxidation inhibitor and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered ... Most tests performed in North America are based on ASTM test methods. In Europe and other parts of the world, similar test ... Electrical tests consist of analyses for dielectric breakdown voltage and power factor. There are many other tests that can be ... The frequency at which testing is conducted varies with the test, importance of the equipment, whether an incipient-fault ...
Standard Terminology Relating to Water. ASTM E 1153 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Efficacy of Sanitizers ... BS EN ISO 15883-4 - WASHER-DISINFECTORS - PART 4: REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS FOR WASHER-DISINFECTORS EMPLOYING CHEMICAL ... Standard Practice for Use of Gel Filtration Columns for Cytotoxicity Reduction and Neutralization. ... This test method may be employed with most viruses, which can be grown in cultured cells. However, other host systems (for ...
The tested system achieved a satisfactory compromise between phosphorus removal and pH at the effluent of the septic tank, thus ... eliminating the need for a neutralization step. The phosphorus removal efficiency observed in the second compartment of the ... Recirculation ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% were tested. Limestone soils and non-calcareous soils were used as drainfield media. ... Pilot tests were conducted at the Saint-Roch-de-lAchigan Water Resource Recovery Facility (SRDLA WRRF-) located at Saint-Roch- ...
To test human and sheep antiserum, 15 laboratories used HI and neutralization and reassortant A/Vietnam/1194/2004, A/turkey/ ... for neutralization. Lack of reduced variability to clade 2 antigens suggested the need for clade-specific standards. Sheep ... and neutralization are used to evaluate vaccines against influenza virus A (H5N1); however, poor standardization leads to ... We assessed the reproducibility of neutralization and hHI tests for influenza virus A (H5N1) and evaluated the suitability of a ...
Tests for Ions, Gases, and Water Essay. TESTS FOR IONS, GASES and WATER - QUICK REFERENCE SHEET ,Test ,Observations ,Inferences ... The amount of heat transferred differ when altering the concentration of acids and alkalis in a neutralization reaction between ... 5. Add distilled water up to the mark. It is important to ensure that all apparatus is rinsed otherwise the mass recorded of ... 3. Add distilled water and stir using a glass rod until substance has fully disolved.. 4. Pour solution into volumetric flask ...
Perform chemical tests for the plant water and steam systems to maintain proper quality and monitor neutralization and ... Ability to pass full face respirator fit testing. *Ability to stand/walk for up to 12 hours in a power plant/industrial ... Ability to learn and understand water and steam cycle chemistry. *Able to utilize PC based tools (spreadsheets, databases, word ... Perform routine inspections and tests to ensure demineralizer system, power block and balance of plant are operating at optimal ...
Neutralization reaction: This reaction involves acids and bases. An acid and a base combine to form water and a salt. For ... Since the PCAT is one of the most important tests that pharmacy students will ever take, most students begin studying for the ... What test takers wish they wouldve known:. *As with most exams, you should make sure that you arrive at the testing center a ... Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT)Cory Troup2019-11-25T21:10:09+00:00 Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT). ...
... physical tests: Color & Appearance Breakdown Voltage Water Content Acidity (Neutralization Value) Dielectric Dissipation Factor ... Some transformer oil tests can be carried out in the field, using portable test apparatus. Other tests, such as dissolved gas, ... Suggested intervals for these test are: General and physical tests - bi-yearly Dissolved gas analysis - yearly Furan testing - ... During the test, a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. The test voltage is continuously increased up to the breakdown ...
Genotoxicity evaluation of water soil leachates by Ames test, Comet assay, and preliminary trandescantia mic... by ggorjan in ... used in the Ames test procedure may be one of the causes of this bioassays lower sensitivity as compared to the other tests. ... The electrophoresis was carried out at 2 V/cm and 300 mA for 30 min, followed by neutralisation in 400 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 for ... For biological testing, soil samples were leached with water (the soil/water ratio was 1:5) as described by Békaert et al. ( ...
Chemical reaction with water: None.. Dust explosion determined by test: N. Disposal considerations. Industry - Possibility of ... Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: The substance does not present any hazardous effects requiring a neutralization. ... Biodegradation in water: screening tests * Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests ... Emergency measure - Eyes: Rinse thoroughly with water.. Emergency measure - Skin: Rinse thoroughly with water.. Emergency ...
Title: Water Journal March - April 1997, Author: australianwater, Name: Water Journal March - April 1997, Length: 38 pages, ... Contact time of the inoculum with the test water before neutralisation was 15 s for a free chlorine residual , 0.2 mg/L, and 60 ... Paired t-tests were carried out on the log-transformed data. The log of the total number of colifonns detected by MF was ... Analysis of Seeded Waters The main treated water types encountered 111 South Australia were tested according to the sampling ...
EVASION and other leading brands for monitoring and testing. Compare and contact a supplier ... ... Pool and Spa Water Test Kit. Pool and Spa Water Test Kit - Test for Bacteria, Bromine or Free and Total Chlorine, and pH: ... Supplied in pots of 50 tests, the procedure is exactly as expected - dip, shake off the excess and compare to the colour chart ... It is particularly adapted to the neutralization of acidic or alkaline solutions for environmental applications. ...
Volunteers then rinse hands and forearms under 40ºC tap water for 30 seconds. Ten washes with the test formulation are required ... Tests are performed in accordance with use directions for the test material. Before baseline bacterial sampling and before each ... but if dilution of the antimicrobial in the sampling fluid does not result in demonstrable neutralization, a neutralizer ... Hygienic hand-rub test method and requirements) (79). This method requires 12--15 test volunteers and an 18- to 24-hour growth ...
Chemical reaction with water: None reported. Dust explosion determined by test: N ... Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: None known. Industry - Possibility of destruction: controlled discharge: Not ... Biodegradation in water: screening tests * Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests ... Product determined by test: N Protective equipment: A self-contained breathing apparatus, face mask and gloves should be worn. ...
Chemical reaction with water: None reported. Dust explosion determined by test: N ... Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: None known. Industry - Possibility of destruction: controlled discharge: Not ... Biodegradation in water: screening tests * Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests ... Recommended extinguishing agent: Water, dry chemical or foam may be used. Product arising from burning: Products of combustion ...
Chemical reaction with water: None reported. Dust explosion determined by test: N ... recycling of the remaining highly water soluble substance is not practicable. Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: None ... Biodegradation in water: screening tests * Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests ... Emergency measure - Eyes: Rinse with water. Emergency measure - Skin: Wash with water. Emergency measure - Ingestion: Seek ...
Corrosivity is defined as the condition of water that causes it to dissolve metals, such as those in metallic plumbing, at an ... the next step is to optimize the neutralization process. This requires laboratory testing for lead and copper in water quality ... Leaching of lead from older submersible water pumps is discussed elsewhere. Water quality tests for metals from your homes ... Secure potable water from an outside source but make sure that source is safe and tested. (Bottled water is tested and widely ...
Water quality tests were carried out before and after the neutralisation treatment. It was found that both bottom ash and fly ... Concrete specimens were tested for compressive, flexural and split-tensile strengths. For each test, thirteen mix designs were ... Water quality tests were carried out before and after the neutralisation treatment. It was found that both bottom ash and fly ... Concrete specimens were tested for compressive, flexural and split-tensile strengths. For each test, thirteen mix designs were ...
Water quality tests were carried out before and after the neutralisation treatment. It was found that both bottom ash and fly ... In South Africa, use of DIs has developed through testing and research over the past years. A consortium of three tests of ... Water quality tests were carried out before and after the neutralisation treatment. It was found that both bottom ash and fly ... Tests were done using seven solutions of:- AMD water taken from the field and consisting of two AMD sources from the gold mines ...
Focus lab work Support pilot plant tests Improve current processes Understand water chemistry. Typical OLI simulations. pH & ... Applied to design concept, final-stage testing, validation and trouble-shooting existing designs, software from ANSYS can ... neutralization Scaling and fouling of equipment Multi-stage and multi-unit improvements Effluent discharge limits Regulatory ...
The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Some can be given by mouth; ... e.g water, these highly charged ions to neutralize the suspended particles ) K3! That involves neutralization of charge whereas ... For the filtration and purification of water submitted by: -ASHISH BANSODE M.E.-WATER RESOURCES Engineering 2 1.aluminium ... The tests were carried out for the filtration and purification of water pH of tofu prepared from coagulants... Used to treat ...
Entrance as well as scholarship test for admission to LPU Lateral Entry programmes ... Water and Electrolytes, Organ function tests, Pathology of Blood and Urine, Pharmacotherapeutics, Hypertension, Angina and ... neutralization, Acid base titrations, indicators and choice of indicators for acid base titrations, Buffer solutions and its ... Alphabet test, Direction sense test & Blood relations &arrangements, Syllogism, Number, Ranking & Time sequence test, ...
Water does not change the colour of either red or blue litmus. Describe the process of neutralisation with the help of an ... Test your knowledge of science facts and applications through our awesome online science quizzes! Enhance your knowledge or ... do online tests, sample papers and last year solved question papers. ... The roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and anchor the plant in the ground. Take the fun quiz below from Mr. ...
ELISA TESTS - LATEX * MILK-FOOD-WATER-BEVERAGES TESTS. * LABORATORY CONSUMABLES. * LABORATORY EQUIPMENT ... The new milk neutralization by means of enhancers allows direct colorimetric determination of the presence of added ... Lactopast Biomedix Detergents Detector: the new qualitative rapid test for the visual detection and interpretation of detergent ... Biochemical Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Herbicides, including Glyphosate in Water, Food, Vegetables, Fruits, ...
... test the pH of rinse water. Once the pH of the rinse water matches clean water, the product has been completely removed. ... Note that some manufacturers require that the cleaned surface be re-tested several days after to ensure complete neutralization ... B. If the tests are damaging, etching, or discoloring the substrate, stop the work immediately. ... Every type of paint on every type of substrate should be tested, even if the test locations are only 4"x4": ...
Remove dried gel with distilled water and foam swab. Let dry.. Ive been sending treated flanges for a 2 hour salt spray test ... Also in special tests requiring confirmation of sulfide removal (303 SS) hands down to citric. While poor at removing heat ... Neutralization Low Energy Electron Source Pass Energy 23.5eV Calculation of the elemental Cr/Fe and oxidized Crox/Feox ratios ... At minimum, I rinse with DI water with the goal of not allowing any chlorides from city water chlorine.. Any suggestions along ...
261.7 does not exempt rinse water because rinse water is not a waste remaining in an empty container. When residue is ... 05/19/2003FLASH POINT TESTING OF A WASTE FIBROUS FILTER MATERIALMemo Description: Only liquid wastes are evaluated for ... 06/26/2000REGULATORY STATUS OF A SUMP ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELEMENTARY NEUTRALIZATION UNITMemo Description: sump which meets ... State implementing agencies may have tests or guidance for determining non-liquid waste ignitability ...
... minerals back into water and raise ppm #, test can be done not earlier than 4-5 days of regular use). If your source water pH ... According to the EPA, tests with thin-film composites removed the following contaminants from drinking water. 80% to 100% ... 5-th stage: Inline K2548BB Omnipure Calcite (Acid Neutralization - pH raise) filter, 2"x10", NSF Certified. Increases pH level ... Instantly transforms tap water into healthy, top quality, fresh drinking alkaline water. Ess than 60 seconds to install.. No ...
Test kits, hoses & fittings * Test kits * Hardness tests * Other testkits * Faucets * Classic faucets ... Kennet Water Ltd. 41 Bone Lane Newbury, Berks RG14 5SH T: +44 (0) 1635 30805 F: +44 (0) 1635 524584. E: [email protected] ... Copyright 2021 Kennet Water - LIVE - Cookie disclaimer - Privacy Policy - All rights reserved. ... Simplex Autotrol (meter based) water softeners * Autotrol 255 (meter based) - 3/4 ...
Overshooting of the pH value during neutralisation favours oxidation. This chemical conversion is inhibited by the following ... The water-based 1-C CR-Latex Roller adhesive is solvent-free and characterized by its superb tension stability when wet. The ... Hydrolysis tests (70°, 7d , 100% RF) permit use in the area of heavy and sports footwear. ... Continuous practical experience and the results of additional test cycles have shown: WAKOL PU 280 Polyurethane Primer has ...
carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, water. Product determined by test: N Protective equipment: Feuerwehrmänner sollten vollständige ... Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: Keine "ENGLISH" none Industry - Possibility of destruction - incineration: Code: 661 ... Biodegradation in water: screening tests * Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests ... substance or the eyxtinguishing water cannot enter the soil, waste water or the aquatic environment. Label the waste containers ...
Overshooting of the pH value during neutralisation favours oxidation. This chemical conversion is inhibited by the following ... The water-based 1-C CR-Latex Roller adhesive is solvent-free and characterized by its superb tension stability when wet. The ... Hydrolysis tests (70°, 7d , 100% RF) permit use in the area of heavy and sports footwear. ... Continuous practical experience and the results of additional test cycles have shown: WAKOL PU 280 Polyurethane Primer has ...
... and hydrocarbon fuels I class substance reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous zinc chloride water. Make water ... If … A neutralization reaction is a specific type of double displacement reaction that occurs when an acid reacts with a base, ... Preparation is key: If you study the basics of organic chemistry the right way, prepare for your tests, and know your aromatic ... Chemical Reaction Classification Practice Test, Equation for the Reaction Between Baking Soda and Vinegar, Ph.D., Biomedical ...
Water&Sanitation Africa provides updates on industry developments and project information on all things water and sanitation. ... As the official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA), ... Neutralisation is used when treating a large volume of AMD and around 200 Mℓ of water is treated a day. If that water could be ... "Water treatment can be a complex process and requires constant water testing and specialised skills. For example, phosphates ...
We can ensure your ARD testing needs are effectively and professionally meet in a controlled and repeatable manner. Contact us ... SGS is the world leader in humidity cell testing. ... Tests typically run from 16 to 24 weeks. Tests of longer ... The test determines the rate of acid generation, the variation over time in leachate water quality and thus allows you to ... mineralogy expertise gives you a more complete picture of the mineralogical causes of ARD potential and neutralization ...
Chloride Page 1 of 2 Chloride tests explained Introduction Chlorides are present in all potable water supplies and in sewage, ... It is important to realise how useful these neutralisation reactions are. Below are some examples: Domestic uses Calcium oxide ... How to Test for Gold and Tin - Canadian Conservation …. In the electrolysis in the spot tests, the electrolyte is the salt ... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS TESTS for metal ions …. Use the alphabetical test list above for identifying anions, ions, gases, ...
Tap water is not safe for your fish. It is treated with chemicals like chlorine and chloramine to kill bacteria which are ... General X Aquarium Test strips. This test kit contains 150 individual strips for every 150 tests. It is one of the best test ... it takes up to 20 hours for the neutralization of harmful chemicals like chlorine present in water. But Keeping water for ... How to Test Tap water For Fish in Tank?. For testing the tap water of the tank, there are many test kits available in the ...
... water- and acid-based), along with the complete how-to do it all. Try staining that old beat up, plain concrete floor. ... This will likely fail these two important tests.. Water content test: Any surface that is wet cannot be painted or stained ... This is only necessary if you are using an acid stain: water-based stains do not require neutralization.) ... Do the water test again when the floor is dry. If the water test is a failure, you might slightly increase the strength of your ...
The influence of permeation is discussed for O2/N2, Ar/N2, CO2, δ13C in CO2, and water vapor.Results of sample storage tests ... He assumes o-ring seals and test tubes are perfect.. seasmith wrote:. One might also look at the ablation of ice. We dont see ... comprehensive understanding of the counterintuitive dynamics assocated with H2O hydrogen bonding and polarity neutralization I ... The influence of permeation is discussed for O2/N2, Ar/N2, CO2, δ13C in CO2, and water vapor.Results of sample storage tests ...
Life on earth is possible because of its particular climate and the presence of water. Earth is the most familiar of the ... Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) for use in pH Neutralization …. Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2]. Also commonly referred to as slaked lime ... Soil and Plant Nutrient Testing Laboratory: Interpreting …. The ions calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium(Mg2+), potassium (K +), ... Preparedsourcesby Jonathan Fitzsimmons Analytical method Validation: ICP-OES Purpose: The following is a summaryTheof tests/ ...
Multiple choice questions on Chemistry Salts quiz answers PDF to practice grade 10 chemistry test for online school programs. ... MCQ: The process in which acids (H+) and bases (OH-) react to form salts and water is called ... Practice online grade 10 chemistry teacher certification questions for online tests, distance learning exam on topics as:. * ... Practice multiple choice questions on chemistry: salts, objective type testing worksheets about learning acids bases and salts ...
If quality control testing of the test strips is recommended, always follow the test strip manufacturers testing instructions. ... The water temperature should be monitored to ensure the water temperature does not exceed the manufacturers instructions. ... For safety, there are personnel monitoring devices and neutralization pads available. Neutralization Pads These devices are ... Chapter 1.1.3. - Methods for disinfection of aquaculture establishments 32 Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals 2009 ...
Bucket of clean water and a nylon scrub brush or sponge for cleanup and neutralization. Continue. Peel Away®1 Heavy-Duty Paint ... TEST AREA: Always "Test … Prime Einkaufswagen. SATURDAY 1/16/2021 Welcome to the LabPadre 24/7 livestream! Alexander Albon; … # ... SonarQube doesnt run your tests or generate reports. Please enter the code. Toggle Navigation> Login/Register User Options. ... Test AREA: Always " test … peel Away new deaths zur Entfernung von älteren Beschichtungen empfehlen PeelAway... Constructor ...
We ran tests on different people. Blood was drawn from the test persons. See case studies 1 and 2 - before - as shown below. ... and thereby effects their neutralization or rendering them harmless. Good foods have roughly the same RP as water. ... medicinal water-like drinking water with the real spring water characteristics and water from pristine water sources. All of ... But one can test the rate of absorption (uptake rate) of hexagonal water for yourself very easly in a very practical testing. ...
Neutralisation of the chemicals by the addition of water and a product like caustic soda. ... Bechtel, the Army contractor for building, testing and running chem weapons destruction palaces would be out a generous $10 ... there are about 100 positive tests reported per week, similar to today.. From CIDRAP: Though the flu season hasnt started in ... The chemical agent is pumped into a tank, where water and caustic soda are added, which makes it less toxic and treatable ...
  • Water quality testing kits uses a standard alkali to titrate to the methyl orange endpoint for determination of strong mineral acids, and the phenolphthalein endpoint for determination of strong mineral acids, carbon dioxide, other weak acids, and hydrolysable mineral salts. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • The amount of heat transferred differ when altering the concentration of acids and alkalis in a neutralization reaction between acid and alkali. (majortests.com)
  • Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • This titration allows you to observe how acid neutralisation by an alkali is linked to the changes in ionic concentrations resulting from reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. (rsc.org)
  • Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay neutralisation test, confirming that this male had had concomitant barbiturate toxicity and botulism, and had succumbed to aspiration bronchopneumonia secondary to pharyngeal, laryngeal and oesophageal paralysis and oesophageal impaction. (scielo.org.za)
  • It is particularly adapted to the neutralization of acidic or alkaline solutions for environmental applications. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Get your pupils to test a variety of substances to see if they are acidic or alkaline, using litmus paper as the indicator. (rsc.org)
  • Rinsing mouth with a solution having higher alkaline pH leads to neutralization of acid production, thereby preventing the caries process. (omicsonline.org)
  • What is alkaline water? (captcenter.org)
  • On Sep 03, 2009 12:00 AM vernie_01 wrote: hi there, my husband has metastic oropharangeal cancer and is considered terminal and we recently saw a naturepath who recomended the raw food diet and stressed the importance of adjusting the ph in the body, so we purchased a water filter that changes our water from acid to alkaline and drink 8-10. (captcenter.org)
  • The pH scale and neutralisation The pH runs from 0 (strongly acidic) through 7 (neutral) to 14 (strongly alkaline). (captcenter.org)
  • Since the introduction of alkaline ionic water in our clinic in 1985, we have had the following interesting clinical experiences in the use of this type of water. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The change of stool findings strongly suggests that alkaline ionic water intake can decrease the production of putrefied or pathogenic metabolites. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The consumption of alkaline antioxidant water for a period of 2 to 3 months, I have observed the blood pressure slowly drop, due to the water s solvent ability, which dissolves the cholesterol in the blood vessels. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance of osseous tissues. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The mechanism involved in osteoid formation such as absorption rate of calcium from the intestine and effects of calcium alkaline ionized drinking water on maintaining bone structure in the process of aging or under the condition of calcium deficiency is investigated. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Hydrogen water (HW) produced by electrolysis of water has characteristics of extremely low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value and high dissolved hydrogen (DH). (hindawi.com)
  • HW produced by electrolysis of water is included of the drinking water containing high concentration of hydrogen gas and has properties of high dissolved hydrogen (DH), negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level, and neutral pH. (hindawi.com)
  • Tests such as water content, neutralization number, oxidation inhibitor and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered chemical tests. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • In these cases, an important discovery in this field is that the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) could strongly interact with the soluble Au nanoparticles in water solvent, leading to high activity in oxidation of alcohols [ 30 , 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The chemical munitions stored at the Blue Grass Army Depot will be destroyed by "neutralization" -- a process using a sodium hydroxide solution -- followed by oxidation in water under very high temperature and pressure. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Natural esters have very poor oxidation stability (typically only 48 hours in the same test vs 500h for Mineral oils and they produce acids) as a consequence, natural esters are only really a viable solution in hermetically sealed transformers in a distribution context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the convention, most ships must comply to the D2 discharge standard, which limits the number of live organisms allowed in ballast water discharge. (wur.nl)
  • At discharge, a second UV dose or chemical-neutralisation step is performed. (wur.nl)
  • The spill site should be washed with water, taking care not to discharge washings to watercourses. (europa.eu)
  • 2013, an underground line leading to the discharge canal (AKA "neutralization sump discharge line") was suspected to have separated and began leaking tritium. (jonesriver.org)
  • At that time, DPH reported that the leak could be related to the separated "neutralization sump discharge line" and more investigation would be needed. (jonesriver.org)
  • Well #216 was continuing to trend higher than the other wells (3,330 - 5,720 pCi/L). Additionally, tritium levels in wells #209 and #211 were also trending higher (797 - 1,350 pCi/L). Again, the separated "neutralization sump discharge line" was cited as a possible source. (jonesriver.org)
  • DPH's Oct. 2013 report further discussed soil samples taken as part of the "neutralization sump discharge line investigation. (jonesriver.org)
  • Well #219 is near catch basin #005, which collects radiologically contaminated water from Pilgrim's "Neutralizing Sump Discharge Line" and sends it to the discharge canal and ultimately into Cape Cod Bay. (jonesriver.org)
  • Many heretofore known invert emulsions have been sensitive to at least one or more contaminants and have exhibited a tendency to flip to the oil-in-water type of emulsion or to degrade in desirable properties, such as fluid loss or viscosity. (google.co.uk)
  • 5) Rheological properties: The invert emulsion should have viscosity and gel strength characteristics suitable for its intended use and controllable by addition of oil or water or by simple chemical treatment. (google.co.uk)
  • Recovery for recycling of the remaining highly water soluble substance is not practicable. (europa.eu)
  • Also found here are complete lab kits for testing wastewater, corrosion, as well as storm drain monitoring. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Executive Director Chris Davis Australian Water & Wastewater Association assumes no responsibility for opinions or sratements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers and editorials do not necessarily represent the official policy of the organisation. (issuu.com)
  • 4. Pour solution into volumetric flask through funnel and using distilled water rinse beaker, glass rod and funnel into the volumetric flask so that no solution remains on any apparatus used. (majortests.com)
  • Emergency measure - Eyes: Rinse thoroughly with water. (europa.eu)
  • Emergency measure - Eyes: Rinse immediately with plenty of water. (europa.eu)
  • Emergency measure - Eyes: Rinse with plenty of water, for at least 15 minutes. (europa.eu)
  • To compare the effect on salivary pH following mouth rinse using tap water and various brands of mineral water after rinsing with 50% sucrose solution. (omicsonline.org)
  • The results obtained were compared with Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test the salivary pH after tap water and mineral water rinse and with Kruskal-Wallis Test in between the three brands of mineral water. (omicsonline.org)
  • There was a significant difference in salivary pH after the tap water and mineral water rinse with a higher pH after mineral water rinse. (omicsonline.org)
  • Other type of mouth rinses like chlorhexideine mouth rinse [ 9 ] and salt water mouth rinse [ 10 ] also aids in caries prevention. (omicsonline.org)
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) IgM ELISA test kit is an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay intended for the detection and quantitative determination of IgM antibody to VZV in human sera as an aid in the diagnosis of primary infection or reactivation. (rapidtest.com)
  • The Varicella-Zoster virus test kit is an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. (rapidtest.com)
  • We test systems using a series of extra challenging water characteristics such as high Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) or suspended solids concentrations, winter conditions, or extreme plankton concentrations. (wur.nl)
  • Do not mistake air bubbles in the water as a water quality issue. (h2ocare.com)
  • Industry - Possibility of recovery/recycling: In case of accidental release, collect the substance using mechanical equipment (broom, vacuum cleaner) and spray the area with water. (europa.eu)
  • Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: The substance does not present any hazardous effects requiring a neutralization. (europa.eu)
  • Industry - Possibility of neutralisation: None known. (europa.eu)
  • Industry - Possibility of destruction - water purification: Not recommended. (europa.eu)
  • Public at large - Possibility of neutralisation: Not applicable. (europa.eu)
  • The Army and its contracting team should be prepared to modify the operations as design, testing, and construction proceed, the committee added, and assumptions about the availability of first-of-its-kind equipment should be reviewed given the possibility of failures. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Interlaboratory variation was observed for both assays, but when titers were expressed relative to 07/150, overall percentage geometric coefficient of variation for A/Vietnam/1194/2004 was reduced from 125% to 61% for HI and from 183% to 81% for neutralization. (cdc.gov)
  • Abstract: Acid solution and copper-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) was treated by neutralization-adsorption process. (scientific.net)
  • The Ames test does not appear to be sensitive enough for water soil leachates genotoxicity evaluations where heavy metal contamination is anticipated. (scribd.com)
  • Conductivity (SM 2510 B) is an excellent indicator of water purity, and can be used to estimate Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Salinity of a sample, or to monitor a natural water source for contamination and pollution. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Water contamination in the lubricant can also be determined very quickly by placing a few drops of oil on a hot plate. (mromagazine.com)
  • What are the main signs to look for in well water contamination? (h2ocare.com)
  • These are specifically designed to be simplified tests for on-site chemical analysis. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Insulating fluid analysis is performed using an array of physical, chemical and electrical tests. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Abstract Combining genotoxicity/mutagenicity tests and physico-chemical methodologies can be useful for determining the potential genotoxic contaminants in soil samples. (scribd.com)
  • Chemical reaction with water: None. (europa.eu)
  • Recommended extinguishing agent: Water, dry chemical or foam may be used. (europa.eu)
  • After the chemical agents and various rocket segments are treated with neutralizing solutions, the material that remains, called hydrolysate, is treated by oxygen in "supercritical" water -- water at temperatures greater than 705 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures about 220 times the atmospheric pressure -- and thereby transformed into an environmentally benign substance. (nationalacademies.org)
  • A chemical reaction in which an acid reacts with a base producing a salt and water. (studystack.com)
  • Some common users of these kits are municipalities, contractors, and companies that rely on having assurances that water supplies are free of contaminants or certain chemicals. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • The rate at which the insulating materials degrade depends on several factors, such as the type of oil preservation system (amount of oxygen present), operating temperature, water content of the insulation, and the amounts and types of contaminants. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • When certain contaminants are found together in the water supply, they can cause the removal process to become more complicated. (h2ocare.com)
  • Any toxicity tests required for certification are performed in-house. (wur.nl)
  • Under IMO G9 guidelines, ballast water systems that use a biocide require a Risk Assessment, using toxicity testing, during the pilot (Basic Approval) and during type approval testing (Final Approval). (wur.nl)
  • Wageningen Marine Research can perform these Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) tests and coordinate the associated analysis of the Disinfection ByProducts (DBPs) to complete the risk assessment. (wur.nl)
  • ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF RECLAIMED WATER USING HUMAN CELL CULTURE M L Ackland, A A Michalczyk, D Freestone, F Stagnitti Abstract For risk analysis of reclaimed water, current animal and toxicity test ing may not detect subtle effects such as interactions that could contribute to complex diseases such as cancers that develop over a long period of time. (issuu.com)
  • First, larger organisms are filtered from the ballast water mechanically, after which remaining organisms (mainly microalgae and bacteria) are killed using UV light or chemicals. (wur.nl)
  • When it does dissolve, it reacts with water and turns into different chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • DGA has now become a standard in the utility industry throughout the world and is considered to be the most important oil test for insulating liquids in electrical apparatus. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Because oil and solid insulation degrade with service in electric apparatus, periodic sampling and testing are necessary to ensure that deterioration is detected before it becomes excessive. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • The tests mentioned above provide information on the oil quality itself but fail to provide in-depth diagnostic information on the operating condition or health of the electric apparatus. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • There is one test however, also performed on the insulating oil of the transformer, which provides a means for diagnosing the operating condition of the electrical apparatus, namely DGA. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • In this experiment you will be using microscale titration apparatus to complete an acid-base neutralisation. (rsc.org)
  • Recommended extinguishing agent: Water, foam, carbon dioxide and dry powder may be used. (europa.eu)
  • Recommended extinguishing agent: In case of fire, normal extinguishing media may be used (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, foam, dry powder). (europa.eu)
  • Candidates should be familiar with using limewater to test for carbon dioxide gas. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In addition, the yields of total ketoacids of the filtered water after catalytic ozonation increased as ozone dose increased and contact time extended. (scientific.net)
  • Sulfur mustard dissolves slowly in unstirred water, but within minutes in stirred water. (cdc.gov)
  • Sugar dissolves in water? (studystack.com)
  • In vitro testing was performed for antimicrobial and microbial barrier properties and moisture vapor permeability. (omicsonline.org)
  • These tests were carried out using ASTM E2315 (Standard Guide for Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity Using a Time-Kill Procedure), ASTM F1608 (Standard Test Method for Microbial Ranking of Porous Packaging Materials), and ASTM E96 (Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials), respectively. (omicsonline.org)
  • Initial in vitro studies demonstrated that Nuvaderm is a biocompatible, durable liquid bandage that functions as a microbial barrier with antimicrobial properties and water vapor permeability. (omicsonline.org)
  • Power transformers undergo prolonged drying processes, using electrical self-heating, the application of a vacuum, or both to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the insulating oil is introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low alkalinity levels can create aggressive or corrosive water conditions. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • But this process is very corrosive to the walls of the supercritical water reactors into which the hydrolysate is placed and can cause solid materials to form and plug the reactors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • This typically means there is hydrogen sulfide gas in your water, not harmful at low levels, but aesthetically displeasing. (h2ocare.com)
  • Individual water testing kits offered can be used to detect acid or caustic concentration, alkalinity, or detergent levels. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • These water quality testing kits use titrations with standard acid to the phenolphthalein (P) and/ or total (T) alkalinity endpoint. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Natural or treated water alkalinity is made up of a number of dissolved compounds, such as hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates and to a lesser extent phosphates or silicates. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Water alkalinity is a critical factor in many water treatment applications. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Water treatment products increase alkalinity to create less aggressive, more manageable water. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Water leachate quality is analysed on a weekly basis for their pH, alkalinity, conductivity, anions, cations and dissolved metal concentrations. (iom3.org)
  • Conductivity, pH and alkalinity are important water tests common to all commercial and government environmental testing laboratories. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Wearing layers to the testing center is a good idea in case the temperature is uncomfortable for you. (bestinclass.com)
  • Some invert emulsions are stable at room temperature but when subjected to heating, their properties either seriously deteriorate or they flip to the oil-in-water type. (google.co.uk)
  • Emergency measure - Skin: Wash with soap and water. (europa.eu)
  • Emergency measure - Skin: Wash affected area with plenty of water. (europa.eu)
  • Introduction Genotoxic compounds in soil may have an effect on human health through inhalation of dust, ingestion of plants that absorbed the compounds from the soil, and the leaching of the compounds from soil to ground and surface water used for drinking (Watanabe and Hirayama 2001). (scribd.com)
  • Mineral oil is also an environmental contaminant, and its insulating properties are rapidly degraded by even small amounts of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most tests performed in North America are based on ASTM test methods. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • In Europe and other parts of the world, similar test methods come under the auspices of the International Electrotechnical Committee TC10. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Water leachates of soil samples were prepared according to standard methods. (scribd.com)
  • Although methods have been developed to mitigate these problems, additional testing is needed to confirm that these remedies are adequate, the report says. (nationalacademies.org)
  • There are various methods of serodiagnositic tests for the detection of VZV antibodies in a patient's serum including: indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, complement fixation and fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA). (rapidtest.com)
  • A reagent is a test substance that is added to a system in order to bring about a reaction or to see whether a reaction occurs. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • 3. Add distilled water and stir using a glass rod until substance has fully disolved. (majortests.com)
  • Adsorption and desorption performance of poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) resin for Cu 2+ and Fe 3+ ions were investigated by column tests. (scientific.net)
  • Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. (scielo.org.za)
  • Wash liquid spillage with large amounts of water. (europa.eu)
  • Abstract: This work comparatively investigated the formation of ketoacids of a filtered river water in synthetic goethite-catalyzed ozonation and ozonation alone. (scientific.net)
  • Pool and Spa Water Test Kit - Test for Bacteria, Bromine or Free and Total Chlorine, and pH: Direct-reading color cubes and ready-to-use reagents are supplied for the pH and chlorine (or bromine) tests. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Some public water supplies have elevated levels of iron and manganese and may also have levels of chlorine (used for disinfection purposes), that may cause objectionable odor and taste. (h2ocare.com)
  • Why does my water taste like chlorine and can I get rid of that taste? (h2ocare.com)
  • Some use chloramines (which is a chlorine, ammonia mixture) Depending on the distance your home is from the treatment facility in the distribution system, the level of residual chlorine or chloramine in the water will vary. (h2ocare.com)
  • Pocket Colorimeter II Analysis System, Bromine, Low Range 0.05 to 4.50 mg/L Br2, High Range 0.2 to 10.0 mg/L Br2 with reagent set (100 tests), manual, and carrying case. (environmental-expert.com)
  • For a complete list of Rapid Tests, ELISA tests, IFA Kits, Serology Tests, and available testing Instrumentation, please visit our website home page or contact our Customer Service Representatives at 818-591-3030. (rapidtest.com)
  • For more information about ELISA Kits, Rapid Tests, IFA Kits, CLIA Test Kits, or Serology tests , please see our website home page, or contact our Customer Service Representatives at 818-591-3030 818-591-3030. (rapidtest.com)
  • Sweep up spill and wash spill site with soap and water. (europa.eu)
  • For generations, handwashing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • AWA CONTACT DETAILS Australian Water Association ABN 78 096 035 773 Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590 Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 Fax: +61 2 9436 0155 Email: [email protected] Web: www.awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. (issuu.com)
  • Dropper pipet can be used to measure specific volumes of water and slowly drop into your test area. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Investigating how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis Investigating how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis Hypothesis The amount of heat transferred differ when altering the volume of acid in a neutralization reaction between acids and alkalis. (majortests.com)
  • Strong acids will show pH1 or pH2 when tested. (captcenter.org)
  • To test human and sheep antiserum, 15 laboratories used HI and neutralization and reassortant A/Vietnam/1194/2004, A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (clade 2.2), and A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Our laboratories fulfil the DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Kap. (dillinger.de)
  • 5, DIN EN ISO 9001:2008, DIN EN ISO 14001:2005 und OHSAS 18001:2007 and the GAZ criteria for laboratories within the scope of 'Technical Compliance' Level III, Module L2. (dillinger.de)
  • The technology was developed 20 years ago, and various tests were performed by Third Party Laboratories on the technology to treat or neutralize various pathogens resulting in healthier, cleaner and safer air for humans to breathe and improve their health conditions. (o2cure.in)
  • A decision can then be made if laboratory testing is required. (mromagazine.com)
  • It is not used in the United States, except for laboratory testing of health effects and antidotes. (cdc.gov)
  • In this experiment you will be testing various alcohols to see whether they can be oxidised by a solution of acidified potassium dichromate. (rsc.org)
  • Dissolved gas-in-oil analysis, performed in accordance with ASTM D3612 or IEC 60567, is by far the most frequently requested diagnostic test and the single most important test performed on transformer oil. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Genotoxicity evaluation of water soil leachates by. (scribd.com)
  • Since only a battery of biotests with prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms or cells can accurately estimate the effects of (geno)toxicants in soil samples and water soil leachates, a combination of three bioassays, with cells or organisms belonging to different trophic levels, was used. (scribd.com)
  • Genotoxicity of all six water soil leachates was proven by the comet assay on both human cell lines, however no positive results were detected by bacterial assay, Ames test. (scribd.com)
  • 2006). A number of tests have been developed using aquatic and soil animals, amphibians, protozoa and prokaryotic microorganisms which can potentially assess the genotoxic potential of the environmental sample (Gauthier et al. (scribd.com)
  • Sulfur mustard will not move through soil to underground water. (cdc.gov)
  • MERL and Entergy split some of the water and soil samples for testing) also showed cobalt-60 and cesium-137 at levels above normal (MERL found 1,150 pCi/kg of cobalt-60 and 2,490 pCi/kg of cesium-137). (jonesriver.org)
  • We offer tests for IMO and USCG type approval as well as R&D for your ballast water management system. (wur.nl)
  • Through the innovative 'Feedtank' cultivation system, we ensure reliable and predictable access to test water from March until October. (wur.nl)
  • Thus, most ships must be equipped with a certified ballast water management system (BWMS) to meet the D2-standard. (wur.nl)
  • Wageningen Marine Research can perform smaller-scale R&D tests of your pilot system to determine how effective the system is under different circumstances and when appropriate, how improvements could be implemented. (wur.nl)
  • We provide the full scale of land-based tests with any type of water for type approval of your ballast water management system. (wur.nl)
  • The tested system achieved a satisfactory compromise between phosphorus removal and pH at the effluent of the septic tank, thus eliminating the need for a neutralization step. (mdpi.com)
  • These issues may require unique solutions and some trial and error testing to determine the right water filtration system to solve the problem. (h2ocare.com)
  • Most municipalities chlorinate the water at their treatment facility before sending it into the distribution system on the way to our homes. (h2ocare.com)
  • A combination of a water softener and pH neutralization system can correct this problem. (h2ocare.com)
  • We assessed the reproducibility of neutralization and hHI tests for influenza virus A (H5N1) and evaluated the suitability of a standard (freeze-dried plasma pool, obtained from persons vaccinated with clade 1 subtype H5N1, called 07/150) for detection of antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • These water quality testing kits uses neutralization test method. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • 1.1 This test method is used to evaluate the virucidal efficacy of liquid, aerosol, or trigger-spray microbicides intended for use on inanimate, nonporous environmental surfaces. (saiglobal.com)
  • This test method may be employed with most viruses, which can be grown in cultured cells. (saiglobal.com)
  • 1.2 This test method should be performed only by those trained in microbiological and virological techniques in facilities designed and equipped for work with infectious agents at the appropriate biosafety level. (saiglobal.com)
  • The viscous lime slurry used to maintain a neutral pH during the water treatment process was causing frequent blockages in the diaphragm pumps used by Buckton Castle WTW. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Distilled water is neutral. (captcenter.org)
  • If you have proper water treatment equipment installed in your home and have it tested on a consistent periodic basis, safety should not be a problem. (h2ocare.com)
  • Galvanic corrosion is of major interest to the marine industry and also anywhere water (containing salts) contacts pipes or metal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the corrosion of metals is tested under different atmospheric conditons: dry air, moist air and air polluted by sulfur dioxide. (rsc.org)
  • However, Bio-filtration is still proposed to follow the catalytic ozonation to ensure the microbial stability in water distribution systems. (scientific.net)
  • The frequency at which testing is conducted varies with the test, importance of the equipment, whether an incipient-fault condition is known to be present or a problem exists, and when a family of transformers has been identified as having a history of problems. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • If the oil drops crackle or sizzle, there is excessive water present. (mromagazine.com)
  • some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. (scielo.org.za)
  • RGF's patented REME with PHI-Cell® technology that has been successfully tested by CCMB-CSIR virology lab in India for reduction of SARS-CoV-2 by 97.48% and by Innovation Bio-Analysis lab in USA for reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virus by 99% from air and surfaces. (o2cure.in)