A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A genus of freshwater clams, in the family Corbiculidae, class BIVALVIA. It originated in Asia but was introduced in North America and is now found throughout the United States.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The consumption of liquids.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Constructions built to access underground water.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The climate of a very small area.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
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Exit temperature of water from unit. 88 ± 2 °C (190 ± 4 °F). ... the temperature and pressure of the water, and the rate of ... The method of adding hot water produces a milder version of original flavor, while passing more water through the load of ... A double ristretto, a common form associated with espresso, uses half the amount of water, about 30 ml.[citation needed] ... Modern espresso, using hot water under pressure, as pioneered by Gaggia in the 1940s, was originally called crema caffè, in ...
Exit temperature of water from unit 88 ± 2 °C (190 ± 4 °F) ... Temperature in cup 67 ± 3 °C (153 ± 5 °F) Entry water pressure ... The method of adding hot water produces a milder version of original flavor, while passing more water through the load of ... the temperature and pressure of the water, and the rate of extraction.[10][11] Generally, one uses an espresso machine to make ... Espresso (/ɛˈsprɛsoʊ/, Italian: [esˈprɛsso]) is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water ...
Fleas cannot withstand high temperatures, so a turn through the dryer on medium or high kills fleas on clothing. Water and ... If the product comes into contact with human skin, it is recommended to wash thoroughly with soap and water. Since more than ... Thorough vacuuming, washing linens in hot water, and treating all hosts in the immediate environment (the entire household, for ...
Temperature Rise of Water Approximately 11 Deg C[138] 9 Deg C ... Sea Water Cooling Pipes Install (CRF) Dec 2017[71] Sea Wall ... using the same pressurised water reactor design, at a cost of £1.7 billion.[166][167] This proposal obtained planning ...
Available real-time weather and ocean data includes winds, waves, visibility, air temperature, and water temperature at the ... "NERACOOS , weather , ocean , marine forecast , waves , buoy , marine weather , water temperature , wind". www.neracoos.org. ... which worked to establish several areas within Maine state waters that would be technically appropriate for an offshore wind ... of Conservation designated the location off of Monhegan Island based on its distance from the mainland shore and greater water ...
The agents of deterioration that may put a collection at risk are physical forces; theft; fire; water; incorrect temperature; ... Furthermore, organic materials are hygroscopic (absorbing and emitting water). These materials attract mold, insects, rodents ... damage can result in situations where the extreme change in temperature or RH remains long enough for the object to respond. ... require a strictly controlled environment that limits exposure to light and maintains correct RH and temperature. "It takes ...
However, water also was a major problem for Indio and the city was flooded several times until the storm water canals were ... The hottest temperature ever recorded there was 125 °F (52 °C) on July 6, 1905. The mean annual temperature is 75.8 °F (24.3 °C ... Indio now has ten murals about the city on the sides of various buildings in Old Town and on a water reservoir tank on Monroe ... Coachella Valley Water District: Coachella Valley's Golden Years. Indio, by Pat Laflin Yergin, Daniel (1991). The Prize, The ...
... temperature, charge volume, flow rate) on biogas production and process water burden. (orig.) Classification Code 10U Biomass ... Criteria of evaluation were the quantity and quality of the resulting fermented sludge, biogas, and process water. In view of ... TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; EVALUATION; EXPERIMENTAL DATA. SAMPLE TWO Accession Number 98:20686GB SIGLE Title Switching to cheaper ... energy Terms BIOLOGICAL WASTES; SEWAGE SLUDGE; ANAEROBIC DIGESTION; METHANE; CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND; AMMONIA; WASTE WATER; ...
Some rebreathers have water traps to prevent water entering through the mouthpiece from getting as far as the scrubber, and in ... Temperature monitoring. As the reaction between carbon dioxide and soda lime is exothermic, temperature sensors, along the ... which will normally be at a lower temperature. RMV is given in litres per minute at body temperature and ambient pressure, ... Low temperatures in the scrubber will also slow down the reaction rate. The rebreather diver must keep breathing in and out all ...
... supply of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide and water vapor for breathing; temperature control; and protection from cosmic ... There can be large temperature swings on Mars; for example, at the equator, daytime temperature may reach 21 °C (70 °F) in the ... Other issues include the Martian dust, low temperatures, and radiation. One design for a Mars suit from the 2010s, the NASA Z-2 ... According to a 1958 NASA report, long-term human comfort requires temperatures in the 4 to 35 °C (40 to 95 °F) range at 50% ...
Water temperatures Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year ... Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.3. (5.2) 38.8. (3.8) 38.0. (3.3) 41.6. (5.3) 46.7. (8.1) 54.6. (12.6) 61.3. (16.3) 63.7. ( ... Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.3. (5.2) 38.1. (3.4) 38.4. (3.5) 43.1. (6.2) 49.2. (9.5) 58.4. (14.7) 65.7. (18.7) 67.9. ( ... Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.4. (5.2) 38.1. (3.4) 38.7. (3.8) 44.1. (6.7) 50.9. (10.5) 59.6. (15.3) 67.0. (19.4) 69.3. ( ...
"Porto Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 29 January 2021. "Matosinhos Water Temperature and Wetsuit Guide (Douro ... The lowest temperature ever recorded in the city was −4.1 °C (24.6 °F) on 11 January 1941. Porto has abundant levels of ... Porto has generally moderate temperatures. The average annual high is around 20 °C (68 °F) and average low around 11 °C (52 °F ... Due to its coastal position, temperatures bellow freezing (0 °C (32 °F)) are rare, but not uncommon, and frosts are never ...
"Albufeira Water Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 16 April 2021. "Albufeira Water Temperature and Wetsuit Guide (The ... The sea is safe and clean and has an average summer seawater temperature of 20-22 °C (68-72 °F). To the back of the beach there ... There are showers and toilets available loa Just of the beach many types of water sports can be enjoyed, such as Windsurfing, ... water skiing sailing or cruising. On the cliffs above the beach is the 5 star Grande Real Santa Eulália Resort & Hotel Spa. ...
... air temperature; Wr, root zone water supply; PET, potential evapotranspiration; vegc, total live vegetation carbon. References ... DGVMs are used most often to simulate the effects of future climate change on natural vegetation and its carbon and water ... Jarvis P (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the ... Abbreviations are: NPP, net primary production; PFT, plant functional type; SAW, soil available water; LAI, leaf area index; I ...
These conditions include: low flow; low water level; low nitrogen to phosphorus ratio; high water temperature; stable thermal ... and are able to germinate once water temperatures rise to the appropriate level. The bacteria prefers temperatures ranging from ... Therefore, any future increase in lake water temperature will presumably lead to an increase in the size of C. raciborskii ... The population dynamics is highly dependent on lake water temperature and underwater light intensity and thus on climatic ...
Water 980-2998............Ground and surface waters 980-992............Watersheds. Runoff. Drainage 1001-1199.8........ ... Temperature 177.6-182.......Optical oceanography 190-190.5........Ocean-atmosphere interaction 200-376..........Dynamics of the ... 770.3-840...........Water sports: Canoeing, sailing, yachting, scuba diving, etc. 840.7-857...........Winter sports: Ice hockey ... Sea water pollution 1-350.......Environmental Sciences 70-90......Environmental Education 170-190....Environmental Policy 195- ...
NAVTEX forecast - a text forecast issued by the OPC (combining data from the Coastal Waters and Offshore Waters Forecasts) ... and air temperature. In addition, all buoy and some C-MAN stations measure sea surface temperature, and wave height and period ... Offshore Waters Forecast (OFF) - a text product issued by the OPC that provides forecast and warning information to mariners ... Conductivity and water current are measured at selected stations. All stations report on an hourly basis. Supplemental weather ...
"Protecting Underground Sources of Drinking Water from Underground Injection". EPA. 2017-05-09. "High Temperature Incineration ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 ("Clean Water Act"). Pub.L. 92-500, October 18, 1972. Copeland, Claudia ... The US Clean Water Act, enacted in 1972, and RCRA, enacted in 1976, created nationwide programs to regulate the handling and ... Chromium: is used as brick lining for high-temperature industrial furnaces, as a solid metal used for making steel, and in ...
Water nourishes wood. Overcoming Wood parts earth; Earth absorbs water; Water quenches fire; Fire melts metal; Metal chops wood ... The earliest Buddhist texts explain that the four primary material elements are solidity, fluidity, temperature, and mobility, ... air and water, in the following fashion: In Bön or ancient Tibetan philosophy, the five elemental processes of earth, water, ... that air was a separate substance by observing that a bucket inverted in water did not become filled with water, a pocket of ...
Conductivity and water current are measured at selected stations. A new task is the operation of the DART (Deep-ocean ... In addition, all buoy stations, and some C-MAN stations, measure sea surface temperature and wave height and period. ... These were generally deployed in deep water off the U.S. East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. By 1979, 16 stations were ... All stations measure wind speed, direction, and gust; atmospheric pressure; and air temperature. ...
Summer is from December to February when the average maximum sea temperature is 21 °C (70 °F). On land, maximum temperatures ... Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved ... "Highest Temperature - 094029". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 22 November 2017. "Lowest Temperature - 094029". Bureau of ... The average temperature in summer ranges from 12.5 to 21 °C with drier non-sea breeze days as warm as 27 °C, with around 16 ...
The ratio varies slightly depending on the temperature of the surrounding water, as well as other factors such as the water's ... The ratio of 18O to 16O in the shell is used to indirectly determine the temperature of the surrounding water at the time the ... Epstein, S.; Buchsbaum, R.; Lowenstam, H.; Urey, H. (1953). "Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale". Geol. Soc. Am ... Extrapolation of temperature[edit]. Based on the simplifying assumption that the signal can be attributed to temperature change ...
the thermodynamic beta, equal to (kBT)−1, where kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is the absolute temperature. ... soil water contents in soil science. *in mathematical statistics, an unknown parameter ...
The work he presented with Louis I. Gordon on isotopic fractionation of the phase changes in water is known as the Craig-Gordon ... Craig created his thesis to find the measurement of ancient sea temperature. Craig used the carbon dioxide released from ... Craig concluded that the isotope was present within the earth's mantle and theorized that it was leaking into sea water through ... doi:10.1016/0012-821X(92)90127-H. Craig, H. (1963). "The isotopic geochemistry of water and carbon in geothermal areas". In ...
... and in mineral waters. For example, the water of Bad Dürkheim spa, which was used in isolation of caesium, contained about 0.17 ... The conductivity increases with temperature up to about 450 °C, with an activation energy changing from 0.6 to 1.3 eV at about ... It readily dissolves in water with the maximum solubility increasing from 1865 g/L at 20 °C to 2705 g/L at 100 °C. The crystals ... Because of its high solubility in water, caesium chloride is highly mobile and can even diffuse through concrete. This is a ...
"Coastal Water Temperature Table". www.nodc.noaa.gov. National Oceanographic Data Center. Archived from the original on ... Additionally, to accommodate water filtration that the pipes inadequately attempt to clean, the golf course is just one piece ... Its purpose was to provide food, water, and a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked. The structure, which had ... This plan is similar to dealing with sewage through aquatic water treatment plants and steps that other cities such as Houston ...
... indicated differences between surface water and bottom water temperatures up to 16.7 degrees Celsius. If this water is released ... The water of a deep reservoir in temperate climates typically stratifies with a large volume of cold, oxygen poor water in the ... Reprinted in Water International 9 (1984), pp. 106- 111. Elsevier Sequoia, Amsterdam. Also reprinted in Water Research Journal ... This leads to a compromised water table, reduced water levels, homogenization of the river flow and thus reduced ecosystem ...
... required a tenth of the water as that of any other kind of lawn; could withstand temperature extremes; rapidly established ... and it was arranged with the Santa Barbara Mission that water from the now defunct Mission Park reservoir was pumped into the ... and sustainable water demands. Reflective of more contemporary zoned-irrigation systems, Franceschi employed a drought-tolerant ...
Temperature also affects oxygen levels as warm waters can hold less dissolved oxygen than cold waters. This relationship will ... Since liquid water flows, ocean waters cycle and flow in currents around the world. Since water easily changes phase, it can be ... Surface water moves in to replace the sinking water, thus creating a current. This deep water moves south, between the ... The deep water cycle involves exchange of water with the mantle, with water carried down by subducting oceanic plates and ...
Summer temperatures typically have highs near 90 °F (32 °C) though higher temperatures are not uncommon.[21] The city's ... "Center for Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. ... Other occupants include Exel, S&B Engineers, National Oilwell, GE Water, TMK-IPSCO, Century Asphalt, Samson Controls, and LS ... This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties ±water surface only; land in adjacent county ...
January temperatures range from an average high of 54.0 °F to an average low of 27.4 °F. July temperatures range from an ... Water. 0.003 sq mi (0.007 km2) 0.057%. Elevation[2]. 3,930 ft (1,198 m). ... The lowest recorded temperature was −5 °F (−21 °C) on January 9, 1937. There are an average of 97.7 days annually with highs of ... average high of 97.6 °F to an average low of 63.9 °F. The highest recorded temperature was 115 ºF (46 ºC) in June 2017.[4] ...
Because the carbonyl group interacts with water by hydrogen bonding, ketones are typically more soluble in water than the ... higher temperature, base added to ketone, using weak or insoluble bases, e.g., NaOEt in EtOH, or NaH) provides the more- ... With water (hydration) gives geminal diols, which are usually not formed in appreciable (or observable) amounts ...
One of the risks of LNG is a rapid phase transition explosion (RPT), which occurs when cold LNG comes into contact with water.[ ... For example, early in the nineteenth century Cagniard de la Tour had shown there was a temperature above which a gas could not ... The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/litre to 0.5 kg/litre, depending on temperature, pressure, and composition,[3] compared ... Most domestic LNG is transported by land via truck/trailer designed for cryogenic temperatures.[9] These units consist of an ...
Land, Water & Wool Northern Tablelands Property Fact Sheet. Australian Government - Land and Water Australia. Archived from the ... as well as a drop in internal temperatures, which can be around ambient temperature in some cases. For example, the internal ... Barnes, Brian M. (1989). "Freeze Avoidance in a Mammal: Body Temperatures Below 0 °C in an Arctic Hibernator". Science. 244 ( ... Geiser, Fritz (2004). "Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature Reduction During Hibernation and Daily Torpor". Annu. Rev. Physiol. ...
Spellman, Frank R. (2008). The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications. CRC Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4200-5544-3.. ... "Turning up the head: Temperature influences the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up effects" (PDF). Ecology. 91 (10 ... Spellman, Frank R. (2008). The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications. CRC Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4200-5544-3.. ... Assessment of the Fate and Effects of Toxic Agents on Water Resources. Springer. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-4020-5527-0.. ...
In both cases, the drugs must be taken with plenty of water one or two hours after a meal. It is recommended that users drink ... Its melting point or its temperature of decomposition is 150 - 153 °C at which it starts to emit toxic vapors such as nitrogen ... It is very soluble in water and methanol. Each capsule contains sulfate salt in addition to anhydrous lactose and magnesium ... Drug users must significantly increase their water intake due to indinavir's low solubility that can cause it to crystallize. ...
... which shows that repeated dilution as practiced in homeopathy produces only water, and that homeopathy is not scientifically ...
The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in ... The Miocene warming began 21 million years ago and continued until 14 million years ago, when global temperatures took a sharp ... Furthermore, South American waters witnessed the arrival of Megapiranha paranensis, which were considerably larger than modern ... Further marked decreases in temperature during the Middle Miocene at 15 Ma probably reflect increased ice growth in Antarctica ...
... may dissolve as a result of increasing burial temperatures and the presence of organic acids in pore waters. The dissolution of ... sediments that undergo uplift are subjected to lower temperatures and pressures as well as slightly acidic rain water. Under ... Specific pore waters, can cause the further precipitation of carbonate or silica cements. This process can also encourage the ... This increase in temperature and pressure causes loose grained sediments become tightly packed reducing porosity, essentially ...
Tf is a fictive temperature, representing the temperature at which the density fluctuations are "frozen" in the material. ... In 1871, Lord Rayleigh published two papers on the color and polarization of skylight to quantify Tyndall's effect in water ... with a slightly lower color temperature due to the brownish color of the moon. The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, ...
Scandium(III) oxide, yttrium(III) oxide, lanthanum(III) oxide and lutetium(III) oxide are white high-temperature-melting solids ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ...
Other factors include the need to balance water loss at high temperature and low humidity against the need to absorb ... It is covered with a waxy cuticle which is impermeable to liquid water and water vapor and forms the boundary separating the ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and ...
Spread of EBOV by water, or food other than bushmeat, has not been observed.[59][60] No spread by mosquitos or other insects ... "The illness is characterised with a high temperature of about 39 °C (102 °F), haematemesis, diarrhoea with blood, retrosternal ... Some health-care centres caring for people with the disease do not have running water.[73] In the United States the spread to ... drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids as well as treating symptoms.[1] Atoltivimab/ ...
... stones and were baked at very high temperature. As early as 1826 Harappa, located in west Punjab, attracted the attention of ... Hiran Minar and Water Tank. *Nagarparkar Temples. *Shah Jahan Mosque. *Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts ...
The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence anthocyanins, water-soluble pigments that are found in many ... As weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in cool daytime temperatures 70-85 °F (21-29 °C ... Ideal growing temperatures are about 65 °F (18 °C) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old.[1] Applications of fertilizer to ...
Epirus water frog · Mediterranean tree frog · Karpathos frog · Levant water frog · Pool frog · Painted frog · Moor frog · ... Arctic frogs such as the wood frog, moor frog and the common frog has to live with freezing temperatures for a long time. They ... Albanian water frog · European tree frog · Agile frog · Edible frog · Greek frog · Marsh frog · Common frog · Balkan frog · ... Amphibians lay their eggs in water, usually in a foam nest. After hatching they are tadpoles, which live in the water and have ...
... air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land ... Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a ... Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64.4 °F) in every month of the year and feature wet and ...
The ideal location for hunting mallards is considered to be where the water level is somewhat shallow where the birds can be ... "Global warming and Bergmann's rule: do central European passerines adjust their body size to rising temperatures?". Oecologia ... Water depths of less than 0.9 metres (3.0 ft) are preferred, with birds avoiding areas more than a few metres deep.[60] They ... eat water plants and small animals, and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This ...
The four top gases in 67P's halo were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen.[23] The ration of oxygen to water ... because X-ray emission is usually associated with very high-temperature bodies. The X-rays are thought to be generated by the ... The coma is generally made of ice and comet dust.[1] Water dominates up to 90% of the volatiles that outflow from the nucleus ... First, an ultraviolet photon from the Sun hits a water molecule in the comet's coma and ionises it, knocking out an energetic ...
... and the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters lowered temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean. ... The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts (c. 840,000 - c. 800,000 BP) to travel over large bodies of water, ... Goebel, Ted; Waters, Michael R.; O'Rourke, Dennis H. (2008-03-14). "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the ... The formation of the isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, because warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off ...
Examples include temperature with the Celsius scale, which has two defined points (the freezing and boiling point of water at ... Ratios are not meaningful since 20 °C cannot be said to be "twice as hot" as 10 °C (unlike temperature in Kelvins), nor can ... The Kelvin temperature scale is a ratio scale because it has a unique, non-arbitrary zero point called absolute zero. ...
Shrubs can comprise as much as 37% of the diet,[15] but grasses normally form more than 90%.[29] Water is essential,[30] though ... They were observed at regular intervals over a period of one year, and with an increase in temperature, the number of ... Water is an essential requirement. The three distinct social groups are the female herds, the bachelor herds, and the ... The black wildebeest can maintain its body temperature within a small range in spite of large fluctuations in external ...
Brotóns, V.; Tomás, R.; Ivorra, S.; Alarcón, J. C. (2013-12-17). "Temperature influence on the physical and mechanical ... water withdrawal[14] or poor foundations and landslides.[15] Buildings also may suffer from fire damage[16] and flooding in ... water and wastewater etc. Especially in commercial buildings (such as offices or factories), these can be extremely intricate ...
Kerr, Australia tests the water for its largest-ever defence procurement challenge ... requiring the submarines to handle significant variances in temperature, salinity, density, and climate. Australian submarines ... Kerr, Julian (7 December 2009). "Australia tests the water for its largest-ever defence procurement challenge". Jane's Navy ... provide a deterrent towards military aggression against Australia, by patrolling the waters of Australia and nearby nations, ...
At the ponds, pickerel frogs are usually observed in large groups in the water.[8] Mating behavior is not much different from ... Like most amphibious eggs development is temperature dependent, but pickerel frog eggs usually hatch in 11-21 days.[10] ... In order to catch their prey pickerel frogs will often search grassy areas next to bodies of water.[3] ... Pickerel frogs prefer cool clear water. They breed in both temporary ponds and permanent ponds but appear to favor ponds with ...
Reactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or ... E.g. water code F 1. Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. ... Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogen ... Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. ...
Most young octopuses hatch as paralarvae and are planktonic for weeks to months, depending on the species and water temperature ... in water at 20⁰C.[38] Water flow over the gills correlates with locomotion, and an octopus can propel its body when it expels ... The cirrate species are often free-swimming and live in deep-water habitats.[32] No species are known to live in fresh water.[ ... Lee, Henry (1875). "V: The octopus out of water". Aquarium Notes - The Octopus; or, the "devil-fish" of fiction and of fact. ...
Water[edit]. Water is one of the important ingredients for making sake. It is involved in almost every major process of sake ... In Japan, sake is served chilled (reishu 冷酒), at room temperature (jōon 常温 or hiya 冷や), or heated (atsukan 熱燗), depending on ... While soft water will typically yield sweeter sake, hard water with a higher nutrient content is known for producing drier- ... The first region known for having great water was the Nada-Gogō in Hyōgo Prefecture. A particular water source called "Miyamizu ...
temperature. 38 °C (100 °F; 311 K) see text வெடிபொருள் வரம்புகள் 1.8% - ? ... Extraterrestrial liquid water. *தடுக்கப்பட்ட இயங்குமுறை. *Helium hydride ion. *Homochirality. *Intergalactic dust. * ...
... data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. Data are queried from ... Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our ... Additional sources for Water Temperature Information:. *NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Great Lakes Surface ... US Army Corps of Engineers sites along the Mississippi River report water temperature that can be found at RiverGages.com ...
... Weather.gov , Duluth, MN , Duluth WRF Surface Water Temperature ...
Lake and river surface water temperatures are projected to increase with further projected increases in air temperature. ... Increased temperature can result in marked changes in species composition and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. ... Several time series show increasing lake and river temperatures all over Europe over the last 60 to 90 years. ... Water temperatures in major European rivers have increased by 1-3 °C over the last century. ...
... at AmbientWeather.com. Buy weather stations, wireless weather stations, emergency radios, ... water temperature (definition). water temperature (definition). A water temperature sensor measures the temperature of water or ... The probes are typically resitive thermal devices (RTD). RTDs predict change in temperature as a function of electrical ...
Source for information on Using Water Temperature in Locating Fish: Fly Fishing: The Lifetime Sport dictionary. ... The thermistor registers instant temperatures and the cord marks the depth. I have used a Depth-O-Therm instrument for years. ... There are newer models out which also register oxygen content, pH, and water clarity. These instruments are useful lake fishing ... Using Water Temperature in Locating Fish The angler should know how to locate fish by temperature. Probe a lakes depth with a ...
Arctic White Water Temperature Gauge; 2-1/16 in.; White Dial Face; Fluorescent Red Pointer; White Incandescent Lighting; ... Car & Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Chevrolet,. *Motorcraft Car & Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Ford, ... Car & Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Ford,. * ... Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Toyota,. *Car & Truck Water ... Car & Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Dodge,. *OMIX Car & Truck Water Temperature Gauges for Jeep, ...
animal behavior, water temperature, water quality, aquatic environments, streams, thermoregulation, salmonids. Related Search. ... Salmonid behavior and water temperature. Seattle, WA: United States, Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 Office of Water ... Sometimes water temperature stimulates behavior that has nothing to do with thermal comfort. What is known as orientation ... If the reason they move is because of a discrepancy between the temperature of the surrounding water and a "set point" in their ...
A new study suggests that there is no difference between hot and cold water when it comes to washing hands. It also shows no ... But the actual water temperature wont kill bacteria as it cant be too hot or it would burn." ... The volunteers had their hands exposed to a range of bacteria and washed in water at various temperatures - 60, 79 or 100 ... Contrary to popular belief, it seems that hot water is no better than cold water when it comes to getting rid of germs. The ...
... water depends on the temperature. … It means that the dynamics of the water droplet on the high-temperature Fe surface may be ... An air temperature, a humidity, a ground surface temperature, and a globe temperature which is radiant heat from the ground ... On Water Temperature and Cumrative Temperature of Germination Period ― [in Japanese] 福田 富男 , 水谷 雅年 , 香田 康年 , 伴 俊文 , Tomio ... Study on Heat Source Temperature and Energy Saving Effect of Using Water Reservoir as a Cold Source [in Japanese] 柳井 智賀 , 北野 博亮 ...
4) Mark the new temperature.. If you are satisfied with the temperature, mark the new temperature on the water heater ... Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding.. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature ... Measure the beginning temperature of your hot water using a thermometer at the tap farthest from the water heater. Thermostat ... Wait a couple of hours, and then measure the water temperature again at the farthest tap from the water heater. Several ...
If you think about it, its obvious that salty water freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water - thats why it has to be ... We all know what temperature water freezes at, right?!. 11 April 2018 ChemSci Pick of the Week. Some salts may actually raise ... "It is particularly striking and counter-intuitive that some salts can actually cause water to freeze at warmer temperatures ... that is clouds consisting of a mixture of water droplets and ice crystals. These types of clouds can form at temperatures ...
This is the Temperature Criteria Information page of the Surface Water Quality Standards, Water Quality Program, WA Department ... Indigenous warm water species. Protection for waters where the dominant species under natural conditions would be temperature ... c) Aquatic life temperature criteria. Except where noted, water temperature is measured by the 7-day average of the daily ... Water Quality , Ground & Surface Water Quality Standards , Surface Water Quality Standards , Criteria , Part II-Designated Uses ...
... Detailed ... 2016-2017 Water Temperature Data Collection in the Lower Willamette River, Oregon, in Support of Cold-Water Refuge Monitoring ...
Automatic Hot Water Temperature Control Valves. The following automatic hot water temperature control valves are approved by ... Current: Automatic Hot Water Temperature Control Valves. ... Well Water Quality and Testing *Youth Camp Inspection and ...
Water temperature in the steamboat drainage. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-119. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ... One of the characteristics that determines waters usability, particularly for fish, is temperature.. Publication Notes. * ... High quality water from our forest lands is subject to a rapidly increasing demand. Water from forested watersheds is suitable ... Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses.. XML: View XML. Report an issue with the PDF. Get the latest version of ...
... ... Modeling Hydrodynamics, Water Temperature, and Water Quality in the Klamath River Upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon, 2006-09- ...
Temperature Effect on Ultra-sonic Velocity in Water. Access & Citations. * 93 Article Accesses. ...
Boiling temperature is one such physical property. This is the temperature at which a substance changes rapidly from its liquid ... Rapid formation of bubbles is evidence that the liquid is at its boiling temperature. In this experiment, you will study the ...
Water is ubiquitous. Its also unusual compared to other liquids. And water becomes more odd as it cools. Knowing how water ... Supercooled liquid water is rather unusual. It remains fluid at ultracold temperatures, but it can freeze. Researchers wanted ... Given the unique physical properties of water in other temperature regimes, the research team wanted to learn what happened in ... Researchers used a three-step process to measure waters properties in a "no-mans land" temperature range, which was ...
Water Temperature at buoy 46047 (32.398N 119.498W) - TANNER BANK - 121NM West of San Diego, CA. ...
Water Temperature at buoy 46085 (55.868N 142.492W) - CENTRAL GULF OF ALASKA - 265NM West of Cape Ommaney, AK. ...
With Garmins NMEA 2000 Water Speed and Generic Temperature Analog Adapter aboard your vessel, you can give new life to your ... water-temperature sensor, or combined water-speed and water-temperature sensor (not included) on your boat to your NMEA 2000 ... The GST 10 allows you to observe water-speed and water-temperature information on compatible Garmin display devices connected ... With the GST 10 Water Speed and Temperature Analog Adapter aboard your vessel, you can give new life to your old gauges by ...
Blue is for cold water, violet for lukewarm and red for hot.Link -via Dornob... ... HANSA Internationals Hansacanyon Faucet has LEDs that light up with different colors based upon the temperature of the water ... Main Blog , Faucet Changes Color with the Water Temperature Faucet Changes Color with the Water Temperature ... HANSA Internationals Hansacanyon Faucet has LEDs that light up with different colors based upon the temperature of the water ...
Pure water boils at a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius, or 211.9 degrees Fahrenheit. This standard assumes an external ... What Is the Specific Heat of Water?. A: The specific heat of water at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius is 4.181 KJ/Kg*K. The ... At What Temperature Does Champagne Freeze?. A: Champagne freezes at a slightly lower temperature than water, or between 15 and ... What Is the Freezing Point of Water in Fahrenheit?. A: On the Fahrenheit temperature scale, the freezing point of water is 32 ...
Water temperatures around the Balearic Islands. 27/03/2006 466 views 1 likes 233702 ID ... An image of the waters around Spains Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea showing differences in surface water ... Atmosphere Oceans and coastal zones Oceans and coastal zones Climate Change Sea temperatures Plankton ... AATSR image of sea surface and cloud top temperature. Image 335 views 1 likes ...
... combustion heat on water temperatures during fires and the effect of riparian vegetation losses on postfire water temperatures ... air temperatures, precipitation, river discharge, and water temperatures in the lower Klamath River Basin in Northern ... Keywords: aerosol optical thickness, Klamath Basin, rivers, water temperature, wildfire smoke. View and print the publication ( ... Title: Wildfire smoke cools summer river and stream water temperatures. Authors: David, Aaron T.; Asarian, J. Eli; Lake, Frank ...
Find and compare a variety of boiler water temperature videos , environmental xprt on the worlds largest environmental portal ... Film also shows a cleaning process by injecting water to clean the boiler walls from deposits. Temperature approx 750 celcius. ... Film also shows a cleaning process by injecting water through a Soot Blower to remove deposists. Temperature approx 750 celcius ... Inspection of a Straw Fired Spreader Stoker Boiler using a water cooled camera. Temperature approx 1100 celcius. For more ...
Can I know how much water at 25^C to put into a water at 75^C and then the mixture is 60^C ?? thanks and... ... Can I know how much water at 25^C to put into a water at 75^C and then the mixture is 60^C ??. thanks and best regards. Jazz ... If you have x cm 3 of 25 degree water, the heat is proportional to 25x. If you have y cm3 of 75 degree water, the heat is ... thats one equation in two unknowns because you didnt say how much of the 25 degree water you had or how much water you wanted ...
Water temperature at mid-day: 40 Degrees F. Water condition: Stained. Rancocas Creek - North Branch. The proposed effluent ... Water Temperature Tables; Severe Weather; Tropical Weather; Spring Flood Outlook; Additional Info. WATER-QUALITY RECORDS PERIOD ... 4.4 MGD water levels above this stage will not be reported in conodoguinet creek water temperature time inches. Outlook ; ... water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate. 18: Flood waters begin to reach the ...
There is rising concern about increases in stream temperature with projected climate changes and human-related water... ... Stream temperature is an important control of many in-stream processes. ... Wichert GA, Lin P (1996) A species tolerance index of maximum water temperature. Water Qual Res J Can 31:875-893Google Scholar ... Stefan HG, Preudhomme EB EB (1993) Stream temperature estimation from air temperature. J Am Water Resour Assoc 29(1):27-45 ...
  • The volunteers had their hands exposed to a range of bacteria and washed in water at various temperatures - 60, 79 or 100 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5, 26 and 38 degrees Celsius) - using different types of soap. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Pure water boils at a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius, or 211.9 degrees Fahrenheit. (reference.com)
  • The boiling point of distilled water is 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit. (reference.com)
  • On the Fahrenheit temperature scale, the freezing point of water is 32 degrees. (reference.com)
  • Champagne freezes at a slightly lower temperature than water, or between 15 and 22 degrees Fahrenheit. (reference.com)
  • Mixing those together you have x+ y cm 3 of water that you want to be 60 degrees so the mixture's hear is proportional to 60(x+y). (physicsforums.com)
  • Relations among daily mean water-quality characteristics in Conodoguinet Creek, 4.9 miles, 2.5 miles, and 115 feet upstream of Good Hope Mill Dam (stations 1, 2, and The average annual temperature for the area is about 50 degrees Fahrenheit. (ecoloinfo.com)
  • Washington, DC--A joint study between Carnegie and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has determined that the average temperature of Earth's mantle beneath ocean basins is about 110 degrees Fahrenheit (60 Celsius) higher than previously thought, due to water present in deep minerals. (eurekalert.org)
  • A On a typical wintery morning, the average water temperature hovers around 60 degrees Fahrenheit, but is sometimes much lower. (amazonaws.com)
  • Water can cause full-thickness third-degree burns after five seconds of exposure at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the Burn Foundation. (reference.com)
  • One second of exposure to water at 156 degrees Fahrenheit or two seconds of exposure to water at 149 degrees causes third-degree burns. (reference.com)
  • Because a child's skin is more susceptible to burns, bath water should not be hotter than 100 degrees Fahrenheit, notes the Burn Foundation. (reference.com)
  • Human skin burns to varying degrees of severity as the applied temperature rises. (reference.com)
  • Never make your water temperature lower than around 131 degrees Fahrenheit because temperatures below this amount can encourage the build up of bacteria, and may lead to additional scaling or corrosion of your tank. (doityourself.com)
  • Residential Water Heater Temperature: 49 or 60 Degrees Celsius? (hindawi.com)
  • Raising temperature above 120 degrees requires service call. (fixya.com)
  • Earliest versions of Rheem tankless 2006-8 let you set temperature up to 140 degrees F using remote. (fixya.com)
  • So Rheem changed maximum temperature at remote control to tepid 120 degrees, which is not hot enough for folks wanting hot shower, or folks filling whirlpool tub because water in tub cools before tub fills. (fixya.com)
  • The United States Department of Energy recommends that hot water should be a minimum of 120 degrees coming out of the tap and 130 degrees Fahrenheit at the tank. (ehow.com)
  • The water should be a minimum of 120 degrees Fahrenheit. (ehow.com)
  • If the temperature is well above 120 degrees, you can safely adjust your hot water heater downward slightly before testing again to be sure you maintain the recommended minimum temperature at the tap. (ehow.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Energy's recommended minimum tank temperature is 130 degrees Fahrenheit to prevent the growth of any bacteria. (ehow.com)
  • According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Hotspots website, temperatures in the region peaked in late May of 2010, when the temperature reached 34 degrees Celsiusâ€"4 degrees Celsius higher than long term averages for the area. (enn.com)
  • For example, coral species live within a relatively narrow temperature range, and positive or negative temperature anomalies of only a few degrees can induce bleaching 3 . (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • The Waters programmable Temperature Control System maintains liquid chromatography columns at consistent temperatures -- from a few degrees above ambient to 150 C. (waters.com)
  • It is a world of extremes, where seething winds howl at the speed of sound from a 3,000-degree-Fahrenheit day side, hot enough to melt steel, to a pitch-black night side with plunging temperatures below 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. (hubblesite.org)
  • Trout, for instance, are cold-water fish best suited for temperatures between 50 and 60 degrees. (durangoherald.com)
  • When temperatures rise past 70 degrees, trout can stop feeding and are more easily at risk of disease. (durangoherald.com)
  • Manatees have trouble surviving in water temperatures below 68 degrees. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • In 2006, a fifteen month-old baby suffered first and second degree burns when he turned on the water in the kitchen sink - which was set to a maximum of 140 degrees - while his mother was mopping the floor. (villagevoice.com)
  • When water temperatures drop to 68 degrees or below, manatees can suffer from cold stress. (wftv.com)
  • The table below shows the near real-time and average water temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). (noaa.gov)
  • The dew point which in our world generally starts when we can get return water temperatures back to our condensing boiler at 134 degrees. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • Temperatures are already rising in northern Utah, about 2 degrees Fahrenheit in the last century, and continue to climb. (scienceblog.com)
  • This means that the water deperature is about 30-40 degrees c instead of the 60 degrees c it should be. (voy.com)
  • Check stream conditions prior to any outing at USGS water gauge - Hogestown. (ecoloinfo.com)
  • Keep tabs on your temps with the most accurate, quickest responding water temperature gauge on the market. (speedwaymotors.com)
  • It is particularly striking and counter-intuitive that some salts can actually cause water to freeze at warmer temperatures than would otherwise be expected", says Thomas. (rsc.org)
  • When a water body's temperature is warmer than the criteria in Table 200 (1)(c) (or within 0.3°C (0.54°F) of the criteria) and that condition is due to natural conditions, then human actions considered cumulatively may not cause the 7-DADMax temperature of that water body to increase more than 0.3°C (0.54°F). (wa.gov)
  • Water is more likely to become anoxic or hypoxic under warmer conditions because of increased bacterial respiration and a decreased ability of water to hold dissolve oxygen. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Not only will temperatures be a little bit cooler for the next several days, but the overall northeast wind will likely push the warmer surface water toward the middle of the lake allowing colder water to rise to the top through the process of upwelling . (woodtv.com)
  • With rising temperatures and prolonged drought, Southwest Colorado's rivers and streams are increasingly running lower and warmer, creating an uncertain future for fish and other aquatic life. (durangoherald.com)
  • We're seeing a lot more brown trout where there used to be rainbow and cutthroats because browns are more tolerant of warmer water," White said. (durangoherald.com)
  • Manatees have migrated to warmer waters in Central Florida to escape cold temperatures. (wftv.com)
  • In Brevard County, colder temperatures are driving manatees to warmer waters. (wftv.com)
  • A buoy located on Lake Mendota in Madison measures the surface water temperature continuously during the warmer months, and is available at http://metobs.ssec.wisc.edu/mendota/buoy/ . (lake-link.com)
  • The picture that emerged was similar, in some ways, to previous research on the water in the Interior West: Warmer temperatures will cause more of the region's precipitation to fall as rain than snow, leading to earlier runoff and less water in creeks and streams in the late summer and fall. (scienceblog.com)
  • They measured how the supercold liquid solidified in the no-man's land temperature range (262 to 126 Kelvin, or 12 to minus 233 Fahrenheit). (energy.gov)
  • From 262 to 126 Kelvin (12 to minus 233 Fahrenheit), water remains a liquid. (energy.gov)
  • What Is the Freezing Point of Water in Fahrenheit? (reference.com)
  • In Three Sisters Springs, a tributary of the Crystal River headwaters, water temperatures hover around 72 degree Fahrenheit year round. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • With the product recognizing a temperature range of 81 to 113 degree Fahrenheit and an option of temperature display in both Fahrenheit and Degree Celsius, it is a smart device that can be used for daily usage. (tuvie.com)
  • In an example of the challenges western cities will face in a warming world, new research shows that every degree Fahrenheit of warming in the Salt Lake City region would mean a significant drop in the annual flow of streams that provide water to the city. (scienceblog.com)
  • Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature. (ambergriscaye.com)
  • A water temperature sensor measures the temperature of water or other medium. (ambientweather.com)
  • With the Garmin GST 10 adapter, you can convert analog information provided via the compatible water-speed sensor, water-temperature sensor, or combined water-speed and water-temperature sensor (not included) on your boat to your NMEA 2000 network. (garmin.com)
  • A system and method for controlling a water heater that operates according to a voltage supply includes a temperature sensor, mounted on at least one of a temperature and pressure (T&P) valve of the water heater and a hot water line of the water heater, that generates a temperature signal corresponding. (google.de)
  • Existing system employs long wired cable with thermal sensor for temperature measurement. (yokogawa.com)
  • For field applications, or where portability is essential, the WET Sensor Kit can be an essential tool for measuring soil water content, EC, and soil temperature. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The passive road sensor IRS31Pro-UMB convinces by its two part housing design and accurate detection of road surface temperature, water film height, freezing temperature, ice percentage and many more. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Smart Temp is a high precision digital temperature sensor that meets USGS guidelines. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This sensor is ideal for high-accuracy readings in water, soil, and air. (environmental-expert.com)
  • We need a hardware solution that is a wireless temperature sensor that is waterproof, and can be submerged underwater. (freelancer.com)
  • Dear Sir, I am a professional Electronics Engineer having expertise in temperature sensor controlling and interfacing. (freelancer.com)
  • I have experience to measure temperature and PH of water with Wi-Fi communication, using waterproof temperature sensor ds18b20. (freelancer.com)
  • Temperatures are recorded along the optical sensor cable, thus not at points, but as a continuous profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these techniques it is possible to analyse distances of greater than 30 km from one system and to measure temperature resolutions of less than 0.01°C. The temperature measuring system consists of a controller (laser source, pulse generator for OTDR or code generator for Code Correlation or modulator and HF mixer for OFDR, optical module, receiver and micro-processor unit) and a quartz glass fibre as line-shaped temperature sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Effect of Salt on the Boiling Temperature of Water" last modified May 13, 2017. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Set too high, or at 140ºF, your water heater can waste anywhere from $36 to $61 annually in standby heat losses and more than $400 in demand losses. (energy.gov)
  • What Is the Specific Heat of Water? (reference.com)
  • Previous studies have focused on the effect of combustion heat on water temperatures during fires and the effect of riparian vegetation losses on postfire water temperatures, but we know of no studies of the effects of wildfire smoke on river or stream water temperatures. (fed.us)
  • Since we are dealing with water of a constant heat capacity, it's not the complicated. (physicsforums.com)
  • If you have x cm 3 of 25 degree water, the heat is proportional to 25x. (physicsforums.com)
  • If you are trying to turn the temperature up, make sure that the heat does not get so high that you risk scalding yourself under the hot water. (doityourself.com)
  • What's been holding them back is that they're inefficient due to the heat required to dry out the water vapor during the regeneration cycle. (prnewswire.com)
  • What I find amazing is that the material runs so cool compared to today's inorganic desiccants, that the previously wasted superheated moisture that was vented outside from industrial dehumidifiers, which people say can be attributed to the heat island climate change effect, can instead be cooled and condensed into a new source of usable water. (prnewswire.com)
  • It was suspected that a steady supply of water is important during extreme heat, says Thomas Seeley at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. (newscientist.com)
  • Water heater thermostats are not very accurate and there is some heat loss between the hot water tank and the tap. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Run the water for a minute or two to heat up the pipes and the glass. (ehow.co.uk)
  • You should be able to find the specific heat of water, the distance to the Sun, and the Sun's radius. (physicsforums.com)
  • If you find the total heat energy absorbed by the water (use the specific heat), and you assume that all the heat entered via the water's surface area, you should be able to calculate the solar constant (W/m^2) and then find the total energy output of the Sun (what's the total energy flux through a spherical surface at the Earth's distance from the Sun? (physicsforums.com)
  • When setback is required, the water temperature to the system should be decreased to provide less heat into the space. (tekmarcontrols.com)
  • During DHW operation, the boiler temperature is normally raised above 180°F (82°C). Once the DHW tank is satisfied, the residual heat. (tekmarcontrols.com)
  • Either electricity or gas can be used in heat water in the tank. (google.es)
  • Geomar Realty also said there was no evidence of how hot the water really was anyway, and that the little boy's parents had the ability to adjust the level to make sure it never got to the maximum heat - which they claimed wasn't "unreasonably dangerous. (villagevoice.com)
  • If, however, you put the frog into a pot of water and slowly turn up the heat, the frog gets used to it. (vaildaily.com)
  • We would then have to compare the baseboard capable output for a water temp based on the heat loss which tells us the water temp you need on your coldest day to heat your home. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • Engines don't like high water temperatures, Heat is the enemy of performance and reliability. (speedwaymotors.com)
  • PACO is a new high-powered industrial heat pump (0.75 MWt) which does not require any chemicals to operate but runs entirely on water. (edf.fr)
  • The model which has been developed meets industry's requirement for heat, particularly for processes requiring low pressure steam and those giving off waste heat in the form of liquid effluent at temperatures below 100°C which can be reused in other processes such as heating, distillation, cooling and so on. (edf.fr)
  • As long as it remains isolated from the surface, where heat or fresh water can be gained or lost, and in the absence of mixing with other water masses, a water parcel's potential temperature and salinity are conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important feature of the AATSR instrument is its capability to measure the world's ocean temperatures, a key parameter to monitor and understand planetary climate changes. (esa.int)
  • About one third of the world's population does not have access to pure water and this technology helps to solve that problem. (prnewswire.com)
  • The astronomers were also able to map temperatures at different layers of the world's atmosphere and traced the amount and distribution of water vapor. (hubblesite.org)
  • The map provides information about temperatures at different layers of the world's atmosphere and traces the amount and distribution of water vapor on the planet. (hubblesite.org)
  • Keep in mind that an electric water heater may have two thermostats-one each for the upper and lower heating elements. (energy.gov)
  • To turn off an electric water heater, switch off the circuit breaker to it. (energy.gov)
  • If you have an electric water heater, turn off the power before removing the metal plate that houses the thermostat. (ehow.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that wildfire smoke can cool summer river and stream water temperatures by attenuating solar radiation and air temperature, we analyzed data on summer wildfire smoke, solar radiation, air temperatures, precipitation, river discharge, and water temperatures in the lower Klamath River Basin in Northern California. (fed.us)
  • The nearest weather station for both precipitation and temperature measurements is FREEPORT 2 NW which is approximately 7 miles away and has an elevation of 8 feet (8 feet higher than Brazos River). (bullies2buddies.com)
  • The team relied on climate model projections of temperature and precipitation in the area, historical data analysis, and a detailed understanding of the region from which the city utility obtains water. (scienceblog.com)
  • To counteract the stream-drying effect of a 5-degree F increase in temperature, annual precipitation would need to increase by about 10 percent. (scienceblog.com)
  • Bowles DS, Fread DL, Grenney WJ (1977) Coupled dynamic streamflow-temperature models. (springer.com)
  • Constantz J (1998) Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams. (springer.com)
  • The study also used NOAA streamflow forecasting models that provide information for Salt Lake City's current water operations and management. (scienceblog.com)
  • Increased temperature can result in marked changes in species composition and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. (europa.eu)
  • It is required that all indigenous fish and nonfish aquatic species be protected in waters of the state in addition to the key species described below. (wa.gov)
  • The key identifying characteristics of this use are spawning or early juvenile rearing by native char (bull trout and Dolly Varden), or use by other aquatic species similarly dependent on such cold water. (wa.gov)
  • Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include spawning outside of the summer season, rearing, and migration by salmonids. (wa.gov)
  • For the protection of waters where the only trout species is a non-anadromous form of self-reproducing interior redband trout (O. mykis), and other associated aquatic life. (wa.gov)
  • c) Aquatic life temperature criteria . (wa.gov)
  • Table 200 (1)(c) lists the temperature criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories. (wa.gov)
  • Bauer S, Olson J, Cockrill A, van Hattem M, Miller L, Tauzer M, Leppig G (2015) Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California Watersheds. (springer.com)
  • Aquatic organisms can only survive within a particular temperature range. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • During the summer, temperatures can rise to the upper 60s, putting aquatic life at risk. (durangoherald.com)
  • But the actual water temperature won't kill bacteria as it can't be too hot or it would burn. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • And while there is a very slight risk of promoting legionellae bacteria when hot water tanks are maintained at 120ºF, this level is still considered safe for the majority of the population. (energy.gov)
  • This high temperature was in order to reduce the chance of spreading Legionnaires' disease - a form of pneumonia caused by the legionella bacteria multiplying in stored hot water of between 20 and 45°C, he added. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Inhaling water vapour contaminated with Legionellosis bacteria causes pneumonia-like symptoms that can kill you if left untreated. (ehow.co.uk)
  • You've probably been told that it's best to wash your hands in hot water because it helps to kill bacteria, but that is actually not the case. (howstuffworks.com)
  • During hot temperatures when the epilimnion layer is unfavorably warm, find the junction of the epilimnion and thermocline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Professor Schaffner also pointed out that using cold water saves more energy than using warm or hot water. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Also speaking to The Telegraph Dr Lisa Ackerley, a food safety advisor for the British Hospitality Association , said that warm water is necessary in order for detergents to work properly. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Warm water is good as it helps the soap to lather and it's the action of washing soap off which helps to get hands clean. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Contrary to popular perception, pure liquid water does not usually freeze at its melting point, 0°C, and can instead supercool to temperatures as low as -38°C. For ice formation to occur at relatively warm temperatures above -20°C a heterogeneous substance (a solid particle), called a nucleator, is required to trigger the initial nucleation event that must precede growth of ice crystals. (rsc.org)
  • She was found unconscious with the hot tap still running and the water, levelling up to her breasts, was still warm. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • I have the temperature set to warm but it keeps changing to hot. (fixya.com)
  • The warm water runs again then will soon change back to hot. (fixya.com)
  • Since U get warm water that tells you that the cold and hot water solenoids are both operating. (fixya.com)
  • Even though warm water isn't killing any germs, experts commonly recommend it for two reasons. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In other words, it's important to use water that is warm but not uncomfortable. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Quick Tips: Should you wash your face with warm or cold water? (howstuffworks.com)
  • The researchers said the difference in dive capacity was due to the fact oxygen stores are consumed more rapidly at warm temperatures, forcing the animals to surface more frequently to breathe or spend longer at the surface recovering between dives. (abc.net.au)
  • Warm spring waters are a sanctuary from cold weather that can kill manatees. (wftv.com)
  • Results of the experiments showed that soil moisture was higher for plants in the cold compared to plants in the warm chamber, and results showed that cold temperatures promoted stomatal closure, higher root resistance, lower stem water potential, lower transpiration, and lower stem water potential. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our modern understanding of plant water relations has mainly evolved from studying growing plants at warm temperatures and in soils of varying moisture contents," Ebel explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Water Temperature data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. (weather.gov)
  • Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our regions. (weather.gov)
  • This result provides scientists with new data with which to revise our fundamental understanding of water. (energy.gov)
  • The session is part of ALLARM and CCCD's water quality "snapshot" for the Conodoguinet Creek watershed, which collects data on stream health once per season. (ecoloinfo.com)
  • They counted more than 5,000 spawning adult horseshoe crabs during that time, and the data revealed that peaks of spawning activity typically coincided with spikes in the bay's water temperature. (unh.edu)
  • I think our data is among the best available to show the impact of water temperature on horseshoe crab spawning activity," said Watson. (unh.edu)
  • Our customer installed base has used millions of pressure data points installed over the past 1.5 years, while thousands of alarms at these utilities have reduced non-revenue water loss. (prweb.com)
  • The iHydrant system provides interval pressure and temperature data as well as configurable alerts for high/low pressure and transient events. (prweb.com)
  • Data is accessible by phone, tablet or computer in an easy to use graphical interface providing real time system temperature and pressure visibility. (prweb.com)
  • Page Contact Information: Texas Water Data Support Team UPDATE November 6, 2020 5:00 pm ET: A fix has been deployed for the issue impacting the delivery of real-time data to NWISWeb which occurred on November 1, 2020. (bullies2buddies.com)
  • More than 100 years of data show water levels in the Animas River are on a downward trend. (durangoherald.com)
  • Graphs current versus historic water temperatures data for scrollcase and fixed monitoring station temperatures at Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, Lower Granite and McNary compared to ten-year average scrollcase temperatures. (fpc.org)
  • Historical water temperature and water elevation data for the Ives Island area. (fpc.org)
  • Use the near real-time water temperature data with discretion, because they may contain errors. (noaa.gov)
  • Temperature data is output to a chart plotter, radar screen, digital display or computer. (thegpsstore.com)
  • Also, the inland lake water temperature is estimated using satellite data, except for Lake Mendota. (lake-link.com)
  • The NWS would appreciate your relaying your reports of near surface or surface water temperature to us so we can verify the temperature data we are estimating from satellites. (lake-link.com)
  • In the current study, the ability of three data-driven methods of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), M5 model tree (M5), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) were investigated in order to model and estimate the dew point temperature (DPT) at Tabriz station, Iran. (mdpi.com)
  • Onset, a world leader in data loggers, today announced that the geophysical laboratory of the University of Washington School of Oceanography has selected HOBO® MX2200 Series water temperature data loggers for seismic data monitoring as part of the Alaska Amphibious Community Seismic Experiment (AACSE). (prweb.com)
  • The data loggers deliver high accuracy and research-grade performance, and can support water depths of up to 1,000 feet. (prweb.com)
  • Because MX2200 Series data loggers are BLE-enabled, researchers will be able to remove the loggers from the water and wirelessly access temperature readings from their mobile phones or tablets. (prweb.com)
  • The accuracy and ruggedness of Onset's MX2200 Series temperature data loggers will play an important role in capturing data that will give us new, more detailed insights into the oceanic activity that affects communities on the Alaskan coast. (prweb.com)
  • Onset is a leading supplier of data loggers and monitoring solutions used to measure, record, and manage data for improving the environment and preserving the quality of temperature-sensitive products. (prweb.com)
  • I want a feature so I can view current temperature using a web browser and ability to log temperature data points with date/time stamp. (freelancer.com)
  • During the experiments trees were watered twice daily--three times on the days data were collected--to minimize drought stress. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Tlwtr (Tailwater) and Frby (Forebay) TDGFMS (Total Dissolved Gas Fixed Monitoring Stations), are temperature probes that are above and below the dam itself, and are used to measure the temperature at the same place dissolved gas is measured as per Boyle's Law. (fpc.org)
  • I have done similar work for a company that manufactures submersible and wireless temperature probes, CO2, etc sensors. (freelancer.com)
  • The grit provides extra grip for car tires, while the salt actually lowers the melting point of water, making it less likely to freeze. (rsc.org)
  • It remains fluid at ultracold temperatures, but it can freeze. (energy.gov)
  • At What Temperature Does Champagne Freeze? (reference.com)
  • There, water adsorbed on the surface of these particles can freeze at higher temperatures than pure water droplets, triggering rain and snow. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have known for a while now that diving capacity in many ectotherms, such as marine and freshwater turtles, sea snakes and iguanas is generally compromised at high water temperatures. (abc.net.au)
  • Lake and river surface water temperatures are projected to increase with further projected increases in air temperature. (europa.eu)
  • The surface water temperatures of major rivers in Europe have increased by 1-3 °C over the last century. (europa.eu)
  • An image of the waters around Spain's Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea showing differences in surface water temperatures captured by Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). (esa.int)
  • Simply find the depth corresponding to the preferred temperature range of the fish species you are seeking. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Protection for waters where the dominant species under natural conditions would be temperature tolerant indigenous nonsalmonid species. (wa.gov)
  • This smoke-induced cooling has the potential to benefit cold-water adapted species, particularly because wildfires are more likely to occur during the warmest and driest years and seasons. (fed.us)
  • We provide an example of how species composition (e.g. diatoms ) can change with water temperature in Figure 1. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • As a result of water-quality issues, CPW tends to stock more hardy species that have a better chance at surviving. (durangoherald.com)
  • Central Florida anglers will find that water temperatures and weather conditions will play key roles in the availability of species in December. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Colder, windy conditions will limit anglers' access to tropical species and their abilities to fish offshore or in the open waters of Central Florida's larger lakes. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The next two months will see water temperatures ''turn over,'' and as this proceeds, fishing will improve for certain species.Bass in particular are much easier to find during this period. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Lower pressure lowers the water's vapor point and allows it to boil at lower temperatures. (reference.com)
  • But on "hot Jupiters" - that is, large planets like Jupiter that have high surface temperatures because they orbit very close to their stars - water is in a vapor that can be readily traced. (hubblesite.org)
  • Calculations of equilibrium temperatures under a water vapor canopy which minimizes the greenhouse effect show that if the solar constant was less than 25% of today's value the surface temperature would be livable. (icr.org)
  • In fact, for a solar constant approaching 1% of today's value it appears that a dense water vapor canopy would be necessary to avoid the entire atmosphere, including the oxygen and nitrogen, from precipitating to the surface as snow. (icr.org)
  • If appropriate conditions can be demonstrated which justify the assumption of a much lower solar constant than typically studied, these calculations could revive consideration of an early Earth covered by a water vapor canopy. (icr.org)
  • For this purpose, meteorological parameters of daily average temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), actual vapor pressure (V p ), wind speed (W), and sunshine hours (S) were obtained from the meteorological organization of East Azerbaijan province, Iran for the period 1998 to 2016. (mdpi.com)
  • One longstanding question has been a measurement of what's called the mantle's potential temperature. (eurekalert.org)
  • The RTD cable probe is easy to install and provide a high operational safety due to reliable and accurate temperature measurement in common processes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Vaisala Humicap HMP155 humidity and temperature probe provides reliable humidity and temperature measurement. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Typically the DTS systems can locate the temperature to a spatial resolution of 1 m with accuracy to within ±1°C at a resolution of 0.01°C. Measurement distances of greater than 30 km can be monitored and some specialised systems can provide even tighter spatial resolutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical measurement dimensions, such as temperature or pressure and tensile forces, can affect glass fibres and locally change the characteristics of light transmission in the fibre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electric water heaters, on the other hand, may have thermostats positioned behind screw-on plates or panels. (energy.gov)
  • Although manufacturer's usually set water heaters at 60C, you can reduce your carbon footprint and save money by adjusting your boiler's hot water thermostat. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Electric storage tank type hot water heaters are often fitted with two thermostats -- one at the top, and one at the bottom of the tank. (ehow.co.uk)
  • On many gas water heaters, the temperature control is located near the bottom of the tank. (ehow.com)
  • Many boilers or water heaters have two stage burners. (tekmarcontrols.com)
  • Precisely engineered accessories can add even more reliability, convenience and flexibility to Rinnai Tankless Water Heaters. (homedepot.com)
  • Measure the beginning temperature of your hot water using a thermometer at the tap farthest from the water heater. (energy.gov)
  • Wait a couple of hours, and then measure the water temperature again at the farthest tap from the water heater. (energy.gov)
  • Measure temperature. (vernier.com)
  • Researchers used a three-step process to measure water's properties in a "no-man's land" temperature range, which was previously inaccessible. (energy.gov)
  • Water temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of water (or the kinetic energy). (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • By observing the planet's rotation, the astronomers were also able to measure the water abundances and temperatures at different longitudes. (hubblesite.org)
  • Distributed temperature sensing systems (DTS) are optoelectronic devices which measure temperatures by means of optical fibres functioning as linear sensors. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you think about it, it's obvious that salty water freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water - that's why it has to be a very cold day indeed before the sea freezes over. (rsc.org)
  • Upon cooling back to the lower temperature, the team probed the physical state of the film using infrared spectroscopy. (energy.gov)
  • Consult your water heater owner's manual for instructions on how to operate the thermostat. (energy.gov)
  • You can find a thermostat dial for a gas storage water heater near the bottom of the tank on the gas valve. (energy.gov)
  • Mark the beginning temperature on your water heater thermostat with a marker, and then turn the thermostat down. (energy.gov)
  • If you are satisfied with the temperature, mark the new temperature on the water heater thermostat with a marker, so that you can make adjustments in the future if necessary. (energy.gov)
  • If you plan to be away from home for at least 3 days, turn the thermostat down to the lowest setting or completely turn off the water heater. (energy.gov)
  • Reduce the thermostat setting on your water heater by the appropriate amount. (ehow.co.uk)
  • For example, if the delivery temperature is 53C, lower the thermostat by 4C to 5C. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Rotate the thermostat control slightly before testing the tap water temperature. (ehow.com)
  • 4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 2 further comprising a solenoid valve that closes the inlet when a signal is received from the thermostat in the end of the chamber toward which the piston is moving that water being expelled from that chamber is not sufficiently heated. (google.es)
  • I have a Seamaster 27 with a 1600 ohv petrol Wortham Blake engine without a thermostat , recentley I had to change the water cooled exhaust manifold as it had split.The new replacement originally for a Watermota engine has slightly different water connections. (voy.com)
  • Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. (energy.gov)
  • Determining the potential temperature of a mantle system allows scientists better to understand flow pathways and conductivity beneath the Earth's crust. (eurekalert.org)
  • Water temperature influences the density, conductivity and pH of a water column. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • WET Water, Conductivity& Temp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Conductivity/TDS, pH & Temperature. (environmental-expert.com)
  • When the water reaches maximum temperature, drop a cooking thermometer into the glass to get an accurate reading. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The landlords, Geomar Realty, LLC argued that landlords aren't responsible for tenants who burn themselves with hot water, as long as they maintain a safe maximum temperature in the building. (villagevoice.com)
  • The major seasonal cause of water temperature change is due to the change in solar insolation in addition to currents and local hydrodynamics. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Topography plays a big role in how watershed boundaries are … At the moment the current water temperature is 52°F and the average water temperature is 52°F. NAD83/WGS84, Search by city or zip code. (bullies2buddies.com)
  • Thermometer for testing the water temperature. (energy.gov)
  • Hold a cooking thermometer in the water and take a temperature reading. (ehow.com)
  • River Danube (1901-1998), Lake Võrtsjärv (1947-2011), and average water temperature in August in Lake Saimaa, Finland (1924-2011). (europa.eu)
  • For example, the average temperature in the Rhine near Basel has risen by more than 2 °C in the last 50 years (Figure 1) [i] . (europa.eu)
  • The annual average temperature of the Danube increased by around by 1 °C during the last century. (europa.eu)
  • Except where noted, water temperature is measured by the 7-day average of the daily maximum temperatures (7-DADMax). (wa.gov)
  • Temperatures are not to exceed the criteria at a probability frequency of more than once every ten years on average. (wa.gov)
  • What Is the Average Temperature of Earth at Night? (reference.com)
  • Linear mixed-effects models showed that on average, smoke cooled daily maximum and mean air temperatures by 0.98 °C and 0.47 °C per 1.0 AOT, respectively, across 19 remote automated weather stations. (fed.us)
  • On average, smoke cooled daily maximum and mean water temperatures by 1.32 °C and 0.74 °C per 1.0 AOT, respectively. (fed.us)
  • Potential temperature is a quantification of the average temperature of a dynamic system if every part of it were theoretically brought to the same pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • It features the ability to automatically sample temperature and calculate minimum, maximum, and average temperatures on a flexible time scale. (environmental-expert.com)
  • At night the average minimum temperature drops down to around 19°C, that's 66°F. Major lowland flooding begins with backwater flooding up the Little Brazos River as far as FM 1687. (bullies2buddies.com)
  • Today there was 09 hours and 41 minutes of sun and the average temperature is 53°F. 2 Fort Worth teens found dead after fishing on Brazos River at Possum Kingdom Lake dam The Texas Game Wardens worked with a number of other agencies to … In Burleson County signficant backwater flooding up Cedar, Copper, and Dead Creeks occurs. (bullies2buddies.com)
  • And they're certainly no strangers to above-average temperatures and low-water years. (durangoherald.com)
  • Graphs the daily average forebay water temperature for current year, last year, 10 year average and 8 other prior years for the selected dam. (fpc.org)
  • They found while all study animals dived to the same depth and at the same frequency, those diving in 28-degree water spent an average of 36.8 minutes underwater, while crocs diving in 31.5 and 35-degree waters spent an average of only 23.5 and 21.3 minutes submerged respectively. (abc.net.au)
  • Non-linked temperatures in the monthly columns are average water temperatures. (noaa.gov)
  • While the impacts of a temperature increase would vary among the region's watersheds, the stream flow would decline by 1.8 to 6.5 percent for each degree of temperature rise, with an average reduction of 3.8 percent. (scienceblog.com)
  • Increases in surface water temperature were also found in some large lakes. (europa.eu)
  • However, this high temperature significantly increases the risk of scalding. (energy.gov)
  • Incremental temperature increases resulting from individual point source activities must not, at any time, exceed 28/(T+7) as measured at the edge of a mixing zone boundary (where 'T' represents the background temperature as measured at a point or points unaffected by the discharge and representative of the highest ambient water temperature in the vicinity of the discharge). (wa.gov)
  • Incremental temperature increases resulting from the combined effect of all nonpoint source activities in the water body must not, at any time, exceed 2.8°C (5.04°F). (wa.gov)
  • There is rising concern about increases in stream temperature with projected climate changes and human-related water activities. (springer.com)
  • There are newer models out which also register oxygen content, pH, and water clarity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other factors such as light intensity, water clarity, pH, and oxygen content influence the fish by forcing them to migrate where these factors are favorable. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The black boxes highlight the locations of olivine grains, and the dark pits in the olivines are actual measurements for the water content of the olivine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Changes in citrus water relations during cold acclimation and independent of soil moisture content are not well understood. (innovations-report.com)
  • Leaf relative water content was not different for cold-acclimated trees compared with the control trees. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, it should be noted that the low intensity irrigation schedule has lower impacts on increasing stream temperature, whereas the high intensity irrigation schedule will further exacerbate the rise of stream temperature. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the different impacts of climate change scenarios and irrigation schedules on stream temperature can help identify climate-sensitive regions, climate-sensitive seasons and water diversion schedules as well as assist in planning for climate change and social adaptive management. (springer.com)
  • Many western water suppliers are aware that climate change will have impacts, but they don't have detailed information that can help them plan for the future," said lead author Tim Bardsley of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES). (scienceblog.com)
  • We are using the findings of this sensitivity analysis to better understand the range of impacts we might experience under climate change scenarios," said co-author Laura Briefer, water resources manager at the Salt Lake City Department of Public Utilities. (scienceblog.com)
  • Understanding the underlying mechanisms and adaptive value of a behavioral response nonetheless is helpful when considering the influence of anthropogenic or human-caused changes in water temperature on salmonid populations. (usda.gov)
  • Unnatural changes in water temperature are a suggested indicator of water quality in the ANZECC & ARMCANZ guidelines 1 . (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Great Bay is an ideal location to study this topic due to the gradual changes in water temperature and salinity from the ocean into the estuary. (unh.edu)
  • The bridge is still passable but water levels are rising. (bullies2buddies.com)
  • So if you're a cold water fish, and the water temperature keeps rising on you, you don't have a lot of options to cool off. (durangoherald.com)
  • Young saltwater crocodiles take shorter dives and put their safety at risk when faced with long-term exposure to rising water temperatures, according to new research. (abc.net.au)
  • We don't take charge and make changes because we don't pause long enough to realize that the temperature is rising and it's getting hot! (vaildaily.com)
  • Humans begin to feel a burning pain when skin temperature rises to 111 de. (reference.com)
  • A recent study of the upper Dolores River basin looked at what would happen to 40 or so trout streams under different climate scenarios, taking into account faster than normal temperature rises driven by climate change. (durangoherald.com)
  • Forebay water temperatures are graphed from April 1 through August 31. (fpc.org)
  • Two thirds of the increase at the downstream Rhine is attributed to the increased use of cooling water and one third to the increase in air temperature as a result of climate change [ii] . (europa.eu)
  • Here, we investigate the responses to climate change and water diversions in Eel River basin. (springer.com)
  • The results show that stream temperature will increase throughout the basin in the future under two climate change representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) and will also be influenced by the water diversion activities schedules. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, both climate change and water diversion activities can substantially cause the rise of more than 2 °C in stream temperature. (springer.com)
  • What we didn't know is whether crocodiles can adjust to the long-term elevations in water temperatures that are predicted to come with climate change. (abc.net.au)
  • A group of springs located in the mantled karst of the Yellow Breeches Creek drainage basin was sampled at their confluence at Huntsdale State Fish Culture Station of The discharge is not expected to affect public water … View All Outdoor Activities Most of the runoff results from snowmelt and rainfall in spring and early summer. (ecoloinfo.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 10 further comprising selectively actuating the switching module further based on a predetermined minimum temperature. (google.de)
  • Water with salt dissolved in it, for example, boils at higher temperatures than distilled water. (reference.com)
  • Graphs current water temperatures for scrollcase and fixed monitoring station temperatures at Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, Lower Granite and McNary. (fpc.org)
  • The scrollcase temperature is measured generally once per day, and the scrollcase, although at a different elevation in each dam, is useful indicator of the temperature that the fish passing through the juvenile bypass system experience. (fpc.org)
  • Physical modelling studies predict that temperatures will increase more in the upper regions of the water column than in the lower regions, resulting in generally steeper vertical temperature gradients and enhanced thermal stability [vii] . (europa.eu)
  • The Salmonid family are cold-blooded organisms that can respond to an uncomfortable water temperature by moving from one spot to another to maintain thermal comfort. (usda.gov)
  • If the reason they move is because of a discrepancy between the temperature of the surrounding water and a "set point" in their brains that registers thermal comfort, their response is known as behavioral thermoregulation. (usda.gov)
  • Sometimes water temperature stimulates behavior that has nothing to do with thermal comfort. (usda.gov)
  • A theoretical model has been developed to obtain the transient temperature and humidity distributions inside a thermal storage unit in partially wet conditions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Discharges of 'cooling' waters from power plants and municipal or industrial effluent are sources of thermal pollution in the coastal zone. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • The results of deferrization of glass quartz sands by flotation during thermal action on water wetting films are presented. (springer.com)
  • If you have a suppressed immune system or chronic respiratory disease, you may consider keeping your hot water tank at 140ºF. (energy.gov)
  • Controlling your hot water tank temperature can help to prolong the life of your tank, but it can sometimes be more difficult than it looks. (doityourself.com)
  • This little device will often be screwed to the tank on a gas hot water system, but may be hidden behind metal cover plates in electrical systems. (doityourself.com)
  • If you have an oil-powered water heater, there will be a knob on the side of the water tank. (ehow.com)
  • To ensure that the DHW tank is up to temperature after the DHW Setback period the control must raise the tank. (tekmarcontrols.com)
  • During the night, or when people are not within the building, energy can be saved by lowering the DHW tank temperature. (tekmarcontrols.com)
  • Water is heated in a drum-shaped tank that is divided into two chambers by a piston that can slide longitudinally within the tank. (google.es)
  • Attached to the tank is a reverse value that can direct cold water from. (google.es)
  • Attached to the tank is a reverse value that can direct cold water from an inlet into either chamber and direct heated water from the other chamber to an outlet leading to a heated water use. (google.es)
  • When the water heater is used for domestic hot water, the tank is much larger than when used as an enema device. (google.es)
  • When the crocs were exposed to a frightening noise - a plastic lid being banged on the back of the dive tank - submergence times halved with every 3.5-degree water temperature increase. (abc.net.au)
  • As expected, they found that sea salt inhibits nucleation, meaning that it lowers the freezing temperature, but surprisingly they found that another type of salt - ammonium sulphate - enhances it, meaning it raises the freezing temperature. (rsc.org)
  • Many factors influence the temperature at which water boils. (reference.com)
  • Adding salt to water raises the temperature at which the water boils. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In oceanography, temperature-salinity diagrams, sometimes called T-S diagrams, are used to identify water masses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a T-S diagram, rather than plotting each water property as a separate "profile," with pressure or depth as the vertical coordinate, potential temperature (on the vertical axis) is plotted versus salinity (on the horizontal axis). (wikipedia.org)
  • At this juncture the most oxygen and somewhat cooler temperatures will be found. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The longer nights are bringing cooler temperatures to the Far North. (woodtv.com)
  • Juvenile estuarine crocodiles were unable to adjust to long-term (30 days) elevations in water temperatures, which suggested their diving performance would likely be compromised under future climate warming,' Ms Rodgers said. (abc.net.au)
  • Streams at lower elevations are more sensitive to increasing temperatures, especially from May through September, and city water experts may need to rely on less-sensitive, higher-elevation sources in late summer and/or more water storage. (scienceblog.com)
  • The angler should know how to locate fish by temperature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So temperature influences the angler ' s fly selection, size, presentation and retrieve. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They found that the potential temperature of the mantle beneath the oceanic crust is hotter than had previously been estimated. (eurekalert.org)
  • However the hotter setting caused error codes because the burner cannot keep up with both high temperature and large volume of hot water rushing through pipe. (fixya.com)
  • In light of this, researchers have made a point that it is more important to ensure people washed their hands at all - especially before preparing food and after using the lavatory - than it is to insist on using hot water. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Some salts may actually raise the freezing temperature of water, rather than lowering it, say researchers from the University of Leeds. (rsc.org)
  • When the researchers restored water access, the hives cooled below the lethal threshold. (newscientist.com)
  • But the researchers weren't sure how the water collectors knew when more liquid was needed. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers have long focused on how honeybees gather pollen and nectar , while spending relatively little time investigating water collection, says Susan Nicolson at the University of Pretoria in South Africa. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers at Spain's Centre d'Investigació en Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (CIN2) have studied the underlying mechanisms of water condensation in the troposphere and found a way to make artificial materials to control water condensation and trigger ice formation at room temperature. (eurekalert.org)
  • Small amounts of water have a big effect on melting temperature, and this is the first time experiments have ever been conducted to determine precisely how the mantle's melting temperature depends on such small amounts of water," Hauri said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Evidence suggests that at least some changes in plant water deficits occur as a result of cold temperatures and not dry soil," noted Robert Ebel, lead author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Several workers have investigated the diffusion of water in soil under a temperature gradient above the freezing point. (asce.org)
  • Y. Xu, N.G. Petrik, R.S. Smith, B.D. Kay, and G.A. Kimmel, " The growth rate of crystalline ice and the diffusivity of supercooled water from 126 K to 262 K ." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113 (52), 14921(2016). (energy.gov)
  • Cheng ST, Wiley MJ (2016) A reduced parameter stream temperature model (RPSTM) for basin-wide simulation. (springer.com)
  • How Does Temperature Affect Solubility? (reference.com)
  • In addition, solubility of gases (e.g. dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide ) decreases with increasing temperature (solubility being the maximum amount of gas that can be dissolved in a given volume of water). (ozcoasts.org.au)