Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Water SofteningRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Grindelia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain triterpenoid sapogenins.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Water Pollution, RadioactiveGarbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Perilla frutescens: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Nyctaginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluoride PoisoningEnterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Prosopis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of prosopis gum.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Legionellosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Simazine: A triazine herbicide.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dracunculus Nematode: A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Larrea: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. It is sometimes called chaparral but that is a generic word which is used with a number of other plants. Members contain NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.BrazilRain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Communicable DiseasesDecontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.EnglandDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)VietnamCampylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.WalesParasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.IndiaInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.United StatesEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (1/2621)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Needs assessment following hurricane Georges--Dominican Republic, 1998. (2/2621)

Hurricane Georges struck the Carribean Islands in September 1998, causing numerous deaths and extensive damage throughout the region. The Dominican Republic was hardest hit, with approximately 300 deaths; extensive infrastructure damage; and severe agricultural losses, including staple crops of rice, plantain, and cassava. Two months after the hurricane, the American Red Cross (ARC) was asked to provide food to an estimated 170,000 families affected by the storm throughout the country. To assist in directing relief efforts, CDC performed a needs assessment to estimate the food and water availability, sanitation, and medical needs of the hurricane-affected population. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicate that, 2 months after the disaster, 40% of selected families had insufficient food > or =5 days per and 28% of families reported someone in need of medical attention.  (+info)

Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water. (3/2621)

We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) pattern analyses were done with AseI. The LRF patterns of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight hospitals had varying degrees of relatedness to 19 clinical isolates recovered from 17 patients. The high number of M. avium isolates recovered from hospital water and their close relationship with clinical isolates suggests the potential threat of nosocomial spread. This study supports the possibility that potable water is a source for the acquisition of M. avium infections.  (+info)

High-performance liquid chromatography column switching applied to the trace determination of herbicides in environmental and drinking water samples. (4/2621)

A selective and sensitive coupled-column high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the simultaneous determination of 5 phenylurea herbicides (monuron, linuron, isoproturon, monolinuron, and diuron) in environmental and drinking water samples. Sample clean-up is performed automatically by means of a column switching technique. Using 2 octadecyl silica columns connected via two programmable 6-port valves and ultraviolet detection at 244 nm, the aforementioned compounds can be determined at the low concentration levels required for pesticide residue analysis in water samples. A mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol-water (55:45, v/v) is pumped at 1 mL/min. For the 5 phenylureas, high recoveries ranging from 94.9 to 101.6%, good reproducibility with relative standard deviations lower than 5%, and wide linear ranges up to 20 micrograms/L are observed with determination limits of 0.05 microgram/L. The method is successfully applied to the screening of different environmental water samples such as surface, ground, rain, and drinking water.  (+info)

Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts and the risk of colon-rectum, lung, and other cancers. (5/2621)

We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the relationship between cancer of the colon-rectum (n = 326), lung (n = 252), brain (n = 37), and pancreas (n = 37), and exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from public drinking water. Subjects were exposed to PCE when it leached from the vinyl lining of drinking-water distribution pipes. Relative delivered dose of PCE was estimated using a model that took into account residential location, years of residence, water flow, and pipe characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for lung cancer were moderately elevated among subjects whose exposure level was above the 90th percentile whether or not a latent period was assumed [ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 3.7 (1.0-11.7), 3.3 (0.6-13.4), 6.2 (1.1-31.6), and 19.3 (2.5-141.7) for 0, 5, 7, and 9 years of latency, respectively]. The adjusted ORs for colon-rectum cancer were modestly elevated among ever-exposed subjects as more years of latency were assumed [OR and CI, 1.7 (0.8-3.8) and 2.0 (0.6-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These elevated ORs stemmed mainly from associations with rectal cancer. Adjusted ORs for rectal cancer among ever-exposed subjects were more elevated [OR and CI, 2.6 (0. 8-6.7) and 3.1 (0.7-10.9) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively] than were corresponding estimates for colon cancer [OR and CI, 1.3 (0.5-3.5) and 1.5 (0.3-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These results provide evidence for an association between PCE-contaminated public drinking water and cancer of the lung and, possibly, cancer of the colon-rectum.  (+info)

The role of humic substances in drinking water in Kashin-Beck disease in China. (6/2621)

We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays in a selenium-deficient system to determine if organic matter (mainly fulvic acid; FA) is involved in a free radical mechanism of action for Kashin-Beck disease. Cartilage cell culture experiments indicated that the oxy or hydroxy functional groups in FA may interfere with the cell membrane and result in enhancement of lipid peroxidation. Experiments with rats demonstrated that toxicity from FA was reduced when the hydroxy group was blocked. Induction of lipid peroxidation by FA in liver and blood of rats was similar to that exhibited by acetyl phenyl hydrazine. FA accumulated in bone and cartilage, where selenium rarely concentrates. In addition, selenium supplementation in rats' drinking water inhibited the generation of oxy-free radicals in bone. We hypothesized that FA in drinking water is an etiological factor of Kashin-Beck disease and that the mechanism of action involves the oxy and hydroxy groups in FA for the generation of free radicals. Selenium was confirmed to be a preventive factor for Kashin-Beck disease.  (+info)

Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade. (7/2621)

At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.  (+info)

Criteria for successful sanitation programmes in low income countries. (8/2621)

In the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90), the development of a consensus on the concept of sanitation and the planning and implementation of effective and efficient sanitation programmes was not emphasized. Yet lack of good sanitation is a growing burden and environmental threat. Significant improvement of human health cannot be achieved without good environmental sanitation conditions and practices. A consensus on what makes a sanitation programme successful can help to conserve limited funds and spend those available more wisely. It will also help to reduce the increasing flows of waste poisoning precious sources of drinking water. This article was written to stimulate discussion on what attributes can be taken as characteristic of good environmental sanitation programmes, and on which indicators can be used to assess those attributes in actual sanitation programmes.  (+info)

  • Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project ''Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia'', funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. (kit.edu)
  • Acknowledge potential water supply issues identified in your community's water supply profile ( Appendix 1 of the Master Water Supply Plan ) and support partnerships to address them in local water plans and water appropriation permit applications. (metrocouncil.org)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates 42 million Americans (mostly in rural America) get their water from private wells or other small, unregulated water systems. (tn.gov)
  • The regulations require local authorities to risk assess and monitor private water private distribution systems. (peterborough.gov.uk)
  • This UFC provides general technical guidance for operating and maintaining potable water systems that are fit for human consumption (FFHC), at fixed military installations. (wbdg.org)
  • Water Utilities and Supply Systems Revenues Market Size Forecasts Benchmarks Analysis industry's financial results, ratios, statistics, metrics, historic financials and forecast growth rates in one package, 60 to 70 pages. (plunkettresearch.com)
  • Comparisons and benchmarks of all financial statement items for the leading companies within the Water Utilities and Supply Systems Revenues Market Size Forecasts Benchmarks Analysis industry, both current year and historical comparisons. (plunkettresearch.com)
  • Water Utilities and Supply Systems Industry (U.S.): Analytics, Extensive Financial Benchmarks, Metrics and Revenue Forecasts to 2025, NAIC 221310 Vital industry-specific data including metrics, benchmarks, historic numbers, growth rates and forecasts that will save countless hours of research. (plunkettresearch.com)
  • Key Findings: - Water Utilities and Supply Systems Industry (U.S.) to reach $16,940 million by 2025. (plunkettresearch.com)
  • Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems. (ed.gov)
  • The three common types of water wells are drilled, dug or driven. (tn.gov)
  • Water supply wells that are dug rather than drilled or driven tend to use shallow water and, like surface water, are more likely to be contaminated. (tn.gov)
  • EPA's publication Drinking Water From Household Wells has more information on private water wells. (tn.gov)
  • In karst areas, wells of any type can pose a health risk because the water is under the direct influence of surface water and is more easily contaminated from runoff. (tn.gov)
  • Water wells should also be placed away from areas where pesticides or fertilizers are stored or handled. (tn.gov)
  • The remainder of the Town's water supply was provided by the Keyes and Kokko Wells. (epa.gov)
  • In 1983, following closure of the contaminated water supply wells, the EPA provided bottled water to 75 residents at the Millhaven Mobile Home Park who were affected by contaminated well water. (epa.gov)
  • Communities without public water supplies do not need to prepare a water supply plan, but should include information about plans to protect private water supplies in appropriate sections of the local comprehensive plan, described in the sections on conservation and reuse, source water protection, and sub-regional collaboration. (metrocouncil.org)
  • He has vast experience in designing various infrastructure projects (like Water Supply Network, Reuse Water Supply network, Sewerage Network, and Stormwater Drainage). (gharpedia.com)
  • We provided permitting, engineering design, and construction administration services for the water supply infrastructure to serve a 620 megawatt, gas fired power plant located on 137 acres in Middletown, Connecticut. (miloneandmacbroom.com)
  • One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. (kit.edu)
  • Grundfos has taken the mystery out of controlling variable water pressure for the end-user. (grundfos.com)
  • The Grundfos CM Booster PM1 is a compact booster set for water supply in domestic applications. (grundfos.com)
  • To ensure a sustainable water supply for the region's current and future generations, we need to integrate water supply planning with land and resource planning. (metrocouncil.org)
  • The Tualatin Basin Water Supply Project (TBWSP) is an investment in the health and sustainability of the region's watershed, economy, and community. (deainc.com)
  • EPA's Drinking Water website provides additional information on conditions that might prompt you to test your well water. (tn.gov)
  • Always have test results interpreted and explained to you by a staff member of TDEC's Division of Water Resources at 1-800-523-4873, or call EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791. (tn.gov)
  • The Savage Municipal Well operated from 1960 to 1983, during which it supplied approximately 45 percent of Milford's drinking water, averaging about 200,000 gallons per day. (epa.gov)
  • The Savage Municipal Well and a nearby contaminated well supplying drinking water to a trailer park were later closed. (epa.gov)
  • As we'll discuss shortly, it's not easy to get infected, and drinking the water poses no risk. (wyso.org)
  • But still, finding such a dangerous microbe in the drinking water is troubling and noteworthy. (wyso.org)
  • This is the first time that it has been found in the drinking water in the United States," Louisiana state epidemiologist Raoult Ratard tells Shots. (wyso.org)
  • Drinking amoeba-contaminated water poses no risk, presumably because the single-celled organisms can't survive in stomach acid. (wyso.org)
  • The Melbourne Retail Water Agencies (MRWA) Edition Version 2.0 of the Water Supply Code of Australia, WSA 03-2011 Version 3.1 addresses the planning, design, construction, testing and commissioning of drinking water and non-drinking water supplies. (wsaa.asn.au)
  • In response to the challenges of achieving universal access to safe, affordable drinking water and sustaining those services, there has been increasing innovation in different types of rural water service models. (rural-water-supply.net)
  • Biological stability refers to the inability of drinking water to support microbial growth. (lib4ri.ch)
  • This study highlights the descriptive value of alternative parameters such as flow-cytometric TCC for drinking water analysis, and pinpoints some of the key aspects regarding biological stability in drinking water without disinfectant residuals. (lib4ri.ch)
  • The Water Supply Project was set up in 2009 to find additional water supply for the district's future needs. (kapiticoast.govt.nz)
  • One of the inhabitants, Mr. Mantai Salih, said that before the implementation of the project they were compelled to travel long distance to fetch water that was not even up to standard but now the problem has been solved. (shabait.com)
  • The project was awarded the 2011 Achievement in Civil Engineering (ACE) for Water Resources / Environmental Engineering by the Connecticut Society of Civil Engineers. (miloneandmacbroom.com)
  • The project was part of Ghana's plan to improve access to potable water for over 500,000 residents in more than 50 residential areas. (tahal.com)
  • Work with partners to evaluate relationships between aquifer withdrawals and surface water features. (metrocouncil.org)
  • If a connection is likely, management plans should include aquifer testing, monitoring water levels and pumping rates and surface water flow, triggers and actions to protect aquifer levels, a schedule for periodic analysis of data to identify the need for action to mitigate impacts, and a schedule for periodic and timely reporting to DNR. (metrocouncil.org)
  • Explore and support water demand (water conservation and efficiency) programs such as incentives, ordinances, education and outreach, rates and other approaches, the metropolitan Council's Water Conservation Toolbox can support these efforts. (metrocouncil.org)
  • In addition, DEA developed an innovative, environmental functions-based approach to mitigation planning with the intent of meeting Clean Water Services' holistic approach to meeting its basin-wide conservation goals. (deainc.com)
  • We really want to get the message out to everyone who may be affected by bushfires that their usual public water supply may not be available. (wa.gov.au)
  • From 2003 through mid-2012, DEA worked with Clean Water Services and the Water Supply Partners to provide environmental planning and permitting assistance for the TBWSP. (deainc.com)
  • Sampling is also on an annual basis where the supply serves fifty or more people. (east-ayrshire.gov.uk)
  • Brain infections from the amoeba usually pop up in late summer, when warm water favors its reproduction and many people are diving into ponds to escape the heat. (wyso.org)
  • Since uncounted numbers of people swim in waters that undoubtedly contain amoebae, Ratard says, it's a wonder there aren't more infections. (wyso.org)
  • Modern technologies have brought a high degree of comfort to people within their homes by providing a strong water supply. (grundfos.com)
  • Technical advances, regulatory adjustments and subregional developments can present new opportunities for local water suppliers to enhance the resiliency, sustainability, and affordability of their water suppliers. (metrocouncil.org)
  • Water in karst areas can flow very quickly, allowing it to move chemical and biological contaminants long distances. (tn.gov)
  • Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. (kit.edu)
  • For instance, in 2011 two Louisiana residents - one a 20-year-old man from St. Bernard Parish - died of amoebic encephalitis after using tap water to rinse their nasal passages, using a popular device called a neti pot . (wyso.org)
  • Residents living in or near bushland are reminded not to rely on public water supplies if they plan to stay and defend their homes during a bushfire. (wa.gov.au)
  • Residents need to have an independent water supply, such as a concrete or steel tank with a minimum 20,000 litre capacity. (wa.gov.au)