Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.PolysaccharidesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Glycoside HydrolasesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Water SofteningChromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Sugar AcidsDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Tetanus ToxoidFucoseGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HexosaminesBacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Deoxy SugarsPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.HexosesSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.GlucosamineEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Sarcoma 180Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.ArabinoseXyloseHeptosesMeningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Sargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Mice, Inbred BALB CGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
"Structural features and hypoglycemic activities of two polysaccharides from a hot-water extract of Agrocybe cylindracea". ... Kiho T, Yamane A, Hui J, Usui S, Ukai S (1996). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS ... Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG (2002). "Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on ... Kiho T, Hui J, Yamane A, Ukai S (1993). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a ...
Defaye J, Kohlmunzer S, Sodzawiczny K, Wong E (1988). "Structure of an antitumor, water-soluble D-glucan from the carpophores ... doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)90829-2. Kucharska E, Bober J (2004). "Fungal polysaccharides as immunostimulators". Advances in ...
The main storage polysaccharides include starch. These are broken down into shorter, water-soluble molecules such as fructose, ... During ripening, a lot of the pectin is converted from a water-insoluble form to a soluble one by certain degrading enzymes. ... In fruit, the cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides including pectin. ... Enzymatic breakdown and hydrolysis of storage polysaccharides occurs during ripening. ...
... polysaccharides are not water-soluble, but their many hydroxy groups become hydrated individually when exposed to water, and ... some polysaccharides form thick colloidal dispersions when heated in water. Shorter polysaccharides, with 3 - 10 monomers, are ... Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars, form a bond with removal of water. They can be ... Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates. They have multiple simple sugars. Examples are ...
Most live in fresh water, but some are found in marine and soil habitats. They vary from single-celled flagellates to simple ... Their storage polysaccharide is chrysolaminarin. Xanthophyte cell walls are produced of cellulose and hemicellulose. They ...
Jeanes, Allene; Knutson, C. A.; Pittsley, J. E.; Watson, P. R. (February 1965). "Extracellular polysaccharide produced from ... Desalination and Water Treatment. 57 (33): 15445-15454. doi:10.1080/19443994.2015.1073181. Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Wahba, Marwa ... Siddiqui, I.R. (June 1967). "An extracellular polysaccharide from Arthrobacter viscosus". Carbohydrate Research. 4 (4): 277-283 ...
It is a highly branched, water-soluble polysaccharide derived from glucose. It is can be found in millets grown in Central and ... The special structure of the phytoglycogen allows it to have low viscosity, high water retention, as well as high stability in ... Phytoglycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide used to store glucose in a similar way that glycogen is the glucose storage ... water, and stabilize bioactive compounds and form films on surfaces. Thus, this monodisperse nanoparticle is able to be used in ...
The effect of, greater or lesser, water intake on weight loss and on constipation is also still unclear. The original water ... Dietary fibre is a carbohydrate (polysaccharide or oligosaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals ... In particular large amounts of de-ionized water are dangerous. Normally, about 20 percent of water intake comes in food, while ... People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which can ...
Its common names refer to the fact that it is hygroscopic (water-absorbing), and can open up its rays to expose the spore sac ... Mushroom polysaccharides from a number of species have attracted research interest for their immunomodulatory and antitumor ... A few minutes immersion in water will open up old, dried-up specimens that seem as tightly closed as clenched fists." David ... Extracts from A. hygrometricus containing the polysaccharide named AE2 were found to inhibit the growth of several tumor cell ...
"A systematic analysis of DMTMM vs EDC/NHS for ligation of amines to Hyaluronan in water". Carbohydrate Polymers. 108: 239-246. ... FARKAS, P; BYSTRICKY, S. "Efficient activation of carboxyl polysaccharides for the preparation of conjugates". Carbohydrate ... such as for sterically hindered amines and for ligation of polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid.. Despite primarily being ...
... is a multicomponent food consisting of polysaccharides, lipids, protein and water. Mochi has a heterogeneous structure of ... so it has a higher affinity for water. Thus, water enters the starch granule causing it to swell, while the amylose leaves the ... Water is essential in the early stages of preparation. Other additives such as salt and other seasonings and flavourings are ... In China, tangyuan is made from glutinous rice flour mixed with a small amount of water to form balls and is then cooked and ...
... and a water-soluble polysaccharide composed of D-glucose and D-mannose. Bark: The bark contains glycosides and alkaloids. Stem ...
Polysaccharides have been successfully been used to modify carbon nanotubes forming stable hybrids. To make carbon nanotubes ... The oxidizing agent is isoamyl nitrite and because the optimized reaction takes place as a suspension in water it is a so- ... demonstrated that stirring carbon nanotubes in water and treating with anilines and oxidizing agents proved to be a milder ... Price, B. K.; Tour, J. M. (2006). "Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes "On Water"". Journal of the American ...
"Explicit-Solvent Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Polysaccharide Schizophyllan in Water". Biophysical Journal. 93 (2): 442 ... A chemically analogous polysaccharide, scleroglucan, is formed by the fungus Athelia rolfsii. Both polysaccharides share the ... It is known for several things, including its ability to stimulate the immune system, carry metals in water, aid in delivering ... Schizophyllan has a molecular weight of 450,000 Da, and a specific rotation in water of +18-24°. ...
... polysaccharides from brown algae Agar (E406, a polysaccharide obtained from red algaes) Carrageenan (E407, a polysaccharide ... Water based formulas would be nearly impossible with the exception of India ink and the few other water-soluble pigments, but ... When cooking, it is generally better to add thickener cautiously; if over-thickened, more water may be added but loss of ... The gelled coagulated oil then can be removed from the water surface by skimming, suction devices, or nets. Calm or only ...
... meaning that its molecular structure causes it to attract and bind to water. Upon absorbing water, the clear, colorless, ... The soluble fiber in psyllium is polysaccharide arabinoxylan, a hemicellulose. Psyllium is produced mainly for its mucilage ... It is recommended that this product be taken with a full glass of water to avoid it swelling in the throat and causing choking ... Choking is a hazard if psyllium is taken without adequate water as it thickens in the throat. Cases of allergic reaction to ...
... is a storage polysaccharide typically found in photosynthetic heterokonts. It is used as a carbohydrate food ... Chrysolaminarin is stored inside the cells of these organisms dissolved in water and encapsuled in vacuoles whose refractive ...
Because it is soluble in water, it is osmotically active. The plants can change the osmotic potential of cells by changing the ... Indigestible polysaccharides were of great scientific concern in the beginning of the 20th century. Irvine used chemical ... The constitution of polysaccharides. Part II. The conversion of cellulose into glucose". Journal of the Chemical Society, ... He found "a peculiar substance" from Inula helenium roots by boiling water extraction. The substance was named inulin because ...
Lotus seed's water-soluble polysaccharides have also been shown to promote lymphocyte transformation and enhance the immune ... They also provide water-soluble polysaccharides, alkaloids, flavonoids, superoxide dismutase and other bioactive components. ... The Sacred Lotus grows in water up to 2.5 m (8 ft). The minimum water depth should not be lower than 30 cm (12 in). In colder ... Since the lotus thrives in water, ja (denoting birth) is added to synonyms of water to derive some synonyms for the lotus, like ...
HA, a linear polysaccharide, is composed of repeating disaccharide units of →4)GlcAβ(1→3)GlcNAcβ(1→ and has a very high ... Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide ...
A hot water extraction or tea can be very effective for extracting the polysaccharides; however, an alcohol or alcohol/glycerin ... tsugae shows several potential medicinal benefits including anti-tumor activity through some of the active polysaccharides ...
Glucose is soluble in water, hydrophilic, binds with water and then takes up much space and is osmotically active; glucose in ... This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and ... The enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD) phosphorylates at the C-6 position of a glucose molecule, close to the chains 1,6-alpha ... When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water. This is referred to as a pregelatinized ...
Die Polysaccharide der Weinbergschnecke II. Die Mucin-Polysaccharide der Eiweißdrüse. 1. Mitteil.: Die Identität von Galaktogen ... However, sinistrin is often preferred to the alternative, inulin, because it is highly soluble in water and easier to handle. ... Biopolymers, Polysaccharides II, Wiley-VCH, 2002, ISBN 3-527-30227-1. E. Nitsch, W. Iwanov und K. Lederer: Molecular ... The main differences between sinistrin and inulin are the higher alkali-resistance and the better water solubility (even in ...
The main components are the polysaccharide guar gum and sodium tetraborate. As an alternative to the polysaccharide, other ... Polyvinyl acetate (Elmer's glue), borax and water can also be used to approximate Slime's characteristics. Toys portal 1970s ... These non-polysaccharide polymer products are more often referred to as flubber. ...
"Challenges and trends in membrane technology implementation for produced water treatment: A review". Journal of Water Process ... Another alternative, polysaccharide SIs meet the requirements for environmentally friendly materials; they contain no ... Water, noted for its high solvation power can dissolve certain gases such as carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) to form aqueous CO2(aq). ... The three prevailing water-related problems that upset oil companies today are corrosion, gas hydrates and scaling in ...
The amount of water added to the semolina is determined based on the initial moisture content of the flour and the desired ... or hydrothermally-treated polysaccharide mixtures to produce textures similar to those of wheat pasta.[48][49] ... In Cha chaan teng, macaroni is cooked in water and served in broth with ham or frankfurter sausages, peas, black mushrooms, and ... After mixing semolina flour with warm water the dough is kneaded mechanically until it becomes firm and dry. If pasta is to be ...
Water soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis: extraction and in vitro anti-cancer activity.. Kurd F1, Samavati V2. ... Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis algae (SP) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. The optimal ... The optimum conditions were extraction time of 25 min, extraction temperature 85°C, ultrasonic power 90 W and ratio of water to ... The four parameters were, extraction time (X1), extraction temperature (X2), ultrasonic power (X3) and the ratio of water to ...
... ... Polysaccharide-based microspheres of chitosan, starch, and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent ... Blue dextran was used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the ... which suggested that this method has potential to prepare polysaccharide-based microspheres containing a biomacromolecular drug ...
... but there have been few reports on the extraction of these polysaccharides using cold water (4 °C). In this study, we ... fractionated a novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (cAMPs-1A) from Astragalus membranaceus with a 92.00% carbohydrate ... These findings demonstrate that the polysaccharide cAMPs-1A has an underlying application as natural antitumor agents. ... The polysaccharides of Astragalus membranaceus have received extensive study and attention, ...
US3092618A - Water-soluble non-ionic surface-active agents of mono and polysaccharides - Google Patents. Water-soluble non- ... Water-soluble non-ionic surface-active agents of mono and polysaccharides Publications (1). Publication Number. Publication ... Water-soluble non-ionic surface-active agents of mono and polysaccharides Applications Claiming Priority (1). Application ... US3092618A 1960-07-07 1960-07-07 Water-soluble non-ionic surface-active agents of mono and polysaccharides Expired - Lifetime ...
Hart, Timothy David. (1997) Diffusion of ions and water through microbial polysaccharides in the rhizosphere. Doctoral thesis, ... It was found that removal of O-acetyl groups reduces the rate of water transport and increases the rate of water binding at any ... The influence of O-acetyl groups in xanthan on the rate of water transport and degree of water binding was studied using stray ... The anion-exclusive properties of polysaccharides produced naturally in bulk soil, the rhizosphere and root surface of pea was ...
... hot-water extract (GHE) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese hamsters. GHE contained 68.54% water-soluble indigestible ... This study investigated the anti-obesity effect of a polysaccharide-rich red algae ,i,Gelidium amansii,/i, ... The Anti-Obesity Effect of Polysaccharide-Rich Red Algae ( Gelidium amansii) Hot-Water Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese ... The Anti-Obesity Effect of Polysaccharide-Rich Red Algae ( Gelidium amansii) Hot-Water Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese ...
"A polysaccharide composite for water treatment to remove nitrates: Synthesis, properties, and utilization, Russian Journal of ... A polysaccharide composite for water treatment to remove nitrates: Synthesis, properties, and utilization. A polysaccharide ... A polysaccharide composite for water treatment to remove nitrates: Synthesis, properties, and utilization. Datskevich, E.; ... lp/springer_journal/a-polysaccharide-composite-for-water-treatment-to-remove-nitrates-qRDfdC8YRC ...
Preparation of glucosyl transferase ec 2.4.1.5 from streptococcus mutans by evolution from water insoluble poly saccharide with ... was obtained by dissociation from water-insoluble polysaccharide in the presence of 6 M guanidine-hydrochloride. Water- ... Preparation of glucosyl transferase ec 2.4.1.5 from streptococcus mutans by evolution from water insoluble poly saccharide with ... formed water-insoluble polysaccharide in the presence of sucrose, and precipitated with [hamster] antisera directed to crude ...
In this paper we have investigated the solvent effects of LiCl/urea/water on four natural polysaccharides. Fenugreek gum and ... Locust bean gum (LBG) had a lower viscosity in LiCl/urea/water compared to water due to the disruption of aggregates. Confocal ... Polysaccharide structures and interactions in a lithium chloride/urea/water solvent. Carbohydrate Polymers, 149 . pp. 231-241. ... were found to increase in viscosity in LiCl/urea/water relative to water, possibly due to the breakage of all intra-molecular ...
The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide ... The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide ... Müller, B. M., Kraus, J. und Franz, Gerhard (1989) Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides ... Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia Leaves ...
Cordyceps (Paecilomyces hepiali) extract (40% polysaccharides) contains unique and potent therapeutic beta-glucans for energy, ... polysaccharides (500 mg per capsule). Hot-water extraction is critical in obtaining a high-quality and effective mushroom ... The mycelium contains polysaccharides which are bound by indigestible cell wall comprised of chitin; chitin must be dissolved ... Conversely, grinding the mycelium or the mushroom may cause damage to the long-chain polysaccharides and fails to remove the ...
Three water-soluble, non-ionic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) obtained from lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus THS, L. ... The size and shape of three water-soluble, non-ionic polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: A comparative study. ... The ST1 polysaccharide had the highest molar mass but the lowest persistence length, which is attributed to the presence of the ... All polysaccharides displayed random coil character. Further analysis of the data reveals differences in chain stiffness and ...
Large and varied family of novel water-dispersible polymers based on renewable polysaccharides. May be designed for high or low ... water affinity of applied film, and for various functionality (e.g. strength, flexibility, impact resistance, antibacterial ...
Current: Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water. Alginate-based polysaccharide beads ... TY - JOUR TI - Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water AU - Li, Mei AU - Elder, Thomas ... 0 Journal Article %T Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water %J Polymer Bulletin %A Li ... Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water. Polymer Bulletin. ...
Início , Diários , International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms , Volume 8, 2006 Edição 4 , Water-Soluble Polysaccharides of ... Water-Soluble Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Alleviate the Dose-Limiting ... This study aimed to investigate whether a combination of G. lucidum polysaccharides (25 mg/kg by gavage) modulated the ... These toxicities were suppressed when CPT-11 was combined with G. lucidum polysaccharides. Further study is needed to explore ...
The zeta potential of TPC-A merely presented the negative charge properties of polysaccharides instead of the acid-base ... since the protein moiety was wrapped by its polysaccharide chains. ... Polysaccharide conjugates were alkali-extracted from green tea (TPC-A). Although it contained 11.80% covalently binding ... and bioactivities have mainly focused on hot water-extracted tea polysaccharide conjugates [3]. However, alkali-extracted tea ...
The invention further relates to a water-absorbent polysaccharide obtainable by this process, a water-absorbent polysaccharide ... acid as crosslinking agent in the presence of water to form a polysaccharide gel and crosslinking the polysaccharide gel. ... producing a water-absorbent polysaccharide including the process steps of bringing into contact an uncrosslinked polysaccharide ... the use of the water-absorbent polysaccharides or of the composites as well as the use of polyphosphates. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharides ATCC offers 24 types of purified pneumococcal polysaccharides that can be used to study ... Molecular Grade Water A distilled, deionized, sterile-filtered water appropriate for all molecular biology procedures, ... ATCCs pneumococcal polysaccharides are purified and are the same serotypes found in vaccines against pneumococcal diseases ...
... water-soluble polysaccharides from the crushed algae or deionized and free of grease algae water or water with the addition of ... The yield of water-soluble polysaccharides is depending on the type of algae from 10 to 25% of dry weight of algae (table. 1). ... As shown in [14], where a method for separation and fractionation of water-soluble polysaccharides from F. vesiculosus, using ... Our proposed method was applied for the separation and fractionation of water-soluble polysaccharides from brown seaweed L. ...
... Author(s):. Lucenius, Jessica ; Parikka, ... Nanocomposite films based on cellulose nanofibrils and water-soluble polysaccharides REACTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS , vol ... mixed with various natural water-soluble polysaccharides like carboxymethyl cellulose, galactoglucomannan, xyloglucan and guar ... After soaking the samples for 24 h in water, striking differences between the samples were found: already at 2 wt.% CMC the wet ...
Mukherjee, Satyajit (2013). Protein-polysaccharide nano-complexes at air water interface (M. Tech. Dissertations). Indian ... We investigate comparative long term stability of foam in protein solution and in a mixed protein (BSA) - polysaccharide (CPP) ... These findings have significant value for application of protein- polysaccharide complex in foam stabilization which is useful ... and soluble complexes slow down the drainage rate by their presence at air/water interface, which finally results in the ...
1157 agaricus blazei polysaccharide - China agaricus blazei polysaccharide manufacturers from China. ... Agaricus blazei polysaccharide Brown or yellow powdermoisture absorption easily Polysaccharide: 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% Water ... Agaricus blazei Murill Agaricus blazei polysaccharide Agaricus blazei polysaccharide English Name:Agaricus blazei ... Content: 200mg/pc,120pcs/bottle Ingredients: Agaricus Blazei Polysaccharide. 22g Polysaccharide/100g ... ...
Water Treatment, Food Processing) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, ... Moringa Oleifera Polysaccharides) And By End-Users/Application ( ... Moringa Oleifera Polysaccharides) And By End-Users/Application ... Water Treatment, Food Processing) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, ... Global Natural Flocculant Revenue Market Share by Types in 2018 1.3.3 Starch Derivatives 1.3.4 Moringa Oleifera Polysaccharides ...
Purchase Processing and Development of Polysaccharide-Based Biopolymers for Packaging Applications - 1st Edition. Print Book. ... Water vapor permeability. O2/CO2 barrier. Moisture sorption isotherm. Retrogradation and crystallinity. Surface tension. 3. ... Processing and Development of Polysaccharide-Based Biopolymers for Packaging Applications 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a ... Processing and Development of Polysaccharide-Based Biopolymers for Packaging Applications presents the latest cutting-edge ...
Capsular polysaccharides are water-soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-2000 kDa. They are ... Most of these polysaccharides exhibit useful visco-elastic properties when dissolved in water at very low levels. This makes ... They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the ... Polysaccharide Structure Applications and commercial sources of polysaccharides European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence. ...
  • ABSTRACT: Discharging wastewater containing heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd into water bodies can cause toxicity in plants and aquatic animals and some of them will be unable to survive except algae. (scirp.org)
  • The anion-exclusive behaviour of exopolysaccharides, extracted from broth cultures of a range of rhizosphere microorganisms together with several commercial polysaccharides (i.e., xanthan, scleroglucan, dextran, guar gum) was investigated by measuring the electrochemical potential which developed as a result of the diffusion of KC1 across a polymer layer. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Considering xanthan as a 'model' microbial polysaccharide, polymer concentration, layer thickness and the presence of either O-acetyl or pyruvyl groups were found to positively affect the degree of anion exclusion. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Water absorption in the polymer is different from the ability to retain that absorbed water. (springer.com)
  • A highly water absorbent polymer having high resistance to salt solution is prepared by crosslinking a hyrophilic polymer or copolymer having carboxyl and/or carboxylate groups and water content of 10 to 40 wt. (google.com)
  • then dehydrating said hydrous hydrophilic polymer until the water content thereof is from 10 to 40 wt. (google.com)
  • 2. A process as claimed in claim 1 in which, in said dehydrating step, the water content of said polymer is reduced to 15 to 35 wt. (google.com)
  • These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. (bionity.com)
  • Polymer - Polysaccharide Most common ones are glucose, fructose, and galactose. (prezi.com)
  • The interactions between the various components of a cell and its water content is key to biological chemistry. (news-medical.net)
  • Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer membrane integrity, as well as being an important mediator of host-pathogen interactions. (bionity.com)
  • Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. (mdpi.com)
  • The nature and roles of hydration forces in macromolecular complexation and cell-cell interactions are explained, in addition to phenomena such as entropy-enthalpy compensation and the thermodynamic treatment of water bridging. (google.com.au)
  • The anion-exclusive properties of polysaccharides produced naturally in bulk soil, the rhizosphere and root surface of pea was studied by the measurement of diffusion potentials. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The UV-vis wavelength of 280 nm was not suitable to detect the presence of the protein portion of TPC-A. The zeta potential of TPC-A merely presented the negative charge properties of polysaccharides instead of the acid-base property of its protein section across the entire pH range. (mdpi.com)
  • Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis algae (SP) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. (nih.gov)
  • Content and structural characteristics of these polysaccharides vary considerably depending on the source and within the same source depending on the season and age of the algae [1, (russianpatents.com)
  • The polysaccharide is ubiquitous in animals, plants, algae and micro-organisms of a class of natural macromolecular material, a major component of the living organism. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides as an evolutionary adaptation to help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. (bionity.com)
  • The objective of the project is to investigate the capability of Marine Algae (MA) and Freshwater Algae (FA) bi-omass in adsorbing heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd from water medium using synthetic water and industrial water. (scirp.org)
  • In con-clusion, the presence of various functional groups, hydroxyl, carboxylic and amine groups, in all MA and FA samples had enabled the algae biomass to adsorb heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from synthetic and industrial water. (scirp.org)
  • Due to their bio-sorptive properties and fast adsorption capability, algae could be a potential method for cleaning up surface water or post-treatment of wastewater and minimise the cost of eutrophication. (scirp.org)
  • Three water-soluble, non-ionic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) obtained from lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus THS, L. helveticus K16 and S. thermophilus ST1) were subjected to a comparative study by means of multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, providing distributions and averages of molar masses, radii of gyration and intrinsic viscosities. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of Bacillus cereus AR156 could act as novel microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and function in the early perception status of the ISR of B. cereus AR156. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review covers studies of diatom extracellular polysaccharides using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the quantification of physical forces. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, species of diatoms in the northern Adriatic Sea can produce large amounts, up to 50 g/m 3 of extracellular polysaccharides in a month [ 6 ], resulting in the episodic formation of a macroscopic gel phase [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Polysaccharide conjugates were alkali-extracted from green tea (TPC-A). Although it contained 11.80% covalently binding proteins, TPC-A could not bind to the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dyes G250 and R250. (mdpi.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods for producing N-terminal derivatives of proteins in which a polysaccharide, preferably having at least terminal sialic units and preferably consisting essentially only of sialic acid units, is reacted at the N-terminus of a protein or peptide under controlled conditions to produce an N-terminal derivative. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Moreover, polysaccharides and other sugars may function as markers for certain cellular recognition processes, including the intracellular movement of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • A horse with Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy has an excessive glycogen buildup or storage in the skeletal muscles due to improper digestion of sugars, starches and carbohydrates found in cereal grains such as barley, corn, and oats. (terrificpets.com)
  • The ST1 polysaccharide had the highest molar mass but the lowest persistence length, which is attributed to the presence of the flexible (1→6)-linkage in the main chain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Add 4 milliliters of the 1 molar sucrose solution inside the dropper and fill the test tube with tepid water. (education.com)
  • 10,11 The various LPMOs have remarkably varying amino-acid sequences (no residues besides the histidine brace are strictly conserved between AA9, AA10, AA11 and AA13 LPMO classes) and target a wide range of different polysaccharide substrates. (rsc.org)
  • To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. (dtu.dk)
  • In a second reaction, the surfactant is further substituted on a hydroxylic portion with a hydrophobic or lipophilic substituent, so as to make the reaction product both water soluble and capable of attracting oily material that is hydrophobic to be removed from a substrate by cleaning in water. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The composition of matter of claim 1, comprising a further reaction product retaining said backbone structure and having some of said at least one hydroxyl or one carboxylic acid group said naturally occurring polysaccharide substituted with a hydrophobic or lipophilic moiety. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and the water-based paint composition is comprised of the emulsion resin within a range of 10-80 mass parts, the melamine resin within a range of 5-50 mass parts, and the hydrophobic solvent within a range of 10-100 mass parts, per 100 mass parts of solid resin content in the water-based paint composition. (coatingsworld.com)
  • In recent years, many researchers have been synthesized superabsorbent polymeric hydrogels with the ability to hold a large amount of water and biological fluid in their cross-linked polymeric network structure. (springer.com)
  • Water or biological fluid retains within the polymeric system due to the strong three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide. (springer.com)
  • Following a brief summary of the basic principle of the AFM experiment and the first AFM studies of diatom extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), we focus on the detection of supramolecular structures in polysaccharide systems produced by marine diatoms. (mdpi.com)
  • Diatoms, important marine photoautotrophic protists that account for up to 25% of the primary production on Earth [ 1 ], produce large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), consisting predominantly of polysaccharides [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The antitumor activity of the polysaccharide fractions was tested against the solid Sarcoma-180 in CD1 mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. (plos.org)
  • The influence of O-acetyl groups in xanthan on the rate of water transport and degree of water binding was studied using stray field NMR methods. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • It was found that removal of O-acetyl groups reduces the rate of water transport and increases the rate of water binding at any given xanthan concentration. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Humans have developed some of these polysaccharides into useful products, including xanthan gum , dextran , gellan gum, and pullulan. (bionity.com)
  • The 2017/18 Waters Quality Parts, Chromatography Columns and Supplies Catalog is available! (waters.com)
  • Patent No. Europe 1,179,549 A Akzo Nobel NV was granted a patent for a water soluble or dispersible polyamine with primary amino groups, average MW 200-20,000, useful as a crosslinking agent. (coatingsworld.com)
  • To obtain a cost-effective production of oyster mushrooms, invasive aquatic weed water hyacinth has been tried out as a substrate in different combinations with rice straw (1:1, 1:2, 2:1) for the cultivation of Pleurotus species. (intechopen.com)
  • Intriguingly, LPMOs generate H 2 O 2 in the absence of a polysaccharide substrate. (rsc.org)
  • Our previous study has shown that the residue-the by-product remaining from tea after water extraction-can also be further extracted with dilute alkali to obtain a large number of polysaccharide substances that likewise have hypoglycemic effect [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Transfer the weighed substances to a 1 Liter volumetric flask and dissolve in 800 milliliters of distilled water. (education.com)
  • These substances, commonly known as humectants, are playing a key role in controlling and regulating the moisture and water activity in products. (openpr.com)