Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Wetting Agents: A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Water SofteningCrystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).

*Easy Cheese

Emulsifying agents are made up of amphiphilic molecules that act as an interface to reduce the surface tension between ... Easy Cheese is an oil-in-water emulsion. Oil droplets typically have a diameter of no more than one micrometer. Emulsions with ... Water also provides the moisture content needed in processed cheese spreads to achieve the desired texture. Excessive water, ... Water plays a multitude of functions in Easy Cheese. First, it allows for more stable emulsion serving as a medium for the ...

*Emulsion dispersion

The surfactant molecules adsorb on the surface of emulsion by creating a dispersion of droplets, which reduces interfacial ... In emulsion dispersion system the preparation of well-fined polymers droplets may be acquired by the use of water as dispersing ... tension and retards particle flocculation during mixing. The molecules of surfactant have polar and non-polar parts which act ... from particle size analysis and optical microscopy results showed that the droplet size of emulsion of LNR with higher ...

*Enhanced oil recovery

Surfactants may be used in conjunction with polymers; They decrease the surface tension between the oil and water. This reduces ... Polymer flooding consists in mixing long chain polymer molecules with the injected water in order to increase the water ... and they migrate to the oil-water interface area, where they cause oil droplets to form from the larger oil mass, making the ... Caustic flooding is the addition of sodium hydroxide to injection water. It does this by lowering the surface tension, ...

*Lipophilicity

... including the air-water interface (lowering surface tension) and the surfaces of the water-immiscible droplets found in o/w ... When a molecule of a lipophilic substance is enveloped by water, surrounding water molecules enter into an "ice-like" structure ... Being "driven out of water" is the quality of a substance referred to as hydrophobe (water-"avoiding" or "water-fearing"). Thus ... or dissolved in the water-immiscible phase that the water is in contact with (e.g. as the emulsified oil droplet). In both ...

*Classical nucleation theory

... water droplets nucleating in a uniform volume of air supersaturated with water vapour, per unit time. So if a 100 droplets ... times the surface tension σ. However, because heterogeneous nucleation is the nucleation of a nucleus on a surface, it is ... The number of water molecules in 1 m3 of water is approximately 1028. Putting all these numbers into the formula we get a ... In the schematic to the right the contact angle between the droplet surface and the surface decreases from left to right (A to ...

*Spray drying

Partly because of the high surface tension of water and partly because of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions between the ... A nozzle is usually used to make the droplets as small as possible, maximizing heat transfer and the rate of water vaporization ... That is, lighter molecules tend to boil off in larger quantities at the processing temperatures. Loss is minimized industrially ... Droplet sizes can range from 20 to 180 μm depending on the nozzle. There are two main types of nozzles: high pressure single ...

*Alcanivorax

The substances that make up the biosurfactant of A. borkumensis can reduce the surface tension of water, which helps with the ... a biofilm around an oil droplet in seawater and proceeds to use biosurfactants and metabolism to degrade the oil into a water- ... In a A. borkumensis, a number of different enzymes are tasked with oxidizing alkane molecules. The aerobic metabolism of ... It is found only on or near the surface of water. A. borkumensis can live in salinities ranging from 1.0-12.5% and in ...

*Droplet-based microfluidics

... in addition to the hydrodynamic force and the surface tension force. The magnetic field strength, type of the magnetic field ( ... Water will dissolve into the DMC, shrinking the droplet and increasing the concentration of reagents. New methods have achieved ... Real-time DNA sequencing provides the means of single-molecule processing within even smaller environments. This method uses ... medium in which droplets are generated) and dispersed phase (the droplet phase). The size of the generated droplets is mainly ...

*Electrospray ionization

... in an ever-decreasing droplet size, becomes more powerful than the surface tension holding the droplet together. At this point ... 1998). "Droplet Dynamics Changes in Electrostatic Sprays of Methanol-Water Mixtures". J. Phys. Chem. A. 102 (46): 9154-9160. ... The gas-phase ions form after the remaining solvent molecules evaporate, leaving the analyte with the charges that the droplet ... When the electrostatic pressure is larger than the surface tension, droplets and ions are sprayed. In paper spray ionization, ...

*Sulfate

... aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and this leads to greater numbers of smaller droplets of water. Lots of ... Chemical effects such as the dissolution of soluble gases and slightly soluble substances, surface tension depression by ... Sulfonate Sulfation and desulfation of lead-acid batteries Lewis, Gilbert N. (1916). "The Atom and the Molecule". J. Am. Chem. ... smaller droplets can diffuse light more efficiently than just a few larger droplets. The second indirect effect is the further ...

*Food coating

... or surface tension. Among the parameters, temperature has a choice place. It influences viscosity, surface tension, drying or ... drying and evaporation of water, alcohol), crystallisation (sugar crystallises when water is evaporated, fat crystallises when ... Encapsulation aims at the protection and controlled release of active molecules when immersed in an environment. As a rule of ... Coalescence: in case of a liquid, the multiple droplets may merge to form a uniform continuous layer. Characteristics of the ...

*Electrostatic spray ionization

With the last geometry, molecules on a surface can be directly ionized for MS detection by simply adding a droplet of buffer ... When the electrostatic pressure is larger than the surface tension, droplets and ions are sprayed. ESTASI is a contactless ... acetic acid in water) were deposited on the dry sample spots to dissolve analytes from the sample. This is the first ... such as organic molecules, peptides and proteins with molecule weight up to 70 kDa. Furthermore, it was used to couple MS with ...

*Dishwasher detergent

Non-ionic surfactants Lower the surface tension of the water, emulsifies oil, lipid and fat food deposits, prevents droplet ... which increases the likelihood of water molecules evaporating. "Dishwasher detergents Overview". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 17 ... A thinner sheet of water also has a much larger surface-area than a droplet of the same volume, ... so that water drains from the surfaces in thin sheets, rather than forming droplets.[citation needed] The benefits of using it ...

*Chemical computer

"Stanford has created a water-droplet computer - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. "This computer clocks uses water droplets, ... The chemical computer used surface tension calculations derived from the Marangoni Effect using an acidic gel to find the most ... "Chemical computer: Researchers develop programming language to control DNA molecules". GeekWire. "UW engineers invent ... In 2015, Stanford University graduate students created a computer using magnetic fields and water droplets infused with ...

*Petroleum microbiology

... it grows and produces surfactant glucolipids to help reduce surface water tension and enhance hydrocarbon uptake.[5] For this ... Emulsifiers produced by microbes can break up oil into smaller droplets, effectively increasing the available surface area. (2 ... a property which increases the apparent solubility of hydrocarbons by sequestering hydrophobic molecules into the centres of ... 1) Increase the surface area of hydrophobic water-insoluble substrates. Growth of microbes on hydrocarbons can be limited by ...

*Electrospinning

... and electrostatic repulsion counteracts the surface tension and the droplet is stretched; at a critical point a stream of ... He observed that when a suitably electrically charged piece of amber was brought near a droplet of water it would form a cone ... This makes the process particularly suited to the production of fibers using large and complex molecules. Electrospinning from ... conductivity and surface tension) Electric potential, flow rate and concentration Distance between the capillary and collection ...

*Nucleation

The plot shows the fraction of a large set of water droplets, that are still liquid water, i.e., have not yet frozen, as a ... the interfacial tension σ. For a nucleus that may be only of order ten molecules across it is not always clear that we can ... droplets on surfaces are not complete spheres and so the area of the interface between the droplet and the surrounding fluid is ... The excess vapor begins to nucleate and to form small water droplets which form a cloud. Nucleation of the droplets of liquid ...

*Hydrophobicity scales

Introduction of hexane into water causes disruption of the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules. The hydrogen bonds ... The main drawbacks of surface tension measurements is that the broken hydrogen bonds and the neutralized charged groups remain ... can be measured by the contact angle of water droplet. A University of Nebraska-Lincoln team recently devised a computational ... around the hexane molecule, similar to that in clathrate hydrates formed at lower temperatures. The mobility of water molecules ...

*Extractive electrospray ionization

Each droplet has properties: analyte solubility in the ESI spray solvent and surface tension of the spray solution and of the ... The nitrogen molecules desorb analytes from the surface. The jet is only 2-3 mm above the surface, and the gas flow is about ... Beverages, over-the-counter drugs and uranyl waste water were tested with EESI in 2010 and 2011. Tandem mass spectrometry Chen ... The ESI spray produces droplets with protons. The sample droplets and the proton-rich droplets bump into each other. ...

*Chemical polarity

If the bond dipole moments of the molecule do not cancel, the molecule is polar. For example, the water molecule (H2O) contains ... Polarity underlies a number of physical properties including surface tension, solubility, and melting and boiling points. Not ... In this way, the small oil droplet becomes water-soluble. Phospholipids are effective natural surfactants that have important ... Due to the polar nature of the water molecule itself, polar molecules are generally able to dissolve in water. Other examples ...

*Solubility equilibrium

... γ is the surface tension of the solute particle in the solvent, Am is the molar surface area of the solute (in m2/mol), R is ... Solubility will increase with decreasing size of solute particle (or droplet) because of the additional surface energy. This ... For example, sugar is more soluble in hot water than cool water. It occurs because solubility constants, like other types of ... HnA(s) + OH−(aq) ⇌ Hn−1A−(aq) + H2O The uncharged molecule usually has lower solubility than the ionic form, so solubility ...

*Gibbs-Thomson equation

Thomson considered the effects of temperature and surface tension on the solubility of salts in spherical droplets, and he ... molecule k B T r {\displaystyle \ln \left({\frac {p(r)}{P}}\right)={\frac {2\gamma V_{\text{molecule}}}{k_{B}Tr}}} could be ... "Clathrate formation and dissociation in vapour/water/ice/hydrate systems in SBA-15 Sol-Gel and CPG porous media as probed by ... Surface tension and adsorption, Longmans Green and Co. (London) Gregg, S.J.; Sing, K.S.W. (1967), Adsorption surface area and ...

*Contact angle

Molecules that can bind more perfluorinated terminations to the surface can results in lowering the surface energy (high water ... If the surface is wetted homogeneously, the droplet is in Wenzel state. In Wenzel state, adding surface roughness will enhance ... Wetting force on the solid is measured as the solid is immersed in or withdrawn from a liquid of known surface tension. Also in ... Generally, if the water contact angle is smaller than 90°, the solid surface is considered hydrophilic and if the water contact ...

*Hypothetical types of biochemistry

... its surface tension to be a third, and reducing its ability to concentrate non-polar molecules through a hydrophobic effect. ... The ammonia molecule (NH3), like the water molecule, is abundant in the universe, being a compound of hydrogen (the simplest ... Sulfuric acid is known to be abundant in the clouds of Venus, in the form of aerosol droplets. In a biochemistry that used ... Hypothetical alternatives to water include ammonia, which, like water, is a polar molecule, and cosmically abundant; and non- ...

*Siphon

Further, in other settings water transport does occur via tension, most significantly in transpirational pull in the xylem of ... But a similar effect can be seen in the flying droplet siphon of figure 2. The flying droplet siphon works continuously without ... "It follows from the above analysis that there must be a direct cohesive connection between water molecules flowing in and out ... fluid density Apply Bernoulli's equation to the surface of the upper reservoir. The surface is technically falling as the upper ...
Surface tension force the wilhelmy plate. Surface molecules are not involved all possible intermolecular bonding requires energy the surface liquid resists increases surface area the higher the intermolecular forces the higher the surface tension. Methods surface tension measurements. This measurement method represents the get expert answers your questions surface tension and. Surface tension surface. Surface tension solutions. By balancing gain surface energy capillary force and loss elastic energy. Capillary action occurs when the adhesion the walls stronger than the cohesive forces. Ppt adhesive forces increase the surface tension the liquid. Surface ...
2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The oscillations of free-falling drops with size range from pl to μl have been used to measure the transient shear viscosity and the dynamic surface tension of shear-thinning fluids on the timescale of 10 -5 -10 -2 s. The method is first validated with Newtonian fluids. For a given surface tension, the lower and upper limits for accurate measurement of the viscosity are determined as a function of drop size. The dynamic properties of two types of shear-thinning fluids with varying viscoelasticity are reported: aqueous suspensions of the antifungal drug griseofulvin and of the organic light-emitting diode material poly( 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene-sulphonate. In both cases, the free-falling drop retains the high-shear viscosity.. ...
Considering surfactant solutions at concentrations exceeding the CMC, another relaxation process besides diffusion occurs, also affecting the dynamic surface tension. The latter equilibration process concerns a micellisation/demicellisation process, representing the disintegration of micelles into monomers. The micellisation kinetics are accounted for by adding a single source term to the diffusion equation of the free monomers. In the present paper the integration of the diffusion equation is avoided by using the concept of the diffusion penetration depth. Nevertheless, when this approximation is made, good agreement is achieved between experiment and theory for micellar Triton X-100 solutions. Moreover, it follows that diffusion of micelles may not be neglected. ...
March 15, 1955 F. w. LIVERMONT 2,703,976 CALIBRATION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS Filed Aug. 15, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR. ATTORNEYS March 15, 1955 F. w. LIVERMONT CALIBRATION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS Filed Aug. 13, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 fll Q (D y @rfi ATTORNEYS I IN VEN TOR. . me/mmzt F. W. LIVERMONT CALIBRATION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS March 15, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 13, 1951 ATTORNEYS March 15, 1955 F w LNERMQNT 2,703,976 CALIBRAT ION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS Filed Aug. 13, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 I" I07 I05 I09 I08 95 IN V EN TOR. ATTORNEYS March 1955 F. w. LIVERMONT CALIBRATION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 15 1951 (Blank. ATToR NEYS United States Patent CALIBRATION APPARATUS FOR TORQUE WRENCHES AND CABLE TENSIOMETERS Frank W. Livermont, Duarte, Calif., assignor to Richmont, Inc, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation ...
Water Transfer Price Comparison, Price Trends for Water Transfer as Your Reference. Buy Water Transfer at Low Prices on Aliexpress.com now. Other Price Comparison, such as paint iron,water transfer black,transfer solution,water transfer red, Price, Toys & Hobbies,Beauty & Health,Nail Stickers & Decals,Mother & Kids,
There are a lot of surface tensiometers with different measuring methods, made by different manufactories. And quality and working accuracy of these surface tensiometers are quite different from each other. How to choose the most suitable surface tensiometer for us is more important.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantum chemical MP2 results on some hydrates of cytosine. T2 - Binding sites, energies and the first hydration shell. AU - Fogarasi, Géza. AU - Szalay, Péter G.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A detailed quantum chemical investigation was undertaken to obtain the structure and energetics of cytosine hydrates Cyt·nH2O, with n = 1 to 7. The MP2(fc)/aug-cc-pVDZ level was used as the standard, with some DFT (B3LYP) and coupled cluster calculations, as well as calculations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set added for comparison. In a systematic search for microhydrated forms of cytosine, we have found that several structures have not yet been reported in the literature. The energies of different isomers, as well as binding energies are compared. When predicting the stability of a complex, we suggest using a scheme where the water molecules are extracted from a finite model of bulk water. Finally, based on ...
Thus the applied force is acting tangential to the surface of the film (remembering we are looking from the top, down onto the film). The surface tension force opposes this action by generating an equal but opposite force, tangential to the surface and also within the plane of the paper, thus the system is in a state of equilibrium. The value of the surface tension is constant, but the opposing force generated is larger because the area has increased and the surface tension force is defined as surface tension multiplied by length ...
The following is an incomplete list of [[models]] used in [[Computer simulation techniques , computer simulations]] of [[water]]: {{columns-list,3, ==A== *[[AMOEBA]] *[[ASP-S]] *[[ASP-W]] ==B== *[[Baranyai water model , Baranyai]] *[[BBL model of water , BBL]] *[[Bell-Lavis model of water , Bell-Lavis]] *[[Ben-Naim models of water ,Ben-Naim models ]] *[[BF]] *[[BJH]] *[[BK water models , BK3]] *[[BK water models , BKd1]] *[[BK water models , BKd2]] *[[BK water models , BKd3]] *[[Ben-Naim models of water#BNS model , BNS]] *[[Bol model of water , Bol]] *[[BSV]] ==C== *[[CC-pol]] *[[CF]] *[[CI]] *[[COS model of ...
l fabric, its shape will also be affected by the surface tension at the solid/liquid interface. If the surface tension in the liquid is lower, the droplet forms a more ellipsoidal shape. The following are the surface tensions for some liquid substances: SURFACE TENSION SUBSTANCE water 73 dynes/cm mercury 480 dynes/cm benzene 28 dynes/cm ethanol 22 dynes/cm Because of its lower surface tension, ethanol will flow and form a larger area of contact (surface) with a solid than with water. Mercury, with its very high surface tension, does not flow but breaks into droplets if given the opportunity. Surface active agents interfere with the ability of the molecules of a substance to ...
On the scale of ocean and river flows, surface tension has a negligible effect. It is not included in fluid mechanics models of the ocean or rivers. In practice, surface tension effects apply only on much smaller scales. The effect of salinity on density, on the other hand, can affect the hydrostatics and the dynamics, and is usually taken into account ...
The Attension Sigma 700/701 is a fully automated force tensiometer used to study material properties such as wettability, adsorption, adhesion and more.
China Water Transfer Printing Machine manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Water Transfer Printing Machine products in best price from certified Chinese Printing Machine manufacturers, Printing Machinery suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
The effect of cotton dust on the surface tension of the surfactant dipalmitoyl-lecithin was assessed. The surface tension of synthetic L-alpha-dipalmitoyl-lecithin (DPL) films were measured in the presence and absence of known concentrations of the cotton dust using a Wilhelmy balance. Surface tension was plotted against surface area for four consecutive cycles until time equilibrium was attained.
We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Introduction. An Experiment to determine Water Potential in Potato Tissue Introduction Osmosis is the movement of water molecules move from a region of high water concentration (high water potential) to a region of low water concentration (low water potential). The water molecules also move through a partially permeable membrane. Osmosis affects the shape of plant cells. When a plant cell is in a lower water potential (highly concentrated solution), water from the plant cell moves out and therefore it becomes flaccid, and this is when the cell membrane of the plant cell shrinks. When a plant cell is in a solution which has higher water ...
Based on molecular dynamics simulations, an analysis of structure and dynamics is performed on interfacial water at a liquid crystalline dipalmitoylphosphatidycholine/water system. Water properties relevant for understanding NMR relaxation are emphasized. The first and second rank orientational order parameters of the water O-H bonds were calculated, where the second rank order parameter is in agreement with experimental determined quadrupolar splittings. Also, two different interfacial water regions (bound water regions) are revealed with respect to different signs of the second rank order parameter. The water reorientation correlation function reveals a mixture of fast and slow decaying parts. The fast (ps) part of the correlation function is due to local anisotropic ...
Hard Science: hydrodynamics, water purification technology, electrolysis, bond angle relationships and energy states, environmental issues, photo chemistry, ionics, ORP, chemistry, oxidative states in water. Interdisciplinary: vortex mechanics, magnetic resonance in water, liquid crystal states, advanced ozonation, colloidal chemistry, structured water, homeopathic effects in relationship to energized water, radio frequency effects on water, energization states in water, magnetic field effects on water dynamics and structure, energy systems utilizing water dynamics or structure. Exploratory: subtle energy effects in water, consciousness and ...
Molecularly imprinted polymers are often used in aqueous medium in order to recognize specifically a target molecule. The molecular recognition is usually based on hydrogen bonding. In this case, water molecule presents a serious competition towards the target molecule. In this study, the water sorption by molecularly imprinted polymers was studied in aqueous medium. The molecularly imprinted polymers were specific for iprodione fungicide and were prepared using a 24 full factorial experimental design. They were synthesized using EGDMA or TRIM as crosslinker, methacrylamide or styrene as functional monomer and using bulk or precipitation polymerization. The water sorption isotherms were established in a range of water activities 0.05-0.90 at 25 °C. The kinetics of water sorption by the polymers were modeled using Pelegs equation. This model ...
Many people today suffer from diabetes, a disease in which the blood contains high levels of sugar.. Vegetables that have high water content may help lower your blood sugar.. Certain vegetables may help people with diabetes because the high amounts of water help to flush out toxin and other harmful wastes from the body, balancing the sugars in the blood.. If you have high blood sugar levels, you can take steps to help lower it. Foods such as avocados, cabbage, cucumbers, and tomatoes are all high in water content and fiber and have been shown to lower blood sugar in the body. These fruits and vegetables are not only good for you, but they are also low in calories.. By eating these vegetables with high water content, your body does not convert them into sugar quickly, but uses them as a source of fuel, slowly giving you energy throughout the day.. Another tip when you have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The wacker process. T2 - Inner- Or outer-sphere nucleophilic addition? New insights from Ab initio molecular dynamics. AU - Comas-Vives, Aleix. AU - Stirling, András. AU - Lledós, Agustí. AU - Ujaque, Gregori. PY - 2010/8/2. Y1 - 2010/8/2. N2 - The Wacker process consists of the oxidation of ethylene catalyzed by a PdII complex. The reaction mechanism has been largely debated in the literature; two modes for the nucleophilic addition of water to a Pd-coordinated alkene have been proposed: syninner- and anti-outer-sphere mechanisms. These reaction steps have been theoretically evaluated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics combined with metadynamics by placing the [Pd-(C2H 4)Cl2(H2O)] complex in a box of water molecules, thereby resembling experimental conditions at low [Cl-]. The nucleophilic addition has also been evaluated for the [Pd(C 2H4)Cl3]- complex, thus revealing that the ...
The interaction of anionic surfactants sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) and sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexylsulfosuccinate) (AOT) with the water treatment protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The results were compared with previously reported studies using surface tension and zeta potential measurements of the same protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate. There is a strong electrostatic interaction between the protein and the surfactants characterized by a local maximum at intermediate surfactant concentration. This surfactant concentration depends on the protein concentration and corresponds to the surfactant concentration at the point of charge reversal (zeta potential = 0 mV). The number of surfactant molecules required to neutralize the positive charges on the protein was found to be 8 per protein molecule ...
The interaction of anionic surfactants sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) and sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexylsulfosuccinate) (AOT) with the water treatment protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The results were compared with previously reported studies using surface tension and zeta potential measurements of the same protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate. There is a strong electrostatic interaction between the protein and the surfactants characterized by a local maximum at intermediate surfactant concentration. This surfactant concentration depends on the protein concentration and corresponds to the surfactant concentration at the point of charge reversal (zeta potential = 0 mV). The number of surfactant molecules required to neutralize the positive charges on the protein was found to be 8 per protein molecule ...
The Brazil flavored and functional water market is expected to rise from a valuation of US$5.0 bn to reach US$9.4 bn by 2024, expanding at a 7.3% CAGR therein.. Vitamins and Minerals Widely Used Ingredients in Flavored and Functional Water. In 2015, the vitamins and minerals segment accounted for a share of around 90% in terms of volume. Exhibiting a 7.1% CAGR by volume, the segment is also projected to emerge as one of the most lucrative investment options for players in the Brazil flavored and functional water market. Based on the nature of flavored and functional water, non-carbonated beverages are likely to retain their dominance in the market, registering a high growth rate in terms of value as well as volume.. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=16133. On the basis of distribution channel, the retail store segment ...
The Brazil flavored and functional water market is expected to rise from a valuation of US$5.0 bn to reach US$9.4 bn by 2024, expanding at a 7.3% CAGR therein.. Vitamins and Minerals Widely Used Ingredients in Flavored and Functional Water. In 2015, the vitamins and minerals segment accounted for a share of around 90% in terms of volume. Exhibiting a 7.1% CAGR by volume, the segment is also projected to emerge as one of the most lucrative investment options for players in the Brazil flavored and functional water market. Based on the nature of flavored and functional water, non-carbonated beverages are likely to retain their dominance in the market, registering a high growth rate in terms of value as well as volume.. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=16133. On the basis of distribution channel, the retail store segment ...
Methods: Infasurf®, a clinically used and commercially available calf lung surfactant extract, was used as lung surfactant model. Infasurf® films were spread on top of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough with smoke particulates from conventional cigarettes or vapor from different flavors of e-cigarettes dispersed in the subphase. Surfactant interfacial properties were measured in real-time upon surface compression while surfactant lateral structure after exposure to smoke or vapor was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM).. Results: E-cigarette vapor regardless of the dose and flavoring of the e-liquid did not affect surfactant interfacial properties. In contrast, smoke from conventional cigarettes had a drastic, dose dependent effect on Infasurf® interfacial properties reducing the maximum surface pressure from 65.1 ± 0.2 mN/m to 46.1 ± 1.3 mN/m at the highest dose. Cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor both altered surfactant microstructure resulting in an ...
Cheap paper for, Buy Quality paper water directly from China paper water transfer Suppliers: Jetyoung Decal Paper Water Transfer Paper for General Printing Ink for Dark Objects 10sets/bag
TY - JOUR. T1 - The late asthmatic response is linked with increased surface tension and reduced surfactant protein B in mice. AU - Haczku, Angela. AU - Atochina, Elena Nikolaevna. AU - Tomer, Yaniv. AU - Cao, Yang. AU - Campbell, Colleen. AU - Scanlon, Seth T.. AU - Russo, Scott J.. AU - Enhorning, Goran. AU - Beers, Michael F.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Pulmonary surfactant dysfunction may significantly contribute to small airway obstruction during the asthmatic response, but neither its exact role nor its regulation is clear. Surfactant function and composition was studied in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af)-induced late-phase allergic airway response in sensitized BALB/c mice. The peak of Af-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized and challenged mice 24 h after allergen provocation coincided with a significant fall in surface activity of the pulmonary surfactant. The underlying changes included time-dependent elaboration of eotaxin and IL-5 ...
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are biomimetic nanocarriers used for the encapsulation of a broad variety of active ingredients. Similar to surface active compounds, LNCs contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in their structure. Moreover, the components of LNCs, macrogol 15 hydroxystearate (MHS) and lecithin, are known for their surface active properties. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the capability of the LNCs to decrease surface tension using two techniques: drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm were successfully obtained using a phase inversion technique. The LNCs properties, such as size and zeta potential, depend on the composition. LNCs exhibit a lower limiting surface tension compared to MHS (34.8-35.0 mN/m and 37.7-38.8 mN/m, respectively), as confirmed by both drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs have ...
0018] The acidic water is made from neutral water by mixing acidic materials. Mixing a small amount of acid like hydrochloric acid (HCl) into water produces the acidic water. The acidity of the acidic water is represented by pH value. The neutral fresh water has pH value of 7. On the other hand, the natural seawater is slightly alkalic and has pH value of 8.2. The acidity of the acidic water increases as the pH value is lowered further down from 7 for fresh water or from 8.2 for seawater. The pH value of the acidic water was measured in terms of the mixing ratio of the hydrochloric acid. FIG. 1 is plots of the pH value versus the ...
Water excretion by the kidney is regulated by the peptide hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin increases the water permeability of the renal collecting duct cells, allowing more water to be reabsorbed from collecting duct urine to blood. Despite long-standing interest in this process, the mechanism of the water permeability increase has remained undetermined. Recently, a molecular water channel (AQP-CD) has been cloned whose expression appears to be limited to the collecting duct. Previously, we immunolocalized this water channel to the apical plasma membrane (APM) and to intracellular vesicles (IVs) of collecting duct cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that vasopressin increases cellular water permeability by inducing exocytosis of AQP-CD-laden vesicles, transferring ...
We have studied a respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) occurring in newborn calves of the Belgian White and Blue (BWB) breed that represents the large majority of beef cattle in Belgium. Pulmonary surfactant isolated from 14 BWB newborn calves that died from RDS and from 7 healthy controls was analysed for composition and surface activity. An extremely low content or, in some instances, an absence of surfactant protein C (SP-C) was detected in the RDS samples by Western blotting and differential amino acid analysis [0.03±0.01% (w/w) relative to total phospholipids, compared with 0.39±0.06% for healthy controls (means±S.E.M., P , 0.001)]. The contents of surfactant protein B (SP-B) were similar in RDS and control samples. The crude surfactant samples isolated from RDS calves had higher ratios of total protein to total phospholipid, altered phospholipid profiles and lower SP-A contents. Both crude and organic extracts of RDS surfactant samples showed increased dynamic surface ...
purpose. To analyze free and total water in human normal and cataractous lenses.. methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine total water, and differential scanning calorimetry was used for free water.. results. In normal human lenses, the total water content of the nucleus remained unchanged with age, but the state of the water altered. The ratio of free to bound water increased steadily throughout adult life. In a 20-year-old person, there was approximately one bound water molecule for each free water molecule in the lens center, whereas in a 70- to 80-year-old person, there were two free water molecules for each bound water molecule. This ...
The overall aim of this study is to calculate some water properties in the single wall carbon naotubes (SWCNT) and compare them to the bulk water properties to investigate the deviation of water properties inside the SWCNT from those in the bulk. Here some physical and transport properties of water molecules in the single wall carbon nanotube were reported by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Radial and axial density; hydrogen bond numbering; hydrogen bond distribution and diffusivity of water molecules inside the SWCNT were calculated. Results have good agreements with other researcher results. These calculations show that molecular dynamics simulation would be a reasonable method to analyze the properties of the new nanoscale systems.
Introduction. Biology Coursework OSMOSIS The Oxford Dictionary defines Osmosis as the passage of a solvent through a semi-permeable partition into another solution. In Biology, Osmosis is the process by which different water concentrations balance out between cells. The water travels through semi permeable membranes until the concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane. The large particles in the highly concentrated liquid do not pass through the semi permeable membrane, but the water molecules do. Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall made from cellulose fibres. This wall is fully permeable to allow dissolved substances to pass through it easily. There is a thin layer under the cell wall called the cell membrane, and this is only semi-permeable so only certain substances can leave and enter the cell. Any substance dissolved in water is called a ...
For surface active substances the critical micelle concentration (CMC) method is used as an alternative to the water solubility. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is determined by measuring the surface tension of test substance solutions at different test substance concentration. For surface active substances which form micelles in solution, the surface tension decreases with increasing concentration until the CMC is reached. At concentrations above the CMC, the surface tension remains constant. The CMC is determined from a plot of the surface tension versus the logarithm of the test substance concentration ...
The effect of three synthetic surfactants on surface activity and surface dilatational rheology of temperature-denatured type I collagen at water/air interface is described. An anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and a nonionic (Triton X-100, TX-100) surfactants were employed at variable concentrations (5 × 10−6 mol L−1-1 × 10−4 mol L−1). With the protein concentration fixed at 5 × 10−6 mol L−1, the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 were obtained. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic and equilibrium surface tension, as well as the surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers formed at the water/air interface at pH 4.5. For the collagen-SDS mixtures, analogous studies were also performed at the ...
The common classifications of hydrophobic and hydrophilic arose from the sessile drop method. In our study, all materials tested appeared to be more or less hydrophobic, as demonstrated by their high water contact angle reading. The PMMA (AMO DuraLens PS 101A), AcrySof (Alcon), the Siflex 4 and the Flex 60 have similar water contact angles (73.2, 73.3, 75.4 and 75.7 , respectively). The AMO soft acrylic Sensar had a somewhat higher water contact angle (81.7 ). Using the sessile drop method, we saw the influence of the trifluoroethylene component of the material. In the hydrophobic environment of the air, the fluorinated component of the Sensar material surfaced and thereby increased the water contact angle of the material so that its value was somewhat higher than that of PMMA. We saw relatively small differences between most materials with highest values ...
In this study we explore the preparation of core-crosslinked micelles of linear-dendritic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-co-poly(ester-sulfide) (PES) polymers to improve the stability of such polymeric micelle systems against premature disintegration and drug release. A series of MPEG-PES copolymers were synthesised via stepwise reactions of acetylation and thiol-ene photoreaction. Surface tension measurement showed that the copolymers with ethenyl surface groups could self-associate in dilute aqueous solutions to form micelles. Crosslinking within the micelle cores in the presence of dithioerythritol (DTT) linker was initiated under UV radiation. The formation of core-crosslinked micelles was confirmed by HPLC in combination with charged aerosol detection (CAD). The copolymers were found to readily hydrolyse under acidic conditions due to the ester-containing dendrons. Drug solubilisation capacities of the micellar solutions were determined using ...
Retaining hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) structures in polymers after surfactant removal and drying is particularly challenging, as the surface tension existing during the drying processes tends to change the morphology. In this study, cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels were prepared in LLC hexagonal phases formed from a dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)/water system. The retention of the hexagonal LLC structures was examined by controlling the surface tension. Polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering results indicate that the hexagonal LLC structure was successfully formed before polymerization and well retained after polymerization and after surfactant removal when the surface tension forces remained neutral. Controlling the surface tension during the drying ...
Types Of Frictional Force: solid & liquid frictional force : solid friction occurs between two solid surfaces. e.g an inclined plane liquid friction occurs between layers of liquid molecules which is known as Viscosity or Liquid Friction and surface tension
An old style mercury barometer consists of a vertical glass tube about 1 cm in diameter partially filled with mercury, and with a vacuum (called Torricellis vacuum) in the unfilled volume (see diagram to the right). Notice that the mercury level at the center of the tube is higher than at the edges, making the upper surface of the mercury dome-shaped. The center of mass of the entire column of mercury would be slightly lower if the top surface of the mercury were flat over the entire crossection of the tube. But the dome-shaped top gives slightly less surface area to the entire mass of mercury. Again the two effects combine to minimize the total potential energy. Such a surface shape is known as a convex meniscus.. We consider the surface area of the entire mass of mercury, including the part of the surface that is in contact with the glass, because mercury does not adhere at all to glass. So the ...
Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)
Sulfuric acid or sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide cleaning solutions used in semiconductor manufacturing processes are improved in wettability and cleaning effect by lowering their surface tension through the addition of surface-active agents Of the general formula R.sup.1 SO.sub.2 NR.sup.2 C.sub.2 H.sub.4 OA(I) wherein R.sup.1 stands for a fluoroalkyl group, R.sup.2 for H or a lower alkyl group and A for H or SO.sub.3 H.
The research presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis, modification, characterization, and the application of polymeric surfactants in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Sodium undecenoyl-L-Leucinate (L-SUL) was synthesized and modified by use of alkali metal counterions, alcohols, and Triton X-102. Characterization of the modified poly-L-SUL was performed in order to elucidate the structural changes on the surfactants by use of four techniques. While surface tensiometry was used for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc), fluorescence measurements were used for the determination of the polarity of the modified polymeric surfactants. The information about the size of the polymeric surfactants was obtained by use of pulsed field gradient-NMR (PFG-NMR). A superior chromatographic performance in MEKC was demonstrated by the modified polymeric surfactants as compared to the non-modified polymeric surfactants. A correlation between the polarity and ...
Purpose : Experiments recording tear film thickness reveal localized tear break up (TBU); however, there seems to be multiple causes of local TBU. Our goal is to better understand the causes of TBU by studying a mathematical model for tear film dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study of TBU using a mobile lipid layer with variable resistance to evaporation. We aim to reveal details of TBU from physically reasonable parameters and conditions caused by elevated evaporation due to lipid defects, and how this process can be aided by surfactant-driven Marangoni flow. Methods : We study a math model for TBU including a mobile aqueous layer; a mobile lipid layer; tear viscosity; evaporation depending on lipid thickness and environmental humidity; osmosis from the epithelium; surface tension at the layer surfaces; and surface tension variation at the aqueous-lipid interface caused by polar lipid surfactants (Marangoni ...
58 Chapter hy does water descend in a stream when poured from a teapot instead of coming down like rain? Why are soap bubbles round? Why does water move up a strip of paper towel when you dip just one edge in? The answer to all of these questions is surface tension. Surface tension affects the behavior of all water in the liquid state, whether it is a cupful or an ocean, whether it is trickling or crashing. Blood, sweat, tears-they all exhibit surface tension. 1 How Many Drops of Water Can a Penny Hold on Its Surface? What are your predictions? You can carry out the following experiment under adult supervision to answer the above two questions. Wear safety goggles during the experiment. You will need a pot of purified water, ...
Glycerol is a sweet, highly viscous fluid thats very good at absorbing moisture from the ambient air. Thats why a drop of pure glycerol in laboratory conditions quickly develops convection cells - even when upside-down, as shown above. This is not the picture of Bénard-Marangoni convection were used to. Theres no temperature or density change involved; in fact, theres no buoyancy involved at all! This convection is driven entirely by surface tension. As glycerol at the surface absorbs moisture, its surface tension decreases. This generates flow from the center of a cell toward its exterior, where the surface tension is higher. Conservation of mass, also known as continuity, requires that fresh, undiluted glycerol get pulled up in the wake of this flow. It, too, absorbs moisture and the process continues. (Image credit: S. Shin et al., pdf). ...
Adaptation to respiration at birth depends upon the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli and prevents lung collapse during the ventilatory cycle. Herein, we demonstrated that the gene encoding a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex, EMC3, also known as TMEM111 (Emc3/Tmem111), was required for murine pulmonary surfactant synthesis and lung function at birth. Conditional deletion of Emc3 in murine embryonic lung epithelial cells disrupted the synthesis and packaging of surfactant lipids and proteins, impaired the formation of lamellar bodies, and induced the unfolded protein response in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. EMC3 was essential for the processing and routing of surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and the biogenesis of the phospholipid transport protein ABCA3. Transcriptomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses demonstrated that EMC3 coordinates the assembly of ...
A synthetic protein-free lung surfactant composition is utilized to temporarily substitute for natural lung surfactant in the mammalian lung where such natural lung surfactant is absent or in low concentration. The synthetic surfactant composition consists essentially of a major amount of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-glycerophosphoryl choline (DPPC), and a minor amount of a fatty alcohol, preferably a fatty alcohol having from 14 to 18 carbon atoms, and especially n-hexdecan-1-ol. The synthetic surfactant composition is administered directly into the lungs of a distressed subject to create a film on the alveolar interfacial surfaces and reduce surface tension. Expansion of the alveolar spaces is thereby facilitated.
Spin finish composition for conventional speed spinning of polyester yarns providing yarn of superior quality, low emissions and no significant deposits on processing equipment, is a non-aqueous composition consisting essentially of from 10 to 70% by weight of a trimethylol or tetramethylol C1 -C3 alkane ester wherein all the methylol groups are esterified with C8 -C10 saturated carboxylic acid, preferably trimethylol propane tripelargonate, from 10 to 70% by weight of tetraethylene glycol diester of C8 -C10 saturated carboxylic acid, preferably tetraethylene glycol diester of decanoic and octanoic acid, from 5 to 50% by weight of low volatility, light viscosity, 15 low surface tension, substantially aromatic-free light mineral oil, preferably consisting essentially of C12 -C15 isoparaffic hydrocarbon, and from 2 to 20% by weight of 1H-imidazolium, 1-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(8-heptadecenyl)-, ethyl sulfate. Compositions with viscosities of greater than 17 as ...
Acrylic wrap offers bold, durable colour by using a high-performance film that is permanently bonded to the PVC window frame. Whereas paint requires frequent maintenance and metal cladding is beautiful but cant be used for interior applications, acrylic film offers great customizable colour without sacrificing durability. The wrap also features a contemporary stipple emboss finish that pairs well with modern home interiors and exteriors. Its low surface tension means that it can be wiped clean easily and it has a strong resistance to chalking, cracking and fading.. The multi-layered film is comprised of a transparent polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer, a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer and a pigmented acrylic base later that reflects heat away from the window using Solar Shield Technology (SST). This unique combination of polymers provides reduced heat absorption, improved UV resistance and excellent long-term weathering.. ...
sources]. "Virtually any liquid you throw on it bounces right off without wetting it. For many of the other similar coatings, very low surface tension liquids such as oils, alcohols, organic acids, organic bases, and solvents stick to them and they could start to diffuse through and thats not what you want," says Anish Tuteja, assistant professor of materials science and engineering, chemical engineering, and macromolecular science and engineering at the University of Michigan.. Of more than 100 liquids, only two chlorofluorocarbons were able to penetrate the coating. Chlorofluorocarbons are chemicals used in refrigerators and air conditioners. The "superomniphobic surface" repelled coffee, soy sauce, and vegetable oil, as well as toxic hydrochloric and sulfuric acids that could burn skin. The coating is also resistant to gasoline and various alcohols.. To apply the coating, researchers used a technique called electrospinning that uses an electric charge to ...
Silicone oils are primarily used as lubricants, thermic fluid oils or hydraulic fluids. They are excellent electrical insulators[2] and, unlike their carbon analogues, are non-flammable. Their temperature stability and good heat-transfer characteristics make them widely used in laboratories for heating baths ("oil baths") placed on top of hotplate stirrers, as well as in freeze-dryers as refrigerants. Silicone oil is also commonly used as the working fluid in dashpots, wet-type transformers, diffusion pumps and in oil-filled heaters. Aerospace use includes the external coolant loop and radiators of the International Space Station Zvezda module, which rejects heat in the vacuum of space.[3] The class of silicone oils known as cyclosiloxanes has many of the same properties as other non-cyclic siloxane liquids but also has a relatively high volatility, making it useful in a number of cosmetic products such as antiperspirant. Some silicone oils, such as simethicone, are potent anti-foaming agents ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. AU - Joshi, Sanket. AU - Bharucha, Chirag. AU - Desai, Anjana J.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 °C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of hydrophilic surfaces with poly(vinyl ether)s and their interfacial properties in water. AU - Oda, Yukari. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Abstract: We studied the effect of polymer design on the interfacial structure and physical properties of polymer films in water based on a poly(vinyl ether) platform with hydrophilic side-chains to construct bioinert interfaces. Initially, we explored how to prepare hydrophilic surfaces using poly(vinyl ether)s, utilizing the preferential segregation of a rubbery component in a diblock copolymer film with a glassy component, crosslinking a hydrophilic polymer, and designing an interfacial modifier with a special architecture. Characterizing the interfacial structure and physical properties of the obtained polymer films in water revealed that a small difference in the side-chain structure significantly ...
The surfactants critical micelle concentration (CMC) plays a factor in Gibbs free energy of micellization. The exact concentration of the surfactants that yield the aggregates being thermodynamically soluble is the CMC. The Krafft temperature determines the solubility of the surfactants which in turn is the temperature that CMC is achieved. There are many parameters that affect the CMC. The interaction between the hydrophilic heads and the hydrophobic tails play a part, as well as the concentration of salt within the solution and surfactants. A micelle is an aggregation of surfactants or block copolymer in aqueous solution or organic solution, often spherical. Surfactants are composed of a polar head group that is hydrophilic and a nonpolar tail group that is hydrophobic. The head groups can be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, or nonionic. The tail group can be a hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, or a siloxane. Extensive variation in the surfactants solution and interfacial properties is allowed ...
In present investigation, B. subtilis and B. cereus was isolated and Identified from the petroleum contaminated site soil and identified by grams staining, motility and biochemical tests. After the isolation and identification, biosurfactant production from bacterial organisms was screened using mineral salt medium, by oil spreading, drop collapse and hemolysis test. From the blood agar plates, the biosurfactant producing bacterial culture were obtained and maintained as stock cultures. Organisms were inoculated into the mineral salt broth with petroleum oil, diesel oil, kerosene oil and crude oil as a carbon source for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant was extracted by acid precipitation method. Biosurfactants production was optimized by using different pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources. Emulsification activity of biosurfactant was analyzed. The extracted biosurfactant was characterized by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). B.subtilis was able to produce the biosurfactant ...
In this paper, the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam model is presented to examine the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface tension on the critical force of axial buckling of nanotubes in the presence of rotary inertia. An explicit solution is derived for the buckling loads of microscaled Euler beams considering surface effects. The size-dependent buckling behavior of the nanotube due to surface effects is well elucidated in the obtained solutions. The critical forces are evaluated for axial buckling of cantilever beams. The results are compared with those corresponding to the classical beam model. The influences of the surface effects on the critical forces are discussed in detail.
where y is the interfacial tension (mN/m), a is the activity of the surfactant in the bulk, R is the gas constant (8.314 J/mol K) and T is the absolute temperature (K). In the present case, the surfactant activity is not known, and the assumption is made that it is approximately equal to the molar concentration c (mol/L). Thus, the surfactant interfacial concentration can be obtained from a plot of interfacial tension versus the natural logarithm of the surfactant bulk concentration.. The measurement of droplet size. The size of dispersed particles was measured using a Mastersizer-2000 device (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, United Kingdom). The procedure of measuring is based on sample dispersion (which is controlled by software) and the measurement of angle dependence of the intensity of scattering of a collimated helium-neon laser beam. Particle size in the range of 0.26 μm to 1500 μm can be measured; this range is much wider than the sizes of the real samples used in this ...
where y is the interfacial tension (mN/m), a is the activity of the surfactant in the bulk, R is the gas constant (8.314 J/mol K) and T is the absolute temperature (K). In the present case, the surfactant activity is not known, and the assumption is made that it is approximately equal to the molar concentration c (mol/L). Thus, the surfactant interfacial concentration can be obtained from a plot of interfacial tension versus the natural logarithm of the surfactant bulk concentration.. The measurement of droplet size. The size of dispersed particles was measured using a Mastersizer-2000 device (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, United Kingdom). The procedure of measuring is based on sample dispersion (which is controlled by software) and the measurement of angle dependence of the intensity of scattering of a collimated helium-neon laser beam. Particle size in the range of 0.26 μm to 1500 μm can be measured; this range is much wider than the sizes of the real samples used in this ...
Many biological molecules are by their nature amphiphilic and have the ability to act as surfactants, stabilizing interfaces between aqueous and immiscible oil phases. In this paper, we explore the adsorption kinetics of surfactin, a naturally occurring cyclic lipopeptide, at hexadecane/water interfaces and compare and contrast its adsorption behaviour with that of synthetic alkyl benzene sulfonate isomers, through direct measurements of changes in interfacial tension upon surfactant adsorption. We access millisecond time resolution in kinetic measurements by making use of droplet microfluidics to probe the interfacial tension of hexadecane droplets dispersed in a continuous water phase through monitoring their deformation when the droplets are exposed to shear flows in a microfluidic channel with regular corrugations ...
Cellulose was electrospun with various concentrations of ionic liquid and cosolvent. Three different cosolvents were used in this study; dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethyl formamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cosolvents were added to modify the viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension of the solutions. The solubility of cellulose in ionic liquids is highly affected by changes in solvent properties on the molecular level in the binary solvent systems. The difference in molecular structure of the cosolvents and the interactions between cosolvent and ionic liquid can explain the difference in dissolution power of the cosolvents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize electrospun cellulose fibers. For the systems tested the importance of having a rather high viscosity and high surface tension, and some degree of shear thinning to produce fibers is shown.
On Earth, gravity is responsible for making bubbles rise and liquids fall. Such mechanisms vanish in the weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft. In fact, in microgravity there is no concept notion of floating or sinking, or up or down. Other forces such as surface tension that are normally overwhelmed by gravity on Earth rise to dominate liquid behavior.. In a spacecraft, if the effects of surface tension are not understood, liquids (e.g., water, fuel) can be just about anywhere in the container that holds them. Similarly, the gas (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen) in such containers can freely range, too. Youre in for a challenge if you want to find where these fluids are and use them. Even if you just want to drink them. This is why in space youll only see astronauts drinking from bags with straws so that they can completely collapse the bag to assure the liquids come out. From a practical safety perspective, ...
On Earth, gravity is responsible for making bubbles rise and liquids fall. Such mechanisms vanish in the weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft. In fact, in microgravity there is no concept notion of floating or sinking, or up or down. Other forces such as surface tension that are normally overwhelmed by gravity on Earth rise to dominate liquid behavior.. In a spacecraft, if the effects of surface tension are not understood, liquids (e.g., water, fuel) can be just about anywhere in the container that holds them. Similarly, the gas (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen) in such containers can freely range, too. Youre in for a challenge if you want to find where these fluids are and use them. Even if you just want to drink them. This is why in space youll only see astronauts drinking from bags with straws so that they can completely collapse the bag to assure the liquids come out. From a practical safety perspective, ...
We study the generation and decay of aqueous foams stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). Together with the rheology of aqueous suspensions containing CNF and SDS, the interfacial/colloidal interactions are determined by quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring, surface plasmon resonance, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The results are used to explain the properties of the air/water interface (interfacial activity and dilatational moduli determined from oscillating air bubbles) and of the bulk (steady-state flow, oscillatory shear, and capillary thinning). These properties are finally correlated to the foamability and to the foam stability. The latter was studied as a function of time by monitoring the foam volume, the liquid fraction, and the bubble size distribution. The shear-thinning effect of CNF is found to facilitate foam formation at SDS concentrations above the ...
Features contemporary art, painting, sculpture, video, installations, photography and editions by established and emerging American and international artists.
The work presented in this thesis concerns surface energy modification and patterning of the surfaces of conjugated polymers. Goniometry and Wilhelmy Balance techniques were used to evaluate the surface energy or wettability of a polymers surface; infrared reflectionabsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) was used to analyse the residuals on the surface as modified by a bare elastomeric stamp poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The stamp was found to be capable of modifying a polymer surface. Patterning of a single and/or double layer of conjugated polymers on the surface can be achieved by surface energy controlled dewetting. Modification of a conjugated polymer film can also be carried out when a sample is subjected to electrochemical doping in an aqueous electrolyte. The dynamic surface energy changes during the process were monitored in-situ using the Wilhelmy balance ...
0018]The nonionic surfactants used are preferably alkoxylated, advantageously ethoxylated, especially primary alcohols having preferably 8 to 18 carbon atoms and on average 1 to 12 mol of ethylene oxide (EO) per mole of alcohol, in which the alcohol radical may be linear or preferably 2-methyl-branched, or may contain linear and methyl-branched radicals in a mixture, as typically present in oxoalcohol radicals. However, especially preferred are alcohol ethoxylates having linear radicals from alcohols of native origin having 12 to 18 carbon atoms, for example from coconut, palm, tallow fat or oleyl alcohol, and on average 2 to 8 EO per mole of alcohol. The preferred ethoxylated alcohols include, for example, C12-C14-alcohols with 3 EO or 4 EO, C9-C11-alcohols with 7 EO, C13-C15-alcohols with 3 EO, 5 EO, 7 EO or 8 EO, C12-C18-alcohols with 3 EO, 5 EO or 7 EO and mixtures of these, such as mixtures of C12-C14-alcohol with 3 EO and C12-C18-alcohol with 7 EO. The degrees of ethoxylation specified ...
Background: Surfactants are a class of amphiphilic surface active compounds that show several unique physical properties at liquid-liquid or liquid-solid surface interfaces including the ability to increase the solubility of substances, lower the surface tension of a liquid, and decrease friction between two mediums. Because of these unique physical properties several in vitro, ex vivo, and human trials have examined the role of surfactants as stand-alone or adjunct therapy in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: A review of the literature was performed. Results: The data from three different surfactants have been examined in this review: citric acid zwitterionic surfactant (CAZS; Medtronic ENT, Jacksonville FL), Johnsons Baby Shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick NJ), and SinuSurf (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Santa Rosa, CA). Dilute surfactant therapy shows in vitro antimicrobial effects with modest inhibition of bacterial ...
Contents of the 15 Chapter for This Biosurfactants Market Study:-. Chapter 1: to describe Global Biosurfactants Market Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2: to analyze the top manufacturers of Global Biosurfactants Market, with sales, revenue, and price of Global Biosurfactants Market, in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 3: to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 4: to show the Global Biosurfactants market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Global Biosurfactants Market, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;. Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9: to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 10 and 11: to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, Methodology, Analyst Introduction, Data Source from 2012 to ...
Abstract: : Purpose:To identify and compare the physical properties of various polymeric systems that are commonly used in artificial tear products and determine which properties are critical for providing superior product performance. Methodologies: Five physical property measurements were made on various ophthalmic polymeric systems and commercial artificial tear products: 1) bulk viscosity at low shear conditions; 2) lubricity between two moving surfaces; 3) dynamic interfacial tension at water/air interface; and 4) dynamic interfacial tension at water/octanol interface; 5) interfacial viscosity. Simple polymer/water solutions of various grades of HPMC, PVA, CMC, Carbomer and HP-guar were tested at ambient temperature and 35ºC. Effects of pH and ionic strength were also examined where appropriate. For bulk viscosity determinations, ...
In previous evaluations, of GTA welding stainless steel plates the surfactant content in the workplace has been assumed to be in a state of equilibrium. However surfactant concentration usually had to be adjusted in order to achieve agreement between the weld pool shapes in experiments and those in simulations. In this study a physiochemical approach to the redistribution of surfactant at the surface and in the bulk is presented for the first time. Sulphur was considered as a represenative surfactant. The model allows surfactant molecular transport via convection, diffusion, and sorption. It is shown that sulphur atoms accumulate at the surface at stagnation points, affecting the coefficient of surface tension and thus the final weld pool shape. Thus, the sulphur content in the simulation approaches the nominal sulphur content in the steel plate. The theory is strenghtened by both electron probe microanalysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. ...
Background After an explosion and fire in two tanks containing contaminated oil and sulphur products in a Norwegian industrial harbour in 2007, the surrounding area was polluted. This caused an intense smell, lasting until the waste was removed two years later. The present study reports examinations of tear film break up time among the population. The examinations were carried out because many of the people in the area complained of sore eyes. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between living or working close to the polluted area and tear film stability one and a half years after the explosion. Methods All persons working or living in an area less than six kilometres from the explosion site were invited to take part in the study together with a similar number of persons matched for age and gender living more than 20 kilometres away. Three groups were established: workers in the explosion area and inhabitants near the explosion area (but not working there) were considered to ...
Poly(chloroprene) is a synthetic crystallizable polymer used in several applications, including rubber gloves. The film formation of poly(chloroprene) latex offers opportunities to define structures at length scales between the molecular and macroscopic, thereby adjusting the elastomers mechanical properties. However, the connections between processing and the resultant film properties are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the competition between the coalescence of latex particles to build cohesive strength and their crystallization to raise the elastic modulus. We demonstrate that when coalescence precedes crystallization, the elastomer has greater extensibility and a higher tensile strength compared to when crystallization occurs during coalescence. The mechanical properties of poly(chloroprene) were tuned by blending two colloids with differing gel contents and crystallizabilities. Heating above poly(chloroprene)s melting temperature allows increased particle interdiffusion and ...
Foam Fractionation - The Effect of Salts and Low Molecular Weight Organics on ABS Removal ASHIS K. SENGUPTA, Research Associate W. O. PIPES, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering The Technological Institute Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois INTRODUCTION Foam fractionation is a process by which a solution containing a surface active solute is separated into two fractions, the foam fraction which has a higher concentration of the surface active solute than the original solution and a drain fraction depleted of surface active material. The method of effecting the separation is to cause a foam to be produced by vigorous aeration and then to separate the foam from the bulk of the solution by mechanical means. When the foam is initially produced, the surface active solute is preferentially absorbed on the air water interfaces of the bubbles and thus the foam is richer in surface active ...
Fatty acids, C16-18, esters with ethylene glycol - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic surfactants, Zwitterionic surfactants, Polymer Surfactants, Fluoro surfactants, Silicone surfactants, Biosurfactants, Natural surfactants, Special surfactants - Page1
Propylene glycol oleth - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic surfactants, Zwitterionic surfactants, Polymer Surfactants, Fluoro surfactants, Silicone surfactants, Biosurfactants, Natural surfactants, Special surfactants - Page1
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.
An oral composition for oral cleansing, breath freshening, and anti-microbial benefits includes Magnolia Bark Extract in combination with a surface active agent. The effectiveness of Magnolia Bark Extract in inhibiting biofilm formation in the oral cavity is increased by a synergistic combination of the Magnolia Bark Extract with a surface active agent in an oral cavity delivery agent, such as chewing gum, a confectionary, a lozenge, a compressed tablet, and an edible film.
RDS occurs when there is not enough of a substance in the lungs called surfactant. Surfactant is made by the cells in the airways and consists of phospholipids and protein. It begins to be produced in the fetus at about 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Surfactant is found in amniotic fluid between 28 and 32 weeks. By about 35 weeks gestation, most babies have developed adequate amounts of surfactant.. Surfactant is normally released into the lung tissues where it helps lower surface tension in the airways. This helps keep the lung alveoli (air sacs) open. When there is not enough surfactant, the tiny alveoli collapse with each breath. As the alveoli collapse, damaged cells collect in the airways and further affect breathing ability. These cells are called hyaline membranes. The baby works harder and harder at breathing, trying to re-inflate the collapsed airways.. As the babys lung function decreases, less oxygen is taken in and more carbon dioxide builds up in the blood. This ...
RDS occurs when there is not enough of a substance in the lungs called surfactant. Surfactant is made by the cells in the airways and consists of phospholipids and protein. It begins to be produced in the fetus at about 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Surfactant is found in amniotic fluid between 28 and 32 weeks. By about 35 weeks gestation, most babies have developed adequate amounts of surfactant.. Surfactant is normally released into the lung tissues where it helps lower surface tension in the airways. This helps keep the lung alveoli (air sacs) open. When there is not enough surfactant, the tiny alveoli collapse with each breath. As the alveoli collapse, damaged cells collect in the airways and further affect breathing ability. These cells are called hyaline membranes. The baby works harder and harder at breathing, trying to re-inflate the collapsed airways.. As the babys lung function decreases, less oxygen is taken in and more carbon dioxide builds up in the blood. This ...
Dry eye disease involves significant changes to the structure and function of the tear film. While it is widely believed and accepted that the various components in the tear film, including lipids, proteins, mucins and salts, play a critical role in preventing tear film evaporation and collapse, the report suggested that further studies are warranted to confirm or deny this concept.. Historically, the tear film has been viewed as a tri-layered structure comprising of the outermost lipid, middle aqueous and an inner mucin layer. However, over the past few years enough evidence has been generated to suggest that the tear film is a bi-phasic structure composed of an outer lipid layer overlying a muco-aqueous phase.. The lipid layer. The lipid layer consists of several non-polar and amphiphilic (polar) lipids. The lipid layer is important in stabilizing the whole of the tear film - this is partly through its ability to lower the surface tension of the tear film. The role of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ω-hydrogenation on the adsorption of fluorononanols at the hexane/water interface. T2 - Pressure effect on the adsorption of fluorononanols. AU - Takiue, Takanori. AU - Hirose, Daisuke. AU - Murakami, Daiki. AU - Sakamoto, Hiroyasu. AU - Matsubara, Hiroki. AU - Aratono, Makoto. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - The interfacial tension γ of the hexane solution of 1H,1H-perfluorononanol (FDFC9OH) and its ω-hydrogenated analogue, 1H,1H,9H-perfluorononanol (HDFC9OH), against water was measured as a function of pressure and concentration at 298.15 K in order to clarify the effect of ω-dipole on the orientation of fluorononanol molecules from the viewpoint of volume. The adsorbed films of both alcohols exhibit two kinds of phase transitions among three different states: the gaseous, expanded, and condensed states. The partial molar volume changes of adsorption v1-H - v1O in the expanded ...
Oil-in-water photoprotective emulsions containing gemini surfactants and associative polymers The invention relates to a photoprotective composition containing as liquid phase, an oil-in-water emulsion, emulsified with at least one dimeric surfactant comprising two surfactant units, which may be identical or different, each consisting of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail and connected to each other, via the hydrophilic heads, by means of a spacer group, at least one photoprotective system capable of screening out UV rays, containing at least one mineral nanopigment based on metal oxide, and optionally at least one organic, preferably hydrosoluble or liposoluble UV-A and/or UV-B screening agent, and at least one associative polymer comprising at least one C8-40 fatty chain, and also to a process for preparing such a photoprotective composition.
Direct oxygen partial pressure (pO2) readings in breast cancers, in fibrocystic disease, and in the normal breast have been obtained using a novel technique which allows for the systematic evaluation of the oxygenation status as a function of pathological staging and histological grading. Measurements were performed in awake pre- and postmenopausal patients with well-defined arterial blood gas status.. The measuring procedure encompasses a computerized electrode movement in the tissue which avoids significant compression artifacts and allows routine measurement in human tumors before, during, and after treatment. Using this reliable technique, pO2 measurements in the normal breast and in fibrocystic disease resulted in oxygenation patterns which were characteristic for normal, adequately supplied tissues. The median pO2 values were 65 and 67 mm Hg, respectively, with no pO2 readings below 12.5 mm Hg in the normal breast, and ≤5 mm Hg in fibrocystic disease, respectively. In contrast, in breast ...
Foaming incidents have been recorded in many biogas plants causing severe operational, economical and environmental problems (Kougias et al., 2014). However, the foaming phenomenon in biogas reactors fed with agro-industrial wastes has not been extensively investigated, especially with respect to the microbial composition of the digesters (Moeller et al., 2012). In the cited literature, it has been reported that specific microorganisms, which are mainly filamentous (e.g. Gordonia species, Microthrix parvicella), are attached to biogas bubbles and transferred to the air/liquid interface of sludge reactors or wastewater treatment works (Ganidi et al., 2009). Once these microorganisms accumulate on the liquid surface, they initiate biosurfactants production due to their metabolic activity, leading to the decrease of the surface tension and thus generate foaming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial ...
December, 2013. According to Wikipedia, "Polysorbate 80 (brand names include Alkest, Canarcel and Tween, which is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.) is a nonionic surfactant", a compound which "lowers the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid…Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.". In a 2006 article, Sherri Tenpenny DO quotes from her book, Fowl! Bird Flu: Its Not What You Think, Chapter 8 of which describes how seasonal influenza vaccines are made. She informs that formaldehyde is used to kill the cultured influenza viruses, Triton X-100 is added to increase development of an antibody response, and "Two other chemicals, tri-butylphosphate and polysorbate 80, then become part of the chemical soup of the vaccine. "Tri-butylphosphate, a detergent and polysorbate 80, also known as Tween80™, is an emulsifier. Both are used to disrupt the surface of the virus, ...
article{64ec06c7-2e42-4bdc-9fdd-bff9b8f477a3, abstract = {The macroscopic phase behavior and other physicochemical properties of dilute aqueous mixtures of DNA and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammounium bromide (CTAB), DNA and the polyamine spermine, or DNA, CTAB, and (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2HPβCD) were investigated. When DNA is mixed with CTAB we found, with increasing surfactant concentration, (1) free DNA coexisting with surfactant unimers, (2) free DNA coexisting with aggregates of condensed DNA and CTAB, (3) a miscibility gap where macroscopic phase separation is observed, and (4) positively overcharged aggregates of condensed DNA and CTAB. The presence of a clear solution beyond the miscibility gap cannot be ascribed to self-screening by the charges from the DNA and/or the surfactant; instead, hydrophobic interactions among the surfactants are instrumental for the observed behavior. It is difficult to judge whether the overcharged mixed aggregates represent an ...
Nanosphere lithography, an inexpensive and high throughput technique capable of producing nanostructure (below 100 nm feature size) arrays, relies on the formation of a monolayer of self-assembled nanospheres, followed by custom-etching to produce nanometre size features on large-area substrates. A theoretical model underpinning the self-ordering process by centrifugation is proposed to describe the interplay between the spin speed and solution concentration. The model describes the deposition of a dense and uniform monolayer by the implicit contribution of gravity, centrifugal force and surface tension, which can be accounted for using only the spin speed and the solid/liquid volume ratio. We demonstrate that the spin recipe for the monolayer formation can be represented as a pathway on a 2D phase plane. The model accounts for the ratio of polystyrene nanospheres (300 nm), water, methanol and surfactant in the solution, crucial for large ...
A series of porous block copolymer (BCP) particles with controllable morphology and pore sizes was fabricated by tuning the interfacial behavior of BCP droplets in oil-in-water emulsions. A synergistic adsorption of polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCPs and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the surface of the emulsion droplet induced a dramatic decrease in the interfacial tension and generated interfacial instability at the particle surface. In particular, the SDS concentration and the P4VP volume fraction of PS-b-P4VP were key parameters in determining the degree of interfacial instability, leading to different types of particles including micelles, capsules, closed-porosity particles, and open-porosity particles with tunable pore sizes ranging from 10 to 500 nm. The particles with open-porosity could be used as pH- responsive, high capacity delivery systems where the uptake and release of ...
The self-assembly of complex molecules containing water-attracting (hydrophilic) and water-repelling (hydrophobic) segments in water is important across many scientific disciplines. Surfactants are surface-active agents widely used in the chemical industry to control the interface between liquids or a solid and a liquid. Surfactants aggregate to give either spherical or cylindrical molecular structures with collapsed hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic outer surfaces when exposed to water. Similarly, proteins fold in three-dimensional structures with hydrophobic cores in the interior and hydrophilic groups in the exterior. In contrast, the molecular peptoid structures, a nature-inspired synthetic material, synthesized in this research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory consist of hollow rings stacked to produce a tube. ...
A pseudoplastic spray mixture was prepared from fenitrothion, polymeric adjuvants and humectants. Three Newtonian spray mixtures were prepared, one each from fenitrothion, aminocarb and mexacarbate respectively, using oils, surfactants and cosolvents. The spray mixtures were sprayed over potted seedlings of balsam fir using a spinning disc atomizer, at an application rate of 1.5 L/ha. Aminocarb and mexacarbate were each sprayed at 70 g active ingredient (AI)/ha, whereas fenitrothion, at 210 g AI/ha. Spray droplets were sampled with Kromekote® cards and deposits were collected on glass plates. Foliar droplets were counted and pesticide concentrations were measured by gas-liquid-chromatography. Physical properties measured were: viscosity-shear rate relationship, surface tension and volatility. The data indicated that the presence of the polymeric adjuvants imparted pseudoplastic behavior to the spray medium. Because of this, the mixture ...
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant naturally derived from coconut and/or palm kernel oil. It usually consists of a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl. SLS lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions and is used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, and detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes. It is also used in creams and pastes to properly disperse the ingredients and as research tool in protein biochemistry. SLS also has some microbicidal activity.
10, The ink-jet recording ink according to any one of ,1, to ,9,, wherein the penetrant contains at least one of a polyol compound having 8 to 11 carbon atoms and a glycol ether compound.,11, The ink-jet recording ink according to ,10,, wherein the polyol compound having 8 to 11 carbon atoms is at least one of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol.,12, The ink-jet recording ink according to any one of ,1, to ,11,, wherein the water-dispersible resin is at least any one of a polyurethane resin, an acrylic-silicone resin, and a fluorine resin having a fluoroolefin unit, and the minimum film-forming temperature of the water-dispersible resin is 30° C. or lower.,13, The ink-jet recording ink according to any one of ,1, to ,12,, having a viscosity of 5 mPas to 20 mPas at 25° C. and a static surface tension of 35 mN/m or less at 25° C.,14, The ink-jet recording ink according to any one of ,1, ...
The physical properties of weak polyelectrolytes may be tailored via hydrophobic modification to exhibit useful properties under appropriate pH and ionic strength conditions as a consequence of the often inherently competing effects of electrostatics and hydrophobicity. Pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) surface tension, fluorescence, and pH titration have been used to examine the solution conformation and aggregation behavior of a series of hydrophobically modified hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) polymers in aqueous solution, and their interaction with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). PGSE-NMR gave a particularly insightful picture of the apparent molecular weight distribution. The presence of the hydrophobes led to a lower effective charge on the polymer at any given pH, compared to the (parent) nonmodified samples. Analysis of the SANS data showed that the propensity to form highly ...
Data Tables Unit conversion table (Wikipedia) Enthalpies of Formation (Wikipedia) Periodic Table (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Periodic Table (Ptable.com) Chemical Sciences Data Tables: Has a fair amount of useful data, including a fairly comprehensive List of Standard Entropies, and Gibbs Energies at 25oC (also a list for ions), a chart with molar masses of the elements, acid equilibrium constants, solubility products, and electric potentials. Definitely one to check out. NIST properties: You can look up properties of many common substances, including water, many light hydrocarbons, and many gases. Data available can include density, enthalpy, entropy, Pitzer accentric factor, surface tension, Joule-Thompson coefficients, and several other variables depending on the substance and conditions selected. To see the data in tabular form, once you enter the temperature and pressure ranges you want, click "view table" and then select the ...
SFE uses supercritical CO2, instead of organic solvents such as hexane and methylene chloride, to extract chemical compounds from a solid matrix (sometimes also from liquids). Near the critical point the density of a SCF is extremely sensitive to minor changes in temperature and pressure. Since the solvating power of a SCF is directly related to its density, selective extraction of the analyte of interest can be achieved by making slight changes in temperature and pressure and exploiting the differential solubility of analytes in the SCF. On the other hand, due to the higher diffusion coefficients in supercritical fluids, SFE is faster than liquid extraction. SFE is also a more efficient extraction method since the lower surface tension of supercritical fluids allows penetration into small pores of the solid matrix which are not accessible to liquids. ...
The present work deals with the study of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification phenomena of rapidly solidifying amorphous ribbons in the melt spinning process. Finite volume based mathematical model using Navier-Strokes equation coupled with heat transfer equations has been developed for the melt spinning process. The model uses volume of fluid method to capture free surface interface. The surface tension force has been coupled with the goveminff equation in order to get capillary effects on shape and size of the metal pool. The SIMpLE algorithm is used to solve the goveminff equations. The model Predicts the effects of different process parameter such as wheel RPM, wheel geometry, superheat, crucible gap and cooling conditions on ribbon thickness, wheel temperature and melt pool, Transient development of heat transfer coefficient over wheel surface and wheel temperature have been studied. The simulation result have been verified with ...

Capillary and surface tension ppt - TelegraphCapillary and surface tension ppt - Telegraph

Surface tension water has very high surface tension. Relationship between the surface tension liquid droplet while deriving the ... Surface tension molecules fluid. Physics capillary action. . Surface tension force the wilhelmy plate. Surface molecules are ... Denition and scaling surface tension lecture surface tension viscous thermodynamics surface tension. The additive water milk ... To determine the surface tension water capillary rise method aim determine the surface tension water capillary rise method. ...
more infohttps://telegra.ph/Capillary-and-surface-tension-ppt-03-22

Xeno-Biology NotesXeno-Biology Notes

High surface tension: Leads to a natural tendency for nonpolar / lipid molecules to form droplet and membrace structures in ... Polarity: The polar water molecule is able to carry a large expanse of polar molecules.. Amphiprotic: Water is able to both ... Further, it does not concentrate nonpolar molecules out of itself the way that water does, complicating the formation of those ... Heat Capacity: Water is useful for thermal regulation. High Heat of Vaporization: Water is hard to boil off, and is liquid over ...
more infohttp://strolen.com/guild/index.php/topic,5592.0/wap2.html

Buckled Surfactant Monolayers | UChicago MRSECBuckled Surfactant Monolayers | UChicago MRSEC

Monolayers can be found on the surface of soapy water, paints and oil droplets in milk. A monolayer is simply a one molecule ... The less surface tension there is the less energy we need to breathe. ... that separates the two substances and reduces surface tension. There is a monolayer on our lungs that makes it easier for us to ... Surfactant molecules have one polar end and one non-polar end. They form a monolayer at the interface between a polar substance ...
more infohttp://mrsec.uchicago.edu/node/143

Using Surfactants, Wetting Agents, and Adjuvants in the Greenhouse | UGA Cooperative ExtensionUsing Surfactants, Wetting Agents, and Adjuvants in the Greenhouse | UGA Cooperative Extension

The molecules on the surface of a water droplet are held together with more force than those of the interior water molecules. ... Water, when placed on most hydrophobic surfaces, will bead. This beading is caused by surface tension, and this surface tension ... These components of a surfactant molecule help break water surface tension, allowing the pesticide to be more evenly dispersed ... Surfactants overcome surface tension. Most surfactants have a water-loving polar head (hydrophilic head) and water-hating non- ...
more infohttp://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=B1319

physical chemistry
                        
                    
                
                - Students | Britannica Kids ...physical chemistry - Students | Britannica Kids ...

It is responsible for the formation of water droplets. Surface tension is caused by the attraction of surface molecules to each ... molecules. Surface tension, for example, is a force that contracts the surface of a liquid. ... He developed a chemical theory of surface tension and a theory of equilibrium between the phases of matter. Gibbs was also able ... Scientists soon recognized that gas molecules did indeed interact-in fact, the molecules exerted attractive forces on one ...
more infohttps://kids.britannica.com/students/article/physical-chemistry/276412

Water Dome | Science Experiment for Kids by 3MWater Dome | Science Experiment for Kids by 3M

Learn about the property of water known as surface tension that allows insects to walk on water. Core concepts involve ... Surface tension can explain why small insects can walk on water and why water droplets tend to form a spherical shape. It all ... On the edge of the water, along the surface, water tends to arrange so that the molecules on the surface get pulled towards the ... Water has a high surface tension. This happens because water molecules like to stick together. This property is called cohesion ...
more infohttps://www.3m.com/3M/en_US/gives-us/education/science-at-home/water-dome/

Patent US5120731 - Stabilization of perfluorocarbon emulsions, and perfluorinated heterocyclic ... - Google PatentsPatent US5120731 - Stabilization of perfluorocarbon emulsions, and perfluorinated heterocyclic ... - Google Patents

... the boundary surface tension between the perfluorocarbon phase and water is reduced. ... molecules diffuse from small droplets of the oil phase through the aqueous phase into larger droplets of the oil phase. This ... be suppressed by the use of emulsifiers which form a barrier at the oil-water interface and reduce the boundary surface tension ... The chief reason for the growth of droplets in emulsions is to be found in the coalescence of droplets. This can generally ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5120731?dq=6,163,776

POB Exam 1 Flashcards by Kennedy Sihapanya | BrainscapePOB Exam 1 Flashcards by Kennedy Sihapanya | Brainscape

Ex)surface tension 43 Adhesion Water molecule clinging to different substance Ex) water droplets on glass ... Can dissolve many molecules - hydrophilic molecules attract water (like). - hydrophobic molecules repel water (dont like). ... Less concentration of water inside cell High [ solute ] outside Water goes in Hippo get fat ... Molecules Cells. Tissue. Organs. Organs systems Organism. Population Communities Ecosystem Biosphere A monkey calls to oh oh oh ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pob-exam-1-6611671/packs/10487708

Surface tension - WikipediaSurface tension - Wikipedia

In the limit of a single molecule the concept becomes meaningless.) Δp for water drops of different radii at STP Droplet radius ... Effects of surface tension[edit]. Water[edit]. Several effects of surface tension can be seen with ordinary water: *Beading of ... Surface tension of water[edit]. The surface tension of pure liquid water in contact with its vapor has been given by IAPWS[30] ... Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water surface. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_tension

Free Biology Flashcards about biology-keystonesFree Biology Flashcards about biology-keystones

water tends to stick together ex. droplets of dew on grass. surface tension. -the top layer of water is very strong ex. insects ... monomers are joined together -form water molecules. hydrolysis. -polymers are broken down into monomers -use water molecules - ... water sticks to glass after washing. capillary action. -movement of water against gravity ex. allows water to rise up narrow ... in glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced. what is the net gain of ATP molecules (per molecule of glucose) from glycolysis?. 2 ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-2528916

Easy Cheese - WikipediaEasy Cheese - Wikipedia

Emulsifying agents are made up of amphiphilic molecules that act as an interface to reduce the surface tension between ... Easy Cheese is an oil-in-water emulsion. Oil droplets typically have a diameter of no more than one micrometer. Emulsions with ... Water[edit]. Water plays a multitude of functions in Easy Cheese. First, it allows for more stable emulsion serving as a medium ... Water also provides the moisture content needed in processed cheese spreads to achieve the desired texture.[5] Excessive water ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easy_Cheese

Surfactants 2 | Surfactant | SoapSurfactants 2 | Surfactant | Soap

Therefore, surface tension is responsible for the shape of a droplet of liquid. If the surface tension is high, the molecules ... The following are the surface tensions for some liquid substances: SURFACE TENSION SUBSTANCE water 73 dynes/cm mercury 480 ... The surface tension (or inter-facial tension if the interface is not a surface) determines the tendency for surfaces to ... surface) with a solid than with water. Mercury, with its very high surface tension, does not flow but breaks into droplets if ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/47617486/Surfactants-2

Origin of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Origin of ProkaryotesOrigin of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Origin of Prokaryotes

Most long molecules, such as proteins, respond to the surface tension of water in an aquatic environment to spontaneously form ... Coacervates are droplets of organic molecules that include amino acids and sugars. Both coacervates and microspheres ... These conditions are thought to be similar to early Earth, such as a hot surface (a sunbaked or geologically heated rock, for ... Another theory, called the heterotroph hypothesis, suggests that the aquatic environment was full of organic molecules, ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/math-science/biology/cells/origin-of-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-origin-of-prokaryotes

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

... the pure water droplets and glycine in water droplets. The curvature dependence of the surface tension is interpolated by a ... in systems containing 10 000 water molecules mimic experimental data well referring to reduction of surface tension. The model ... These compounds either concentrate on the droplet surface or aggregate inside the droplet. Their effects on the surface tension ... are surface-active organic compounds that are able to depress the surface tension of water droplets, as revealed by both ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22u1omz1ee%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=

Recent Science - Scientific AmericanRecent Science - Scientific American

The enormous tension to which the water molecules are submitted on the surfaces of the very small droplets results in the ... Unequal electrification diminishes the surface tensions in small droplets and permits them to grow into larger drops. This is ... or when water glides upon an inclined smooth surface, is insignificant. Th e drops must fa 11 upon a h ard wetied surface and ... takes place when drops of water strike the surface of the rocks, or of water itself, is due to a mere mechanical action; and ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/recent-science-1895-08-03/

How Physics Gives Structure to NatureHow Physics Gives Structure to Nature

Bubbles and soap films are made of water (with a skin of soap molecules) and surface tension pulls at the liquid surface to ... SHAPING A DROPLET: When water sits on a water-repellent surface, it may break up into droplets. The shapes of these drops are ... And if the surface isnt strongly water-repellent, the droplets may spread out into a flat, smooth film.Top left: Stuchelova, ... which will flatten a droplet on a horizontal surface) and the forces that act between the water and the underlying solid ...
more infohttp://nautil.us/issue/35/boundaries/why-nature-prefers-hexagons

Self-propelling droplets creep towards heat to cool microchips | New ScientistSelf-propelling droplets creep towards heat to cool microchips | New Scientist

... scientists have simulated the reverse of the common effect where cold water runs away from heat, and the result could keep ... That localised cooling, which increases the local surface tension where the droplet touches the surface, causing the droplet to ... which attract molecules in the droplet towards molecules in the surface on which it is resting. In this case, the enhanced ... Cold water is in the hot seat. Usually, cool water moves away from hot areas - but make the droplets small enough and ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article/2143132-self-propelling-droplets-creep-towards-heat-to-cool-microchips/?

Surface tension - The Full WikiSurface tension - The Full Wiki

That explains the spherical shapes of water droplets.. Another way to view it is that a molecule in contact with a neighbour is ... Surface tension is caused by cohesion (the attraction of molecules to like molecules). Since the molecules on the surface of ... The effects of surface tension can be seen with ordinary water:. *Beading of rain water on the surface of a waxed automobile. ... The same surface tension demonstration can be done with water, but only on a surface made of a substance that the water does ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Surface_tension

International Conference on Optical Particle Characterization (OPC 2014) | (2014) | Publications | SpieInternational Conference on Optical Particle Characterization (OPC 2014) | (2014) | Publications | Spie

The droplet was allowed to return to its original temperature after the irradiation, it was found that water surface tension ... the surface tension of aqueous solution increases with the salt concentration because cation and anion collect water molecule ... In our previous research [3,4], specific property for surface tension of water droplet with salt under microwave radiation was ... microwave irradiation is applied to a liquid droplet and the surface tension, the circulation flow and temperature of water ...
more infohttps://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/9232

Nanoemulsions: increasing possibilities in drug delivery : European Journal of NanomedicineNanoemulsions: increasing possibilities in drug delivery : European Journal of Nanomedicine

Due to very fine particle size and less surface tension between the oil and water molecules, it barely has the tendency to ... a) Oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsions where oil droplets are dispersed in continuous aqueous phase b) Water in oil (W/O) ... Nanoemulsion is an emulsion system having the droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely ... oil in water) or W/O (water in oil) emulsion. The amount of oil in O/W nanoemulsions may vary but generally is within 5%-20% w/ ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ejnm.2013.5.issue-2/ejnm-2013-0001/ejnm-2013-0001.xml

The science of dispersants - Scientific AmericanThe science of dispersants - Scientific American

This lowers surface tension at the interface--that is, the difficulty of disrupting molecules of oil and molecules of water ... Lowering the interfacial tension reduces the energy required to mix the oil as discrete droplets into the water phase, says ... Both are made up mainly of surfactant molecules, which have heads that are attracted to water and tails that are repelled by ... The molecules embed themselves at interfaces between oil and water. ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-science-of-dispersants/

Inexpensive, Abundant Starch Fibers Could Lead To Ouchless Bandages - RedorbitInexpensive, Abundant Starch Fibers Could Lead To Ouchless Bandages - Redorbit

The device uses a high voltage electrical charge to create a charge repulsion to overcome surface tension, which stretches the ... Polymers are large molecules that are composed of chains of smaller, repeating molecules. Starches, typically found in corn, ... Starch does not completely dissolve in water but instead becomes a gel -- or, starch paste -- that is too thick to make fibers ... droplets of starch into long strands.. Kong said companies could modify the technique to scale the process for industrial uses. ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112525463/inexpensive-abundant-starch-fibers-could-lead-to-ouchless-bandages/

Insights Into Mobilization of Shale Oil by Use of Microemulsion - OnePetroInsights Into Mobilization of Shale Oil by Use of Microemulsion - OnePetro

Summary Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to investigate the nature of two-phase (oil/water) flow in organic capillaries. ... The surfactant deposited at the oil/water interface reduces the surface tension and acts as a linker that diminishes the slip ... Hence, delivering the surfactant molecules to the oil/water interface is achieved faster and more effectively in the organic ... After the droplet arrives at the interface, the droplet breaks down and the solvent dissolves into the oil film and diffuses. ...
more infohttps://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/SPE-178630-PA?sort=&start=0&q=178630&from_year=&peer_reviewed=&published_between=&fromSearchResults=true&to_year=&rows=10

Emulsion dispersion - WikipediaEmulsion dispersion - Wikipedia

The surfactant molecules adsorb on the surface of emulsion by creating a dispersion of droplets, which reduces interfacial ... In emulsion dispersion system the preparation of well-fined polymers droplets may be acquired by the use of water as dispersing ... tension and retards particle flocculation during mixing. The molecules of surfactant have polar and non-polar parts which act ... from particle size analysis and optical microscopy results showed that the droplet size of emulsion of LNR with higher ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emulsion_dispersion

Assembly of Nanoparticles into Colloidal Molecules: Toward Complex and yet Defined Colloids with Exciting Perspectives |...Assembly of Nanoparticles into "Colloidal Molecules": Toward Complex and yet Defined Colloids with Exciting Perspectives |...

In line with atoms being the elementary units of molecules and crystals, colloidal particles can be used as building blocks for ... In contrast to particles that cannot swell, the adhesion to the droplet surface is not solely determined by interfacial tension ... Because the hydrophobic molecules are poorly soluble in water they cannot be exchanged among the droplets. For this reason, the ... A lower limit of the droplet size is set by droplet fusion driven by interfacial tension. The interplay of droplet fission and ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-colloid-science/assembly-of-nanoparticles-into-colloidal-molecules-toward-complex-and-yet-defined-colloids-with-exci
  • By balancing gain surface energy capillary force and loss elastic energy. (telegra.ph)
more