The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Techniques used in microbiology.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The consumption of liquids.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Constructions built to access underground water.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (1/5672)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (2/5672)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (3/5672)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air. (4/5672)

Fungi are well known to the casual observer for producing water-repelling aerial moulds and elaborate fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and polypores. Filamentous fungi colonize moist substrates (such as wood) and have to breach the water-air interface to grow into the air. Animals and plants breach this interface by mechanical force. Here, we show that a filamentous fungus such as Schizophyllum commune first has to reduce the water surface tension before its hyphae can escape the aqueous phase to form aerial structures such as aerial hyphae or fruiting bodies. The large drop in surface tension (from 72 to 24 mJ m-2) results from self-assembly of a secreted hydrophobin (SC3) into a stable amphipathic protein film at the water-air interface. Other, but not all, surface-active molecules (that is, other class I hydrophobins and streptofactin from Streptomyces tendae) can substitute for SC3 in the medium. This demonstrates that hydrophobins not only have a function at the hyphal surface but also at the medium-air interface, which explains why fungi secrete large amounts of hydrophobin into their aqueous surroundings.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (5/5672)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (6/5672)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake. (7/5672)

Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, pointed and budding bacteria were isolated from various depths of the hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic Ekho Lake (Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica). The cells contained storage granules and daughter cells could be motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a was sometimes produced, but production was repressed by constant dim light. The strains tolerated a wide range of temperature, pH, concentrations of artificial seawater and NaCl, but had an absolute requirement for sodium ions. Glutamate was metabolized with and without an additional source of combined nitrogen. The dominant fatty acid was C18:1; other characteristic fatty acids were C18:2, C12:0 2-OH, C12:1 3-OH, C16:1, C16:0 and C18:0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C base composition was 62-64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolates were phylogenetically close to the genera Antarctobacter, 'Marinosulfonomonas', Octadecabacter, Sagittula, Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences to these previously described and distinct genera support the description of a new genus and a new species, Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is EL-172T (= DSM 11457T).  (+info)

Phylogeny of marine and freshwater Shewanella: reclassification of Shewanella putrefaciens NCIMB 400 as Shewanella frigidimarina. (8/5672)

Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens and related species has generated considerable interest in biochemical characterization of the pathways for anaerobic electron transfer in this organism. Two strains, MR-1 and NCIMB 400, have been extensively used, and several respiratory enzymes have been isolated from each. It has become apparent that significant sequence differences exist between homologous proteins from these strains. The 16S rRNA from NCIMB 400 was sequenced and compared to the sequences from MR-1 and other Shewanella strains. The results indicate that NCIMB 400 is significantly more closely related to the newly identified Shewanella frigidimarina than to the S. putrefaciens type strain. It is therefore proposed that NCIMB 400 should be reclassified as S. frigidimarina.  (+info)

Lauryl Tryptose (LST) Broth is used for the detection of coliform bacteria in water and wastewater. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is not intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions in humans.. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is a selective medium for the detection of coliforms in water, dairy products and other foods. The American Public Health Authority (APHA) recommend Lauryl Tryptose Broth for the Most Probable Number Presumptive Test of coliforms in waters, effluent or sewage and as a confirmation test of lactose fermentation with gas production from milk samples and for the detection of coliforms in foods.. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is prepared according to the formulation of Mallmann and Darby. Mallmann and Darby showed that tryptose at a concentration of 2% increased the early logarithmic growth phase when compared to meat peptone. These researchers added phosphate buffers and sodium chloride, which improved gas production by slow lactose fermenting organisms. Sodium lauryl sulfate was ...
Lauryl Tryptose (LST) Broth is used for the detection of coliform bacteria in water and wastewater. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is not intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions in humans.. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is a selective medium for the detection of coliforms in water, dairy products and other foods. The American Public Health Authority (APHA) recommend Lauryl Tryptose Broth for the Most Probable Number Presumptive Test of coliforms in waters, effluent or sewage and as a confirmation test of lactose fermentation with gas production from milk samples and for the detection of coliforms in foods.. Lauryl Tryptose Broth is prepared according to the formulation of Mallmann and Darby. Mallmann and Darby showed that tryptose at a concentration of 2% increased the early logarithmic growth phase when compared to meat peptone. These researchers added phosphate buffers and sodium chloride, which improved gas production by slow lactose fermenting organisms. Sodium lauryl sulfate was ...
In Mpumalanga, 95% of the plants at the point of treatment and 84% at point of use complied with the South African water quality standard in terms of total coliforms. Seventy four percent of the plants were within the limits recommended by South African standards in terms of faecal coliforms at both the point of treatments and the point of use. Total coliform counts ranged between 0 and 380 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of treatment and between 0 and 180 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of use, while faecal coliform counts ranged between 0 and 3 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of treatment and between 0 and 12 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of use. In Limpopo, 64% of the plants at the point of treatment and 94% at point of use of the plants complied with the South African recommended standard in terms of total coliforms. The total coliform counts ranged between 0 and 3.6 x 103 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of treatment and between 0 and 250 cfu/100 mℓ at the point of use. In terms of faecal coliforms, 73% and 88% of ...
The City of Great Bend public water supply system violated a drinking water microbiological standard for total coliforms in its distribution system during September 2010, said Donald Craig, director of public works. Although this is not an emergency, you as customers have a right to know what happened and what is being done to correct the situation.. We routinely monitor for the presence of total coliform bacteria in our drinking water 15 times a month tested in 15 different zones, Craig said.. This is not an Emergency. Total coliform bacteria are generally not harmful themselves. Coliforms are bacteria which are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other; potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present.. Coliforms were found in more samples than allowed and this was a warning of potential problems, the director said. Usually coliforms are a sign that there could be a problem with the treatment or distribution systems (pipes). Whenever we detect coliform ...
Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system was previously assessed with distribution water in a national evaluation in both most-probably-number and presence-absence formats and found to produce data equivalent to those obtained by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The Colilert system was now compared with Standard Methods multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli from surface water. All MTF tubes were confirmed according to Standard Methods, and subcultures were
A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Fecal coliforms are capable of growth in the presence of bile salts or similar surface agents, are oxidase negative, and produce acid and gas from lactose within 48 hours at 44 ± 0.5°C. The term thermotolerant coliform is more correct and is gaining acceptance over faecal coliform. Coliform bacteria include genera that originate in feces (e.g. Escherichia) as well as genera not of fecal origin (e.g. Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter). The assay is intended to be an indicator of fecal contamination; more specifically of E. coli which is an indicator microorganism for other pathogens that may be present in feces. Presence of fecal coliforms in water may not be directly harmful, and does not necessarily indicate the presence of feces. In general, increased levels of fecal coliforms ...
Bacterial water pollution is a significant problem because it is associated with reduction in the quality of water systems with a potential impact on human health. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are usually used to monitor the quality of water, and to indicate the presence of pathogens in water bodies. However, enumeration alone does not enable identification of the precise origin of these pathogens. This study aimed to monitor the quality of bathing water and associated fresh water in and out of the bathing season in the UK, and to evaluate the use of microbial source tracking (MST) such as the host-specific based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to recognize human and other animal sources of faecal pollution. The culture-dependent EU method of estimating FIB in water and sediment samples was performed on beach in the South Sands, Kingsbridge estuary, Devon, UK- a previously problematic site. FIB were present at significant levels in the sediments, especially ...
Question: Is there a difference between total microbe test and a total coliform test. What do the following results mean as far as safe drinking water is concerned, (5-10)(10-20)(400-500) (800-1000) Colony forming units(CFUs) of aerobic bacteria?. Thank you.. Answer: There is a difference between total microbes test and total coliform test. The former is a non-specific test for everything including the coliforms (if they are present). This test is commonly referred to as Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Total Aerobic Plate Count. HPC does not give an indication of the types of organisms present or their sources. The total coliform test is designed to detect bacteria belonging to the coliform group.. I am not sure whether the results above were CFUs per litre or per 100 mL. Assuming these were per 100 mL of water the first set of results would be considered insignificant provided coliforms were not present. The second two sets of results suggests the water is either not properly treated or is ...
This program is designed to provide analysis of the major elements of concern, primarily bacteriological monitoring and limited water chemistry.. Coliform. Coliforms are a broad class of bacteria found in our environment, including the feces of man. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms.. E. coli. E-coli is the most prevalent member of the fecal coliform group. The occurrence of E. coli in water is considered a specific indicator of fecal contamination and the presence of enteric pathogens.. Heterotrophic Plate Count. The HPC formerly known as the standard plate count is a procedure for estimating the number of live Heterotrophic bacteria in water. It is used to measure the changes in water treatment and distribution or in swimming pools. ...
Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination… ADWG. Iron. Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste ...
The New Jersey regulations require weekly testing for bacteria by a State Certified Laboratory and testing every two hours for pH and disinfectants (such as free chlorine or bromine) in swimming pools, whirlpools, spas and hot tubs. Lakes and beaches have to test for bacteria weekly. The bacterial tests are the standard plate count and total coliform in swimming pools, the standard plate count and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in whirlpools, spas and hot tubs, and E. coli in lakes.. The NJDEP is requiring enterococci testing for ocean beaches. The enterococci result shall not exceed 104 enterococci per 100 ml. E. coli has replaced fecal coliform in natural waters ...
The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will
This study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from various sources in Kithimani location and explores the effectiveness of common water treatment methods. Selected metals and non-metals ions were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties investigated were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) and World Health Organization (WHO). The most contaminated water source identified based on the faecal coliform colony count was subjected to mechanical filtration ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - All faeces are not equal: microbial source tracking as a health protection tool. AU - Taylor, Huw. AU - Ebdon, James. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Testing our water supplies and recreational waters for faecal indicator organisms has made a significant contribution to preventing infectious human diseases. More recently, scientists have developed techniques that not only demonstrate the presence of faecal matter, but also suggest whether the source of contamination is human or non-human, a factor of potentially considerable health significance.. AB - Testing our water supplies and recreational waters for faecal indicator organisms has made a significant contribution to preventing infectious human diseases. More recently, scientists have developed techniques that not only demonstrate the presence of faecal matter, but also suggest whether the source of contamination is human or non-human, a factor of potentially considerable health significance.. M3 - Article. SP - 31. EP - ...
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial species associated with smoked and fresh Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) sold at two different markets in Uyo using standard microbiological techniques and their susceptibility to antibiotics (cephalosporins) using Disc Diffusion Technique (DDT). The results of the bacteriological status of both fresh and smoked Bonga fish showed variations in the total bacterial and total coliform counts in different anatomical parts (skins, gills and intestine). The highest total bacterial counts was recorded from gills (9.2x105 cfug-1) and lowest in skin (4.3x105 cfug-1) in fresh bonga fish, while the highest total bacterial counts was obtained in intestine (7.7x104 cfug-1) and lowest in skin (3.1x104 cfug-1) in smoked Bonga fish. The total coliform counts of the fresh Bonga fish ranged from 3.3x102 to 4.1x103, 3.6x102 to 3.1x103 and 4.3x102 to 7.5x103 in skins, intestines and gills, respectively. In smoked fish, the skin had the lowest total ...
The impact of a multitude of toxic chemicals, or xenobiotics, on diverse aquatic environments and the need to consider such factors in adjacent land use and disposal situations has necessitated the development of usable analytical predictive approaches. A microbial and enzymatic assessment protocol for determining the environmental effect and fate of these manufactured chemicals in coastal wetlands was devised. The protocol combined in situ analyses of interrelated soil/sediment microenvironments with statistical and analytical laboratory microcosm approaches in presenting valid predictive models of xenobiotic fate and effect. The general objective of this combined field/laboratory analysis was to provide a better understanding of biotic and abiotic factors that influence toxic chemical breakdown over a range of salinity conditions. An overview of research in the area of microcosm development and design was first outlined followed by a technical description of two aquatic microcosm systems developed in
Microbiological contamination of drinking water may cause short-term gastrointestinal disorders, resulting in cramps and diarrhea that may be mild to severe. Other diseases of concern are viral hepatitis A, salmonella infections, dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. Coliform bacteria are always present in the digestive systems of humans and animals and do not themselves cause disease. However, when present in drinking water, they indicate the possible presence of disease bacteria. Soil or decaying vegetation may also be a source for coliform contamination of water supplies. Analysis for total coliform bacteria is the EPA standard test for microbiological contamination of a water supply. A positive test result reported as present indicates the presence of coliform bacteria.. ...
Our Microbiology division offers a wide range of microbiological analysis of environmental water samples as well as antimicrobial tests for consumable products, such as Heterotrophic plate count, Total coliforms, Faceal coliforms, E. coli and Legionella.
Food Safety Tech Last month we introduced several food genomics terms including the microbiome. Recall that a microbiome is the community or population of microorganisms that inhabit a particular environment or sample. Recall that there are two broad types of microbiomes, a targeted (e.g., bacteria or fungi) or a metagenome (in which all DNA in…
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
The presence of any pathogenic viruses in tap water has always been considered a potential public health concern. This study reports the presence levels of viruses and indicator bacteria in the water body of East Lake and treated tap water. During a year s work,indicator bacteria and viral analysis were performed on each sample, we found that total plate count is 2×10~3-6.8×10~8/L, total coliforms is 130-5.5×10~4/L,fecal eoliforms is 10-960/L, coliphage is 0.35-65CFU/L, average is 26.48CFU/L, enteroviruses ...
This review paper analyses the trends in pathogen detection and other recent developments in the field. The detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential to end-users of water systems, particularly if the water is supporting life as an end-user. The outbreak of pathogenic waterborne disease is caused by coliforms and E. coli and as such these organisms need to be monitored for such events arising particularly as they are a health issue for humans. The conventional methods of choice have been media-based growth and culturing and multiple tube fermentation methods. Both of these methods are standard protocols and also take in excess of 48 hours to perform, meaning results are somewhat slow. Because the protocols take time, there are clearly issues with time to react to such contamination events, representing a golden opportunity to develop a sensor with near-real time capability. The review explores new and emerging methods that could potentially be developed into near-real time sensors. We ...
A culture medium and blood specimen are introduced into a sealable glass vial having a headspace gas mixture such that a change in the gas mixture composition can be monitored by a chemically sensitive material in the vial comprising a mixture of a fluorophore and a chromophore. The fluorophore exhibits a long fluorescence decay time and a fluorescence intensity that depend on a first chemical parameter, such as oxygen concentration. The chromophore exhibits an optical transmission that depends on a second chemical parameter, such as carbon dioxide concentration, the optical transmission of the chromophore changing with the second chemical parameter either within the excitation or within the emission wavelength range of the fluorophore.
A culture medium and blood specimen are introduced into a sealable glass vial having a headspace gas mixture such that a change in the gas mixture composition can be monitored by a chemically sensitive material in the vial comprising a mixture of a fluorophore and a chromophore. The fluorophore exhibits a long fluorescence decay time and a fluorescence intensity that depend on a first chemical parameter, such as oxygen concentration. The chromophore exhibits an optical transmission that depends on a second chemical parameter, such as carbon dioxide concentration, the optical transmission of the chromophore changing with the second chemical parameter either within the excitation or within the emission wavelength range of the fluorophore.
An improved method for detection of total coliforms and E. coli comprising a broth containing an ingredient that will encourage growth and repair of injured coliforms, buffers to maintain a pH in the range of 6.5-8, at least one agent that suppresses growth of gram positive cocci and spore-forming organisms, at least one active agent that will suppress growth of non-coliform gram negative bacteria, and at least one chromogen or fluorogen has been used effectively and is cost effective. In the preferred embodiment, both a fluorogen and chromogen were used. Preferred methods include use of filter and/or plates containing the growth-promoting ingredients and the indicators.
Researchers from the Department of Natural Resources and IUPUI use the health of the fish and test the water to judge the quality of the White River.
Thermotolerant Escherichia coli is the primary Fecal coliform illuminated after 24 hours in test media at 44.5 C. EPA approved test media suppress responses from other bacteria. E.coli is one of about 30 deadly pathogenic groups that make up a coliform.
Expert Tony Lewis said the levels found were concerning. These should not be present at any level - never mind the significant numbers found, he added.. Cleanliness of tables, trays and high chairs at the chains was also tested at 30 branches. Seven out of 10 samples of Costa ice were found to be contaminated with bacteria found in faeces.. What is concerning to the expert? Fecal coliform.. I was introduced to fecal coliform when investigating wash water and vegetables at Ontario (thats in Canada) greenhouses 15 years ago. We were looking for analytical methods to provide some feedback to producers. We sampled the water for coliform and generic E. coli - and the veggies for generic E. coli and Salmonella. We had initially started looking for coliform and fecal coliform but some smart produce microbiologists suggested the indicator group wasnt telling folks much.. Or as Mike Doyle and Marilyn Erickson wrote in Microbe in 2006, the fecal coliform assay should at a minimum be redefined to ...
In this article, Dr Gino Lorenzoni, Technical Director at Anitox, discusses the various factors which can compromise an animals ability to effectively process feed. These include: feed as a cause of enteritis, a condition prevalent among farmed animals; the lack of guidance on safe limits for bacterial contamination in feed; variation of bacterial contamination within different batches of feed; and the possible effect of all these factors on how profitable an animal production operation will be.. ...
* found in: m-ColiBlue24® Broth, EC Medium with Mug, EC Medium MPN Tubes PK/15, Modified Colitag 16-HR, Peel Plate® Heterotrophic Plate Count Media, Use m..
The programme aims to support European Member States in the surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses and in responding to multi-country outbreaks.
Microbial quality of building water systems has increasingly become a focus of attention by regulatory authorities and the scientific community. An example of this is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services memorandum
Enumeration and Identification of Ethanol-Injured Coliform Bacteria Found on Harvest Equipment and its Cross-Contamination with Cabbage Although disinfection by sanitize..
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The combination of ever-growing contamination from various sources (industry, agriculture and domestic uses), the toxicity of contaminating compounds, and their extreme persistence in the environment, define a complex challenge and serious threat. Feasible technological responses to deal with growing deterioration in water resource quality are difficult to develop, largely because of the wide variety of contaminants having different properties, the stringent environmental standards that must be met, and the inherent heterogeneity of natural aquatic systems. The quest for cost-effective, environmentally-acceptable methods that can target a wide spectrum of contaminants, in situ and ex situ, is urgent and critical today more than ever.. The approach of the technology presented here is to reduce their oxidation state, i.e., to transform them electrochemically. In most cases, complete transformation of contaminants from the oxidized-organic group produces environmentally innocuous compounds, while ...
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Deep spring water. Water from the red sandstone strata of the northern Black Forest in Germany. It is obtained from our own well at a depth of 165 meters, and is unchlorinated and naturally pure. Its function is to moisturize the surface of the skin and to act as a solvent for water-soluble ingredients and plant extracts ...
Deep spring water. Water from the red sandstone strata of the northern Black Forest in Germany. It is obtained from our own well at a depth of 165 meters, and is unchlorinated and naturally pure. Its function is to moisturize the surface of the skin and to act as a solvent for water-soluble ingredients and plant extracts ...
Management of drinking water safety is changing towards an integrated risk assessment and risk management approach that includes all processes in a water supply system from catchment to consumers. However, given the large number of water supply systems in China and the cost of implementing such a risk assessment procedure, there is a necessity to first conduct a strategic screening analysis at a national level. An integrated methodology of risk assessment and screening analysis is thus proposed to evaluate drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system. The violation probability, indicating drinking water safety, is estimated at different locations of a water supply system in terms of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity, residual chlorine and trihalomethanes. Critical parameters with respect to drinking water safety are then identified, based on which an index system is developed to prioritize conventional water supply systems in implementing a detailed risk assessment ...
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Water Supply Systems and Evaluation Methods: Volume IVolume I: Water Supply System Concepts ... Processed Water for Domestic Consumption ... water, then is pumped to several different storage tanks and storage basins around the city for release into the distribution system piping network on demand for consumer use or in the case of a working fire.
TAHAL was hired by the Ghana Water Company to design, develop and construct a new water supply system in Kumawu, and to rehabilitate water supply systems in Konongo and Kwahu. The project was part of Ghanas plan to improve access to potable water for over 500,000 residents in more than 50 residential areas.. ...
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Article Stakeholder involvement in the drinking water supply system: a case study of stakeholder analysis in China. Stakeholder involvement in drinking water supply systems is crucial for the successful management and improvement of drinking water su...
A process gas supply system at the gas supply point includes an automated means for evacuating gas in a process line fed by the process gas supply system when an abnormal event occurs. The process gas supply system of this invention eliminates the need for any special valves or piping at the point of use of the process gas as well as the need for a return line from the point of use to the process gas supply system to purge the process line. A process gas is contained in a cylinder under pressure. The cylinder is coupled to a process line by the process gas supply system. The process gas supply system includes a gas flow controller and an automatic evacuation system. The gas flow controller controls the supply of the process gas from the cylinder to the process line. In an abnormal event, process gas flow from the cylinder is blocked by the gas flow controller and the automatic evacuation system evacuates the process gas not only from the gas flow
Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap
The inhabitants of Hawagu, Agordat sub-zone, expressed satisfaction with the provision of potable water supply. Agordat, 1 March 2012 - The inhabitants of Hawagu, Agordat sub-zone, expressed satisfaction with the provision of potable water supply.. One of the inhabitants, Mr. Mantai Salih, said that before the implementation of the project they were compelled to travel long distance to fetch water that was not even up to standard but now the problem has been solved.. Ms. Meriem Mahmoud equally explained that with the provision of potable water, the public in general and women in particular felt deep satisfaction.. Mr. Ismael Beshir, coordinator of the project, said on his part that the project is playing vital role and gave assurance that prudent use would be made of the facility.. ...
High-throughput cultivation studies have been successful at bringing numerous important marine bacterioplankton lineages into culture, yet these frequently utilize natural seawater media that can hamper portability, reproducibility, and downstream characterization efforts. Here we report the results of seven experiments with a set of newly developed artificial seawater media and evaluation of cultivation success via comparison with community sequencing data from the inocula. Eighty-two new isolates represent highly important marine clades, including SAR116, OM60/NOR5, SAR92, Roseobacter, and SAR11. For many, isolation with an artificial seawater medium is unprecedented, and several organisms are also the first of their type from the Gulf of Mexico. Community analysis revealed that many isolates were among the 20 most abundant organisms in their source inoculum. This method will expand the accessibility of bacterioplankton cultivation experiments and improve repeatability by avoiding normal ...
The Western Cape Water Supply System (WCWSS) provides water to the communities of Greater Cape Town, Stellenbosch, Paarl and Wellington, as well as to towns on the West Coast and in the Swartland region. Irrigators along the Berg and Eerste rivers and irrigators and urban users in the Riviersonderend catchment, in the Breede Water Management Area (WMA), also receive water from the system. The major water user from the WCWSS is the urban sector within the City of Cape Town (CCT).. The main storage dams of the WCWSS are the Theewaterskloof and Voëlvlei dams (owned and operated by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS); the Berg River Dam (owned by the Trans Caledon Tunnel Authority and operated by the DWS) and the Wemmershoek, Upper Steenbras and Lower Steenbras dams (owned and operated by the CCT). The water storage in the system is evaluated towards the end of the wet season (no later than 1 November), to assess whether or not supplies must be restricted for the following year, to ensure ...
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Biological stability refers to the inability of drinking water to support microbial growth. This phenomenon was studied in a full-scale drinking water treatment and distribution system of the city of Zürich (Switzerland). The system treats lake water with successive ozonation and biological filtration steps and distributes the water without any disinfectant residuals. Chemical and microbiological parameters, notably dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC), heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and flow-cytometric total cell concentration (TCC), were measured over an 18-month period. We observed a direct correlation between changes in the TCC, DOC and AOC concentrations during treatment; an increase in cell concentration was always associated with a decrease in organic carbon. This pattern was, however, not discerned with the conventional HPC method. The treated water contained on average a TCC of 8.97 × 104 cells ml-1, a DOC concentration of 0.78 mg l-1 and an AOC ...
High bacterial populations in potable water distribution systems, sometimes referred to as events or blooms, have troubled utilities because of their possible implications for the hygienic safety and taste and odor of their product. Before considering the contribution of biofilm accumulation to these high bacterial populations in distribution systems, some terminology must be clarified with regard to drinking water bacteriology ...
The Direct Water Supply System supplies healthy water directly from the purification plants to household consumers without going through tanks.
This paper reviews the design and properties of the Water Supply System (WSS). It also discusses the water balance and its delivery amounts, as well as it presents diagrams and properties of water recovery system from humidity condensate WRS-CM and regeneration from urine WRS-UM which are the part of WSS. Some results of activities conducted for provision of water intake in a system of WRS-CM from different modules of station are shown and the problems of WSS interaction of Russian segment (RS) and American segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed ...
Non-microbiologists may assume that the goal of water utilities should be the elimination of all microbes from our drinking water. But the water we drink has never been sterile; perfectly safe water contains millions of non-pathogenic microbes in every glassful. Like every other human built environment, the entire water distribution system - every reservoir, every well, every pipe, and every faucet - is home to hundreds or thousands of species of bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and viruses, most of which are completely harmless to humans. In April, 2012, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to assess what is known about the microbial inhabitants of the water distribution system and to propose goals for advancing our understanding of these communities in order to enhance the safety of our drinking water and the resilience of our water infrastructure.
Scientists at Trinity College Dublin (Ireland) have developed a fully automated system that eradicates bacterial contamination in hospital water tanks, distribution systems and taps. Hospital washbasin taps and output water are reservoirs of bacteria in a hospital environment. This can have serious adverse consequences for patients. It has been estimated that hospital-acquired pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia originating from hospital water systems kills over 1400 patients annually in the USA. Severely ill patients and patients in high dependency units are particularly vulnerable to this type of infection.
Article Conventional and alternative water supply systems: a life cycle study. Research on urban development to date has tended to focus on buildings and their performance in terms of associated energy and environmental impacts. Although, many detail...
This example shows a water supply system consisting of three pumping stations located at 45, 25, and 30 m with respect to to the reference plane, respectively.
The water supply system of the concrete mixer truck uses air pressure to spray water.The air pressure enters the stored water through the pipeline, and the water is sprayed under pressure.
The Water Supply System of Metropolitan Boston was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 18, 1990, as a Thematic Resources Area (TRA ...
An improved composition for preparing artificial sea-water comprises an electrolyte mixture which, upon being dissolved in a proper amount of water, forms an aqueous solution which simulates natural sea-water in composition except that it contains one or more boron compounds within a concentration range from 0.002 to 0.05 w/v % calculated as boron. The pH stability of an artificial sea-water is improved by adding one or more boron compounds thereto.
2018 Institute of Food Technologists® Abstract: Blueberry purée was developed using hydrodynamic cavitation technology. The product was made from entire blueberries without adding any food additives. In this study, microbial reduction following each processing stage (at the industry setting) and after product pasteurization at 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, and 96 °C was investigated. Microbial quality including total plate counts, yeast and molds, and heat-resistant molds counts was determined. Shelf life of pasteurized products stored for up to 24 weeks at room temperature were assessed for microbial quality, soluble solids (°Brix), titratable acidity (citric acid %), pH, viscosity (cP) and flow rate (cm/30 s). Our results indicated that heat-resistant molds, initially present in frozen blueberries with counts at 2.03 log CFU/200g, were totally inactivated at 94 to 96 °C with 1 to 2 min holding time. Shelf life study showed that no product spoilage was caused by bacteria, yeasts and heat-resistant ...
Spoilage of processed food products caused by spoilage microorganisms has been reported repeatedly. Among them are heat-resistant molds, which usually contaminate fruits on or near the ground and survive heat treatments used for fruit processing. Heat-resistant fungi can grow and spoil the products during shelf life stored at room temperature and result in great economic losses. In this study, blueberry puree products were developed using cavitation technology. Microbial quality including total plate counts, yeast and molds counts and heat-resistant molds of frozen blueberry materials and processed products following pasteurization at 86, 88, 90, 92, 94 and 96°C (at industrial settings) were determined. Shelf life study of pasteurized blueberry products included periodical checks of microbial quality, soluble solids (Brix %), titratable acidity (citric acid %), pH, viscosity (cP) and flow rate (cm/30 s) for up to 24 weeks at room temperature. Our results indicated that heat-resistant molds, ...
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of Ghanaian bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water sold on the streets of Metropolitan Kumasi, Ghana. Methods and Results: Eight bottled, 88 factory-filled plastic sachet and 40 hand-filled hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking waters were examined for the presence of heterotrophic bacteria total viable counts (TVCs), indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci) and for lead, manganese and iron. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all three types of water with TVCs per millilitre ranging from 1 to 460 for bottled water, 2-6·33 × 105 for factory-bagged sachet water and 2·33 × 103-7·33 × 1012 for hand-filled hand-tied bagged water. None of the microbial indicators of faecal contamination were detected in bottled water, whereas 4·5% of the factory-bagged sachets contained total coliforms and 2·3% faecal coliforms, and 42·5% of the hand-filled hand-tied bags contained total ...
Gracos supply systems and pumps reliably deliver sealants and adhesives from a wide range of containers. Supply systems and pumps reliably move viscous materials at ambient temperature and can also provide warm and hot melt material conditioning. Designed with advanced pump and motor technologies, Graco adhesive supply systems and pumps help maximize your plants production capacity and are designed to integrate with all manufacturing lines.
This course covers residential hot-water supply systems and related issues. Topics include hot-water design considerations, storage tank and on-demand systems, hot-water system safety issues, common water heater problems, home inspection standards of practice, and inspection procedures ...
Total coliform count is commonly used to assess contamination level of drinking and swimming waters, especially with pathogenic bacteria of intestinal origin. The common sources of coliforms in Kashmir Himalayan lakes include point source discharges (raw sewage, combined sewer overflows, effluents from wastewater treatment plants, industrial sources) and non-point source discharges (agriculture, forestry and urban run-off). In the present study, total coliforms were enumerated using a multiple tube fermentation technique with lactose broth as the presumptive medium, eosine-methylene-blue (EMB) agar medium as the confirmatory medium and brilliant green bile broth for completed test. All the samples obtained from the lake were positive with respect to the coliform occurrence, though the count was variable ranging between 4 and 460 MPN/100 ml. Highest proportion of indicator coliforms was found in the water samples collected at the site surrounded by residential hamlets (site II) in comparison to
Water quality is one of the vital elements of a thriving, healthy reef. It also affects human health either directly or indirectly.. MES conducts sea sampling around member resort properties twice a year in May and November representing summer and winter seasons in Fiji.. The four constituents tested on seawater results are faecal coliform (FC) bacteria, salinity and nutrients- phosphates (P) and nitrates (N).. The results are compared with the Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council (ANZEEC 2002) Seawater Standards and guidelines ensuring that the levels nutrients do not affect coral growth and faecal coliform level do not affect public health and seawater is safe for primary and secondary recreational activities.. The acceptable level of nitrates and phosphate that will not cause eutrophication (excessive growth of algae) is 0.01-0.06 mg/L and 0.001-0.010 mg/L respectively. The acceptable level of faecal coliform bacteria is less than 1 FC/ 100 ml.. MES conducted its last ...
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The Neltex Waterline product line is comprised of 20mm to 110mm heavy metal free PVC pipes, PVC fittings, PVC valves, and faucets for in-house potable water supply! Complying to both PNS 65 and ISO 1452, NELTEX Waterline products are not only the most complete, they are also the safest to use for water systems in buildings 6 storeys and below.
In case you using a laptop or computer then there are high chances of virus affecting it and in case it has affected then you need to opt for virus removal Plano services. Nowadays demand for virus removal Plano services is increased to a great extent. The fact is that irrespective of the person owning the computer for home use or for some specific work virus removal services are sure to be taken. Just opening a wrong email attachment or using questionable software can lead to adware affecting in your PC. This can lead you PC to get infected with the virus. This can lead your PC do lot of things as well as begin to perform weirdly or get crashed completely. Due to virus affecting your there is high risk as significant personal data can be lost. Just having virus software on your PC is not enough. It can surely help you to some extend however it does not necessarily stop everything. You can try to sort out the problem yourself. But then if you are not experienced then this might take lot of your ...
Abstract. Contamination can intrude into urban water distribution systems through pipe leakage orifices or other deficiencies, which can create public health r
The problem of stochastic (i.e. robust) water distribution system (WDS) design is formulated and solved here as an optimisation problem under uncertainty. The objective is to minimise total design costs subject to a target level of system robustness. System robustness is defined as the probability of simultaneously satisfying minimum pressure head constraints at all nodes in the network. The decision variables are the alternative design options available for each pipe in the WDS. The only source of uncertainty analysed is the future water consumption uncertainty. Uncertain nodal demands are assumed to be independent random variables following some pre-specified probability density function (PDF). Two new methods are developed to solve the aforementioned problem. In the Integration method, the stochastic problem formulation is replaced with a deterministic one. After some simplifications, a fast numerical integration method is used to quantify the uncertainties. The optimisation problem is solved ...
The benefits of controlled algae growth are well documented. Algal biomass uses are numerous including: biofuels, bioremediation, medicine, and other bioproducts. Currently algae are largely grown in fresh water. The ability to culture algae in non potable water would allow for the benefits of algal production without using water suitable for direct human use. Two largely available sources of non potable water are produced water (coal bed methane wastewater) and seawater. In this study, one liter pilot scale Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactors (RABR) were used as the bioreactor platform to grow cyanobacterial biofilms utilizing these non potable water sources. RABR culture was used opposed to suspended culture to increase the solids concentration of the harvested algae with minimal additional energy input. Both biomass production and the effects of the algae on the total nitrogen and phosphorus composition of the wastewater were examined periodically. In addition, the composition of the algae after
Proper maintenance is essential to keep your water tank in good condition. There are many parts to maintaining your water tank, and they all work together to make your water tank healthy. Making sure that you have the correct water tank liner or that the water tank membranes are replaced when needed, or even that the correct water tank additives are added to the water in your tank, is a vital part of keeping your water tank in good working order. There are also a few other important parts of water tank maintenance that must be kept in mind. These include testing, cleansing, disinfecting and pumping your water tank!. While some people think that water tank maintenance only includes cleaning and pumping, that is not true. In fact, you should be adding a bit of cleaning fluid regularly to keep your water tanks clean. Along with this cleaning fluid, you should be adding a disinfecting cleaning fluid to the water tank for each use. The best disinfectants for use with water ...
The water distribution system consists of the path that finished drinking water takes after it leaves the treatment plant to the consumers taps. It can include storage tanks and finished water reservoirs, water mains and laterals, service lines to the home, plumbing and taps and shower fixtures. Water encounters many hazards along the way that can significantly alter its quality and safety.. Total waterborne disease outbreaks have been in general decline resulting from the changes in regulations and practices that have occurred since the implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act, starting about 1976-1980. Microbial indicator monitoring is enforced, several filtration rules require surface waters, and groundwaters under the influence of surface waters, to be filtered and disinfected. Vulnerable groundwaters must be disinfected, and lead and copper corrosion potential is being assessed and corrected. Numerous disinfection byproducts and chemicals have been regulated.. While reported ...
Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of
Under Deck Water Tanks Under Deck Water Tanks are fantastic when you are limited for space and cant fit the usual round water tank or slimline water tank. They are perfect and ideal for fitting under the deck or under houses. Precision Poly Water Tanks supply two sizes 1800 litre and 2000 litres in 24 different colours and deliver all over NSW, Brisbane and Melbourne.
Many studies require the quantitative determination of bacterial populations. The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: The standard plate count method. Spectrophotometer (turbid metric) analysis. The standard plate count method is an indirect measurement of cell density ( live bacteria). The spectrophotometer analysis is based on turbidity and indirectly measures all bacteria (cell biomass), dead and alive.
During the process of filter feeding, bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters and mussels, can accumulate human pathogens originating from sewage polluted waters. The major pathogens that cause outbreaks of sickness and diarrhoea in the community are viruses, particularly Norovirus (NV). It is not possible to detect these viruses in shellfish without the use of technologically complex molecular methods, which are time consuming, difficult and expensive. Therefore faecal coliforms and E. coli have been adopted as indicator organisms to assess the quality of shellfish flesh and to predict the risk of exposure to pathogenic viruses. However, E. coli and faecal coliforms are found in both human and animal wastes. Existing methods for counting these bacteria do not distinguish between bacteria of human and animal origin. To help assess the potential risk to the consumer, and to assist in alleviating the problem of organic contamination of shellfisheries, it is important to know if the pollutant ...
One variant keeps the radioisotope under water at all times and lowers the product to be irradiated in the water in ... Ozone is used in industrial settings to sterilize water and air, as well as a disinfectant for surfaces. It has the benefit of ... Although toxic, VHP breaks down in a short time to water and oxygen. Peracetic acid (0.2%) is a recognized sterilant by the FDA ... Eniware, LLC has developed a portable, power-free sterilizer that uses no electricity, heat or water. The 25 liter unit makes ...
Temperature, pH and water activity impact bacterial behavior. These factors can be changed to control food spoilage. Models can ... Predictive Microbiology is the area of food microbiology where controlling factors in foods and responses of pathogenic and ... Ross, T.; McMeekin, T. A. (November 1994). "Predictive microbiology". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 23 (3-4): 241 ... "PMIP - Overview of Predictive Microbiology". Predictive Microbiology Information Portal. Retrieved 2022-09-08. Perez-Rodriguez ...
These fungi facilitate the uptake of water and a wide range of nutrients. Up to 30% of the carbon fixed by plants is excreted ... Soil microbiology is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed ... Soil Microbiology. Fourth ed. Enfield: Science Publishers, 1999. Print. Islam, Waqar; Saqib, Hafiz Sohaib Ahmad; Adnan, ... Nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient in soil and water. Bacteria are responsible for the process of nitrogen fixation, ...
The technique has been also used in environmental monitoring to detect the coliform concentration in water samples as well as ... Cady, P. (1978). Progress in impedance measurements in microbiology. Springfield: Chapter 14 in "Mechanizing microbiology" ... Impedance microbiology has been extensively used in the past decades to measure the concentration of bacteria and yeasts in ... In impedance microbiology technique works this way, the sample with the initial unknown bacterial concentration (C0) is placed ...
Microbiology. 9 (3): 177-92. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. PMID 21297669. S2CID 24676340. species of the genera Cladophialophora and ... Salminen J, Blomberg P, Mäkinen J, Räsänen L (September 2015). "Environmental aspects of metals removal from waters and gold ... Microbiology. 9 (3): 177-92. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. PMID 21297669. S2CID 24676340. municipal wastewater contains small ... Microbiology. 9 (3): 177-92. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. PMID 21297669. S2CID 24676340. ligninolytic basidiomycetes and mitosporic ...
Blevins, W (1995). "Comparative physiology of geosmin production by Streptomyces halstedii and Anabaena sp". Water Science and ... 1979). Advances in Applied Microbiology, 25. Burlington: Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-056439-9. Type strain of Streptomyces halstedii at ... Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 46 (8): 753-8. doi:10.1139/w00-050. PMID 10941524. Hochstein, F. A.; Murai, Kotaro (October ... Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 46 (8): 753-8. doi:10.1139/w00-050. PMID 10941524. Joo, Gil-Jae (October 2005). "Purification ...
Water Science and Technology. 47 (3): 167-171. Jamerson, M.; da Rocha-Azevedo, B.; Cabral, G. A.; Marciano-Cabral, F. (5 ... Microbiology. 158 (Pt 3): 791-803. doi:10.1099/mic.0.055020-0. PMC 3352113. PMID 22222499. Retrieved 2013-07-13. Thong YH, ... Microbiology. 158 (Pt_3): 791-803. doi:10.1099/mic.0.055020-0. PMC 3352113. PMID 22222499. Retrieved 13 February 2015. Centers ...
"Predominant growth of Alcanivorax strains in oil-contaminated and nutrient-supplemented sea water". Environmental Microbiology ... It is found only on or near the surface of water. A. borkumensis can live in salinities ranging from 1.0-12.5% and in ... The substances that make up the biosurfactant of A. borkumensis can reduce the surface tension of water, which helps with the ... Coping with high concentrations of sodium ions (i.e. in ocean water), and protecting against the UV radiation experienced on ...
Approaches for oxygen addition below the water table include recirculating aerated water through the treatment zone, addition ... Microbiology. 1 (1): 35-44. doi:10.1038/nrmicro731. PMID 15040178. S2CID 40604152. Menn FM, Easter JP, Sayler GS (2001). " ... Waters JM, Lambert C, Reid D, Shaw R (2002). Redevelopment of the former Shell Haven refinery. Southampton, UK: WIT Press. pp. ... However, the amount of oxygen that can be provided by this method is limited by the low solubility of oxygen in water (8 to 10 ...
"Interactions of Leptospira with Environmental Bacteria from Surface Water". Current Microbiology. 62 (6): 1802-1806. doi: ...
... and Iodine as Disinfectants for Swimming Pool Water". Applied Microbiology. 14 (2): 276-279. doi:10.1128/AEM.14.2.276-279.1966 ... Organisms involved in water purification Portable water purification Water softening Water conservation Water recycling Water ... Water conditioning: This is a method of reducing the effects of hard water. In water systems subject to heating hardness salts ... American Water Works Association "Water On Tap: What You Need To Know." - Consumer Guide to Drinking Water in the US (EPA) ...
Water from anoxic reactor, odic reactor and sedimentation tank were used and had mix-ins of different amount of old and ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Microbiology, ... Coal in China is used as a main energy source and the contaminated water contains harmful toxic contaminants like ammonia, ... 2005). "Bioaugmentation for bioremediation: the challenge of strain selection". Environmental Microbiology. 7 (7): 909-915. doi ...
Geldreich E. Drinking water microbiology-new directions toward water quality enhancement. Int J Food Microbiol 1989;9:295-312. ... This time is 30 minutes in relatively clear, warm water, but is considerably longer if the water is turbid or cold. Water ... Ceramic water filter Desalination Self-supply of water and sanitation Traveler's diarrhea Water quality Wilderness acquired ... Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation" (PDF). "Water Purification Tablets". "WHO - Guidelines for drinking-water quality, ...
"Trophic regulation of Vibrio cholerae in coastal marine waters". Environmental Microbiology. 8 (1): 21-29. doi:10.1111/j.1462- ... She was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group of the American Society for ... "78 Fellows Elected to the American Academy of Microbiology". Archived from the original on 2016-09-11. Retrieved ... redOrbit (21 January 2011). "Biologists Find New Group Of Algae Living In Fresh And Salt Water - Redorbit". http ...
The 5 kW power source on the surface uses optic fiber to conduct a high-energy laser beam to produce hot water jets that melt ... Environmental Microbiology. 13 (1): 226-240. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02324.x. PMID 20738374. DEPTHX (DEep Phreatic THermal ... Sahl, Jason W. (2010). "A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled limestone sinkholes in north-eastern Mexico". ... features a radar integrated to an intelligent algorithm for autonomous scientific sampling and navigation through ice and water ...
Cabral, João (October 10, 2010). "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water". International Journal of Environmental ... Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing. Stagnant water can be a major environmental hazard. Malaria and dengue are ... Surface and ground waters stagnation Trapped water stagnation. The water may be trapped in human artifacts (discarded cans, ... Water pollution, Liquid water, Aquifers, Aquatic ecology, Water supply, Waterborne diseases, Wetlands). ...
Molecular Microbiology. 14 (2): 255-262. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1994.tb01286.x. PMID 7830570. Tu, KC; Waters, CM; Svenningsen ... Tu, K.; Waters, C.; Svenningsen, S.; Bassler, B. (Nov 2008). "A small-RNA-mediated negative feedback loop controls quorum- ... Molecular Microbiology. 92 (5): 921-930. doi:10.1111/mmi.12599. PMC 4038675. PMID 24698180. Page for Qrr RNA at Rfam (Articles ... Molecular Microbiology. 70 (4): 896-907. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06452.x. PMC 2680268. PMID 18808382. Shao, Y; Bassler, BL ...
As the pressure of ocean water increases with depth, PCBs become heavier than water and sink to the deepest ocean trenches ... Environmental Microbiology. 7 (3): 314-325. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00696.x. PMID 15683392. Chun CL, Payne RB, Sowers KR, ... EPA defined the "maximum contaminant level goal" for public water systems as zero, but because of the limitations of water ... "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations". EPA. 2020-02-14. Qi Z, Chen T, Bai S, Yan M, Lu S, Buekens A, et al. (March 2014 ...
Water Res. 41 (5): 985-92. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.12.001. PMID 17254626. Rahmati, Farzad (2017-10-12). "Characterization of ... Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 2365. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02365. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6180151. PMID 30337917. Wei, Ming-Qian; ... Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 2107. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02107. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6160870. PMID 30298055. Zheng, Jinshui; ... Frontiers in Microbiology. 12: 750200. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.750200. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 8521088. PMID 34671336. Chiang, Yin ...
Viable methods of soil and water pollution monitoring, protection and remediation. Vol. 69. Springer, 2006. "Desulfomonile ... ISBN 0-387-24145-0. Jared R. Leadbetter (2005). Environmental microbiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12- ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51 (Pt 2): 365-71. doi:10.1099/00207713-51-2-365. PMID ...
Resistance, resilience, and recovery: Aquatic bacterial dynamics after water column disturbance. Environmental Microbiology. 13 ... Environmental Microbiology Special Issue: 'Omics Driven Microbial Ecology. 14:4-12. (F1000) 69. Shade A, JS Read, D WelkieΩ, TK ... Shade currently serves as a senior editor for the American Society for Microbiology's journal ]mSystems and as a guest editor ... Shade is an associate professor at Michigan State University in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and ...
doi:10.1016/S0922-338X(97)86756-6. Hallsworth, J.E., Heim, S. and Timmis, K. (2003). "Chaotropic solutes cause water stress in ... 2007). "Limits of life in MgCl2-containing environments: chaotropicity defines the window". Environmental Microbiology. 9 (3): ... Hallsworth, J.E. (1998). "Ethanol-induced water stress in yeast". Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering. 85 (2): 125-137. ... 2010). "Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells". Microbial Biotechnology. 3 (6): 701-716. doi:10.1111/j. ...
In the Red Sea for example, Red Sea Deep Water (RSDW) seeps into the fissures created at the tectonic boundary. The water ... Research in Microbiology. Deep Sea Microbiology. 166 (9): 688-699. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2015.07.002. ISSN 0923-2508. PMID ... And, due to low mixing rates between the above seawater and the brine water, brine-pool water becomes anoxic within the first ... The lack of mixing with the water column in combination with high salinity, anoxia, extremes in water temperature and ...
"Predominant growth of Alcanivorax strains in oil-contaminated and nutrient-supplemented sea water". Environmental Microbiology ... Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P. (2003). "Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology". Microbiology and ... However, biodegradation rates are slow and as a result there are severe toxic effects on marine life in the water and on the ... J. J. Perry, "Microbial metabolism of cyclic alkanes," in Petroleum Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, Ed., pp. 61-98, Macmil- lan, New ...
Brown JD, Goekjian G, Poulson R, Valeika S, Stallknecht DE (April 2009). "Avian influenza virus in water: infectivity is ... Potter CW (October 2001). "A history of influenza". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 91 (4): 572-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... The climate anomaly likely influenced the migration of H1N1 avian vectors which contaminate bodies of water with their ... Potter CW (October 2001). "A history of influenza". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 91 (4): 572-79. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ...
Novak, John T.; Carlson, Dale A. (1970). "The Kinetics of Anaerobic Long Chain Fatty Acid Degradation". Journal (Water ... Molecular Microbiology. 66 (4): 829-839. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05947.x. ISSN 0950-382X. ... consuming one water molecule in the process. Thus the net reaction becomes: RCOO− + CoASH + ATP → RCO-SCoA+ AMP + 2Pi The inner ...
"Biodiversity of amoebae and amoebae-resisting bacteria in a drinking water treatment plant". Environmental Microbiology. 10 (10 ... acanthamoebae had been found in the river water that fed the water treatment plant that was used in the experiment. These ... From this finding, the researchers concluded that this bacteria was able to bypass the ozonation step of the water treatment, ... In a study that assessed whether different bacteria were present in a water treatment plant, P. ...
Also in minor cases the plant will eventually die due to the acidic water lowering the plants natural pH. Acidic water enters ... BMC Microbiology. 21 (1): 52. doi:10.1186/s12866-021-02115-3. ISSN 1471-2180. PMC 7890633. PMID 33596827. Tayyab, M (2018). " ... decrease in the drainage water pH entering groundwater and surface waters. The decrease in pH can solubilize Al3+ that is toxic ... Impacts of acidic water and Soil acidification on plants could be minor or in most cases major. In minor cases which do not ...
John Winter (1978). Microbiological Methods for Monitoring the Environment: Water and Wastes (Report). United States ... Applied Microbiology. 26 (2): 215-216. doi:10.1128/AEM.26.2.215-216.1973. PMC 379755. PMID 4582818. Retrieved 15 Apr 2018. ...
It was designed to autonomously explore and map underwater sinkholes in northern Mexico, as well as collect water and wall core ... Environmental Microbiology. 13 (1): 226-240. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02324.x. ISSN 1462-2912. PMID 20738374. DEPTHX: ... Sahl, Jason W.; Gary, Marcus O.; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R. (2011). "A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled ... January 25-27, 2007 - The DEPTHX Team begins surveying the world's deepest water-filled sinkhole, Cenote Zacatón. February 4-10 ...
Toyama kurocha is traditionally prepared by boiling in water, adding salt and stirring with a whisk as in a traditional tea ... International Journal of Food Microbiology. 132 (2-3): 141-144. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.04.011. PMID 19439385. Varga, J ... International Journal of Food Microbiology. 124 (2): 199-203. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.03.008. PMID 18455823. Mogensen, J ... International Journal of Food Microbiology. 166 (2): 316-322. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.07.024. PMC 3161757. PMID 21892239 ...
FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 71 (1): 2-11. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00794.x. PMID 19878320. Gostinčar, C.; Grube, M.; Gunde- ... "Melanized halophilic fungi are eukaryotic members of microbial communities in hypersaline waters of solar salterns". Botanica ... FEMS Microbiology Letters. 232 (2): 203-9. doi:10.1016/S0378-1097(04)00073-4. PMID 15033240. Gueidan, C.; Villasenor, C. R.; De ... FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 30 (1): 109-30. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2005.00007.x. PMID 16438682. Robertson, Kelly L.; Mostaghim ...
50 tap water samples and 171 seepage samples were collected from sites within 12 km of central New Delhi. Of these samples, 20 ... Bhattacharya, S (2006). "ESBL- From petri dish to the patient". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 24 (1): 20-4. doi: ... Queenan AM, Bush K (July 2007). "Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (3): 440-458 ... Kalenić, Smilja (2013). Medicinska mikrobiologija [Medical Microbiology] (in Croatian). Zagreb: Medicinska naklada. ISBN 978- ...
This may be through contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48 (3): 915-920. doi:10.1128/JCM.01664-09. PMC 2832421. PMID 20053852. Carlsson B, Kindberg E ... Hand washing with soap and water is an effective method for reducing the transmission of norovirus pathogens. Alcohol rubs (≥62 ... The source of waterborne outbreaks may include water from municipal supplies, wells, recreational lakes, swimming pools, and ...
nov., a new gammaproteobacterium isolated from the drinking water supply system of Budapest (Hungary)". Systematic and Applied ... nov., isolated from activated sludge". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 65 (Pt 2): 633-8. doi ... Microbiology. 34 (2): 110-5. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.11.001. PMID 21194866. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Cook, Nigel (2013). "10.1 Introduction; the role of fomites in the virus transmission". Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, ... Robilotti, Elizabeth; Deresinski, Stan; Pinsky, Benjamin A. (2015). "Norovirus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 28 (1): 134-164 ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 60 (10): 3704-10. doi:10.1128/AEM.60.10.3704-3710.1994. PMC 201876. PMID 7986043. ...
The usual water-related activities of tourism, in addition to more commercial activities such as fishing, are often disrupted ... Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 38 (7): 494-500. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2015.07.001. Reclos, George J. (2006): "Cotylorhiza ... Planulae use their small cilia to propel them through the water, eventually settling on a hard sediment on which they develop ... This often results in the removal of thousands of Mediterranean jellies from the waters by coastal officials in the summers by ...
Current Opinion in Microbiology. Environmental microbiology • Extremophiles. 25: 120-126. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2015.05.009. PMC ... providing an understanding of how proteins may function in high salinity and low water activity conditions. The genome sequence ... In Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 3rd edition, Academic Press, M. Schaechter (ed.), p. 118-139. Capes, Melinda D.; DasSarma, ... Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 98 (4): 1737-1747. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-5368-x. PMC 4096848. PMID 24292079. Weiss, ...
It has been tested as a water quality indicator in comparison to a pair of other Candida species. Its growth phase (hours 14 ... American Society for Microbiology. 53 (11): 3639-3645. doi:10.1128/JCM.01985-15. PMC 4609733. PMID 26311865.{{cite journal}}: ... World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 8 (4): 434-438. doi:10.1007/BF01198761. ISSN 0959-3993. PMID 24425519. S2CID ...
... and it reacts slowly with cold water, or quickly with hot water, to form neodymium(III) hydroxide: 2Nd (s) + 6H2O (l) → 2Nd(OH) ... Environmental Microbiology. 16 (1): 255-64. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12249. PMID 24034209. Kang, L., Shen, Z. & Jin, C. Neodymium ... The product is then dried and leached with water, leaving the early lanthanide ions, including lanthanum, in solution. ...
More than in food, sterigmatocystin is frequently found in water-damaged buildings. Methods for extraction of sterigmatocystin ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64 (1): 166-171. Bibcode:1998ApEnM..64..166Y. doi:10.1128/AEM.64.1.166-171.1998. PMC ...
says, Rubens Camejo (18 October 2018). "Central Park shares recycled water with UTS across the road". The Fifth Estate. ... the Australian Institute for Microbiology & Infection (AIMI, formerly the i3 Institute), Climate Change Cluster (C3) and the ... volleyball and water polo. UTS were the overall champion at the UniSport Nationals on two occasions (2016, 2017), and were ... which include a recycled water partnership and a district energy-sharing project commended at the 2018 Smart City Awards. The ...
... processes sterilize using hot air that is heavily laden with water vapor, which plays the most ... C P Baveja (1940), "Textbook of Microbiology", Nature, 146 (3692): 149, Bibcode:1940Natur.146..149H, doi:10.1038/146149a0, ISBN ... Moist heat sterilization describes sterilization techniques that use hot water vapor as a sterilizing agent. Heating an article ... and for sterilization of materials for microbiology and other fields calling for aseptic technique.[citation needed] In cases ...
As these salterns reach the minimum salinity limits for extreme halophiles, their waters become purple or reddish color due to ... Molecular Microbiology. 35 (3): 667-76. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01739.x. PMID 10672188. Brijesh Rajanandam, K S; Siva ... Molecular Microbiology. 93 (6): 1172-1182. doi:10.1111/mmi.12726. PMID 25060603. Kahaki, Fatemeh Abarghooi; Babaeipour, ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 62 (Pt 9): 2160-2162. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.036905-0. PMID ...
From these observations scientists have determined that nearly 98 percent of the gas in the plume is water, about 1 percent is ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 28 (3): 193-202. doi:10.1016/s0168-6496(98)00086-5. Finazzo C, Harmer J, Bauer C, et al. (April 2003 ... Previous results, published in March 2015, suggested hot water is interacting with rock beneath the sea of Enceladus; the new ... Microbiology. 144: 2377-2406. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-9-2377. PMID 9782487. Conrad, Rolf (1999). "Contribution of hydrogen to ...
Finally, the acetyl group on acetyl-CoA is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle and electron transport ... Microbiology. 4 (10): 752-64. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1490. PMID 16980937. S2CID 8528196. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. ... These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... This system of enzymes acts in three stages to firstly oxidize the xenobiotic (phase I) and then conjugate water-soluble groups ...
Azam, F.; Fenche, T.; Field, J. G.; Gra, J. S.; Meyer-Reil, L. A.; Thingstad, F. (1983). "The ecological role of water-column ... Trends in Microbiology. 17 (8): 378-387. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.05.004. PMID 19660952.[permanent dead link] Williams, R. J.; ... 2 (2): 2. Spellman, Frank R. (2008). The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications. CRC Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4200-5544-3 ... ISBN 978-0-520-23668-4. Spellman, Frank R. (2008). The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications. CRC Press. p. 167. ISBN 978 ...
PNNL scientists are designing catalysts to use solar energy to power reactions that turn water into hydrogen. They are ... and biochemistry Chemistry Clinical medicine Engineering Environment and ecology Geosciences Materials science Microbiology ...
Tu (cake) - a cheese cake pastry made with yak butter, brown sugar and water. Masan - a pastry, made with tsampa, dry cubic or ... ISBN 978-3-89533-520-4. Tamang, Jyoti Prakash (2009). Himalayan Fermented Foods: Microbiology, Nutrition, and Ethnic Values. ... Brick tea is made by methods only distantly related to those employed in China or Sri Lanka (Ceylon). When the water boils, a ... Returning to the house, they pour the water into built-in copper cans that hold more than 100 liters. Cooking pots made from ...
in Microbiology in 1995, his M.Sc. in Food Microbiology in 1997, and his Ph.D. in Food Microbiology in 2002. He studied Food ... Goodridge studies detection of and protection from food- and water-borne pathogens such as escherichia coli, salmonella and ... Chattha, Simran (28 October 2020). "Researcher Receives Federal Funding to Track Outbreaks Using Wastewater". Water Canada. ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella isolated from tap water in St. Croix on the ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella steigerwaltii Taxonomy browser ATCC Journal of Clinical Microbiology [1] Type strain ...
... water, and an antiseptic), and preserve the tick in alcohol. If symptoms develop, saving the tick will be important for ... Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 33 (2): e00083-18. doi:10.1128/CMR.00083-18. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 6941843. PMID 31896541. Bush, ... FEMS Microbiology Letters. 365 (2). doi:10.1093/femsle/fnx244. ISSN 1574-6968. PMC 5812531. PMID 29149298. Kassiri, Hamid; ...
Osmoregulation is carried out by a pair of contractile vacuoles on either end of the cell, which actively expel water absorbed ... The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 30 (1): 128-131. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1983.tb01046.x. ISSN 1066-5234. (Articles with ...
It has academic, hospital, and residential blocks, including gardens, with a rain-water harvesting and recycling system. The ... Anatomy Anaesthesiology Biochemistry Community Medicine Dermatology General Medicine Microbiology Paediatrics Pharmacology ... and Dentofacial Orthopedics Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Public Health Dentistry Oral Pathology and Microbiology ...
This bacterium can use water as a source of electrons in order to perform CO2 reduction reactions. Evolutionarily, ... Frontiers in Microbiology 5 (2014): 357. PMC. Web. 11 March 2016. 3. Johnson, Lewis, Morgan, Raff, Roberts, and Walter. "Energy ... including fresh water, seas, soil, and lichen. Cyanobacteria carry out plant-like photosynthesis because the organelle in ... The depth to which sunlight or artificial light can penetrate into water, so that photosynthesis may occur, is known as the ...
Canadian Journal of Microbiology 39: 543- 547. Dixon, M. and Webb, E.C. (1979). Enzymes. 3rd ed. Longman Group Ltd. 1116pp. ... Similarly, replacing biological fluids with non-biological fluids taken from water bodies (or prepared from similar ... Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 39 (5): 543-547. doi:10.1139/m93-077.Wagih, E. E. and Fletcher, J. (1993). Zymoblot, a new ...
This food microbiology and biology knowledge becomes biological engineering when systems and processes are created to maintain ... Aerobic processes occur in the presence of oxygen, take organic matter as input, and produce water, carbon dioxide, nitrate, ... Perry, J.D.; Freydière, A.M. (2007). "The application of chromogenic media in clinical microbiology". Journal of Applied ... There are five main types of microbial pathogens which contaminate food and water: viruses, bacteria, fungi, pathogenic ...
The ink is diluted with water to create a wash, and typically done so in a ceramic bowl. The ink is layered like watercolors, ... A common application of this procedure in the clinical microbiology laboratory is to confirm the morphology of the encapsulated ... Basic India ink is composed of a variety of fine soot, known as lampblack, combined with water to form a liquid. No binder ... The pine soot was soaked in water to divide the fine particles that float and the coarser particles that sink. The sized ...
Dapo Abiodun, the Ogun state governor, shared plans in 2022 to "introduce a community-based water supply scheme called 'water ... Microbiology Faculty of Social Science: Geography and Regional Planning, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Economics, ... Ogunnaike, James (2022-01-04). "Potable Water Supply: Ogun to introduce water kiosking". Vanguard. Retrieved 2022-02-04. Sowole ... Ago-Iwoye has been tapped as one of 15 major communities that will benefit from the state's Urban Water Resuscitation projects ...
nov., a novel alkalitolerant, sulphate-reducing bacterium isolated from district heating water". International Journal of ... Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (5): 1019-1024. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63909-0. PMID 16627648. Paul De Vos; et al., eds ...
Emerging issues in water and infectious disease  World Health Organization. Water, Sanitation and Health Team (‎World Health ... Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Addendum, Microbiological agents in drinking water  World Health Organization. Division ... Addendum to the WHO guidelines for safe recreational water environments: volume 1, coastal and fresh waters: list of agreed ... Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Volume 1, Coastal and fresh waters  ...
Emerging issues in water and infectious disease  World Health Organization. Water, Sanitation and Health Team (‎World Health ... Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Addendum, Microbiological agents in drinking water  World Health Organization. Division ... Addendum to the WHO guidelines for safe recreational water environments: volume 1, coastal and fresh waters: list of agreed ... Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Volume 1, Coastal and fresh waters  ...
This conference presents an excellent knowledge sharing and networking opportunity for food and water microbiological technical ... SCI in collaboration the RSC present a one-day conference to discuss topics in relation to food and water applications of MALDI ... staff, public health professionals, lab managers, food and water quality industry personnel and regulators. ... Food and water microbiology: rapid confirmation using MALDI-TOF - book now!. - Early Bird fees before Friday 20 October 2017 ...
Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry. Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry. by Chapelle, Francis H. by Chapelle, ... Chapelle, Francis H. is the author of Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry, published 2000 under ISBN 9780471348528 and ...
... animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media - Amendment 1 ... Microbiology of food, animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media - ...
... was isolated from a sea-water sample from Ganghwa Island, South Korea. Cells were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, ... In Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology pp 611-654 Edited by Gerhardt P., Murray R. G. E., Wood W. A., Krieg N. R. ... nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from sea water * Yoon-Dong Park1, Keun Sik Baik2, Chi Nam Seong2, Kyung Sook Bae3, ... Lyman J., Fleming R. H. 1940; Composition of sea water. J Mar Res 3:134-146 ...
The organisms isolated are of public health significance as ingestion of water contaminated by them could result in ... The organisms isolated are of public health significance as ingestion of water contaminated by them could result in ... Comparative bacteriological analyses of twenty five samples of stored borehole water from five hostels in a tertiary ... Comparative bacteriological analyses of twenty five samples of stored borehole water from five hostels in a tertiary ...
This advertorial from Merck explores how the removal of contaminants from water is of paramount importance for the preparation ... Since water is the predominant component of microbiology media formulations, the removal of these contaminants from water is of ... including water, when preparing liquid or solid culture media. Tap water may contain a range of impurities that could have an ... This advertorial from Merck explores how the removal of contaminants from water is of paramount importance for the preparation ...
... October ... It is stratified, and the water column has three distinct water masses: an upper freshwater-to-moderately saline stratum (0-3 m ... water activities down to 0.762) and a persistent plate of green sulphur bacteria that connects these two (0.958-0.956 water ... We found: (i) seasonally fluctuating, light-dependent communities in the upper layer (≥0.987-0.990 water-activity), a stable ...
Water Res. 151, 1-7 (2019). This work presents a wide spectrum of EPS components, and an inspiring multidisciplinary road map ... Nature Reviews Microbiology (Nat Rev Microbiol) ISSN 1740-1534 (online) ISSN 1740-1526 (print) ... Neu, T. R. & Lawrence, J. R. in Aquatic Biofilms: Ecology, Water Quality and Wastewater Treatment (eds Romani, A. M., Guasch, H ... Spitzer, J. From water and ions to crowded biomacromolecules: in vivo structuring of a prokaryotic cell. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. ...
Our Environmental Microbiology and Engineering Laboratory Team and Clinical Detection and Surveillance Laboratory Team conduct: ... Assess disinfection and treatment methods for drinking water and recreational water. *Provide tools for environmental ... The lead laboratory units for domestic and global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related diseases associated with ... Support water-related emergency preparedness and outbreak investigations both domestically and globally ...
Safety of water disinfection : balancing chemical and microbial risks / edited by Gunther F. Craun. by Craun, Gunther F , ... A guide to health promotion through water and sanitation / David Nyamwaya; with K. K. Munguti and P. Akuma. by Nyamwaya, David ... by American Water Works Association , Pan American Health Organization.. Series: Publicacion cientifica (Organizacion ... Principles for developing coastal water quality criteria / IMCO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN Joint Group of Experts on the ...
12-729 Environmental Microbiology for Engineers. Visit the HUB for a full listing of available courses and their descriptions. ... Our Sustainable Water MS concentration gives you skills and experience with issues and approaches in water quality engineering ... As a student you will gain knowledge and skills to address modern challenges in water quality protection and restoration, ...
... natural spring water microbes, online water quality monitoring, spring water microbiology, water abstraction management", ... This article is categorized under: 1Engineering Water , Water, Health, and Sanitation2Science of Water , Water Extremes3Water ... This article is categorized under: 1Engineering Water , Water, Health, and Sanitation2Science of Water , Water Extremes3Water ... This article is categorized under: 1Engineering Water , Water, Health, and Sanitation2Science of Water , Water Extremes3Water ...
2013 drinking water finland inkinen water Alex Alexiev. Alex Alexiev is a recent UC Davis graduate with a BS in microbiology ... ISS Jessica Green legionella meetings metagenomics microBEnet microbes microbiology Microbiology blog of the day Microbiology ... Another result was that hot water led to less microbes than cold water. ... Every time you bend over the public water fountain to take a drink and see the gunk at the bottom, do you wonder whats living ...
The microbiology of acidic mine waters. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:466-73. ... Drewes JE, Fox P. Fate of natural organic matter (NOM) during groundwater recharge using reclaimed water. Water Sci Technol. ... Negative controls were water. Each well in the 384-well assay plates contained a final volume of 40 μL aqueous solution. Stock ... Price MN, Wetmore KM, Waters RJ, Callaghan M, Ray J, Liu H, et al. Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of ...
Study free Biology flashcards about Microbiology Combo created by RShanne to improve your grades. Matching game, word search ... What are transmitted by water?. Cryptosporidium, Hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Cyclospora Rice water stools are ... Water. Milk. The respiratory route. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?. Salmonella endotoxin  coagulates blood ... fecal-oral; spread via water and food An epidemiologist is involved in a hepatitis outbreak in a community. She traces the ...
Innovations in microbiology generating opportunities in water. pabloadmin - Real-time online sensors that can detect ... Get the ins and outs of the water and wastewater industry delivered to you. ... Stay in the know with the latest news from the water and wastewater industry. ... according an expert speaker invited to address the latest Water Action Platform webinar. Professor Tobias Barnard, a biochemist ...
Water Microbiology - Sample Description. Home › EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS › Water MicrobiologyWater Microbiology ... Drinking and HPC Water Samples. Laboratories receive a 10mL simulated water sample which is diluted before processing by the ... Simulated recreational water samples include Enterococcus faecalis as an indicator for marine waters, E.coli for Freshwater ... Recreational Water Samples. Laboratories receive a 10mL simulated water sample which is diluted before processing by the ...
Call for Editors, Journal of Water and Health * Quantification and fate of plasmid-specific bacteriophages in wastewater: ... Elabiyi Michael on Identifying water quality and environmental factors that influence indicator and pathogen decay in natural ... COVID-19: A Water Professionals Perspectives, IWA Webinar on April 8th, 2020 ... Journal of Water and Health, Volume 20, Issue 10, 1 October 2022 ... Journal of Water and Health. *WHO water, sanitation and health ...
Microbiology of food, animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media - ... Microbiology of food, animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media - ... Microbiology of food, animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media ... Microbiology of food, animal feed and water - Preparation, production, storage and performance testing of culture media ...
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Microbiology. The study of eukaryotes, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, and prions.. New to Reddit?. Rules. *No Politics ... limit my search to r/microbiology. use the following search parameters to narrow your results:. subreddit:subreddit. find ...
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Microbiology. 2002;148:1655-66.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... HWS, harbor water sample. Tables. * Table 1. Results of water ... Locations where water and seafood samples were obtained, Haiti, October-November 2010. HWS, harbor water sample. ... was used to collect water samples (8-30 L each) at the freshwater sites and 3 of the marine water sites (HWS-11, -13, and -18 ... along with 500-mL grab samples of marine water. After enrichment, APW cultures from seafood and water grab samples were tested ...
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... rising demand for microbial applications in the development of vaccines are driving the demand for the industrial microbiology ... Industrial Microbiology Market Size Worth USD 17.71 Billion by 2027 Published Date : 2020-11-18 Request Free Sample Reports ... Vancouver, B.C., November 18, 2020 - The global Industrial Microbiology Market is forecasted to be worth USD 17.71 Billion by ... Emergen Research has segmented the global Industrial Microbiology Market on the basis of product, type, end-use, and region:. ...
The Combining Ability for Grain Yield and Some Related Characteristics in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Under Normal and Water Stress ... Zagazig University · Department of Agricultural Microbiology. Ph.D. in Agricultural Microbiology from Zagazig University, Egypt ... Looking for collaboration in the field of Microbiology and Nanotechnology; my email: [email protected] ... The main constraint on rice cultivation in the Mediterranean area is the limited irrigation and its large water consumption. In ...
Fresh Water Microbiology Past Papers Exam Questions. Guess Paper 1: Fresh Water Microbiology Fall - 2020 Past Papers. Time ... 1. Fresh water is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. (T/F) ... If your pond is stratified, you will notice the deeper water around your lower legs is noticeably warmer than the surface water ... Water stratification is when water masses with different properties - salinity (halocline), oxygenation (chemocline), density ( ...
... s research on water treatment plants, coastal waters, and surfers’ bums.,/p, {{widget:audio:%7B%22height%22%3A%22166%22% ... Why Microbiology Matters Why Microbiology Matters. The Microbiology Society is a membership charity for scientists interested ... Having published advances across the field of microbiology for 75 years, Microbiology - the Microbiology Societys founding ... What is microbiology? Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye. ...
  • In 2022, Microbiology, our founding journal, will celebrate 75 years since publishing its first articles. (
  • Washington, DC - February 15, 2022 - In February, the American Academy of Microbiology (Academy) elected 65 new Fellows to the Class of 2022. (
  • Welcome to the 2022 PDA Pharmaceutical Microbiology Conference! (
  • Microbiology Laboratory manual. (
  • The lead laboratory units for domestic and global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related diseases associated with community settings and the natural environment in CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases . (
  • We offer fast laboratory home testing kits for groundwater, surface water, private wells, and public water system analysis, nationwide. (
  • At the Haiti National Public Health Laboratory (LNSP), bacteria were recovered from ultrafilters by back flushing with a surfactant solution, and the solution then was added to an equal volume of 2× strength alkaline peptone water (APW). (
  • NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation (HHE) to evaluate possible exposures to formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, carbon dioxide (CO ), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 2 microbiology laboratory at Manatee Memorial Hospital. (
  • An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. (
  • Methodology: Root samples of E. heterophylla and V. paradoxa were collected, washed, air dried and processed to fine powder in the microbiology laboratory of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. (
  • This feature is also important for optimal growth in the microbiology laboratory. (
  • The control Microbiology Laboratory, located in the Department of of microorganism growth aims to obtain healthier food Food Science and Technology of the Federal University of products, resulting on the elimination or reduction of Santa Catarina in isothermal boxes containing ice. (
  • International Journal of Food Microbiology 128(2):181-8. (
  • International Journal of Food Microbiology 94, 223-253. (
  • International Journal of Food Microbiology 5, 165- 180. (
  • In the Microbiology of water, we shall briefly examine the main pollutants that make water unfit for drinking and the methods of its purification. (
  • Application of biosurfactants and their combination with nanomaterials in the purification of polluted and contaminated water 10. (
  • Fellows of the American Academy of Microbiology , an honorific leadership group and a think tank within the ASM, are elected annually through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology. (
  • A marine bacterial strain, designated FR1311 T , was isolated from a sea-water sample from Ganghwa Island, South Korea. (
  • Comprehensive bacterial baseline testing for total coliform, E. coli, and HPC in drinking water. (
  • Test your drinking water to identify the 5 most prevalent bacterial genera present. (
  • We found that positive relationships between rainfall and bacterial pollution in shellfish growing waters holds true for many watersheds and for both daily and annual time periods. (
  • 2016. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters. (
  • In a circulating water system, bacterial cells adhere to the surface of the plumbing system by way of their outer sugar chains. (
  • 106-108 Bacterial concentrations in drinking water are estimated to be around 106-108 cells per liter. (
  • The PhD project aims to understand the occurrence, fate and applicability (diagnostic potential) of genetic bacterial and viral markers for human-specific faecal pollution along the urban waste water pathway (i.e. raw sewage, waste water treatment, receiving surface and ground waters). (
  • This conference presents an excellent knowledge sharing and networking opportunity for food and water microbiological technical staff, public health professionals, lab managers, food and water quality industry personnel and regulators. (
  • Real-time online sensors that can detect microbiological contamination in water and wastewater are "closer than people think", according an expert speaker invited to address the latest Water Action Platform webinar. (
  • Some microbiological tests of water for its safety in consumption will also be described. (
  • We support our members to champion microbiology and to access the best microbiological evidence and expertise. (
  • This study examined the microbiological and chemical quality of a representative sample of PSW products in Freetown, Sierra Leone at packaged water manufacturing facilities (PWMFs) and at points of sale (POSs). (
  • BLUEPHAGE's products are guaranteed to be safe and to lead to improvements in the microbiological quality of water, food and biosolids. (
  • So changing the material in the pipes would not inhibit biofilm growth as much as just avoiding areas of pooling water in your water distribution system. (
  • Pipe material may not have a bearing on biofilm growth, but it did have an effect on the water quality. (
  • Test your drinking water for pseudomonas aeruginosa-a biofilm forming bacterium. (
  • Measurement of microbial activities at the NCA springs revealed extremely low microbial growth rates in the base flow component of the studied spring waters and indicated the importance of biofilm-associated microbial activities in sediments and on rock surfaces. (
  • Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edn. (
  • Get the ins and outs of the water and wastewater industry delivered to you. (
  • Stay in the know with the latest news from the water and wastewater industry. (
  • Application of biosurfactants for treatment of effluent waste, polluted water, wastewater and sewage sludge 9. (
  • Another result was that hot water led to less microbes than cold water. (
  • In this regard, it is well known that during high-discharge situations, surface-associated microbes and nutrients such as from soil habitats or human settlements-potentially containing fecal-associated pathogens as the most critical water-quality hazard-may be rapidly flushed into vulnerable karst aquifers. (
  • The Microbiology Society is a membership charity for scientists interested in microbes, their effects and their practical uses. (
  • Dead-end ultrafiltration, a newly developed technique that has been used to recover diverse microbes from large-volume water samples ( 5 ), was used to collect water samples (8-30 L each) at the freshwater sites and 3 of the marine water sites (HWS-11, -13, and -18). (
  • To ensure accurate results and prevent false positives/negatives and contamination, microbiologists must carefully select their reagents, including water, when preparing liquid or solid culture media. (
  • Test for mold and fungal contamination in drinking water, as well as total heterotrophic bacteria. (
  • Possible sources of microbial contamination of a body of water are soil and agricultural runoff, farm animals, rainwater, industrial waste, discharges from sewage treatment plants, and stormwater runoff from urban areas. (
  • To better characterize the contamination of untreated surface water and seafood and to evaluate the risk for V. cholerae transfer from contaminated water in Haitian ports, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collaborated with the Haitian ministries of health, agriculture, and environment to document the presence of V. cholerae in Haitian freshwater resources and harbors. (
  • Shellfish harvest is often prohibited or temporarily restricted due to contamination of the surrounding waters and the resulting health risks to human consumers. (
  • In many shellfish growing areas, poor water quality and contamination results from land-based runoff or other environmental factors. (
  • For advisories without evidence of contamination, tap water may be used for patients with healthy immune systems. (
  • For advisories with evidence of contamination (microbial/chemical) do not use tap water for bath or shower. (
  • We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. (
  • However, this simple approach is now rapidly expanding and being further applied in many routine food, water and pharma laboratories. (
  • Laboratories receive a 10mL simulated water sample which is diluted before processing by the laboratory's own methods. (
  • Please disseminate this information to healthcare providers in hospitals and emergency rooms, to primary care providers, and to microbiology laboratories. (
  • Inspired by Professor Jo Verran's Bad Bugs Book Club the Society has launched a project to encourage the microbiology community to get together and discuss microbiology in literature. (
  • A place to discuss microbiology and related topics! (
  • Water pollution: Everything you need to know. (
  • Spatial appraisal of shallow well water pollution in Awka, Nigeria. (
  • In this context, a framework for the comprehensive analysis of microbial pollution has been proposed for the NCA springs to support the sustainable management of drinking water safety in accordance with recent World Health Organization guidelines. (
  • Mia started working on water, sanitation, and hygiene issues while doing graduate work in sub-Saharan Africa and devoted herself to that field back in the United States. (
  • The network’s extensive list of regional partners includes the Association of Potable Water and Sanitation Regulators for Latin America (ADERASA) and the South East Asia Water Utilities Network (SEAWUN). (
  • Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns. (
  • We interviewed cases and controls using a standard questionnaire which included information on water sources, hygiene and sanitation practices and other environmental factors. (
  • There is need for comprehensive strategy including public health education campaign to create awareness on H. pylori , improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, provision of safe drinking water by the government to the populace, and discourage indiscriminate and open defecation. (
  • Vancouver, B.C., November 18, 2020 - The global Industrial Microbiology Market is forecasted to be worth USD 17.71 Billion by 2027, according to a current analysis by Emergen Research. (
  • Water safety plans (WSPs) are endorsed by the World Health Organization as the most effective method of protecting a water supply. (
  • We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. (
  • Applicants should be experienced with standard methods of molecular microbiology. (
  • 1996). Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials E96-80. (
  • Results from the NCA springs and comparable sites revealed that spring water harbors abundant natural microbial communities even in aquifers with high water residence times and the absence of immediate surface influence. (
  • Identification of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in drinking water samples of different rural health centers and their clinical impacts on humans. (
  • Tap water may contain a range of impurities that could have an impact on bacteria growth or cause various abnormalities of the prepared media, such as incorrect pH, wrong colour or precipitation. (
  • Growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (and transfer to pathogens) and post-treatment growth of water-based pathogens (e.g. (
  • Test your drinking water for the presence (P/A) of total coliform and E. coli bacteria. (
  • Test for heterotrophic bacteria in your filtered or unfiltered drinking water. (
  • Test your water system for Legionella a deadly bacteria found in warm water plumbing and biofilms. (
  • 6. Bacteria play an important role in breaking down leaves into smaller, dissolved organic matter(DOM) in fresh water system. (
  • A study by a manufacturer and The University of Alabama in Huntsville found advanced oxidation processes (AOP) to be highly effective in killing bacteria that create harmful biofilms in pools, spas and jetted tubs and are a health risk in recreational water. (
  • The water in pools, spas and jetted tubs can harbor bacteria such as E. coli, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium, Streptococcus and Salmonella. (
  • Infectious microorganisms then come into contact with the bather, causing a spectrum of illnesses that can be acquired from breathing, contacting or swallowing water contaminated by bacteria. (
  • They are also extremely abundant-in just a single drop of water there can be over 100 species of bacteria. (
  • More surprising was the fact that a large proportion of the bacteria present in drinking water, whether from fountains or the tap, were unknown, a sort of microbial "dark matter" that scientists must now explore. (
  • Given that we drink about two liters of water per day, do these bacteria have an impact on our gut microbiota? (
  • Yes, say the researchers, who detected the bacteria in the stool of regular tap water drinkers, with presence profiles that reflect the composition of the water consumed. (
  • The researchers even showed that some bacteria appear to settle permanently (and remain even when we drink bottled water), while the presence of others seems closely linked to regular consumption (they disappear when we drink bottled water for several days). (
  • Firstly, what bacteria are present in drinking water? (
  • The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. (
  • You're significantly increasing the spread of surface bacteria around your kitchen, even if you don't see the water splash. (
  • Using water irrigation systems helps to flush out debris from between your teeth, and under your gums, which may help control bacteria around your teeth and below the gum line. (
  • On Tuesday 28 November 2017 , SCI's Environment Health and Safety Group in collaboration with Food Groups from both the RSC and SCI will present a one-day conference covering a wide range of topics in relation to food and water applications of MALDI TOF technology. (
  • Applicants must have a diploma degree in (molecular) microbiology, molecular biology, biochemistry or a related subject. (
  • Epidemic cholera is caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, which spread most often through water contaminated with the bacterium ( 1 ). (
  • A planktonic cell is an individual free-floating bacterium (in the body of water or circulating through the plumbing) that has yet to adhere to any surface. (
  • National Water Research Institute, NWRI (1997). (
  • Over the past 15 years, pioneering interdisciplinary research has been performed on the microbiology of hydrogeologically well-defined alpine karst springs located in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) of Austria. (
  • Microbiology Society journals contain high-quality research papers and topical review articles. (
  • Discover everything you need to know about the role microbiology plays in climate change, browse our resources and access some of the latest research in our journal collections. (
  • Research Mentorship in Environmental Microbiology: Training the Next Generation Workforce in Environmental Science. (
  • Water Research, 139, 252-262. (
  • Water Research, 89, 270-281. (
  • Water Research. (
  • BLUEPHAGE is a spin-off of MARS (Microbiologia de l'Aigua Relacionada amb la Salut: Water Microbiology Related to Health), a consolidate research group at the University of Barcelona. (
  • Our research clearly shows that putting a foreign object, such as a contact lens, on the eye is not a neutral act," senior study investigator Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, said in announcing the research in a presentation at the American Society for Microbiology annual meeting on Sunday. (
  • A PhD position is available at the research group of environmental microbiology and molecular ecology lead by Andreas Farnleitner at the Institute of Chemical Engineering, Research Area Applied Biochemistry and Gene Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Austria. (
  • The research interests of the group are focused towards the field of environmental and health-related aquatic microbiology. (
  • RECIRCULATE combines excellence in scientific research (environmental science, crop science, engineering, microbiology), social science and management research (entrepreneurial learning and knowledge exchange). (
  • Across partners and across disciplines, and working with business and other research users, we will co-design research to deliver appropriate solutions for Africa, building on cutting-edge solutions to addressing the global challenges around safe and sustainable water use. (
  • Ursu Lake has a unique and complex ecology, at the same time exhibiting dynamic fluctuations and stability, and can be used as a modern analogue for ancient euxinic water bodies and comparator system for other stratified hypersaline systems. (
  • 14. Lake overturn, is a rare type of natural disaster in which dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) suddenly erupts from deep lake waters, forming a gas cloud that can suffocate wildlife, livestock, and humans. (
  • Some grow with or without oxygen and are found in soil, water, vegetation, humans and animals. (
  • Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), Emergency Water Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities (2012) pdf icon [PDF - 2.07 MB] and standards published by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) external icon ), United States Pharmaocopeia (USP), and manufacturers' instructions. (
  • Healthcare facilities should develop an Emergency Water Supply Plan ( EWSP pdf icon [PDF - 2.07 MB]) to prepare for, respond to, and recover from a total or partial interruption of the facilities' normal water supply. (
  • The most beneficial effect of microbiology on the pharmaceutical industry is the development of antibiotics. (
  • The comprehensive program agenda will include presentations from global regulatory and industry experts who will share recent case studies and current trends in the field of pharmaceutical microbiology. (
  • During the conference, PDA will host many poster presentations and an exhibition of leading bio/pharmaceutical companies that will showcase new technologies and trends for pharmaceutical microbiology strategies. (
  • Access all content published by the Microbiology Society relating to SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19 in our digital hub. (
  • Explore our new collections of digital content which celebrate 'Why Microbiology Matters' and helps us demonstrate the impact of microbiologists past, present and future. (
  • First class PG Degree in Zoology / Aquaculture / Marine Biology / Biotechnology / Microbiology / Environmental Science / Life Science. (
  • There are currently 71 recognized or proposed species of Mycobacterium [1], all of which, except M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, are considered as environmental mycobacteria and can usually be isolated from environmental samples including water, soil and dust [2]. (
  • Application of biosurfactants for biosorption in heavily contaminated soil and water 11. (
  • Having published advances across the field of microbiology for 75 years, Microbiology - the Microbiology Society's founding journal - will transition to fully Open Access (OA) in 2023. (
  • Q.8 Explain in details some common diseases of fresh-water fauna? (
  • We shall also examine briefly the sewage treatment since sewage and water are important sources of microbial transmission. (
  • In polluted waters, there are large amounts of organic matter from sewage, feces, and industrial complex. (
  • RECIRCULATE will "join up" the different ways in which water sustains communities, from sewage disposal to energy generation and water used in food production. (
  • ACM Pharma offers a wide range of microbiology services according to the main standards in force : Eur Ph, USP, NF EN ISO. (
  • Examination of water intended for human consumption makes it possible to assess the absence or presence of micro-organisms or chemicals in the water, which may be harmful to human health. (
  • Samples are simulated stabilized waters that can be assessed by membrane filtration, MPN, or other assays. (
  • Simulated recreational water samples include Enterococcus faecalis as an indicator for marine waters, E.coli for Freshwater beach samples and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for recreational waters samples from spas and swimming pools. (
  • During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae . (
  • The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples. (
  • Locations where water and seafood samples were obtained, Haiti, October-November 2010. (
  • In October and November 2010, water and seafood samples were collected from 2 cholera-affected communities in Haiti and tested for V. cholerae . (
  • Eight freshwater and 6 marine water samples were collected from 13 sites in Artibonite and Ouest Departments ( Figure ). (
  • At LNSP, all water and ultrafilter back flush samples were incubated in APW at 37°C for 6 h ( 6 ). (
  • Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G. lamblia and C. parvum, and chromotrope-2 stain for microsporidia. (
  • Now Italian scientists have taken water samples from public fountains and domestic taps in the city of Parma with the aim of exploring microbial biodiversity in their city's water and its effects on the gut microbiota of residents. (
  • Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. (
  • Arcobacter cryaerophilus was originally recovered from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses, but it has been subsequently isolated from meat, water, and human clinical samples. (
  • Crude extract of the root samples was done by the cold maceration technique using four solvents (chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water). (
  • Bacteriological quality of borehole water used by students' of University for Development Studies, Navrongo Campus in Upper-East Region of Ghana. (
  • Quality assessment of borehole water used in the vicinities of Benin, Edo State and Agbor, Delta State of Nigeria. (
  • They also compared different pipe materials in terms of water quality. (
  • Our Sustainable Water MS concentration gives you skills and experience with issues and approaches in water quality engineering from fundamental physical, chemical and biological perspectives, with applications to both natural and engineered systems. (
  • Near-real-time online water quality monitoring, microbial source tracking (MST) and MST-guided quantitative microbial-risk assessment (QMRA) are examples of the proposed analytical tools. (
  • Microbial Water Quality Assessments to Support Coral Reef and Coastal Ecosystem Health. (
  • In some areas, poor water quality from precipitation and other factors trigger conditions that require harvest closures. (
  • These closure decisions would benefit from 1) better predictions of poor water quality, and 2) more timely and accurate data streams. (
  • However, few rigorous studies have investigated PSW quality in SSA, and none have compared PSW to stored household water for consumption (HWC). (
  • ABSTRACT Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. (
  • and misperception of water quality. (
  • These factors must be addressed to improve water quality at Shatila and other refugee camps. (
  • During the last years the group has been developing and applying new molecular biological approaches for microbial water quality analysis. (
  • Knowledge in larval aquaculture, algal culture, water quality, biofouling & biofilms will be preferred. (
  • In this article, AOP is defined and explored, including its ability to prevent illnesses linked to recreational water such as Legionnaires' disease, Hot Tub Lung and Hot Tub Rash. (
  • A recent study on the efficacy of an advanced oxidation processor in purifying recreational water heavily inoculated with E. coli is also reviewed. (
  • View of Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? (
  • In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. (
  • 1 The Water Institute at UNC, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America. (
  • On October 15, 1996, a physician notified the Illinois Department of Public Health about five patients with an unknown febrile illness who had returned from a white-water rafting trip on flooded rivers in Costa Rica during September 27-28, 1996. (
  • 3 Department of Microbiology, Lahijan Free University, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • The relevant commercial clinical databases have been found to be fit for purpose and are continually incorporating new species including food and water-related species. (
  • Test your drinking water for over 170 non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species-including M. avium. (
  • Mycobacterium marinum is an atypical Mycobacterium species found in cold or warm, fresh or salted water. (
  • M marinum is water-borne atypical Mycobacterium species that commonly infects fish and amphibians. (
  • This 2013 study from Finland collaborated on a study examining biofilms on the drinking water distribution system in office buildings. (
  • This paper concludes that before the water distribution system is used by people, the pipes should be flushed to decrease any microbial biofilms that started forming during the period of stagnation. (
  • Eventually, portions of biofilms detach by the force of flowing water and/or by natural breakup. (
  • Safety of water disinfection : balancing chemical and microbial risks / edited by Gunther F. Craun. (
  • In water microbiology, the water is contaminated when it contains a chemical or biological poison or an infectious agent. (
  • Interpreting that data with the aid of quantitative microbial risk assessment, we have also developed log-reduction targets for a range of alternative source water - end uses (e.g. for non-potable uses , potable uses ). (
  • emergency supply of potable water. (
  • 4. In general terms, the greatest microbial risks are associated with ingestion of water that is contaminated with human or animal feces. (
  • Kits and products are related to bacteriophages and focus on monitoring water, food and biosolids. (
  • Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with Vibrio cholera 0 and presents with severe watery diarrhoea which can lead to dehydration and death if not immediately treated. (
  • Some make their own food out of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. (
  • This advertorial from Merck explores how the removal of contaminants from water is of paramount importance for the preparation of culture media. (
  • Since water is the predominant component of microbiology media formulations, the removal of these contaminants from water is of paramount importance for the preparation of culture media. (
  • Your report will rank your water against local and federal safety benchmarks, provide a thorough breakdown of any contaminants detected and how they may be affecting your health or plumbing, and provide non-biased treatment recommendations. (
  • Briefly present your microbiology thesis masters interpretation of results for each variable. (
  • 2. Surface water. (
  • 13. If your pond is stratified, you will notice the deeper water around your lower legs is noticeably warmer than the surface water. (
  • Quantifying sea-air CO2 fluxes using surface water CO2 measurements from ships of opportunity. (
  • This cage was suspended just below the surface of the water in a section of river that is subject to harvest closures after large rain events. (
  • Water still has secrets hiding below the surface. (
  • To Use Powdered Gelatin -Sprinkle the granules of gelatin over the surface cold water or liquid. (