Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicWater Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningEquipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Communicable DiseasesMycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.MycosesDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History of MedicineHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.PhenazinesDrug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Streptococcus milleri Group: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.United StatesOxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.ComputersFasciitis, Necrotizing: A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (1/5672)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (2/5672)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (3/5672)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air. (4/5672)

Fungi are well known to the casual observer for producing water-repelling aerial moulds and elaborate fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and polypores. Filamentous fungi colonize moist substrates (such as wood) and have to breach the water-air interface to grow into the air. Animals and plants breach this interface by mechanical force. Here, we show that a filamentous fungus such as Schizophyllum commune first has to reduce the water surface tension before its hyphae can escape the aqueous phase to form aerial structures such as aerial hyphae or fruiting bodies. The large drop in surface tension (from 72 to 24 mJ m-2) results from self-assembly of a secreted hydrophobin (SC3) into a stable amphipathic protein film at the water-air interface. Other, but not all, surface-active molecules (that is, other class I hydrophobins and streptofactin from Streptomyces tendae) can substitute for SC3 in the medium. This demonstrates that hydrophobins not only have a function at the hyphal surface but also at the medium-air interface, which explains why fungi secrete large amounts of hydrophobin into their aqueous surroundings.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (5/5672)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (6/5672)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake. (7/5672)

Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, pointed and budding bacteria were isolated from various depths of the hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic Ekho Lake (Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica). The cells contained storage granules and daughter cells could be motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a was sometimes produced, but production was repressed by constant dim light. The strains tolerated a wide range of temperature, pH, concentrations of artificial seawater and NaCl, but had an absolute requirement for sodium ions. Glutamate was metabolized with and without an additional source of combined nitrogen. The dominant fatty acid was C18:1; other characteristic fatty acids were C18:2, C12:0 2-OH, C12:1 3-OH, C16:1, C16:0 and C18:0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C base composition was 62-64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolates were phylogenetically close to the genera Antarctobacter, 'Marinosulfonomonas', Octadecabacter, Sagittula, Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences to these previously described and distinct genera support the description of a new genus and a new species, Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is EL-172T (= DSM 11457T).  (+info)

Phylogeny of marine and freshwater Shewanella: reclassification of Shewanella putrefaciens NCIMB 400 as Shewanella frigidimarina. (8/5672)

Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens and related species has generated considerable interest in biochemical characterization of the pathways for anaerobic electron transfer in this organism. Two strains, MR-1 and NCIMB 400, have been extensively used, and several respiratory enzymes have been isolated from each. It has become apparent that significant sequence differences exist between homologous proteins from these strains. The 16S rRNA from NCIMB 400 was sequenced and compared to the sequences from MR-1 and other Shewanella strains. The results indicate that NCIMB 400 is significantly more closely related to the newly identified Shewanella frigidimarina than to the S. putrefaciens type strain. It is therefore proposed that NCIMB 400 should be reclassified as S. frigidimarina.  (+info)

  • Relative biotransformation and biodegradation was dependent upon ecological factors such as salinity, temperature, pH/Eh and water-sediment ratio. (lsu.edu)
  • In 2017, the Symposium ran concurrently with the UNC Water Microbiology Conference to create a forum for researchers and practitioners focused on microbiology and public health to come together around the intersection of the two. (unc.edu)
  • The book is divided into two parts and concentrates on media for water as well as food microbes - selecting those which have been evaluated and shown to function optimally. (abebooks.com)
  • pathogenic microbes are known to contaminate stormwater that moves through sewers, picking up more microbial life before eventually making its way to many other bodies of water. (labroots.com)
  • Environmental engineers at San Diego State University have now developed a faster way to monitor for bacterial contamination in water by taking advantage of the low-level, natural fluorescence that is emitted from nearly every object, including microbes. (labroots.com)
  • While the clinical and food industries are increasingly adapting these techniques, there appear to be major challenges in detecting health-related microbes in source and treated drinking waters. (caister.com)
  • The Microbiology Society is a membership charity for scientists interested in microbes, their effects and their practical uses. (microbiologysociety.org)
  • Non-microbiologists may assume that the goal of water utilities should be the elimination of all microbes from our drinking water. (asmscience.org)
  • perfectly safe water contains millions of non-pathogenic microbes in every glassful. (asmscience.org)
  • The microbes that live in the water distribution system have many important effects:" says Norman Pace, University of Colorado, Boulder, "We need to be able to tell the difference between a healthy, stable microbial community and one that threatens public health or infrastructure resilience. (asmscience.org)
  • The colloquium's discussions and the participants' proposed research plan are presented in the report "Microbes in Pipes: The Microbiology of the Water Distribution System. (asmscience.org)
  • Some, if not all, of these microbes may participate in transforming the surface water obtained from Swedish lakes and via the water treatment plant, arrives as the drinking water in our taps. (lu.se)
  • Or are the microbes actually able to protect the drinking water until it flows out of our taps? (lu.se)
  • If we can answer these, and other, questions we can ensure that drinking water production continues to deliver safe, high quality water and at the same time we can begin to study how factors such as contamination or climate change could affect this ecosystem service provided by the microbes. (lu.se)
  • When harmful microbes develop in Closed Water Systems serious Corrosion issues can occur. (echamicrobiology.com)
  • Advances in microbiology are providing new ways for us to study and understand what microbes live and thrive naturally in our water distribution systems and how we can maintain clean, safe water in buildings and especially in the last few metres - at point of delivery. (wcs-group.co.uk)
  • Perfectly safe water contains millions of non-pathogenic microbes in every glassful - and this is just as true of bottled water as it is of tap water. (wcs-group.co.uk)
  • UV systems expose water to light at just the right wavelength for killing microbes found naturally in water or water systems. (wcs-group.co.uk)
  • Viruses are tiny microbes that can be found in water. (novatx.com)
  • Microbes on shoes Review: Shoe soles as a potential vector for pathogen transmission: A systematic review - Tasnuva Rashid - Journal of Applied Microbiology (OA) Shoe soles are possible vectors for infectious diseases. (ucdavis.edu)
  • ICWME 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Water Microbiology and Epidemiology . (waset.org)
  • Journal of Water Process Engineering (2020) 34: 101164. (iwaponline.com)
  • Various methodologies have been proposed to assess the bacterial growth potential in water distribution systems. (wiley.com)
  • want isolate and purify bacterial lps by hot phenol\water method but I cant find this protocol .I need this protocol anybody can give me this protocol. (protocol-online.org)
  • Hi arf, I have done LPS extraction using the hot phenol-water method which was originally decribed by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides: extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. (protocol-online.org)
  • I need the protocol hot phenol\water decribed by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (protocol-online.org)
  • The total bacterial load of the water at stages of the treatment train ranged from 3.02 × 10 6 copies in source, unchlorinated wastewater feed to 5.49 × 10 1 copies of 16S rRNA gene/mL after treatment (consisting of microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet/advanced oxidation). (frontiersin.org)
  • Total coliforms are indicator organisms used to detect bacterial contamination in drinking water. (wisc.edu)
  • We wanted to rapidly identify bacterial contamination, literally in seconds, and be able to watch the intensity increase in real time, using it much like a hand-held instrument,' said water quality researcher and associate professor Natalie Mladenov. (labroots.com)
  • Source waters for drinking water treatment plants, like lakes or reservoirs would also be an excellent place to deploy such a sensor to warn of sewage spills or other bacterial contamination. (labroots.com)
  • The study involved isolation of efficient Sulfate Reducing Bacterial (SRB) consortium from hot water spring for bioremediatrion of sulfate contaminated waste water. (thescipub.com)
  • Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease and Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome, two diseases leading to high mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we track tap water microbiome assembly in situ, showing that bacterial community composition changes rapidly from the city supply following ~6-day stagnation, along with an increase in cell count from 10 3 cells/mL to upwards of 7.8 × 10 5 cells/mL. (nature.com)
  • Tracking stagnation effects on the bacterial communities in tap water can help to elucidate how tap water deviates from the city supply and to understand what magnitude of deviation is permissible. (nature.com)
  • Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts ( Allium sativum , Zingiber officinale , Allium cepa , Coriandrum sativum , Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia ) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Impedance Microbiology technique works this way: The sample with the initial unknown bacterial concentration (C0) is placed at a temperature favoring bacterial growth (in the range 37 to 42 °C if mesophilic microbial population is the target) and the electrical parameters Rs and Cs are measured at regular time intervals of few minutes by means of a couple of electrodes in direct contact with the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impedance microbiology has different advantages on the standard Plate Count technique to measure bacterial concentration: It is characterized by faster response time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past decades different instruments (either laboratory built or commercially available) to measure bacterial concentration using impedance microbiology have been built. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking water quality may be degraded in water distribution systems-microorganisms form biofilms within distribution systems that allow them to flourish. (wiley.com)
  • An ongoing cooperation between Applied Microbiology (Department of Chemistry, Lund University), Water Resources Engineering (Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Lund University) and Sydvatten AB (Lund) has been examining the drinking water biofilms formed in pipes and water meters in southern Skåne. (lu.se)
  • In November 2013, the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskåprådet) awarded 2.2 million SEK to expand the research to include looking at biofilms within the drinking water treatment process. (lu.se)
  • Biofilms are ubiquitously found in drinking water supply systems. (nature.com)
  • These biofilms, composed of extracellular biopolymers, microorganisms, and inorganic particles accumulating on the surface of drinking water pipes and can potentially accelerate metal surface corrosion. (nature.com)
  • How these water treatment chemicals interact with biofilms and affect biofilm properties is overlooked. (nature.com)
  • Our team, composed by researchers from department of civil and environmental engineering, department of bioengineering, and department of electrical and computer engineering in University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, have been working on elucidating the interactions between biofilms and water treatment reagents (e.g., disinfectants and scale/corrosion inhibitors) and their implications on safe drinking water supply and public health protection. (nature.com)
  • Specifically, we grew simulated biofilms on PVC (a common drinking water pipe material) from a local drinking water source (groundwater) with high hardness (i.e., high calcium and magnesium contents in this study) and the same groundwater containing polyphosphate. (nature.com)
  • This further leads to an increased surface area between tap water and pipe-wall biofilms, and, hence, higher apparent reaction rates. (nature.com)
  • There were identified different levels of importance of partial causes affecting the quality of treated, accumulated and transported drinking water, which was a significant step allowing us to focus on the most effective methods minimizing the formation of biofilms, present biological life in water tanks and towers and to specify the rules for exchange of water in accumulation tanks. (vscht.cz)
  • Various tests are used to investigate recreational water, stream or lake pollution, and wastewater treatment systems. (wisc.edu)
  • This study evaluates the impacts of blending practices at municipal wastewater treatment plants on effluent and receiving water quality, and estimates public health risks associated with recreation in surface waters receiving blended flows. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Students will learn the basic hydraulic principles and concepts which are essential for the study of water and wastewater treatment technologies. (np.edu.sg)
  • Comprehensive selection of reviews dealing with drinking water and aquatic pollution Provides an understading of basic microbiology and how it is applied to engineering process solutions Suitable for all levels of knowledge in microbiology -from those with no background to specialists who require the depth of information. (worldcat.org)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Water Microbiology and Epidemiology. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Water Microbiology and Epidemiology are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • In addition, the text delves into research on drinking water quality in developing countries and the low-cost treatment technologies that could save lives. (wiley.com)
  • Dr. Anicet Blanch, a researcher at the Water Research Institute (IdRA) of the Faculty of Biology and a member of the scientific board of Blu. (ub.edu)
  • We hope this research propels the deployment of fluorescence sensors to water bodies for long-term monitoring because having data is power,' Mendoza said. (labroots.com)
  • Water Research (2012) 46 (11): 3434. (iwaponline.com)
  • Water Research (2012) 46 (17): 5756. (iwaponline.com)
  • Water Research (2006) 40 (5): 1009. (iwaponline.com)
  • The Optoelectronics group led by Prof. Dr. Valerio Pruneri at ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona Spain is looking for a highly motivated Research engineer to work in a multi-disciplinary project involving water processing, photonics, microfluidics and signal processing, to be part of a team with the aim to validate biosensing devices in the field of waterborne microorganism detection. (qurope.eu)
  • Current Research in Microbiology , 1 (2), 23-29. (thescipub.com)
  • The Microbiology Society identified a need for policy-makers and decision-makers to have access to appropriate evidence-based scientific information and expert opinion about research on microbiomes, and have developed a report on the topic. (microbiologysociety.org)
  • An American Academy of Microbiology colloquium in April of 2012 brought microbiologists together with experts from many other science and engineering communities to identify specific challenges and gaps in our understanding of the microbial ecosystems of water distribution systems, and develop a research plan to address them. (asmscience.org)
  • Antje Boetius from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen always has multiple objectives in her sights: from discovery and precautionary research to technological development and scientific communication. (mpg.de)
  • A pioneer in water-focused research and the largest institution of its kind on the Great Lakes, the School of Freshwater Sciences at UW-Milwaukee will offer its first undergraduate program beginning in Fall 2021. (uwm.edu)
  • There is an interesting and potentially important new paper out from Caitlin Proctor, Marc Edwards and Amy Pruden: Microbial composition of purified waters and implications for regrowth control in municipal water systems in Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology. (microbe.net)
  • They are found in soil and surface water. (wisc.edu)
  • Recently two qPCR for F. psychrophilum were developed [ 25 , 26 ] both however were tested only on fish tissues and there is still the need for quantitative methods allowing quantification of F. psychrophilum in field samples such as water and soil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects on microclimate, air quality, water and soil ecosystems within the scope of hydric recultivation of brown coal mines. (vscht.cz)
  • No reviews were found for Drinking Water Quality . (environmental-expert.com)
  • The availability of quality water has been a worldwide priority concern for over a century. (ub.edu)
  • Routine facility microbial water quality analysis is limited to standard indicators at this and similar facilities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many communities also face a decrease in water quality as demonstrated by increased eutrophication related to agriculture to feed global population growth ( Moss , 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Wells should be tested yearly if there is a history of total-coliform-absent (bacteriologically safe) results, or more frequently if there is a change in the water quality because of color, taste or odor. (wisc.edu)
  • Swimming beaches should be tested for water quality before the swimming season begins-to get a baseline of contamination resulting from natural wildlife or run-off-and each week thereafter until the season ends. (wisc.edu)
  • The enterococci are used to indicate water quality. (wisc.edu)
  • The results allow us to conclude that none of the studied water samples was fit for drinking in view of high coliform count, though most of the water samples (95%) obtained from the lake with a good or fair quality could be used for bathing and swimming. (academicjournals.org)
  • I would like to see cities and water managers deploy sensors along water streams to detect vulnerabilities in water quality and to reduce the impacts of pollution events when they happen. (labroots.com)
  • With a full range of products - from sampling to inoculation to disposal - Corning® Gosselin™ provides beginning-to-end solutions for microbiology and quality testing labs. (corning.com)
  • These water testing standards allow concerned local government authorities, water distribution facilities, and environmental laboratories to test the quality of water and ensure safe consumption. (astm.org)
  • The lab analyses water samples taken to ensure compliance with the water industry regulatory obligation to monitor drinking water quality and to react to quality failures, incidents and events where deterioration in water quality may be a concern. (shropshirestar.com)
  • For an ambitious candidate, it provides a great platform for learning about water quality and how Severn Trent Water manages to continuously provide water to it's customers that is Good to Drink and Always on. (shropshirestar.com)
  • Produced under the leadership of Dwight D. Bowman, M.S., Ph.D., this groundbreaking publication was developed by leading researchers in the health and environmental sciences fundamental to manure management and water quality protection. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Agricultural and natural resource policy, alternative agriculture systems, water use/quality. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This study monitors the effects of streamflow variability on sediment-related problems, including understanding the influence of land cover on hydrology, habitat, erosion and sedimentation rates, and water quality of the Bad River. (usgs.gov)
  • The USGS collected water-quality samplesat key locations in the Mississippi and Missouri River Basins and continued to sample the flood surge as it moved down the Mississippi River. (usgs.gov)
  • Day-to-day water stagnation in building plumbing can potentially result in water quality deterioration (e.g., lead release or pathogen proliferation), which is a major public health concern. (nature.com)
  • Our study challenges current water quality monitoring practice worldwide which ignore biological growth in plumbing, and suggests the island biogeography model as a useful framework to evaluate building water system quality. (nature.com)
  • However, although drinking water is closely monitored for its biological quality based on indicator microorganisms in public supplies, active surveillance of water after entering a building is not included in current regulations [ 7 ]. (nature.com)
  • Drinking water will be safe in the whole supply system only if contamination of water resources is prevented, water is treated sufficiently (the pollutants present are removed completely or partially to comply with requirements for quality and safety of drinking water) and also the secondary contamination is prevented during drinking water accumulation and distribution and operations with it. (vscht.cz)
  • These buildings are strategically significant and can influence the water quality. (vscht.cz)
  • Aspects for assessing the impact of water tanks on the quality of the water supplied were solved to define both external and internal factors which crucially influence the water quality and its stability in accumulation tanks as well as in the distribution network. (vscht.cz)
  • ATCC offers a variety of strains for use in the quality control and analysis of environmental water sources. (atcc.org)
  • Application of direct plaque assay for detection and enumeration of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis from contaminated-water samples. (google.it)
  • Given recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing techniques, complete microbial profiling of communities in water samples is now possible. (frontiersin.org)
  • The recreational water guideline is less than 126 MPN/100 ml, averaged from 5 samples during a 30-day period. (wisc.edu)
  • Using the appropriate sampling protocol to collect beach water samples for E. coli testing is critical to effectively protect the health of public beach users. (wisc.edu)
  • This 12-minute video provides instructions on how to properly collect beach water samples for E. coli testing. (wisc.edu)
  • Spiked samples with the addition of feces, spiked water samples, and a patient stool specimen were all scored positive with this technique. (asm.org)
  • Environmental samples were taken from a variety of water sources throughout the unit. (asm.org)
  • Highest proportion of indicator coliforms was found in the water samples collected at the site surrounded by residential hamlets (site II) in comparison to the other three sites. (academicjournals.org)
  • Screening of water samples and spleens from symptomless and infected fishes indicated that the pathogen was already present before the outbreaks, but F. psychrophilum was only quantifiable in spleens from diseased fishes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If you have requirements for microbiology testing, please contact our customer support team to discuss the best way of sending samples so that they will provide results that can be relied on. (analytica.co.nz)
  • This program offers samples for proficiency testing of laboratories involved in the microbiology testing of Drinking and Recreational waters. (cmpt.ca)
  • for laboratories performing detection of heterotrophic count (HPC) of organisms in drinking water samples. (cmpt.ca)
  • Samples are simulated stabilized waters that can be assessed by membrane filtration, MPN, or other assays. (cmpt.ca)
  • The regular monitoring of water samples for the presence of microbial contamination will provide an early predictor that your infrastructure is at risk of MIC. (echamicrobiology.com)
  • In accordance with the framework regulation for water management 2000/60/ES the assessment of the local environmental status is performed mainly on the basis of water and periphyton samples (the main components being plankton and benthos). (vscht.cz)
  • Drinking water samples are not required to be refrigerated, although it is suggested. (texas.gov)
  • With contributions from experts from around the world, this book gives a global perspective on the important issues faced in the provision of safe drinking water, the problems of dealing with aquatic pollution and the processes involved in wastewater management. (worldcat.org)
  • Leaky septic tanks and illegal dumping can also contribute to the problem, which is a health threat to people that use those bodies of water and the aquatic life that lives in it. (labroots.com)
  • it provides quite a comprehensive and useful look at the applications of a range of methodologies to aquatic microbiology in recent years. (caister.com)
  • Transmission within these aquatic bird populations occurs through an indirect fecal-oral route involving contaminated water on shared aquatic habitats. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, these results provide insight into chemical and physical properties of water that could enhance or restrict AI virus transmission on an aquatic bird habitat. (deepdyve.com)
  • To investigate the behaviour and interaction of chemical contaminants in water resources with aquatic biota. (csir.co.za)
  • The final section of the book deals with the biodegradation of human-introduced contaminants in ground-water systems, with an up-to-date review of the physiology, biochemistry, and redox conditions that favor biodegradation processes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • ASTM's water testing standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the methods and facilities used in examining the various characteristics of and contaminants in water for health, security, and environmental purposes. (astm.org)
  • Unfortunately, our water supply is also inundated with pharmaceuticals, which have been found to have endocrine disrupting compounds and other unregulated contaminants. (novatx.com)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate well characteristics and other factors that may influence the susceptibility of drinking water-supply wells to contamination by contaminants of emerging concern. (usgs.gov)
  • If you continue your study on the chemical nature of water and relate it to the physiology of a cell and/or a whole organism you will find other interesting reasons how water plays an important role in the life of an organism. (madsci.org)
  • On the basis of this characteristic difference, a procedure has been developed in which the presence of a nerve gas, its decomposition products, or its starting materials in waste water (Rhine River and Meuse River water) is reflected by the appearance of methylphosphonic acid as a breakdown product after hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • E. coli is a subset of total coliform, so if there is no total coliform present in the water sample, there is no E. coli. (wisc.edu)
  • This Standard sets out a method, using membrane filtration, for enumerating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and thermotolerant coliforms in water other than packaged water. (saiglobal.com)
  • Announcing Colilert-18/ Quanti-Tray as ISO 9308-2:2102 Colilert-18/ Quanti-Tray becomes the new International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) worldwide standard for detecting total coliforms and E. coli in water. (thermalindo.com)
  • Three experimental groups reported that p f in AQPZ, the orthodox water channel of Escherichia coli , exceeds p f of the glycerol facilitator from E. coli , GlpF ( 6 - 8 ), whereas three other theoretical groups observed the exact opposite (table S1) ( 9 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Remove any attachments from the tap such as pipes, filter etc.open the tap for 5 minutes to flush out the standing water, close the tap and cleas with tissue paper. (envirocivil.com)
  • Using an island biogeography model, we show that neutral processes arising from the microbial communities in the city water supply (i.e., migration and demographic stochasticity) explained the island community composition in proximal pipes (Goodness-of-fit = 0.48), yet declined as water approached the faucet (Goodness-of-fit = 0.21). (nature.com)
  • Researchers are redesigning the humble brick to produce electricity, to clean water and air, and to harvest valuable compounds. (the-scientist.com)
  • Microbiology Meetings provide a global platform for eminent and well experienced practitioners, specialists, diagnostic clinicians, researchers, microbiologists , as well as many industrialists to participate their understandings. (meetingsint.com)
  • The Orange County Water District (OCWD) Advanced Water Purification Facility (AWPF) is a highly engineered system designed to treat and produce up to 100 million gallons per day (MGD) of purified water from a municipal wastewater source for potable reuse. (frontiersin.org)
  • The module covers fundamentals of microbiology and biotechnological methodologies to assess the well-being of ecosystems, transform pollutants to harmless substances, generate biodegradable materials from renewable sources, and develop eco-friendly manufacturing and disposal processes. (np.edu.sg)
  • We obtained high-precision p f values by (i) having measured the abundance of the reconstituted aquaporins in the vesicular membrane via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and via high-speed atomic force microscopy, and (ii) having acquired the vesicular water efflux from scattered light intensities via our new adaptation of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye equation. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2 Membrane filtration is suitable for enumerating microorganisms only when the turbidity of the water is low. (saiglobal.com)
  • It requires generation (ClO 2 cannot just be bought in a drum) and is suitable for biofilm eradication, membrane systems and filtration, water distribution systems, cooling towers, hospitals, hotels, horticulture, breweries, dairies and sites with hazardous chemical restrictions. (wcs-group.co.uk)
  • A prototype of a filtration device was developed to be placed into venting shafts in water tanks. (vscht.cz)