Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The consumption of liquids.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
'Water softening' is a water treatment process that reduces the hardness of water by removing calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations (such as iron and manganese) through the use of ion-exchange resins or other methods like nanofiltration or reverse osmosis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

Distinct signaling pathways mediate touch and osmosensory responses in a polymodal sensory neuron. (1/2302)

The Caenorhabditis elegans ASH sensory neurons mediate responses to nose touch, hyperosmolarity, and volatile repellent chemicals. We show here that distinct signaling pathways mediate the responses to touch and hyperosmolarity. ASH neurons distinguish between these stimuli because habituation to nose touch has no effect on the response to high osmolarity or volatile chemicals (1-octanol). Mutations in osm-10 eliminate the response to hyperosmolarity but have no effect on responses to nose touch or to volatile repellents. OSM-10 is a novel cytosolic protein expressed in ASH and three other classes of sensory neurons. Mutations in two other osmosensory-defective genes, eos-1 and eos-2, interact genetically with osm-10. Our analysis suggests that nose touch sensitivity and osmosensation occur via distinct signaling pathways in ASH and that OSM-10 is required for osmosensory signaling.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (2/2302)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (3/2302)

The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated.  (+info)

Regulation of renal urea transporters. (4/2302)

Urea is important for the conservation of body water due to its role in the production of concentrated urine in the renal inner medulla. Physiologic data demonstrate that urea is transported by facilitated and by active urea transporter proteins. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-A) in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) permits very high rates of transepithelial urea transport and results in the delivery of large amounts of urea into the deepest portions of the inner medulla where it is needed to maintain a high interstitial osmolality for concentrating the urine maximally. Four isoforms of the UT-A urea transporter family have been cloned to date. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-B) in erythrocytes permits these cells to lose urea rapidly as they traverse the ascending vasa recta, thereby preventing loss of urea from the medulla and decreasing urine-concentrating ability by decreasing the efficiency of countercurrent exchange, as occurs in Jk null individuals (who lack Kidd antigen). In addition to these facilitated urea transporters, three sodium-dependent, secondary active urea transport mechanisms have been characterized functionally in IMCD subsegments: (1) active urea reabsorption in the apical membrane of initial IMCD from low-protein fed or hypercalcemic rats; (2) active urea reabsorption in the basolateral membrane of initial IMCD from furosemide-treated rats; and (3) active urea secretion in the apical membrane of terminal IMCD from untreated rats. This review focuses on the physiologic, biophysical, and molecular evidence for facilitated and active urea transporters, and integrative studies of their acute and long-term regulation in rats with reduced urine-concentrating ability.  (+info)

Physiology and pathophysiology of renal aquaporins. (5/2302)

The discovery of aquaporin membrane water channels by Agre and coworkers answered a long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biologic membranes, and provided insight, at the molecular level, into the fundamental physiology of water balance and the pathophysiology of water balance disorders. Of nine aquaporin isoforms, at least six are known to be present in the kidney at distinct sites along the nephron and collecting duct. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is extremely abundant in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb, where it appears to provide the chief route for proximal nephron water reabsorption. AQP2 is abundant in the collecting duct principal cells and is the chief target for vasopressin to regulate collecting duct water reabsorption. Acute regulation involves vasopressin-regulated trafficking of AQP2 between an intracellular reservoir and the apical plasma membrane. In addition, AQP2 is involved in chronic/adaptational regulation of body water balance achieved through regulation of AQP2 expression. Importantly, multiple studies have now identified a critical role of AQP2 in several inherited and acquired water balance disorders. This concerns inherited forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and several, much more common acquired types of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus where AQP2 expression and/or targeting are affected. Conversely, AQP2 expression and targeting appear to be increased in some conditions with water retention such as pregnancy and congestive heart failure. AQP3 and AQP4 are basolateral water channels located in the kidney collecting duct, and AQP6 and AQP7 appear to be expressed at lower abundance at several sites including the proximal tubule. This review focuses mainly on the role of AQP2 in water balance regulation and in the pathophysiology of water balance disorders.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (6/2302)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

Cell shrinkage regulates Src kinases and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin, independent of the osmotic regulation of Na+/H+ exchangers. (7/2302)

The signaling pathways by which cell volume regulates ion transporters, e.g. Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs), and affects cytoskeletal organization are poorly understood. We have previously shown that shrinkage induces tyrosine phosphorylation in CHO cells, predominantly in an 85-kDa band. To identify volume-sensitive kinases and their substrates, we investigated the effect of hypertonicity on members of the Src kinase family. Hyperosmolarity stimulated Fyn and inhibited Src. Fyn activation was also observed in nystatin-permeabilized cells, where shrinkage cannot induce intracellular alkalinization. In contrast, osmotic inhibition of Src was prevented by permeabilization or by inhibiting NHE-1. PP1, a selective Src family inhibitor, strongly reduced the hypertonicity-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. We identified one of the major targets of the osmotic stress-elicited phosphorylation as cortactin, an 85-kDa actin-binding protein and well known Src family substrate. Cortactin phosphorylation was triggered by shrinkage and not by changes in osmolarity or pHi and was abrogated by PP1. Hyperosmotic cortactin phosphorylation was reduced in Fyn-deficient fibroblasts but remained intact in Src-deficient fibroblasts. To address the potential role of the Src family in the osmotic regulation of NHEs, we used PP1. The drug affected neither the hyperosmotic stimulation of NHE-1 nor the inhibition of NHE-3. Thus, members of the Src family are volume-sensitive enzymes that may participate in the shrinkage-related reorganization of the cytoskeleton but are probably not responsible for the osmotic regulation of NHE.  (+info)

Chronic lithium treatment inhibits amiloride-sensitive sodium transport in the rat distal nephron. (8/2302)

Chronic treatment of rats with lithium leads to Na+ loss and a reduced antinatriuretic response to aldosterone, suggesting that lithium reduces conductive Na+ transport in the distal nephron. This was investigated in the present study by measuring the renal response to aldosterone infusion followed by amiloride in chronically instrumented conscious rats given lithium for 3 to 4 weeks to achieve plasma Li+ concentrations of approximately 0.5 mM. A servo-controlled infusion system was used to maintain sodium and water homeostasis, thereby preventing misinterpretation of the findings as a consequence of drug-induced changes in Na+ balance. In a control group of rats, Na+ excretion decreased in response to aldosterone (p <.01) and subsequent amiloride administration led to a marked increase in Na+ excretion (p <.001). In contrast, in the lithium-treated group, there was no significant response to either aldosterone or amiloride. It is concluded that long-term treatment with lithium, even when plasma Li+ concentrations are below 1 mM, reduces aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transport through the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels in the principal cells of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to a disturbance in the balance of water and electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) in the body. This imbalance can occur when there is an excess or deficiency of water or electrolytes in the body, leading to altered concentrations in the blood and other bodily fluids.

Such imbalances can result from various medical conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, severe dehydration, burns, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and certain medications. Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, seizures, confusion, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and correcting the electrolyte and fluid levels through appropriate medical interventions.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Postural balance is the ability to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity. It involves the integration of sensory information (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) to control and adjust body position in space, thereby maintaining the center of gravity within the base of support. This is crucial for performing daily activities and preventing falls, especially in older adults and individuals with neurological or orthopedic conditions.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Water deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual is deliberately or unintentionally not given access to adequate water for a prolonged period. This can lead to dehydration, which is the excessive loss of body water and electrolytes. In severe cases, water deprivation can result in serious health complications, including seizures, kidney damage, brain damage, coma, and even death. It's important to note that water is essential for many bodily functions, including maintaining blood pressure, regulating body temperature, and removing waste products from the body. Therefore, it's crucial to stay hydrated by drinking an adequate amount of water each day.

Hypernatremia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of sodium (na+) in the blood, specifically a serum sodium level greater than 145 mEq/L. Sodium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate water balance in and around your cells. It's crucial for many body functions, including the maintenance of blood pressure, regulation of nerve and muscle function, and regulation of fluid balance.

Hypernatremia typically results from a deficit of total body water relative to solute, which can be caused by decreased water intake, increased water loss, or a combination of both. Common causes include dehydration due to severe vomiting or diarrhea, excessive sweating, burns, kidney diseases, and the use of certain medications such as diuretics.

Symptoms of hypernatremia can range from mild to severe and may include thirst, muscle weakness, lethargy, irritability, confusion, seizures, and in extreme cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and gradually rehydrating the individual with intravenous fluids to restore normal sodium levels.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Hyponatremia is a condition characterized by abnormally low sodium levels in the blood, specifically levels less than 135 mEq/L. Sodium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate water balance in and around your cells and plays a crucial role in nerve and muscle function. Hyponatremia can occur due to various reasons, including certain medical conditions, medications, or excessive water intake leading to dilution of sodium in the body. Symptoms may range from mild, such as nausea, confusion, and headache, to severe, like seizures, coma, or even death in extreme cases. It's essential to seek medical attention if you suspect hyponatremia, as prompt diagnosis and treatment are vital for a favorable outcome.

An acid-base imbalance refers to a disturbance in the normal balance of acids and bases in the body, which can lead to serious health consequences. The body maintains a delicate balance between acids and bases, which is measured by the pH level of the blood. The normal range for blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, with a pH below 7.35 considered acidic and a pH above 7.45 considered basic or alkaline.

Acid-base imbalances can occur due to various factors such as lung or kidney disease, diabetes, severe infections, certain medications, and exposure to toxins. The two main types of acid-base imbalances are acidosis (excess acid in the body) and alkalosis (excess base in the body).

Acidosis can be further classified into respiratory acidosis (caused by impaired lung function or breathing difficulties) and metabolic acidosis (caused by an accumulation of acid in the body due to impaired kidney function, diabetes, or other conditions).

Alkalosis can also be classified into respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation or excessive breathing) and metabolic alkalosis (caused by excessive loss of stomach acid or an excess intake of base-forming substances).

Symptoms of acid-base imbalances may include confusion, lethargy, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. If left untreated, these conditions can lead to serious complications such as coma, seizures, or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Fluid therapy, in a medical context, refers to the administration of fluids into a patient's circulatory system for various therapeutic purposes. This can be done intravenously (through a vein), intraosseously (through a bone), or subcutaneously (under the skin). The goal of fluid therapy is to correct or prevent imbalances in the body's fluids and electrolytes, maintain or restore blood volume, and support organ function.

The types of fluids used in fluid therapy can include crystalloids (which contain electrolytes and water) and colloids (which contain larger molecules like proteins). The choice of fluid depends on the patient's specific needs and condition. Fluid therapy is commonly used in the treatment of dehydration, shock, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions that can affect the body's fluid balance.

Proper administration of fluid therapy requires careful monitoring of the patient's vital signs, urine output, electrolyte levels, and overall clinical status to ensure that the therapy is effective and safe.

Rehydration solutions are medically formulated drinks designed to restore fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, particularly when someone is dehydrated due to vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating. These solutions typically contain water, glucose (or sucrose), and essential electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in specific concentrations to match the body's needs. Common examples of rehydration solutions include oral rehydration salts (ORS) and sports drinks, which help replenish the body's water and electrolyte levels, promoting rapid and effective rehydration.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "water movements." It is possible that it could be used in a specific context within a certain medical specialty or procedure. However, I can provide some general information about how the term "water" is used in a medical context.

In medicine, "water" often refers to the fluid component of the body, which includes all the fluids inside and outside of cells. The movement of water within the body is regulated by various physiological processes, such as osmosis and hydrostatic pressure. Disorders that affect the regulation of water balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, which can have serious consequences for health.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "water movements," I may be able to give a more specific answer.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Water softening is not a medical term, but rather a process used in water treatment. It refers to the removal of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and certain iron compounds that make water "hard." These minerals can cause scaling and other problems when water is heated or used in appliances and plumbing systems.

In a medical context, softened water may have implications for skin health, as hard water can leave deposits on the skin that can lead to dryness and irritation. However, there is no specific medical definition associated with 'water softening.'

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cathartics are a type of medication that stimulates bowel movements and evacuates the intestinal tract. They are often used to treat constipation or to prepare the bowel for certain medical procedures, such as colonoscopies. Common cathartic medications include laxatives, enemas, and suppositories.

Cathartics work by increasing the muscle contractions of the intestines, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract more quickly. They may also increase the amount of water in the stool, making it softer and easier to pass. Some cathartics, such as bulk-forming laxatives, work by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to bulk up the stool and stimulate a bowel movement.

While cathartics can be effective at relieving constipation, they should be used with caution. Overuse of cathartics can lead to dependence on them for bowel movements, as well as electrolyte imbalances and other complications. It is important to follow the instructions carefully when using cathartic medications and to speak with a healthcare provider if constipation persists or worsens.

Diuresis is a medical term that refers to an increased production of urine by the kidneys. It can occur as a result of various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, or as a response to a physiological need, such as in the case of dehydration. Diuretics are a class of drugs that promote diuresis and are often used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema.

Diuresis can be classified into several types based on its underlying cause or mechanism, including:

1. Osmotic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine in response to a high concentration of solutes (such as glucose) in the tubular fluid. The high osmolarity of the tubular fluid causes water to be drawn out of the bloodstream and into the urine, leading to an increase in urine output.
2. Forced diuresis: This is a medical procedure in which large amounts of intravenous fluids are administered to promote diuresis. It is used in certain clinical situations, such as to enhance the excretion of toxic substances or to prevent kidney damage.
3. Natriuretic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of sodium and water in response to the release of natriuretic peptides, which are hormones that regulate sodium balance and blood pressure.
4. Aquaresis: This is a type of diuresis that occurs in response to the ingestion of large amounts of water, leading to dilute urine production.
5. Pathological diuresis: This refers to increased urine production due to underlying medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus or pyelonephritis.

It is important to note that excessive diuresis can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, so it should be monitored carefully in clinical settings.

Thirst, also known as dry mouth or polydipsia, is a physiological need or desire to drink fluids to maintain fluid balance and hydration in the body. It is primarily regulated by the hypothalamus in response to changes in osmolality and volume of bodily fluids, particularly blood. Thirst can be triggered by various factors such as dehydration, excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, burns, certain medications, and medical conditions affecting the kidneys, adrenal glands, or other organs. It is a vital homeostatic mechanism to ensure adequate hydration and proper functioning of various bodily systems.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Hyperkalemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum, specifically when the concentration exceeds 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter). Potassium is a crucial intracellular ion that plays a significant role in various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm regulation.

Mild to moderate hyperkalemia might not cause noticeable symptoms but can still have harmful effects on the body, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of hyperkalemia (potassium levels > 6.5 mEq/L) can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure.

Hyperkalemia may result from various factors, such as kidney dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, trauma, or excessive potassium intake. Prompt identification and management of hyperkalemia are essential to prevent severe complications and ensure proper treatment.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Isotonic solutions are defined in the context of medical and physiological sciences as solutions that contain the same concentration of solutes (dissolved particles) as another solution, usually the bodily fluids like blood. This means that if you compare the concentration of solute particles in two isotonic solutions, they will be equal.

A common example is a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, also known as normal saline. The concentration of NaCl in this solution is approximately equal to the concentration found in the fluid portion of human blood, making it isotonic with blood.

Isotonic solutions are crucial in medical settings for various purposes, such as intravenous (IV) fluids replacement, wound care, and irrigation solutions. They help maintain fluid balance, prevent excessive water movement across cell membranes, and reduce the risk of damaging cells due to osmotic pressure differences between the solution and bodily fluids.

Aquaporins are a type of membrane protein that function as water channels, allowing the selective and efficient transport of water molecules across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis, regulating cell volume, and supporting various physiological processes in the body. In humans, there are 13 different aquaporin subtypes (AQP0 to AQP12) that have been identified, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions. Some aquaporins also facilitate the transport of small solutes such as glycerol and urea. Dysfunction or misregulation of aquaporins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, cancer, and water balance-related diseases.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Intestinal secretions refer to the fluids and electrolytes that are released by the cells lining the small intestine in response to various stimuli. These secretions play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The major components of intestinal secretions include water, electrolytes (such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium), and enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

The small intestine secretes these substances in response to hormonal signals, neural stimulation, and the presence of food in the lumen of the intestine. The secretion of water and electrolytes helps maintain the proper hydration and pH of the intestinal contents, while the enzymes facilitate the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.

Abnormalities in intestinal secretions can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, malabsorption, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It is a member of the halogen group of elements and is the second-lightest halogen after fluorine. In its pure form, chlorine is a yellow-green gas under standard conditions.

Chlorine is an important chemical compound that has many uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, and bleaching. It is also used in the production of a wide range of products, such as plastics, solvents, and pesticides.

In medicine, chlorine compounds are sometimes used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is a common disinfectant used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings. Chlorhexidine is another chlorine compound that is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and dental procedures.

However, it's important to note that exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas can be harmful to human health, causing respiratory irritation, coughing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to chlorine can also lead to more serious health effects, such as damage to the lungs and other organs.

Diuretics are a type of medication that increase the production of urine and help the body eliminate excess fluid and salt. They work by interfering with the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules, which in turn causes more water to be excreted from the body. Diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. There are several types of diuretics, including loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics, each with its own mechanism of action and potential side effects. It is important to use diuretics under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have an impact on electrolyte balance in the body.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net electric charge. Cations are positively charged ions, which have lost electrons, while anions are negatively charged ions, which have gained electrons. Ions can play a significant role in various physiological processes within the human body, including enzyme function, nerve impulse transmission, and maintenance of acid-base balance. They also contribute to the formation of salts and buffer systems that help regulate fluid composition and pH levels in different bodily fluids.

An electrode is a medical device that can conduct electrical currents and is used to transmit or receive electrical signals, often in the context of medical procedures or treatments. In a medical setting, electrodes may be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Recording electrical activity in the body: Electrodes can be attached to the skin or inserted into body tissues to measure electrical signals produced by the heart, brain, muscles, or nerves. This information can be used to diagnose medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, or guide medical procedures.
2. Stimulating nerve or muscle activity: Electrodes can be used to deliver electrical impulses to nerves or muscles, which can help to restore function or alleviate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions. For example, electrodes may be used to stimulate the nerves that control bladder function in people with spinal cord injuries, or to stimulate muscles in people with muscle weakness or paralysis.
3. Administering treatments: Electrodes can also be used to deliver therapeutic treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. In these procedures, electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a device that generates electrical impulses, which can help to regulate abnormal brain activity and improve symptoms.

Overall, electrodes play an important role in many medical procedures and treatments, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that affect the body's electrical systems.

Sweat, also known as perspiration, is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands in human skin. It's primarily composed of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, potassium, and other electrolytes. Sweat helps regulate body temperature through the process of evaporation, where it absorbs heat from the skin as it turns from a liquid to a gas.

There are two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are found all over the body and produce a watery, odorless sweat in response to heat, physical activity, or emotional stress. Apocrine glands, on the other hand, are mainly located in the armpits and groin area and become active during puberty. They produce a thicker, milky fluid that can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

It is important to note that while sweating is essential for maintaining normal body temperature and overall health, excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis can be a medical condition requiring treatment.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Natriuresis is the process or condition of excreting an excessive amount of sodium (salt) through urine. It is a physiological response to high sodium levels in the body, which can be caused by various factors such as certain medical conditions (e.g., kidney disease, heart failure), medications, or dietary habits. The increased excretion of sodium helps regulate the body's water balance and maintain normal blood pressure. However, persistent natriuresis may indicate underlying health issues that require medical attention.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Sensation disorders are conditions that affect the nervous system's ability to receive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses, including sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. They can result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in various parts of the body.

Some common types of sensation disorders include:

1. Neuropathy: A disorder that affects the nerves, often causing numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet.
2. Central pain syndrome: A condition that results from damage to the brain or spinal cord, leading to chronic pain.
3. Tinnitus: A ringing or buzzing sound in the ears that can be a symptom of an underlying hearing disorder.
4. Ageusia: The loss of taste sensation, often caused by damage to the tongue or nerves that transmit taste information to the brain.
5. Anosmia: The loss of smell sensation, which can result from a variety of causes including injury, infection, or neurological disorders.

Sensation disorders can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or other interventions aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the disorder.

Electrochemical techniques are a group of analytical methods used in chemistry and biochemistry that involve the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. These techniques use an electrochemical cell, which consists of two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, which drives redox reactions to occur at the electrode surfaces. The resulting current that flows through the cell can be measured and related to the concentration of analytes in the solution.

There are several types of electrochemical techniques, including:

1. Voltammetry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell as a function of the applied potential. There are several types of voltammetry, including cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and square wave voltammetry.
2. Amperometry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell at a constant potential.
3. Potentiometry: This technique measures the potential difference between the working electrode and a reference electrode at zero current flow.
4. Impedance spectroscopy: This technique measures the impedance of the electrical circuit formed by the electrochemical cell as a function of frequency.

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, food analysis, and biomedical research. They offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity, making them a powerful tool for chemical analysis.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Blood chemical analysis, also known as clinical chemistry or chemistry panel, is a series of tests that measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These tests can help evaluate the function of organs such as the kidneys and liver, and can also detect conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

The tests typically include:

* Glucose: to check for diabetes
* Electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate): to check the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
* Calcium: to check for problems with bones, nerves, or kidneys
* Creatinine: to check for kidney function
* Urea Nitrogen (BUN): to check for kidney function
* Albumin: to check for liver function and nutrition status
* ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase): to check for liver function
* Alkaline Phosphatase: to check for liver or bone disease
* Total Bilirubin: to check for liver function and gallbladder function
* Cholesterol: to check for heart disease risk
* Triglycerides: to check for heart disease risk

These tests are usually ordered by a doctor as part of a routine check-up, or to help diagnose and monitor specific medical conditions. The results of the blood chemical analysis are compared to reference ranges provided by the laboratory performing the test, which take into account factors such as age, sex, and race.

Furosemide is a loop diuretic medication that is primarily used to treat edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter in the ascending loop of Henle in the kidneys, thereby promoting the excretion of water, sodium, and chloride ions. This increased urine output helps reduce fluid accumulation in the body and lower blood pressure.

Furosemide is also known by its brand names Lasix and Frusid. It can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the patient's condition and the desired rate of diuresis. Common side effects include dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, hearing loss (in high doses), and increased blood sugar levels.

It is essential to monitor kidney function, electrolyte levels, and fluid balance while using furosemide to minimize potential adverse effects and ensure appropriate treatment.

Plasma volume refers to the total amount of plasma present in an individual's circulatory system. Plasma is the fluid component of blood, in which cells and chemical components are suspended. It is composed mainly of water, along with various dissolved substances such as nutrients, waste products, hormones, gases, and proteins.

Plasma volume is a crucial factor in maintaining proper blood flow, regulating body temperature, and facilitating the transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other essential components throughout the body. The average plasma volume for an adult human is approximately 3 liters, but it can vary depending on factors like age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Changes in plasma volume can have significant effects on an individual's cardiovascular function and fluid balance. For example, dehydration or blood loss can lead to a decrease in plasma volume, while conditions such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis may result in increased plasma volume due to fluid retention. Accurate measurement of plasma volume is essential for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

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Its levels are therefore sensitive to water and electrolyte balance. Diuretics act by lowering water and sodium levels; this ... Lithia water Sodium in biology "Lithium brands". Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017 ... Another possible mechanism is that ACE inhibitors can lead to a decrease in sodium and water. This will increase lithium ... Areas with increased lithium in their drinking water showed less dementia overall in their population. Those who use lithium ...
Oxygen entry into the cell must be balanced against electrolyte water loss; cathode membranes are coated with (hydrophobic) ... The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water returns to the electrolyte. The water and hydroxyl from the anode are recycled at ... Teflon material to limit water loss. Low humidity increases water loss; if enough water is lost, the cell fails. Button cells ... The electrolyte loses water more rapidly in conditions of high temperature and low humidity. Because the potassium hydroxide ...
AVP levels in blood are crucial for water and electrolyte regulation and balance. V2 receptors maintain plasma osmolality and ... Conivaptan hydrochloride is an off-white or a pale yellow power with a solubility of 0.25 mg/mL in water at 23 °C. The ... Hypervolemic hyponatremia specifically is when the body's serum sodium levels fall below the total body water increase, which ... injectable formulation consists of 20 mg conivaptan hydrochloride, 0.4 g ethanol, 1.2 g propylene glycol and water. Conivaptan ...
Both findings were of profound importance for the understanding of water and electrolyte balance. Verney was also instrumental ...
Pierce, Nathaniel (1968). "Effect of intragastric glucose-electrolyte infusion upon water and electrolyte balance in asiatic ... They found that, although boiled water was preferable, contaminated water was better than nothing. Oral rehydration therapy / ... The formulation of the fluid replacement solution was 4 g of sodium chloride, 25 g of glucose and 1000 mL of water. He did not ... It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium. Oral rehydration therapy ...
His work focused on the water-electrolyte balance and the metabolism of the erythrocytes. He described the role of the 2,3- ...
Papillary ducts continue the work of water reabsorption and electrolyte balance initiated in the collecting tubules. Medullary ... The collecting duct system is the final component of the kidney to influence the body's electrolyte and fluid balance. In ... The collecting duct system is the last part of nephron and participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption ... It participates in the regulation of water and electrolytes, including sodium, and chloride. The CNT is sensitive to both ...
Okamoto, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Kusuhara, K.; Yamamura, T.; Utsunomiya, J. (1995). "Water and electrolyte balance after ileal J ... The colon absorbs water, salts, and some key nutrients. Dehydration can occur if a person does not get enough fluids. The ... Water and salts are typically reabsorbed into the body by the colon or large intestine. However, people with an ileum pouch ... This is because potassium is a key electrolyte that helps regulate the heart and if levels become too low, a person can quickly ...
In the renal system, nociceptin plays a role in water balance, electrolyte balance, and arterial blood pressure regulation. It ... has also shown potential as a diuretic treatment for alleviating water-retaining diseases. Additional research suggests that ...
... s are produced in the adrenal cortex and influence salt and water balances (electrolyte balance and fluid ... Aldosterone acts on the kidneys to provide active reabsorption of sodium and an associated passive reabsorption of water, as ... The two main resulting problems: Hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+ and water retention. Accelerated excretion of ... balance). The primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone. The name mineralocorticoid derives from early observations that these ...
He sometimes resorted to drinking cattle blood as a substitute for water, the fluids helping to maintain his body's electrolyte ... balance. He was also able to follow bees to their hive to retrieve honey. During the night, Ansell slept in a tree fork out of ... As a young man, he made a living hunting feral water buffalo in the Top End, the meat being exported to foreign markets. In May ... But with no fresh water, Ansell was in a perilous situation, stranded almost 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the nearest permanent ...
... antibiotics and radiotherapy and with only early anaesthetics and little understanding of water and electrolyte balance. ...
... that the subcommissural organ and its associated Reissner's fiber are integral parts of fluid electrolyte balance and water ... CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory organs serving homeostatic functions and body water balance. The sensory ... which influences water and sodium intake. During water deprivation, it will also reduce its innervation to the SCO. The ... These neurons, in turn, feature angiotensin type I receptors, which are used by circulating angiotensin II to initiate water ...
"Nitrogen and electrolyte balance in the wallabies Thylogale thetis and Macropus eugenii when given saline drinking water". ... To balance out the sex ratios, tammar mothers are more likely to abandon male joeys and more females survive to weaning periods ... They breathe more heavily and lose more water when the temperature is over 30 °C (86 °F). Tammar wallabies cannot survive in ... To prevent dehydration, tammar wallabies urinate less and suck up water from the distal colon, which gives them relatively dry ...
Research areas are focused upon metabolic adaptation of indigenous sheep and goats, water and electrolyte balance in sheep, and ...
... they can be responsible for abnormalities of water balance and electrolyte levels. Removal of too much fluid can cause volume ... thiazide diuretics have limited effects on water balance and on electrolyte levels. Nevertheless, they can be associated with ... Since thiazide diuretics affect the transport of electrolytes and water in the kidney, ... and water accompanies them. The water and chloride, as well as the sodium pumped out by the ATPase, will be absorbed into the ...
Echinoderms, including starfish, maintain a delicate internal electrolyte balance that is in equilibrium with sea water, making ... The water vascular system of the starfish is a hydraulic system made up of a network of fluid-filled canals and is concerned ... The water vascular system serves to transport oxygen from, and carbon dioxide to, the tube feet and also nutrients from the gut ... Water enters the system through the madreporite, a porous, often conspicuous, sieve-like ossicle on the aboral surface. It is ...
Regulation of water and electrolyte balance, or osmoregulation, within the internal environment of common ravens involves the ... The kidneys of a common raven filter about eleven times its total body water daily, and more than 95% of the filtered water is ... Common ravens can be observed in oceans consuming water. However, when birds consume salt loaded prey or drink salt water, the ... This is likely due to the fact that water is not as abundant in raven habitat. A key function of the Loop of Henle is to ...
The main environmental impact is discharge of water that must be salted to maintain the fishes' electrolyte balance. Current ... fresh water and food are provided. Because of the requirement of sufficient fresh water, a massive water purification system ... about 1 m3 of water per m2) each year. Extended water purification systems allow for the reuse (recycling) of local water. The ... The breeders rear the fish in large cages floating in the water. The fish are living in natural water but are isolated with a ...
... and with functions related to electrolyte and water balance. One of the proteins secreted by the subcommissural organ, and ... being a key protein in the balancing of differentiation and proliferation of the neuroepithelium. It starts being secreted by ...
The kidneys of mammals are vital organs that maintain water, electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body, excrete nitrogenous ... In addition to the kidneys, the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis are involved in the regulation of water balance through a ... Mark A Knepper; Tae-Hwan Kwon; Soren Nielsen (1 April 2015). "Molecular physiology of water balance". The New England Journal ... Variation in the rate of water excretion is an important survival function for mammals that have limited access to water. The ...
... as these conditions can place stress on the body's electrolyte and water balance. A body needs to maintain a balance of water ... Desmopressin works by limiting the amount of water that is eliminated in the urine; that is, it is an antidiuretic. It works at ... It is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, the hormone that plays roles in the control of the body's osmotic balance, blood ... If sodium levels become too low (hyponatremia) - either as a result of increased water take-up or reduced salt levels - a ...
Mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone are primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance by modulating ... Waters, Christiaan; Plant, Gordon T (18 November 2019). "Case for a new corticosteroid treatment trial in optic neuritis: ... blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), ...
... an endogenous substance that assists in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance in the body and decreases the amount of water ...
... a mineralocorticoid that helps regulate blood pressure through water and electrolyte balance Sex steroids: Progestogens: ... which help maintain blood volume and control renal excretion of electrolytes) Anabolic steroids, natural and synthetic, which ...
... water-electrolyte balance MeSH G07.621.888.500 - kallikrein-kinin system MeSH G07.621.888.750 - water loss, insensible The list ...
... maintaining ACID-base balance W - maintaining WATER balance E - ELECTROLYTE balance T - TOXIN removal B - BLOOD Pressure ...
... impaired body water balance and impaired electrolyte balance. Complications caused by the use of cephaloridine include seizures ... Supportive therapy in the acute phase can be done by fluid, electrolyte and hypertension management. Longer term management ... After cooling, diluting with water, and adjusting the pH with mineral acid, cephaloridine thiocyanate salt precipitates. This ... increased blood electrolyte level, kidney dysfunction, kidney damage, ...
... commonly promoted for hydration and electrolyte balance, contained less sodium and magnesium than claimed on the label. This ... "Coconut Water Not the Magic Hydration Bullet It's Claimed To Be: Study". HuffPost. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2018-10-02. "Vita Coco ... In 2011, they found that two of three coconut water products contained less sodium and magnesium than claimed on the Nutrition ... Rovell, Darren (2012-04-17). "Is Coconut Water Headed for a Boom or Bust?". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-10-02. Esterl, Mike (2012-02- ...
"Water-Electrolyte Balance" by people in this website by year, and whether "Water-Electrolyte Balance" was a major or minor ... "Water-Electrolyte Balance" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Water-Electrolyte Balance*Water-Electrolyte Balance. *Balance, Water-Electrolyte. *Water Electrolyte Balance ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Water-Electrolyte Balance" by people in Profiles. ...
HomePublicationsComparison of 3% Hypertonic Saline with 20% Mannitol on Water - Electrolyte Balance and Brain Relaxation During ... Comparison of 3% Hypertonic Saline with 20% Mannitol on Water - Electrolyte Balance and Brain Relaxation During Elective ...
Water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Published on 02/03/2015 by admin ... Total body water in litres is calculated as 0.6 × weight (kg) in men, and 0.5 × weight (kg) in women. Water is ... Table 11.2 Average concentrations and potential daily losses of water and electrolytes from the gut ... For normal water homeostasis, the body requires a normal hypothalamus, access to water, a functioning pituitary (ADH release) ...
Water-Electrolyte Balance Substances * Diuretics * Furosemide Associated data * Grants and ... cumulative fluid balance during the first seven days was -136+/-491 ml in the conservative-strategy group and 6992+/-502 ml in ...
Plasma osmolality measures the bodys electrolyte-water balance. There are several methods for arriving at this quantity ... Consequently, solutions osmotically balanced for mammals (e.g., 0.9% normal saline) are likely to be mildly hypertonic for such ... It works on the method of depression of freezing point.[citation needed] Osmolarity is affected by changes in water content, as ... If the ECF were to become too hypotonic, water would readily fill surrounding cells, increasing their volume and potentially ...
Octreotide improves fluid balance in patients who have undergone jejunostomy but reduces the use of amino acids for splanchnic ... Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug effects Substances * Amino Acids * Delayed-Action Preparations * Gastrointestinal Hormones ... Conclusions: Octreotide improves fluid balance in patients who have undergone jejunostomy but reduces the use of amino acids ... Octreotide therapy improved fluid balance but suppressed gut hormone (insulin, gastrin, glucagon, peptide YY) levels in blood ...
... electrolyte can be used in water or top dress on feed. Easily disperses in water. Sodium, Potassium ratio 4:1. FEEDING ... WHAT IS QUENCH? Concentrated, balanced, electrolyte can be used in water or top dress on feed. Easily disperses in water. ...
Water and electrolyte metabolism and acid-base balance. St. Louis, Mo.: C.V. Mosby. ... Furthermore, chronic water intake is a concern because inadequate water intake over days can lead to water depletion and heat ... Distribution of Body Water. Total body water constitutes about 70 percent of lean body mass and is most simply divided into two ... Water Requirements During Exercise in the Heat - Nutritional Needs in Hot Enviro.... Water Requirements During Exercise in the ...
... electrolyte, and nutrition (FEN) management in newborns, with a special focus on patients with complex fluid and electrolyte ... Prevalence and Loss of Body Water. Principles of fluid and electrolyte balancing include the following:. * Total body water ( ... Insensible water loss. Insensible water loss (IWL) is water loss that is not readily measured. It consists mostly of water lost ... and electrolyte and pH values. Subsequently, maintain water and electrolyte balance while supplying requirements for body ...
E-Lyte is an electrolyte supplement concentrate formulated to mimic the bodys electrolyte levels. The original hydration ... What kind of purified water is used in E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate?. The water used in E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate is ... What is E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate used for?. Balanced Electrolyte Concentrate cleans & replenishes the blood by balancing ... What can E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate be mixed with?. E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate can be mixed with water or milk. Milk ...
Coconut water powder to maintain electrolyte balance. ● Oxyjun to support cardiovascular performance ... Coconut Water Powder: One of natures superfoods, coconut water powder contains electrolytes like potassium, making it helpful ... Instead its used to help you stay hydrated and to keep your electrolytes in balance, as well as supporting digestion, immune ... Magnesium + Sodium: Premium electrolytes helping you achieve optimal performance through hydration and fluid balance. ...
Yaqoob MM, McCafferty K. Water balance, fluids and electrolytes. In: Feather A, Randall D, Waterhouse M, eds. Kumar and ... This test is done to see how well your kidneys control the bodys acid-base balance. ...
Electrolyte and Fuel Homeostasis. S136 Maughan, R. J.: Restoration of Water and Electrolyte Balance After Exercise * Full Text ... Murray, R.: Rehydration Strategies - Balancing Substrate, Fluid, and Electrolyte Provision * Full Text ... Shirreffs, S. M.: Effects of Ingestion of Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Solutions on Exercise Performance * Full Text ... Leiper, J. B.: Intestinal Water Absorption - Implications for the Formulation of Rehydration Solutions * Full Text ...
Recovery from prolonged exercises: Restoration of water and electrolyte balance. J Sport Sci 15: 297-303, 1997.. * Cited Here ... Impact of cold water immersion on 5km racing performance. Intl J Sports Sci Coach (In Press.). * Cited Here ... Eston and Peters (12) studied cold water immersion as a recovery therapy in 15 females in a between-group design. DOMS was ... The ratings of perceived exertion at the end of the run were lower for cold water immersion than for control. Seven individuals ...
Categories: Water-Electrolyte Balance Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Reconstituting water and electrolyte balance. *Prolonging intestinal transit time. *Helping to protect gastrointestinal ... in this care, the amount of water to be mixed with a crushed tablet should be 10ml. Once crushed and mixed with water, the ... From taste to nutrition, choose the perfect balance for your cats specific needs ... it can be crushed into a powder and suspended in 5ml of warm tap water to form a paste. The paste can be fed directly into the ...
Electrolyte imbalance and water intake: This medication can upset the balance of electrolytes in the body, especially if you ... medications that affect water or electrolyte balance (e.g., diuretics, corticosteroids). *medications that cause constipation ( ... changes in electrolyte balance (e.g., numbness, skin tingling, muscle spasms, rapid heartbeat, muscle weakness, tremors) ... It is important to drink 1.5 L to 2 L of clear fluids that are not red or purple (water; sports drinks; clear fruit juices such ...
The hormone cortisol helps regulate the balance of water, sodium and other electrolytes in your body. When you take ... Tell your doctor right away if you notice swollen ankles or other signs youre retaining water. ... Also, quit smoking, eat a balanced diet, limit alcohol consumption and maintain a healthy weight. ...
The balance of water, electrolyte, acid and base is disturbed in acute stage. (3) Extraintestinal manifestations: Some patients ... The main symptoms are acute abdominal pain, loose stool or water stool, or dysentery with blood and pus, heavy head and body, ... take with water). Patient with frequency of defecation can be added nutmeg, Terminalia chebula. ; Patient with bloody stool can ... vomiting of clear water, loss of appetite, sallow complexion, dizziness, cold limbs, fatigue, pale tongue, thin and white ...
Gastrointestinal symptoms may be treated symptomatically, with attention to the water/electrolyte balance. ... Gastrointestinal symptoms and disturbance of the fluid and electrolyte balances may be evident. Amoxicillin crystalluria, in ... It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to ...
Patients can also suffer from potentially fatal water intoxication when the balance of electrolytes in the brain is disrupted. ... By the age of six she drank so much water that her mother started leaving a jug of water by her bed each night. ... She started taking a bottle of water to school each day and would stay close to the water fountain at break time while the ... Addicted to water: Young mother whose obsession started when she was just two years old drinks up to 44 pints a day. *Sasha ...
Effect of intragastric glucose-electrolyte infusion upon water and electrolyte balance in Asiatic cholera. Gastroenterology ... Water and electrolyte losses in cholera. Fed Proc 1964;23:705-12. *Watten RH, Morgan FM, Songkhla VN, et al. Water and ... Replacement of water and electrolyte losses in cholera by an oral glucose-electrolyte solution. Ann Intern Med 1969;70:1173-6. ... that included maintenance of electrolyte and water balance without causing either excessive or inadequate replacement of water ...
Maintains the water and electrolyte balance.. *Removes wastes and other toxic substances from the body. ... This can occur as a result of the electrolyte imbalance that arises with kidney problems. There may also be muscle pain ( ... Apart from disturbances in the fluid levels within the body, there is also disruptions in the levels of electrolytes and waste ... Various diagnostic investigations like a urea and electrolyte (U&E) blood test are better indicators of kidney disease than the ...
... and water and electrolyte balance were compared in six horses. The horses were deprived of feed and water for 5 days and were ... were superior to R for water and electrolyte balance.. This study was supported by the Grayson Jockey Club Research Foundation ... No significant differences in plasma-electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance were observed. Both urine and fecal Na+ ... All horses experienced a negative K+ balance during infusion with all fluid products, but the K+ deficit was less with M or M+ ...
LOINC Panel Details Code 101565-0 Electrolytes panel - Venous blood ... electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance ... Depletion in potassium levels results in deficient fluid and electrolyte balance in the body as well as various nervous and ... Electrolytes panel - Venous blood Active 39791-9 Sodium [Moles/volume] in Venous blood. Part Descriptions. LP15099-2 Sodium. ...
Water-electrolyte imbalancesWater-electrolyte balance (Physiology)--Endocrine aspectsVasopressinHyponatremiaMedicine ...
... full spectrum electrolyte powder with complimentary minerals & vitamins to transform plain water into a nourishing, energy- ... Jigsaw Electrolyte Supreme™ is the best electrolyte powder. It provides a balanced combination of all the electrolytes -- ... "Plain" drinking water, even bottled "mineral water", does not deliver the necessary quantity or balance of the essential ... Jigsaw Electrolyte Supreme™ provides a balanced combination of key electrolytes and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, ...
In: Handbook of physiology, Sec 7, Endocrinology, Vol III, Hormonal regulation of water and electrolyte balance (Fray JCS, ed ... In the periphery, VP is involved in maintaining osmotic balance by promoting reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of ... hypo-osmolality induced by elevated water intake and water retention inhibits VP and OT secretion (Verbalis, 1984). These two ... For iso-osmotic controls, for the hyper-osmotic group, control rats continued to have access ad libitum to tap water and rat ...
  • INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM. (
  • Formulated with the three ingredients you need to bring electrolytes back to the perfect pH balance - Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium. (
  • Potassium (symbol K from Latin:kalium) is a key chemical element involved in neuron function and influencing osmotic balance between cells and interstitial fluid. (
  • Potassium Chloride, USP is chemically designated KCl, a white granular powder freely soluble in water. (
  • Potassium gluconate helps regulate water balance within the body. (
  • The result is a sports drink with minimal sugar (4g per 100 ml) and a ratio of sugar (glucose + fructose) that is optimized for faster absorption, an electrolyte profile that actually matches what is lost in sweat (800 mg sodium, 80 mg potassium, 100 mg calcium, and 80 mg of magnesium per liter), and only real fruit for flavor for a light and refreshing taste that you can drink all day. (
  • The electrolytes sodium and potassium are just what your legs crave to stay firing properly. (
  • Electrolytes are minerals, such as sodium and potassium, that help with many important body functions. (
  • Dehydration Everyone needs water and electrolytes (minerals, such as sodium and potassium, that help with many body functions) to be healthy. (
  • Extra water also disturbs electrolyte and mineral balances such as calcium, sodium and potassium which can lead to major health problems including seizures. (
  • Potassium is used for many essential bodily functions, including strong and regular heart contractions, proper kidney function, fluid balance and healthy muscle development. (
  • Potassium can only do its job properly when it's in optimal balance with the yin to its yang: sodium. (
  • Historically, these two minerals were balanced in the diet, as potassium is plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. (
  • Plasma osmolality measures the body's electrolyte-water balance. (
  • This test is done to see how well your kidneys control the body's acid-base balance. (
  • What can throw off my body's water balance? (
  • They also change the body's balance of fluids and electrolytes, leading to water loss. (
  • Balance is also key when it comes to the body's pH levels. (
  • It's the body's most abundant electrolyte-the word for minerals that carry an electrical charge. (
  • Electrolytes play a role in the water balance in the body, as well as the body's acidity/alkalinity, muscle function and heart rhythm. (
  • Continues to replenish your body and cells by balancing the essential electrolytes - vital for proper central nervous system & muscular function. (
  • Created for daily use before and during training and competition, the new GU Energy Stroopwafel delivers all the nutrients needed to power your performance: quality carbohydrates (immediate and long-lasting energy from complex and simple carbohydrates), essential amino acids (prevent mental fatigue and repair muscle damage during long-duration activities), and electrolytes (replenish what's lost when you sweat). (
  • Use GU Hydration Drink Tabs before, during, and after exercise to hydrate and replenish electrolyte levels. (
  • No significant differences in plasma-electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance were observed. (
  • He is the author of the monograph Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance (2nd ed., 1962) and has designed four specialized slide-rules. (
  • His research interests have been related to carbohydrate metabolism in hypophysectomized animals, action of the hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor (now called glucagon), and electrolytes and acid-base balance. (
  • Created for athletes whose focus is on hydration, GU Hydration Drink Mix is formulated with a blend of electrolytes and carbohydrates, providing a light-tasting and rapidly absorbing hydration drink. (
  • Certified Gluten-Free with organic tapioca syrup, organic honey, added electrolytes and a blend of natural acai and pomegranate flavors, this gel will keep you fueled for any athletic endeavor. (
  • One up your water™ with our high-voltage blend of organic green tea, ginseng, B vitamins, and electrolytes for a quick energy boost. (
  • Diacare is an orange flavoured unique food supplement containing a balanced blend of glucose electrolytes, minerals and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG. (
  • Sodium, the primary electrolyte lost in sweat, aids hydration by maintaining water balance. (
  • This will result in increased water reabsorption, more concentrated urine, and less concentrated blood plasma. (
  • Urine volume is usually 700 ml per day, but a high-protein diet demands more obligatory water to excrete the osmotically active products of protein metabolism. (
  • In these instances there may be increased urine production (polyuria) as water cannot be reabsorbed and preserved. (
  • Average normal adult daily requirement ranges from two to three liters (1.0 to 1.5 liters each for insensible water loss by perspiration and urine production). (
  • The effects of dehydration occur with as little water loss as 1 percent of body weight and become life threatening at 10 percent (Adolph et al. (
  • Great tasting, scientifically formulated electrolyte replacement drink is designed to restore important mineral salts and fluids lost through dehydration, physical exertion and heat stress. (
  • Electrolytes-minerals in our bodies that help balance the amount of water-are key to avoiding dehydration. (
  • Disorders of sodium are more accurately disorders of water than of sodium, as disturbances of sodium concentration are mainly caused by a disturbance of water balance. (
  • Apart from disturbances in the fluid levels within the body, there is also disruptions in the levels of electrolytes and waste substances. (
  • Sodium (Na + ) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. (
  • Our Hydration Sport Drink Mix was created for a simple purpose - to replace the electrolytes lost in sweat and to provide a little bit of energy when working out, without offending your palate or gut. (
  • Sodium, the primary electrolyte lost in sweat, helps maintain water balance. (
  • One serving of Superfuel gives you 400 calories, powered by Cluster Dextrin, plus the electrolytes lost in sweat to fuel and hydrate your biggest days. (
  • in rare cases where your dog will not eat the tablet voluntarily, it can be crushed into a powder and suspended in 5ml of warm tap water to form a paste. (
  • Jigsaw Electrolyte Supreme™ is a premium, full spectrum electrolyte powder that also contains complementary minerals & vitamins to transform plain water into a nourishing, energy-boosting beverage that the whole family can enjoy. (
  • This sugar-free electrolyte powder tastes great, and it's Keto-friendly! (
  • Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water. (
  • Sodium Acetate, USP is chemically designated sodium acetate, anhydrous (C 2 H 3 NaO 2 ), a hygroscopic powder soluble in water. (
  • Sqwincher powder concentrate electrolyte replacement beverage mix. (
  • Powder Pack mixes quickly and easily with water. (
  • Use water to prepare concentrated liquid formula and powder formula, but only as directed. (
  • Water first, then powder. (
  • Always add the powder to the water that is in the bottle, not the other way around. (
  • If inappropriate fluids are administered, serious morbidity may result from fluid and electrolyte imbalances. (
  • dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated in the Drosophila hindgut is essential for the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis. (
  • Many poisons, medications and diseases affect the balance between the ICF and ECF, affecting individual cells and homeostasis as a whole. (
  • and thus contributes to maintenance of electrolyte homeostasis. (
  • Na + retention and excretion control extracellular volume (water will passively follow salt). (
  • The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output. (
  • Regulation of sodium occurs by balancing water in the body with use of antidiuretic hormone and increasing or decreasing the renal excretion of sodium. (
  • Fluid, electrolyte, and nutrition management is important because most infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) require intravenous fluids (IVFs) and have shifts of fluids between intracellular, extracellular, and vascular compartments. (
  • Yaqoob MM, McCafferty K. Water balance, fluids and electrolytes. (
  • We lose electrolytes with perspiration, which is why we must consume replacement fluids to prevent serious problems. (
  • These ions are normal constituents of the body fluids (principally extracellular) and are essential for maintaining electrolyte balance. (
  • Finally, the prediction of sweat losses under a variety of conditions is discussed, as well as the calculation of water requirements under these circumstances. (
  • Because respiratory water loss contributes little to evaporative cooling in warm or hot environments, cooling must come primarily from cutaneous sweat secretion. (
  • 2010]. Additional studies have examined sex-related differences regarding sweat-induced electrolyte loss and whole-body sweat response, as well as how pregnancy affects heat stress tolerance [Meyer et al. (
  • Overview of Electrolytes Electrolytes are minerals that circulate in your blood. (
  • When we eat acid-forming foods, the body tries to balance the blood's pH level by releasing alkaline-rich minerals into the bloodstream, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. (
  • Watermelon has a pH of 9.0, and it offers vitamins, minerals and water that keeps electrolytes balanced. (
  • They are highly nutritious, containing fiber, water, vitamins and minerals to improve overall health. (
  • It's also important to use clean water for a safe source free of bacteria or other microorganisms that may cause disease, and low in certain minerals and contaminants that may be harmful. (
  • As cell membranes in general are freely permeable to water, the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is approximately equal to that of the intracellular fluid (ICF). (
  • It is calculated from measurements of total body water and extracellular fluid volume. (
  • When administered intravenously, Normosol-R pH 7.4 provides water and electrolytes for replacement of acute extracellular fluid losses without disturbing normal electrolyte relationships. (
  • The electrolyte composition approaches that of the principal ions of normal plasma (extracellular fluid). (
  • The electrolyte concentration is approximately isotonic in relation to the extracellular fluid (approx. (
  • Magnesium oxide and citric acid combine to form magnesium citrate, which is an osmotic laxative that increases water in the colon. (
  • Diacare contains magnesium which contributes to electrolyte balance. (
  • Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) ions. (
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution of sodium chloride and water for injection. (
  • Tissue Edema, Fluid Balance, and Patient Outcomes in Severe Sepsis: An Organ Systems Review. (
  • Previous studies have shown that secretory losses in patients with end jejunostomy syndrome (EJS) on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) can be suppressed by the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, thus facilitating fluid balance. (
  • Octreotide therapy improved fluid balance but suppressed gut hormone (insulin, gastrin, glucagon, peptide YY) levels in blood and the uptake of amino acids into pancreatic enzyme and mucosal proteins, increasing oxidative losses. (
  • Octreotide improves fluid balance in patients who have undergone jejunostomy but reduces the use of amino acids for splanchnic protein synthesis. (
  • Sqwincher is more satisfying than water or soft drinks because the body absorbs it more quickly and restores it to its proper electrolyte and fluid balance. (
  • DiaCare is a unique oral electrolyte solution which contributes to electrolyte balance, normal digestion and absorption. (
  • Carbohydrate electrolyte solutions enhance the absorption of water during physical exercise. (
  • This response includes signaling from osmotic sensors to activate transcription factors, which in turn regulate the expression of osmocompensatory genes, all functioning to maintain CELL VOLUME and the water concentration inside the cells. (
  • Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na+) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium. (
  • Objective -To assess changes in systemic hydration, concentrations of plasma electrolytes, hydration and physical properties of colonic contents and feces, and gastrointestinal transit in horses with access to large amounts of grain. (
  • Sodium (Na) is a positively charged electrolyte and a mineral. (
  • Total body water constitutes about 70 percent of lean body mass and is most simply divided into two major compartments: (a) intracellular water, which represents 50 percent of body weight or 35 liters in a 70-kg man, and (b) extracellular water, which represents 20 percent of body weight or 14 liters. (
  • Restores muscle glycogen - Rebuilds muscle strength - Reduces soreness & fatigue - New chocolate formula BENEFITS: Highly effective and utterly delicious, Recoverite provides exactly what your body needs to reap the most from your activity-a 3:1 ratio of complex carbohydrates to premium whey protein isolate, three grams of L-glutamine, key recovery benefiting auxiliary nutrients, and a full spectrum of electrolytes. (
  • citation needed] Deep-sea fish have adapted to the extreme hydrostatic pressures of depth through a number of factors, including increasing osmolality, with one of the deepest known fish in the world, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis) having a recorded muscle osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg, almost four times the osmolality of mammals and three times that of shallow water fish species (typically 350 mOsmol/kg). (
  • A low serum osmolality will suppress the release of ADH, resulting in decreased water reabsorption and more concentrated plasma. (
  • Also, certain diseases that affect your brain or your kidneys can throw off how your body balances water and electrolytes. (
  • Numerous conditions can affect neonatal fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as renal function. (
  • In the periphery, VP is involved in maintaining osmotic balance by promoting reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of the renal tubules and in maintaining blood pressure through vasoconstriction. (
  • Measurement of serum sodium is routine in assessing electrolyte, acid-base, and water balance, and renal function. (
  • What is E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate used for? (
  • Balanced Electrolyte Concentrate cleans & replenishes the blood by balancing the essential electrolytes, which is vital for proper CNS (central nervous system) & muscular function. (
  • What are the ingredients in E-Lyte Electrolyte Concentrate? (
  • Injection, USP when used only as an isotonic vehicle for parenteral injection of drugs, is unlikely to exert a significant effect on fluid and electrolyte balance except possibly in neonates and very small infants. (
  • In neonates or very small infants the volume of fluid may affect fluid and electrolyte balance. (
  • Excess body water results from an abnormally high intake. (
  • The percentage of the body composed of water is higher for a term neonate than it is for an adult, with a newborn being 75% water (40% ECF, 35% ICF) and an adult being 60% water (20% ECF, 40% ICF). (
  • Small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants may also have a particularly high body water content (90% for SGA infants vs 84% for appropriate for gestational age [AGA] infants at 25-30 weeks' gestation). (
  • Water constitutes about 70 percent of body weight in the normal adult. (
  • thus women have slightly less body water than men. (
  • Elyte mimics electrolyte levels in the body for optimal hydration. (
  • When engaging in strenuous activity, use prior to help maintain healthy electrolyte levels in the body for improved performance and fewer muscle cramps. (
  • Clinical hydration status, body-mass (BM) loss, and water and electrolyte balance were compared in six horses. (
  • How does your body balance the amount of water? (
  • About half your body weight is water. (
  • So if you are a 160-pound woman, you have about 80 pounds (10 gallons) of water in your body. (
  • You need the right amount of water in your body for good health. (
  • Your body needs the right balance of electrolytes. (
  • Normally, your body automatically balances your level of water. (
  • Your body constantly balances how much water and electrolytes you have. (
  • Most of the time, your body does this balancing act automatically. (
  • Too much water without enough salt, and your body may try to jettison some H20, which may explain why you're waking up in the middle of the night to pee. (
  • Just like measuring the pH level in your pool to make sure things are running smoothly, the body needs to maintain a balanced pH level to stay healthy. (
  • They help to lower cholesterol levels, improve brain function, aid in healthy digestion and leave the body perfectly balanced. (
  • Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. (
  • Furthermore, chronic water intake is a concern because inadequate water intake over days can lead to water depletion and heat exhaustion. (
  • No sugars, no artificial sweeteners, just pure, salty electrolytes in a 16:1 ratio. (
  • Proven electrolyte ratio of original nuun and enhanced with caffeine and b vitamins for more sustained hydration - Perfect for longer endurance efforts or race day competition - Each tube of nuun energy contains (10) Tabs. (
  • Patients can also suffer from potentially fatal water intoxication when the balance of electrolytes in the brain is disrupted. (
  • This can lead to a dangerous condition called water intoxication. (
  • The requirement for water in the heat is dependent on fluid lost, which in turn depends on such factors as exercise intensity, exercise duration, environmental conditions, state of training and heat acclimatization, gender, and age. (
  • Water loss from cutaneous evaporation could range from 500 ml per day at rest in a cool environment to 10 liters per day during exercise in the heat. (
  • Water requirements during exercise in the heat primarily depend on evaporative cooling. (
  • Metabolism and environmental heat exchange determine the required evaporative cooling ( E req ) to achieve thermal balance. (
  • And, a high electrolyte content is just what your legs crave to fire properly, while 35mg of caffeine stokes your central nervous system, increasing the release of free fatty acids into your bloodstream, and further sparing your limited glycogen stores. (
  • Sports drinks (without caffeine) with electrolytes may help if you have an imbalance. (
  • Consequently, solutions osmotically balanced for mammals (e.g., 0.9% normal saline) are likely to be mildly hypertonic for such animals. (
  • It helps to maintain blood volume by osmotically pulling water into the blood vessels. (
  • Experts yesterday said Miss Kennedy's condition was rare, with the average adult drinking little more than 200ml of water per day. (
  • To prepare one serving, dissolve sachet A and B together in 200ml of water. (
  • Table 5-1 gives normal values for daily water intake and output in a healthy adult. (
  • Normal Values for Daily Intake and Output of Water in Adults. (
  • Drinking plenty of water would usually be seen as a healthy habit - and many of us could probably do with upping our daily intake. (
  • Though her daily water intake far exceeds the maximum 3.5 pints recommended by experts, she says she has been checked by doctors and has no health problems as a result. (
  • Not only balancing, but constantly adding in cases of fatigue and poor metabolic function, such as muscle cramps in legs and feet. (
  • Term newborns usually lose 5-10% of their weight in the first week of life, almost all of which is water loss. (
  • Insensible water loss (IWL) is water loss that is not readily measured. (
  • For example, respiratory water loss can range from 200 ml per day when breathing humidified air to 1500 ml per day when exercising at high altitude. (
  • Our bodies try to maintain an internal balance of water and electrolytes, Steele says. (
  • 1947). Humans cannot adapt to a chronic water deficit, so fluid losses must be replaced if physiological function is to continue unimpaired. (
  • Intracellular water is not readily measured. (
  • Sodium gluconate is chemically designated C 6 H 11 NaO 7 , the normal sodium salt of gluconic acid soluble in water. (
  • About 30 minutes before going to sleep, drink a small glass of water with a pinch of unprocessed sea salt, Steele suggests. (
  • Unprocessed salt helps the water to get into all of our cells," he says. (
  • No sugars, no artificial sweeteners, just pure electrolytes in the millequivalent of human blood. (
  • Various diagnostic investigations like a urea and electrolyte (U&E) blood test are better indicators of kidney disease than the clinical presentation. (
  • Too much sodium in the blood may cause too much water to be brought into the blood vessels and lead to high blood pressure. (
  • For infants under 3 months of age, those who were born prematurely and those who have a weakened immune system, hot water should be used to prepare formula to kill any microbes. (
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Additional information on the biological effects of heat has become available in recent studies, specifically increasing the understanding of the central nervous system, circulatory regulation, the sweating mechanism, water and electrolyte balance, and dietary factors. (
  • Balancing work and play, family and friends, saving and splurging, and let's not forget about balancing healthy food with the occasional treat. (
  • Diacare should not be used to replace a well balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. (
  • Therefore, careful attention to fluid and electrolyte balance is essential. (
  • Water is essential to life. (
  • Our bodies are 90 percent water, so it's no surprise we need a lot of it to keep going each day. (