A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
The analysis of an activity, procedure, method, technique, or business to determine what must be accomplished and how the necessary operations may best be accomplished.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Thermal diffusion. Mixing of hot and cold gases. The most usually used (also the most efficient) method is cooling by thermal ... diffusion. Most abundantly used working fluid is n-butanol; during last years water is also encountered in this use. ...
shallow water equations; reaction-diffusion-advection problems; pulse wave propagation solver for modelling arterial networks; ... "High-order spectral/hp element discretisation for reaction-diffusion problems on surfaces: Application to cardiac ... "Eigensolution analysis of spectral/hp continuous Galerkin approximations to advection-diffusion problems: Insights into ...
1944 US 2348074 "Breathing Apparatus." for Use Under Water 1944 US 2362643 "Breathing Apparatus." for Use Under Water 1947 US ... Lambertsen CJ, Clark JK (December 1949). "The pulmonary oxygen diffusion coefficient". Am. J. Med. Sci. 218 (6): 715. PMID ... Lambertsen, C.J. Problems of shallow water diving. Report based on experiences of operational swimmers of the Office of ... Ventilatory and cardiac adjustments during rapid compressions to pressure equivalents of 400-800-1200-1600 feet of sea water. ...
Controls the diffusion of water and ionic species. C-S-H gel has a higher area and will react faster. Diffusion of the chloride ... Water extenders - Allow/facilitate the addition of water to help extend the cement blend/slurry. Low-density aggregates - ... water to 1.0% bentonite. Bentonite - this is added in conjunction with additional water, used for specific weight control but ... The high surface area increases the water demand to get pumpable slurry. Such a mixture can produce a cement slurry as low as ...
By the time the film is completed, water has evaporated enough. This phenomenon is called "selective diffusion." In general, ... Carbon dioxide, water and alcohol have all been lost. Due to the volatility of alcohol, relatively higher than water, time- ... Before and after drying, comparing the amounts of water and alcohol, about 90% of water is removed and about 10% of ethyl ... In higher concentration, by decreasing water, water molecules can move much faster. After the film formed it is less permeable ...
Oxygen enters the water through diffusion. The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water depends on the atmospheric ... C increase in water temperature above 20 °C. Many cold water fish that live in clean cold waters become stressed when oxygen ... A short period of hot weather can increase temperatures in the surface layer of water, as the warmer water tends to stay near ... A drought can lead to lower water volumes so that even if the water contains a high level of dissolved oxygen, the reduced ...
Diffusion: Seine Cinéma. Award: Prix Georges Sadoul 1976: Wind water and sun, performance video with Carolyn Carlson, Paris ... Diffusion : Cinéma St Séverin, RTF, RTB. 1979: Les Lilas et tout, 60 min., with Séverin Blanchet. 1982: La casa del arbol, 20 ... Diffusion: Mezzo. 2002: Taxi Parisien de Robert Bozzi. 2012: Confluences by Perle Møhl, mixing, Studios de la Vanne. 1984 Les ...
For instance, the "collective research centers" of Belgium are doing knowledge absorption and diffusion in their role as ... A bridge over troubled waters: Bridging organisations and entrepreneurial opportunities in emerging sectors. Research Policy, ... The performed activities are ranged from the diffusion and technology transfer to innovation management and the establishment ... Technological communities and the diffusion of knowledge. R&D Management, 22(3), pp. 209-220. Sapsed, J., Grantham, A., ...
Diffusion of liquid water through human skin. Journal of Applied Physiology, 14(2), 261-268. Buettner, K. J. (1959). Diffusion ... Buettner, K. J., & Holmes, Frederick F. (1959). Diffusion of water vapor through human skin in hot environment and with ... 1966). WATER TRANSFER THROUGH HUMAN SKIN. WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE DEPT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES. Buettner, K. J., & Kreiss, ... Buettner, K. J. (1965). Affected by Water Transfer. J. Soc. Cosmetic Chemists, 16, 133-143. Buettner, K. J. (1965). On the ...
Flat-light is a diffusion of sunlight. Cause: Sunlight is both scattered and diffused by atmospheric particles (e.g. water ... Cause: Sunlight is blocked, reduced and scattered by ice crystals in falling snow, wind-blown spin-drift, water droplets in low ...
Diffusion is a property of substances in water; substances in water tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area ... water. Dialysis works on the principles of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable ... Salts and water lost from the blood during this process are replaced with a "substitution fluid" that is infused into the ... Wastes and excess water move from the blood, across the peritoneal membrane and into a special dialysis solution, called ...
Air and Water Pollution "Energy, from Source to Use" "Rapid Determination of Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients by Means of Gas ... Giddings, J. C.; Seager, S. L. (1962). "Method for the Rapid Determination of Diffusion Coefficients. Theory and Application". ... "Rapid Determination of Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients by Means of Gas Chromatography Apparatus , Issue 5 - Journal of Chemical ... Pagenkopf, Gordon K. (1977). "Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution (Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.)". ...
Part of Diffusion: Cardiff International Festival of Photography. Jordano's work is held in the following permanent collections ... 2008: Marktown, city gallery of Chicago in the Chicago Water Tower, Chicago, IL. 2009: Articles of Faith, Chicago Cultural ... Diffusion: Cardiff International Festival of Photography. Ffotogallery. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. ...
Water saturation method (pore volume = total volume of water − volume of water left after soaking). Water evaporation method ( ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1991.tb00424.x. Horgan, G. W.; B. C. Ball (1994). "Simulating diffusion in a Boolean model of soil ... which means clays can hold a large volume of water per volume of bulk material, but they do not release water rapidly and ... Movement in micropores is activated by diffusion. The ratio of holes to solid that the wind "sees". Aerodynamic porosity is ...
Thallapally PK, Lloyd GO, Atwood JL, Barbour LJ (2005-06-20). "Diffusion of water in a nonporous hydrophobic crystal". ... The nonporous and hydrophobic crystals are soaked in water for 8 hours in which time the calixarene:water ratio nevertheless ... This calixarene adopts a 1,3-alternate conformation (methoxy groups populate the lower ring) and water is not contained in the ... doi:10.1016/0040-4020(95)00984-1. J.H. Jordan; B.C. Gibb (2017). "1.16 Water-Soluble Cavitands". In Atwood, Jerry (ed.). ...
Water is scarce and occurs at great depths, ranging from 30 to 120 metres (98 to 394 ft) below the ground level. Rainfall is ... Red soils have a wide diffusion of iron content. Most of India's estimated 5.4 billion barrels (860,000,000 m3) in oil reserves ... India's territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline. ... "Water profile of India". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 20 November 2008. Jain, J.K.; Farmer, B. H.; Rush, H.; West, H. W.; ...
During this process water is added to the emulsion which causes the solvent to diffuse. The result of this emulsion-diffusion ... Water-soluble polymer shells are being created to deliver a protein, apoptin, into cancer cells. The protein goes into the ... Hydration and diffusion - In this release mechanism the nanocapsule will swell due to the effects of hydration. Once the ... Unlike spray drying, water is removed through the sublimation process without changing the structure or shape of the ...
Jory, R.; Rees, J. A. & Crompton, R. W. (1965). "The Diffusion and Attachment of Electrons in Water Vapour". Aust. J. Phys. 18 ... Jory, R.; Rees, J. A. (1964). "The Diffusion of Electrons in Dry, Carbon Dioxide Free Air". Aust. J. Phys. 17: 307. Jory, ... The research focussed on the drift velocities and diffusion coefficients of electrons in nitrogen, hydrogen and helium. ... "On the Swarm Method for Determining the Ratio of Electron Drift Velocity to Diffusion Coefficient". Aust. J. Phys. 15: 451. ...
The engine was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and numerous water works, but it was not a success since it was ... Atack, J; Bateman, F; Weiss, T (1980). "The Regional Diffusion and Adoption of the Steam Engine in American Manufacturing". The ... not just close to a water source. Water power varied with the seasons and was not always available. In 1775 Watt formed an ... where the first engines had been used to pump water from deep workings. Early mills had run successfully with water power, but ...
1833 - Water-works established. 1835 - Tennessee Society for the Diffusion of Knowledge organized. 1837 - House of Industry for ...
If some solute is dissolved in water, its diffusion pressure decreases. The difference between diffusion pressure of pure water ... Diffusion pressure deficit or Diffusion pressure of pure water is maximum and its theoretical value is 1245.69 atm at STP. For ... Originally DPD was described as suction pressure by Renner (1915). It is a reduction in the diffusion pressure of water in ... When DPD is zero, entry of water will stop. Thus it is DPD that tends to equate and represents the water-absorbing ability of a ...
Water and air management (in PEMFCs) In this type of fuel cell, the membrane must be hydrated, requiring water to be evaporated ... Gas diffusion layers that are designed to resist oxidization. A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0.6 to 0.7 V at full ... Aqueous solution Of, relating to, or resembling water Made from, with, or by water. Catalyst A chemical substance that ... Methods to manage water in cells are being developed like electroosmotic pumps focusing on flow control. Just as in a ...
Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH)3 ... Diffusion of the adsorbate is thus an important factor. These carbons are suitable for adsorption of gases and vapors, because ... Acid/water-soluble ash content is more significant than total ash content. Soluble ash content can be very important for ... As all of the pore volume may not be available for adsorption in a particular waste water application, and as some of the ...
The diffusion of the proteins is thus significantly reduced. After repeated washing with water, the gel is incubated in a ... Excess silver ions are then washed off with water. In the final development step, the silver ions are reduced to elemental ... and water of highest purity are the key points to successful staining. Some cells are argentaffin. These reduce silver solution ...
Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team, Olympia, WA. Ebbesmeyer, C. C., C. A. Coomes, G. A. Cannon, and D. E. Bretschneider. ... Lagrangian diffusion equation and its application to oceanic dispersion. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan, 39, ... The structure, dynamics, and origin of a small-scale lens of water in the western North Atlantic thermocline. Journal of ... Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, April 1990 (California Department of Water Resources, 1991). ...
These are called "Diffusion Weighted Images" (DWI) or Difussion Tensor MRI, DT-MRI. The diffusion measures the water response ... A third type of MRI is based in the water diffusivity. It is called "Diffusion MRI" or "Diffusion Tensor MRI". and the images ... In MTR-MRI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCav) is a measure of water molecule motion. It can be seen that before the ... Water diffusivity is higher in all NAWM regions, deep gray matter regions, and some cortical gray matter region of MS patients ...
The real hydration energy of the solvated electron can be estimated by using the hydration energy of a proton in water combined ... Chem., 74, 3663, 1970 Harima, Yutaka; Aoyagui, Shigeru (1980). "The diffusion coefficient of solvated electrons in liquid ... Solvated electrons are involved in the reaction of sodium metal with water. Two solvated electrons combine to form molecular ... Ariyarathna, Isuru R.; Miliordos, Evangelos (2019). "Superatomic nature of alkaline earth metal-water complexes: the cases of ...
ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water. It is used as an additive in numerous materials and products including ... The coating reduces the diffusion of oxygen with PEN. Zinc oxide layers can also be used on polycarbonate in outdoor ... It is nearly insoluble in water, but it will dissolve in most acids, such as hydrochloric acid: ZnO + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2O Solid ... At temperatures between about 230-430 °C (446-806 °F), H2S is converted to water by the following reaction: H2S + ZnO → H2O + ...
The gaseous diffusion process remained more encouraging, although it too had technical obstacles to overcome. By the end of ... Urey and Washburn attempted to use electrolysis to create pure heavy water. Their technique was sound, but they were beaten to ... For a time, uranium was fed into the S50 liquid thermal diffusion plant, then the K-25 gaseous, and finally the Y-12 ... As a backup, Urey championed thermal diffusion. Worn out by the effort, Urey left the project in February 1945, handing over ...
The water in the pores of Portland cement concrete is normally alkaline with a pH in the range of 12.5 to 13.5. This highly ... The carbonatation system is generally matched to the diffusion scheme; juice from RT diffusers being processed by the RT ... The carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the alkali in the cement and makes the pore water more acidic, thus lowering the pH. ... The carbonatation reaction takes place during lime softening (Clark's process) in water softening. Concrete cancer ...
Isotonic (of equal water potential) - this prevents water gain or loss by the organelles ... and thus the ultracentrifuge was created to apply the theory of sedimentation-diffusion.[11] The same molecular mass was ...
It is covered with a waxy cuticle which is impermeable to liquid water and water vapor and forms the boundary separating the ... stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Leaves can also store food and water, and are modified accordingly to meet these functions, for example in the leaves of ...
The ideal location for hunting mallards is considered to be where the water level is somewhat shallow where the birds can be ... and larger in tropical and desert equivalents to facilitate heat diffusion, and that the polar taxa are stockier overall.[41] ... Water depths of less than 0.9 metres (3.0 ft) are preferred, with birds avoiding areas more than a few metres deep.[60] They ... eat water plants and small animals, and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This ...
The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts,[52] which were used to transport water across long distances.[52] ... Technological diffusion. *Technology acceptance model. *Technology lifecycle. *Technology transfer. Technology journalism. * ... The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a complex system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates ... This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth, an example of technology usage by non-human ...
Syvitski, Jaia; Waters, Colin N.; Day, John; et al. (2020). "Extraordinary human energy consumption and resultant geological ... it is estimated that such lateral diffusion was reduced over 98% following the megafaunal extinctions that occurred roughly ... Waters, Colin N.; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Summerhayes, Colin; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Poirier, Clément; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Cearreta, ... Human consumption of food and water resources is also projected to double by this time.[220] ...
Examples include pulmonary function testing (e.g. nitrogen washout test, diffusion capacity testing (carbon monoxide, helium, ... Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, food, vomitus and less common foreign ...
... lake or other body of water, not the initial reaction of the metal with water (which tends to happen mostly under water).[75] ... Okamoto, H. (2009). "Cs-O (Cesium-Oxygen)". Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. 31: 86-87. doi:10.1007/s11669-009-9636-5 ... Reaction with water On reaction with water, they generate hydroxide ions and hydrogen gas. This reaction is vigorous and highly ... Each coordinated water molecule may be attached by hydrogen bonds to other water molecules. The latter are said to reside in ...
Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH)3 ... Diffusion of the adsorbate is thus an important factor. These carbons are suitable for adsorption of gases and vapors, because ... Acid/water-soluble ash content is more significant than total ash content. Soluble ash content can be very important for ... Hence, the agency set aside the rule.[13] Activated carbon filtration is an effective water treatment method due to its multi- ...
This enhances grain boundary diffusion and migration as well as densification of the material. The UHTC composite ZrB2/20vol% ... Zirconium diboride is used in many boiling water reactor fuel assemblies due to its refractory nature, corrosion resistance, ... Densification is only achieved at temperatures above 1800 °C once grain boundary diffusion mechanisms become active.[50] ... Pressureless sintering involves heating powdered materials in a mold in order to promote atomic diffusion and create a solid ...
Nola Cooke; Tana Li (2004). Water Frontier: Commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong Region, 1750-1880. Rowman & ... "Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e36437. Bibcode:2012PLoSO ... Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana (2004). Water Frontier: Commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong Region, 1750-1880. Rowman & ... As quoted in Li Daoyuan's Commentary on the Water Classic,Vol. 37 ...
Consequently, Jv is much less than previously calculated, and the unopposed diffusion of interstitial proteins to the ... that some albumin escapes from the capillaries and enters the interstitial fluid where it would produce a flow of water ...
Research, diffusion Aluminum, titanium, composite materials Aircraft jet engines Synthetic diamond early uses (drill bits, ... is used for underground gas and water pipes, and another variety called ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is an ... Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion[20]. Classical optics Microscopes, cameras, metamaterial cloaking, cloaking devices ... Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, early uses[22][23]. Structural steel and aluminium Stronger, lighter materials, space ...
... water sanitation, and hygiene. A major focus was clean water and salinisation. Experts working on this field have designed the ... Société générale d'édition et de diffusion, ISBN 978-2-84248-041-7. , OCLC 41524503. ... "Water And Sanitation". unicef.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.. ... "Water And Sanitation". unicef.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.. ...
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Ground-Water Resources in Relation to Coal Mining (1981). Coal mining and ground ... After World War II, the shortage in energy and the diffusion of the Soviets' results provoked new interest in Western Europe ... Variables include the rate of water influx, the distribution of reactants in the gasification zone, and the growth rate of the ... Phenol leachate is the most significant environmental hazard due to its high water solubility and high reactiveness to ...
Access to the water is made via the 'wet porch', a chamber equipped with a moon pool, which keeps the air pressure inside the ... Aquarius is located under 20 m (66 ft) of water at the base of a coral reef within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, ... wet porch the same as the water pressure at that depth ('ambient pressure'), about 2.6 atmospheres, through hydrostatic ... "How Humans Learned To Live Under Water". Gawker Media. Retrieved August 13, 2012 ...
Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1841). "Rhinoceros". The Penny Cyclopaedia. Volume 19. London: Charles Knight & Co. ... They drink for a minute or two at a time, often imbibing water filled with rhinoceros urine.[11] ... The folds in their skin trap water and hold it even when they exit wallows.[17] ... and a water buffalo and a rhinoceros on the other.[citation needed] Rhinoceros is Vahana of the Hindu goddess Dhavdi. There is ...
The flow of dry water. *The flow of wet water. *Curved space ... Diffusion. *The laws of thermodynamics. *Illustrations of ...
Pulsed field gradient NMR experiments can be used to measure diffusion constants.[1][2][7] ... "High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Protons of tRNA in Water". Nature. 229: 338-339. Bibcode: ...
MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Lung diffusion testing *^ George, Ronald B. (2005). Chest medicine: essentials of pulmonary and ... Represented by centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O) and measured with a manometer. Maximum inspiratory pressure is an ... This test will pick up diffusion impairments, for instance in pulmonary fibrosis.[19] This must be corrected for anemia (a low ...
... and water. Approximately 75-85% of the cell's volume is due to water making it an indispensable solvent as a result of its ... They accomplish this process of gaining access to the cell via: osmotic pressure, diffusion, concentration gradients, and ...
Organic water-insoluble without halides J-STD-004[edit]. One standard increasingly used (e.g. in the United States) is J-STD- ... The technique is known as diffusion soldering.[citation needed] Fluxless brazing of copper alloys can be done with self-fluxing ... Water-soluble) Any of these categories may be no-clean, or not, depending on the chemistry selected and the standard that the ... Water-soluble organic fluxes tend to contain vehicles based on high-boiling polyols - glycols, diethylene glycol and higher ...
... water has a molar mass of 18.0153(3) g/mol, but individual water molecules have molecular masses which range between 18.010 564 ... Johnson Jr., C. S. (1999). "Diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: principles and applications". Progress ... and diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY).[6] The apparent hydrodynamic size can then be used to ... Molecular Weight Determination of Small Molecules via DOSY-NMR by Using External Calibration Curves with Normalized Diffusion ...
a b c The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Archived 2016-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. ... Each quarter had its own mosque, Turkish bath, water-spring and also a quarter representative, who would be elected among the ...
... of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor; this ... This is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the diffusion ... The sun (solar energy) drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water. In ... Aerosol of microscopic water droplets suspended in the air above a cup of hot tea after the water vapor has sufficiently cooled ...
52 The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation". The New Phytologist. 125: 27-58. doi: ... That is, the reaction rate is "diffusion-limited". The high efficiency of superoxide dismutase seems necessary: even at the ... The ligands of the manganese ions are 3 histidine side-chains, an aspartate side-chain and a water molecule or hydroxy ligand, ...
A further impediment to reliability of the early devices was the diffusion of water vapour from the body fluids through the ...
Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline ... Fick's laws of diffusion. *Gay-Lussac's law (1809, relating pressure and temperature) ... earth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a combination. Greek atomism dates back to 440 ... it occurs in a more ordered phase like liquid or solid as is the case with water (H2O); a liquid at room temperature because ...
of an air-water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor (. p. H. 2. O. ). {\displaystyle (p_{H_{ ... after which the mixture will eventually become uniform through diffusion.) Hence the mass per unit volume of the gas-its ... Water vapour, the gaseous state of water, is generally invisible to the human eye.[1] Humidity indicates the likelihood for ... Second, water vapor is the most abundant of all greenhouse gases. Water vapor, like a green lens that allows green light to ...
This mechanism may depend on an associated water molecule for deprotonation of the reactive threonine hydroxyl. Degradation ... Passage of the unfolded substrate through the opened gate occurs via facilitated diffusion if the 19S cap is in the ATP-bound ...
... be it direct attempts at the Canadian market or the general diffusion of American culture in the globalized media arena. While ... water sports, and several forms of wrestling. ...
Self-Diffusion of Water. AIMD simulations using the CP2K package (30) were conducted for three systems: pure water, 3 M NaCl, ... Water molecules in the salt solutions face both dynamically evolving water and ionic environments which influence the diffusion ... Cutoffs for the water-water and ion-water interactions were chosen where physically meaningful coordination numbers for the ... Smoothed probability density distributions of water residence time around water in 3 M CsI solution (Top), pure water (Middle ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of methanol in water. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor ...
p>Several workers have investigated the diffusion of water in soil under a temperature gradient above the freezing point. ... Subject Headings: Diffusion , Water temperature , Temperature effects , Soil water , Underground storage , Buried pipes , Labor ... Diffusion of Water under Subfreezing Temperature by Jai P. Gupta, Stuart W. Churchill, Serial Information: Journal of the ... Several workers have investigated the diffusion of water in soil under a temperature gradient above the freezing point. However ...
... Zhi Shang, Jing Lou, and Hongying Li ... A multidimensional diffusion flux mixture model was developed to simulate water jet two-phase flows. Through the modification ... The novel multidimensional diffusion flux mixture model is developed based on the mixture multiphase flow model. The diffusion ... The following equation is employed to covert the diffusion velocities to slip velocities that can be presented as , where is ...
Review Tiffen Soft Focus & Diffusion, Soft Effects & Contrast Filters ... Digital Diffusion FX 3 Water White Glass Filter features Smoothes Out Unwanted Detail, Minimum of Highlight Flare. ... Tiffen 4.5" Digital Diffusion FX 3 Water White Glass Filter B&H # TIDDFX34.5 MFR # W412DDFX3 ... The Tiffen 4.5" Digital Diffusion FX 3 Glass Filter offers both traditional film and video shooters a way to flatter their ...
Water-diffusion technology identifies brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental ... "DTI is an advanced MRI technique that uses the properties of water diffusion within the brain to obtain information about fine ... Water-diffusion technology identifies brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental ... Furthermore, an indicator of white matter integrity called "fractional anisotropy," and a measure of average water diffusion ...
Anisotropic water diffusion in neural fibres such as nerve, white matter in spinal cord, or white matter in brain forms the ... The fact that water diffusion is sensitive to the underlying tissue microstructure provides a unique method of assessing the ... The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review.. Beaulieu C1. ... The purpose of this review is to characterize the relationship of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of water diffusion ...
Theoretical results are tested and confirmed using a unique data set from the water industry. ... "Factor Price Risk and the Diffusion of Conservation Technology: Evidence from the Water Industry," Claremont Colleges Working ... Factor Price Risk and the Diffusion of Conservation Technology: Evidence from the Water Industry. ... "The energy paradox and the diffusion of conservation technology," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 91 ...
MRI in 30 children from 1 day of life to 17 years to provide a data base and to investigate the correlation of diffusion ... We studied the changes in brain water diffusion in childhood as seen on diffusion-weighted ... We studied the changes in brain water diffusion in childhood as seen on diffusion-weighted MRI in 30 children from 1 day of ... Changes in brain water diffusion during childhood Neuroradiology. 1999 Dec;41(12):929-34. doi: 10.1007/s002340050869. ...
Photo about Brown gray dirty muddy water mixed with pure blue sea water and the environment is polluted. Image of diffusion, ... Dirty drain, Water pollution in river. Puddle of Dirty Water. Dirty water. Dirty blooming water. Dirty water. Water pollution ... Water mixing. Summer seascape, muddy river water mixed with blue. Water flowing to a cup. Cleaning. Top view, motor boat floats ... Dirty soapy water with bubbles near the waterfall. Pollen and dirt mixed with water in the river or lake, environmental. ...
Patterns of age-related water diffusion changes in human brain by concordance and discordance analysis.. Zhang Y1, Du AT, ... Patterns of age-related water diffusion changes in human brain by concordance and discordance analysis ... Patterns of age-related water diffusion changes in human brain by concordance and discordance analysis ... Patterns of age-related water diffusion changes in human brain by concordance and discordance analysis ...
... Neuroimage. 2002 Nov;17(3): ... reflecting the lack of myelin and the increased freedom of cross-fiber diffusion in white matter. The water diffusivity ... The principal diffusion eigenvalues of eight axonal fiber tracts that can be identified with certainty on DTI maps were ... The water diffusivity perpendicular to axonal fiber tracts, lambda(perpendicular), was significantly higher in shiverer mice ...
Patenting activity is analysed - including inventive activity by country and technology, international diffusion of such water- ... Finally, although we observe a positive correlation between water scarcity and local filings of water patents, some countries ... Second, whilst 80% of water-related invention worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate water scarcity, several ... First, although inventive activity in water-related technologies has been increasing over the last two decades, this growth has ...
... ... and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method for use as drug carriers. Blue dextran was ... used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the resultant microspheres ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of water in methanol at different concentrations measured using open ended ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of water in methanol. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and ... 3 Diffusion in Liquid Mixtures. 3.1. Data. 3.1.1. Diffusion in Binary Mixtures. H2 O ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of water in methanol at different concentrations measured using open ended ...
By plotting the ratio of the rate of diffusion to the rate of decay of carbon-14 over the length scales representative of ... where a mean carbon-14-based age of 21,000 years was adjusted to 11,000 years to account for diffusion. This formula and its ... several common hydrogeologic settings, it is demonstrated that diffusion of carbon-14 should often be not only a significant ... It has generally been recognized that molecular diffusion can be a significant process affecting the transport of carbon-14 in ...
These two extracellular deposits provide control of diffusion enabling the endodermis to direct the movement of water and ... These responses in the root are also coupled to a reduction in water demand in the shoot mediated by ABA-dependent stomatal ... Here, we report that such sensing of barrier integrity leads to the rebalancing of water and mineral nutrient uptake, ... The endodermis is a key cell layer in plant roots that contributes to the controlled uptake of water and mineral nutrients into ...
Home » Publications » All research » Research article » Invention and diffusion of water supply and water efficiency ... Invention and diffusion of water supply and water efficiency technologies: insights from a global patent dataset Research ... Patenting activity is analyzed - including inventive activity by country and technology, international diffusion of such water- ... Finally, although we observe a positive association between water scarcity and local filings of water patents, some countries ...
numerical criteria, density diffusion, meshless method, boundary element method, concentration in water reservoirs, observed ... We would like to investigate the numerical criteria for calculating the density diffusion in a water reservoir using ... Keywords: numerical criteria, density diffusion, meshless method, boundary element method, concentration in water reservoirs, ... Field studies in a few water reservoirs have led to reports of a phenomenon in which the distance reached by the DO-rich water ...
... glucose in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor dispersion technique, Rayleigh interferometry, quasi-elastic ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of D(+)- ... glucose in water. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of D(+)-glucose in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor ...
Methods: Whole-brain and regional GM thickness and FA values were measured from high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor ... and diffusion tensor MR images (1.7x1.7x3.0mm, 55 directions) collected for 712 active participants (274/438 male/females, age= ... measured from diffusion tensor imaging data. FA describes the directional selectivity of the random diffusion of water ... Genetic analysis of cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in the brain. Peter Kochunov1,2,3*, David C ...
Aqueous CS solution and ethyl ace- tate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. Genipin was used as a cross-linker. ... microparticles with and without cross-linking were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any ... Chitosan (CS) microparticles with and without cross-linking were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method ... Preparation and characterization of genipin-cross-linked chitosan microparticles by water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion ...
... Kamali-Zare, Padideh KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), ... As water moves into or out of cells, the volumes of intra- and extracellular compartments consequently change. Water transport ... The main clue is the existence of diffusion limited space (DLS) in the bulk extracellular space (ECS). DLS can, despite being ... The biophysical function of water channels is then extensively explored in paper IV where the main focus has been the dynamics ...
The water absorption of these composite scaffolds obeyed the classical diffusion theory for the initial period of time. The ... Water Absorption and Diffusion Characteristics of Nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) and Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate-) Based ... diffusion coefficients of the composite scaffolds during the water absorption were much faster than those for the nonporous ... The incorporation of nHA increased the water uptake of both the composite scaffolds and thin films. It was also observed that ...
We document the spatial and seasonal variation in surface diffusion of CO2 and CH4 from Douglas Lake, a hydropower reservoir in ... Models explained 22.7% and 20.9% of the variation in CO2 and CH4 diffusions respectively, and identified pH, temperature, ... Monthly estimates across 13 reservoir sites from January to November 2010 indicated that surface diffusions ranged from 236 to ... Next, we developed statistical models using spatial and physicochemical variables to predict surface diffusions of CO2 and CH4 ...
Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about ... In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were ... The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active ... The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Ficks Law ...
Apparatus and materials Gas jar CuSO4 solution, concentrated (harmful) Distilled water Funnel and glass tube ... It is fascinating showing how liquids of different densities can be floated on top of each other before diffusion causes mixing ... Demonstration It is fascinating showing how liquids of different densities can be floated on top of each other before diffusion ... Diffusion of copper sulfate solution in water. Demonstration. It is fascinating showing how liquids of different densities can ...
Miller, Thomas F., III and Manolopolous, David E. (2005) Quantum diffusion in liquid water from ring polymer molecular dynamics ... polymers, water, molecular dynamics method, liquid theory, liquid structure, self-diffusion, fluctuations, viscosity. ... We then go on to consider the system-size scaling of the calculated self-diffusion coefficient and show that an appropriate ... effects increase the self-diffusion coefficient D and decrease the relaxation times around the principal axes of the water ...
  • The diffusion coefficients of the composite scaffolds during the water absorption were much faster than those for the nonporous thin films, suggesting that the water uptake process depends on the presence of porosity and porous microstructure of the composite scaffolds. (hindawi.com)
  • Water diffusion coefficients at different temperatures and water concentrations were calculated from the total water profiles, using the Boltzmann Matano technique. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • This results in a convergence of water diffusion coefficients in all melts at lower (magmatic) temperatures. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The comparable diffusion coefficients in collagenous cap and normal media are consistent with similar biophysical barriers in both components. (ahajournals.org)
  • Diffusion coefficients of lithium are estimated as a function of the water content in membranes by using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR and electrical conductivity techniques. (csic.es)
  • However, for membranes with medium and low concentration of water, steady state conditions are not reached in the computations and the diffusion coefficients obtained by MD simulation techniques are overestimated. (csic.es)
  • From appropriate one-dimensional profiles at the shorter times Fickian diffusion coefficients were obtained for initial water diffusion. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The average radial diffusion coefficients were (1.07±0.22)×10−8 cm2 s−1 for the 20% drug-loaded depots, (1.54±0.27)×10−8 cm2 s−1 for the 30% drug-loaded depots and (2.00±0.83)×10−8 cm2 s−1 for the 40% drug-loaded depots-in the ratio of the drug loadings i.e. 2:3:4, implying the water associated with drug during its uptake into the monoliths. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The axial diffusion coefficients were found to be of the same order of magnitude as the radial diffusion coefficients, in accord with this hypothesis. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Belt diffusion coefficients for water molecules in wood are anisotropic, and are reduced from those observed in distilled water. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Despite their great importance in low-temperature geochemistry, self-diffusion coefficients of noble gas isotopes in liquid water (D) have been measured only for the major isotopes of helium, neon, krypton and xenon. (escholarship.org)
  • Data on the self-diffusion coefficients of minor noble gas isotopes are essentially non-existent and so typically are estimated by a kinetic theory model in which D varies as the inverse square root of the isotopic mass (m): D proportional to m-0.5. (escholarship.org)
  • Self-diffusion coefficients of ~ a a't v a ~ i n gpr oportions of methanol in water have been measured and the behaviow is discussed in tenns of viscosity of the mediurn and solvatation effect. (ufrgs.br)
  • Numerical simulations with the finite difference method showed that in most cases the water uptake of the PA and SR membranes could be described with a model consisting of two diffusion coefficients. (elsevier.com)
  • The diffusion coefficients of the PA membranes were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based ISMs and only slightly influenced by the membrane matrix composition. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the diffusion coefficients of the SR and plasticized PVC membranes were similar, the SR membranes had the lowest water uptake of all membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • The estimates of diffusion coefficients are developed from methods presented in Chapter 17: Diffusion Coefficients in Air and Water by William A. Tucker and Leslie H. Nelken of the "Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods" by Warren J. Lyman, William F. Reehl and David H. Rosenblatt, first edition, 1990, American Chemical Society. (epa.gov)
  • The calculator uses three methods to make estimates of diffusion coefficients in air (FSG, FSG-LaBas and WL) and one method for the diffusion coefficient in water (HL). (epa.gov)
  • An excellent method for the measurement of self-diffusion coefficients is pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR, where no isotopic tracers are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diffusion coefficients for these two types of diffusion are generally different because the diffusion coefficient for chemical diffusion is binary and it includes the effects due to the correlation of the movement of the different diffusing species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract Using pulsed field gradient methods combined with magnetic resonance imaging, we calculated the apparent water diffusion coefficient D in different atherosclerotic components to probe the microstructure of normal and diseased arteries by characterizing molecular motion. (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "We compare the freezing/melting behavior of water hydrating single-supported bilayers of a zwitterionic lipid DMPC with that of an anionic lipid DMPG. (dtu.dk)
  • We then go on to consider the system-size scaling of the calculated self-diffusion coefficient and show that an appropriate extrapolation to the limit of infinite system size increases D by a further factor of around 1.3 over the value obtained from a simulation of a system containing 216 water molecules. (caltech.edu)
  • In the PFG NMR experiment, water molecules are labeled by the Larmor precession frequencies of the proton spins at the hydrogen sites. (ahajournals.org)
  • Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides quantitative measures of the mobility of water molecules in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • or the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) averaged over three orthogonal directions, measure the magnitude of diffusion of the water molecules, while diffusion anisotropy indices, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), indicate the deviation from pure isotropic diffusion of water mobility in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • 26.5, where λ is the number of molecules of water per fixed sulfonate group. (csic.es)
  • Combining this diffusion measurement with magnetic resonance imaging methods allows the visualization of 3D motion of molecules in structured environments, like biological tissue. (umn.edu)
  • Membrane Structure and Function - 7 Facilitated Diffusion Most molecules can not move freely through the membrane, but do cross membranes with the help of membrane transport proteins, which temporarily bind to the substance to be moved through the membrane, a process called facilitated diffusion or passive transport. (coursehero.com)
  • At least two distinguishable populations of water molecules are found in wood. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • At low water contents PEGs of low molecular weight impart a mobility to the "bound" water molecules which is not seen in untreated samples. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This reduction is brought about because water molecules are both held in a hydration layer, and bounded by the cellular structure of the wood. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • When a drop of food coloring enters the water, the food coloring molecules are highly concentrated at the location where the dye molecules meet the water molecules, giving the water in that area a very dark color Figure 2. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • The diffusion of water molecules and clusters across the surfaces of materials is important to a wide range of processes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • On one hand, water has a slight positive charge and is attracted to atoms and molecules wit. (reference.com)
  • For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). (osapublishing.org)
  • Theorem one is that molecules such as protein and polysaccharides are more concentrated inside the cell than outside the cell when the cell is in distilled water. (ipl.org)
  • These molecules therefore begin to move outside of the cell because of the process of diffusion, but are blocked by the cell membrane . (ipl.org)
  • Theorem two is that water molecules move into the cell because of the concentration of the water is greater outside the cell than it is inside the cell. (ipl.org)
  • Practical Report- Diffusion in Agar Cubes Sabrina Turtur- Stage 1 Biology Introduction Diffusion is the movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from an area in which they are in higher concentration to areas of lower concentration. (ipl.org)
  • How Many H2O Molecules Are in a Drop of Water? (reference.com)
  • Potassium Iodide Binds to Polysaccharide Molecules through Semipermeable Membrane Introduction: Diffusion is defined at the net movement of molecular substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (bartleby.com)
  • Phys.org)-Astronomers have detected the presence of water molecules in the atmosphere of a nearby hot Jupiter exoplanet known as 51 Pegasi b (51 Peb b for short). (phys.org)
  • We have presented a 5,6σ detection of water molecules in the atmosphere of the original hot Jupiter, 51 Peg b, providing the first confirmation that the 51 Peg Ab system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary. (phys.org)
  • Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the concentrations are equal the molecules continue to move, but since there is no concentration gradient the process of molecular diffusion has ceased and is instead governed by the process of self-diffusion, originating from the random motion of the molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material such that the distribution of molecules is uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fundamentally, two types of diffusion are distinguished: Tracer diffusion and Self-diffusion, which is a spontaneous mixing of molecules taking place in the absence of concentration (or chemical potential) gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a so-called NMR spin echo experiment this technique uses the nuclear spin precession phase, allowing to distinguish chemically and physically completely identical species e.g. in the liquid phase, as for example water molecules within liquid water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The curves depicting the variation of the diffusion coefficient of water estimated by NMR and full dynamics follow parallel trends, though the values of the diffusion coefficient in the latter case are somewhat higher. (csic.es)
  • The self-diffusion coefficient of water has been experimentally determined with high accuracy and thus serves often as a reference value for measurements on other liquids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If cell membranes and other tissue structures are degraded or malformed for some reason, then the water runs into less obstructions and the water travels further in the tissue, which can be measured with DTI. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study we aimed to improve the previously reported methodologies for water absorption and new methodologies were developed in Franz diffusion cell with 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes. (ovid.com)
  • 14, the value of the diffusion coefficient of lithium experiences a sharp decay with the reduction of water in the membranes. (csic.es)
  • The dependence of the diffusion of lithium on the humidity of the membranes calculated from conductivity data using Nernst−Planck type equations follows a trend similar to that observed by NMR. (csic.es)
  • The diffusion of water estimated by 1H PFG-NMR in membranes neutralized with lithium decreases as λ decreases, but the drop is sharper in the region where the decrease of the diffusion of protons of water also undergoes considerable reduction. (csic.es)
  • The WAXS diffractograms of fully hydrated membranes exhibit the ionomer peak at q = 2.8 nm−1, the peak being shifted to higher q as the water content of the membranes decreases. (csic.es)
  • Now to a Complication of water, membranes and diffusion: Osmosis Before continuing our discussion of methods of moving materials across membranes, we need to discuss in more depth the impact of water movement through membranes on fluid balance in cells. (coursehero.com)
  • For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the elastically scattered neutron intensity indicates distinct water types undergoing translational diffusion: bulk-like water probably located above the membrane and two types of confined water closer to the lipid head groups. (dtu.dk)
  • The membranes differ in the greater width of the water freezing transition near the anionic DMPG bilayer compared to zwitterionic DMPC as well as in the abruptness of the freezing/melting transitions of the bulk-like water. (dtu.dk)
  • For the first time, FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to study the water uptake and its diffusion in ion-selective membranes (ISMs) based on poly(acrylates) (PAs) and silicone rubber (SR), which are emerging materials for the fabrication of ISMs for ultratrace analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the simulations indicated that during longer contact times, the water uptake of PA membranes was considerably higher than that for plasticized PVC membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Water transport occurs in all biological membranes . (ndif.org)
  • A few selected membranes in the kidney , amphibian urinary bladder , and erythrocyte have very high water permeability and are thought to contain specialized water transporting units termed " water channels . (ndif.org)
  • The known biophysical properties of membranes containing water channels are a high osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf), an osmotic -to-diffusional water permeability coefficient ratio (Pf/Pd) greater than unity, a low activation energy (Ea), and inhibition by mercurial compounds. (ndif.org)
  • In the mammalian proximal tubule , a high Pf results from transcellular movement of water across highly permeable apical and basolateral membranes containing water channels . (ndif.org)
  • Water movement across cell membranes is an essential requirement for body water balance , and body water balance is essential to health. (ndif.org)
  • Whereas most cell plasma membranes require only that water diffuse through them, some require that water transport across them much more rapidly and in greater volume than is possible through diffusion alone. (ndif.org)
  • proteins that insert themselves into the membranes to form channels through which water can pass with relatively great speed and volume. (ndif.org)
  • Water transport across cell membranes is difficult to measure so there is still much that is unknown about water transport mechanisms. (ndif.org)
  • Still, the differing methods have found enough results in common to provide a solid framework for beginning to understand how and by what processes water transports across different cell membranes , the rate and volume at which it does in each place, and some of the biochemical and molecular variables, parameters and structures involved in the transport . (ndif.org)
  • More water crosses the membranes through osmotic permeability than through diffusing across the membranes . (ndif.org)
  • Water transport across the membranes is inhibited in the presence of mercurial compounds. (ndif.org)
  • The kidney is an ideal organ in which to study water transport across cell membranes because water transports across membranes there by various processes -- diffusion , osmosis , with the aid of water channels and without water channels -- depending on what part of the kidney is being examined. (ndif.org)
  • A new study has used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify several specific white matter regions as well as deep gray matter areas of the brain that appear sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Anisotropic water diffusion in neural fibres such as nerve, white matter in spinal cord, or white matter in brain forms the basis for the utilization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to track fibre pathways. (nih.gov)
  • We describe herein the use of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to quantify the effect of dysmyelination on water directional diffusivities in brains of shiverer mice in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Whole-brain and regional GM thickness and FA values were measured from high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images collected from 712, Mexican American participants (438 females, age = 47.9 ± 13.2 years) recruited from 73 (9.7 ± 9.3 individuals/family) large families. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thirty two patients with lesions affecting both grey and white matter underwent serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) within 24 hours, and at 4-7 days, 10-14 days, 1 month, and 3 months after stroke. (bmj.com)
  • In its simplest form, the 3D measure of diffusion can be modeled as a real, symmetry rank-2 tensor of diffusion rate and direction at each image voxel. (umn.edu)
  • The resulting rank-2 tensor can be used to visualize diffusion as an ellipsoid at each voxel and fiber connections can be inferred by connecting the path, defined by the long axis (principle eigenvector) of the ellipse, passing through each voxel. (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, an indicator of white matter integrity called "fractional anisotropy," and a measure of average water diffusion called "mean diffusivity," were assessed in all 14 brain structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to characterize the relationship of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of water diffusion and its anisotropy (i.e. directional dependence) with the underlying microstructure of neural fibres. (nih.gov)
  • A systematic discussion of the possible sources of anisotropy and their evaluation will be presented followed by an overview of various studies of restricted diffusion and compartmentation as they relate to anisotropy. (nih.gov)
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and apparent anisotropy (AA) were calculated in numerous regions of the brain to include major white matter tracts and gray matter. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we analyzed white matter diffusion properties, including generalized fractional anisotropy, and the quantity of water diffusion in isotropic (i.e., isotropic diffusion) and anisotropic fashion (i.e., quantitative anisotropy, QA) for fibers crossing 11 brain areas known to be significantly affected following mTBI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other authors report a general reduction in diffusion anisotropy after stroke, consistent with loss of integrity of the tissue structure. (bmj.com)
  • The water diffusivity perpendicular to axonal fiber tracts, lambda(perpendicular), was significantly higher in shiverer mice compared with age-matched controls, reflecting the lack of myelin and the increased freedom of cross-fiber diffusion in white matter. (nih.gov)
  • The water diffusivity parallel to axonal fiber tracts, lambda(parallel), was not different, which is consistent with the presence of intact axons. (nih.gov)
  • The activation energies for water diffusivity in trachyte and basalt are comparable, and higher than in haplogranitic melt. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The fast diffusion profile of water was observed as an extended tail of the normal water diffusion profile by a line scan analysis with SIMS, and it can be fitted with a diffusion model with a constant diffusivity. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The diffusivity and activation energy for the fast water diffusion can be explained by the correlation between diffusivities of noble gases in silica glass and their sizes. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Several workers have investigated the diffusion of water in soil under a temperature gradient above the freezing point. (asce.org)
  • Models explained 22.7% and 20.9% of the variation in CO 2 and CH 4 diffusions respectively, and identified pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and Julian day as the most informative predictors. (mdpi.com)
  • Sea spray aerosols contain a large array of organic compounds that contribute to high viscosities at low relative humidity and temperature thereby slowing translational diffusion of water. (rsc.org)
  • Temperature Dependence of Thermal Diffusion Length for Plutonium-Beryllium Neutrons in Borated Water. (dtic.mil)
  • The temperature dependence of diffusion length for PU-BE neutrons in distilled water poisoned with boric acid was studied using concentrations of 1.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 30.0 grams per liter. (dtic.mil)
  • Nuclear Tracer Measurements of Low Temperature Water Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide (Si02) Thin Films. (dtic.mil)
  • Hypothesis If the temperature of the solution is high, then the rate of diffusion will increase. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • It will be assumed that, after 10 minutes in the boiling water, the temperature of the metal is the same as the boiling water. (ostatic.com)
  • 7. After the metal has been heating for 10 minutes, measure and record the temperature of the water in the calorimeter cup with a Logger-Pro temperature probe 8. (ostatic.com)
  • 2. Put 50 mL deionized water and a stir bar into a thermos mug and swirl to get a uniform temperature. (ostatic.com)
  • IB Chemistry Lab Report Design Example- Effect of Temperature on Solubility of Potassium Chloride in Water Research question How does temperature affect the solubility of potassium chloride in water? (bartleby.com)
  • Hypothesis As the temperature of water increases, the particles of solid Potassium chloride, KCl, which are absorbing energy from its surrounding, start moving more easily between the solution and its solid state because. (bartleby.com)
  • The main contributions of this work are: (1) Development of a new digital GDL microstructure generation algorithm, (2) Evaluation of infrared temperature measurements in the through-plane direction of a PEMFC, and (3) Identification of a new water transport mechanism in GDL materials. (rit.edu)
  • Filter sterilize using a 0.2 micron filter and place in hot water bath to increase temperature to 50°C. (cdc.gov)
  • where D BA is the diffusion coefficient of compound B in compound A in cm 2 /s, T is the temperature in K, P is the pressure in atm, M r a function of the molecular weights M A and M B of compounds A and B, V A and V B are the molar volumes of air (A) and the gas (B) in question. (epa.gov)
  • where D BA is the diffusion coefficient of compound B in compound A (water) in cm 2 /s, n w is the viscosity of water in cp (corrected for temperature) and V_ B are the LaBas molar volume increments. (epa.gov)
  • Incorrect temperature The issue of temperature being too high, too low, or simply fluctuating can cause problems for dye diffusion transfer prints. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, the diffusion process will eventually result in complete mixing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the influence of electrolytes on the rate of transport in electrical endosmose must be ascribed to their influence on the quantity of electrical charge on the unit area of the membrane, we must conclude that the same explanation holds for the influence of electrolytes on the rate of transport of water into a solution through a collodion membrane in the case of free osmosis. (rupress.org)
  • When, therefore, the ions of an electrolyte raise the charge on the unit area of the membrane on the solution side above that on the side of pure water, a flow of the oppositely charged liquid must occur through the interstices of the membrane from the side of the water to the side of the solution (positive osmosis). (rupress.org)
  • When, however, the ions of an electrolyte lower the charge on the unit area of the solution side of the membrane below that on the pure water side of the membrane, liquid will diffuse from the solution into the pure water (negative osmosis). (rupress.org)
  • Osmosis Water is a substance just like sodium or potassium or glucose. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • Osmosis is a special case of diffusion. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • The act of diffusion occurs in respiration, photosynthesis and osmosis. (ipl.org)
  • Beyond that, diffusion can further be divided into two different kinds of net movement of substance to opposing concentration gradients, dialysis and osmosis. (bartleby.com)
  • Diffusion of solvents, such as water, through a semipermeable membrane is classified as osmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translational water diffusion coefficient is quantified using the H 2 O/D 2 O isotope exchange technique between 26 and 54% relative humidity (RH) for sucrose and 7 and 25% RH for CA using a recently developed mobile electrodynamic balance apparatus. (rsc.org)
  • We have performed tracer diffusion measurements involving network 180, demonstrating the importance of oxygen exchange between the Si02 network and molecularly dissolved water. (dtic.mil)
  • The advantage of such a method is the accurate definition of the diffusion time (delay between the gradient pulses), allowing measurements of restricted diffusion and diffusion barrier spacing: when the diffusion time is accurately known, only the molecular translational motion taking place between the two diffusion gradient pulses plays a role in the experiment. (ahajournals.org)
  • At a minimum, this model requires seven unique measurements of diffusion to fit the model (Basser, et al. (umn.edu)
  • This limitation can be overcome by extending the angular resolution of diffusion measurements (Tuch, et al. (umn.edu)
  • Using the water uptake measurements the one-dimensional radial profiles were normalised. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Relaxation measurements on pre-treated samples provides evidence of a very tightly bound fraction, present at water contents of below 0.14 g/g 0i hydration water, with a second population of hydration water being present up to 0.1.8 9/9. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Water diffusion into cylindrical biodegradable monolithic depots fabricated from extruded mixtures of poly(dl-lactide) and a peptidic drug, goserelin, containing 20, 30 and 40% drug by weight has been studied using an ion beam analysis technique. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In this experiment, we will first be looking at how diffusion occurs in hot and cold homogenous mixtures. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • The superficial layer of cells of the epidermis apparently inhibits water diffusion through skin by virtue of diffuse lipid or fat phase supported in a keratin-rich framework. (ajtmh.org)
  • Because noble gases diffuse through free volume in the glass structure, we conclude that molecular water can also diffuse through the free volume. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • We find, in agreement with previous studies, that quantum-mechanical effects increase the self-diffusion coefficient D and decrease the relaxation times around the principal axes of the water molecule by a factor of around 1.5. (caltech.edu)
  • The tracer diffusion is usually assumed to be identical to self-diffusion (assuming no significant isotopic effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • The self-diffusion coefficient of neat water is: 2.299·10−9 m²·s−1 at 25 °C and 1.261·10−9 m²·s−1 at 4 °C. Chemical diffusion occurs in a presence of concentration (or chemical potential) gradient and it results in net transport of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the perturbation that ions make on the hydrogen bond network of water remains an open question. (pnas.org)
  • One important facet of this vast research is the role of water in the solvation of ions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, understanding the effect that ions have on the structural and dynamical properties of water has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies ( 6 , 9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • The diffusion of lithium ions computed by full molecular dynamics is similar to that estimated by NMR. (csic.es)
  • Diffusion of ions and water through microbial polysaccharides in the rhizosphere. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Keywords: numerical criteria, density diffusion, meshless method, boundary element method, concentration in water reservoirs, observed concentration distribution in model simulation of water reservoir. (witpress.com)
  • In diffusion, it is very important to measure instantaneous concentration inside the plume in order to calculate the mean and extrema fields. (witpress.com)
  • After heating in atmospheres with different water contents, the extent of 180 diffusion was determined by observing changes in the concentration profile (i.e. the chemical concentration as a function of depth) of implanted 180 by means of nuclear resonance profiling. (dtic.mil)
  • Water concentration profiles were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • where C h 2 o is the water concentration in wt%, R is 8.3145 (J K 1 mol. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • It was found that removal of O-acetyl groups reduces the rate of water transport and increases the rate of water binding at any given xanthan concentration. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This explains why in lower concentrations of electrolytes the rate of diffusion of water through a collodion membrane from pure water into solution rises at first rapidly with an increase in concentration while beyond a certain concentration (which in a number of electrolytes is M /512 or M /256) the rate of diffusion of water diminishes with a further increase in concentration. (rupress.org)
  • At longer times there is a subsequent non-Fickian increase in the water concentration profile. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In the case of depots loaded with 40% by weight of goserelin, the substantial fraction of the hydrophilic drug released at times greater than one day is accompanied by a decrease in radius and a decrease in water concentration near the depot surface. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Diffusion is presented as a process in which a substance moves down a concentration gradient - from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • Co-Transport When a substance moves from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, as it does during diffusion, it gives back the energy that was supplied to create the concentration gradient in the first place. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • However, if we artificially raise the glucose concentration within the cell above that outside the cell and prevent it from being metabolized, then the facilitated diffusion system will take glucose out of the cell. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • The water absorption of these composite scaffolds obeyed the classical diffusion theory for the initial period of time. (hindawi.com)
  • Water absorption indexes were 7.52, 1.98, 1.44 and 2.90 (mg/cm 2 /min 0.5 ), respectively. (ovid.com)
  • In particular, systems based on the ammonia-water diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) cycle are of particular interest for cooling in off-grid regions and in developing countries due to their low capital costs, low maintenance requirements and unique design in which the requirement for an electrically driven pump is omitted. (up.ac.za)
  • Tomas Svensson, Märta Lewander, and Sune Svanberg, "Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. (osapublishing.org)
  • According to the team, the direct detection of water absorption lines in the spectrum of the planet's atmosphere that undergo a change in Doppler shift provides important insights on the nature of this planetary system. (phys.org)
  • We report the detection of water absorption features in the dayside spectrum of the first-known hot Jupiter, 51 Peg b, confirming the star-planet system to be a double-lined spectroscopic binary. (phys.org)
  • We detect the signature of molecular absorption by water at a significance of 5.6 sigma at a systemic velocity of Vsys=-33+/-2 km/s, coincident with the host star, with a corresponding orbital velocity Kp = 133^+4.3_-3.5 km/s. (phys.org)
  • Second, whilst 80% of water-related invention worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate water scarcity, several countries with absolute or chronic water scarcity are relatively specialized in water efficiency technologies. (repec.org)
  • We studied diffusion isotropy at the plaque shoulder, where a large destruction of collagenous fibers occurs. (ahajournals.org)
  • By infusing cubes of agar with a pH indicator, and then soaking the treated cubes in vinegar, you can model how diffusion occurs in cells. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Based on overlying water and sediment sample collection from 15 sites during July, September, November 2018 and January 2019 in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Danjiangkou reservoir China, the variation of nitrogen (N) was studied. (iwaponline.com)
  • A DOSI-derived bound water index (BWI) was compared to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion weighted (DW) MRI. (escholarship.org)
  • The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate hippocampal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and volume with MRI during the course of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism of the decrease in apparent-diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in the brain during cerebral ischemia is not well understood. (ismrm.org)
  • A filtration cell is designed and the permeation threshold and the apparent water permeability of several carbon papers are investigated. (nebraska.edu)
  • The measured values of apparent permeability indicate that the majority of pores in GDLs are not filled with water and the reactant access to the catalyst layer is not hindered. (nebraska.edu)
  • One-dimensional radial profiles showing the diffusion of water into the depots were produced at points along the length of the sample and, for some short immersion times, axial profiles were obtained for the cylinder ends. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • It is demonstrated that micro porous layer (MPL) cracks improve the water management in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), which are located between the catalyst layer (CL) and bipolar plate (BP), play an important role in enhancing the performance of water splitting in proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). (rsc.org)
  • and that the rate of diffusion of water is retarded by the ion with the same sign of charge as that of the watery phase for the reason that this ion diminishes the charge on the solution side of the membrane. (rupress.org)
  • This proves that chemical stress affecting the cell membrane of the beet was caused by the adding of ethanol in higher concentrations because the alcohol affects the cell membrane by attaching the cell membrane like water does cause it the changing shape and create a hole big enough for more alcohol to get in. (ipl.org)
  • Objective: The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate how the composition of a membrane will affect an elements rate of diffusion and which elements can or cannot penetrate through the membrane. (bartleby.com)
  • Water transport through gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuels cells is investigated experimentally. (nebraska.edu)
  • Tamayol, A & Bahrami, M 2011, ' Water permeation through gas diffusion layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells ', Journal of Power Sources , vol. 196, no. 15, pp. 6356-6361. (nebraska.edu)
  • Liquid water transport through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated through three interrelated studies utilizing the tools of image processing. (rit.edu)
  • Vasopressin binding to receptors located at the basal membrane of principal cells initiates adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production, which is thought ultimately to activate the exocytic insertion of intracellular vesicles containing water channels into the cell apical membrane . (ndif.org)
  • Vasopressin -induced endosomes from kidney collecting tubule and toad urinary bladder contain functional water channels but no proton pumps or urea transporters, supporting a membrane shuttle hypothesis that is selective for water channels . (ndif.org)
  • Defining an indirect index of arterial lipid infiltration, remodeling, and aging, diffusion imaging provides a new nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of atherothrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water at different concentrations measured using Taylor dispersion technique, open ended capillary, NMR spin echo pulse gradient, NMR spin echo field gradient and diaphragm cell. (springer.com)
  • A modified version of Anderson and Saddington's open-ended capillary method has been employed for the detennination of the sclf-diffusion coefficient of Na' in water-methanol NaC1 solution. (ufrgs.br)
  • The endodermis is a key cell layer in plant roots that contributes to the controlled uptake of water and mineral nutrients into plants. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Water uptake characteristics of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV-) based composite tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds incorporating nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA) have been investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • The incorporation of nHA increased the water uptake of both the composite scaffolds and thin films. (hindawi.com)
  • This increase in the water uptake was largely due to the nHA particle aggregates in the microstructure of both composite scaffolds and thin films. (hindawi.com)
  • The changes in weight, radius, drug release and water uptake of the depots with time were also studied. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In spite of certain difference revealed, the order of magnitude of the diffusion time constant and the permeability coefficient are shown to be the same in both cases. (spie.org)
  • Diffusion experiments of 2H (sub 2) O at 900-750 degrees C and water vapor pressure of 50 bar found diffusion of water in SiO (sub 2) glass more than one order of magnitude faster than that reported previously. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • In this presentation, methods of diffusion measurement and examples of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images from brain and spinal cord will be presented to illustrate the potential and challenges for path selecting leading to fiber mapping in the central nervous system. (umn.edu)
  • The anion-exclusive properties of polysaccharides produced naturally in bulk soil, the rhizosphere and root surface of pea was studied by the measurement of diffusion potentials. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The final contribution of this work was the measurement and analysis of water breakthrough dynamics across GDL materials with and without microporous layers (MPLs). (rit.edu)
  • Here, using state-of-the-art simulation methods, we show that treating the electronic degrees of freedom explicitly is required to reproduce the experimentally observed water diffusion trends in CsI and NaCl solutions, where ab initio water is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. (pnas.org)
  • The main objective of this study was to gain insight into the heterogeneity of age-related diffusion changes in human brain white matter by analyzing relationships between the diffusion measures in terms of concordance and discordance instead of evaluating them separately, which is difficult to interpret. (nih.gov)
  • Our results provide evidence for the nature of EV transport within confined environments and demonstrate an unexpected dependence on matrix mechanics and water permeation. (nature.com)
  • The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. (pnas.org)
  • We have used the ring polymer molecular-dynamics method to study the translational and orientational motions in an extended simple point charge model of liquid water under ambient conditions. (caltech.edu)
  • In this work, we examine the relationship between water optical spectroscopic features related to binding state and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured water diffusion dynamics. (escholarship.org)
  • To examine the validity of the kinetic theory model, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the diffusion of noble gases in ambient liquid water with an accurate set of noble gas-water interaction potentials. (escholarship.org)
  • These two extracellular deposits provide control of diffusion enabling the endodermis to direct the movement of water and solutes into and out of the vascular system in roots. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Our results suggest underlying sensitivity differences between BWI and ADC to water in different tissue compartments (e.g., extracellular vs cellular). (escholarship.org)
  • We sought to separate and individually measure the relative contributions of intra- and extracellular water ADC changes during ischemia using Mn2+ as an intracellular MRI contrast agent. (ismrm.org)
  • By plotting the ratio of the rate of diffusion to the rate of decay of carbon-14 over the length scales representative of several common hydrogeologic settings, it is demonstrated that diffusion of carbon-14 should often be not only a significant process, but a dominant one relative to decay. (usgs.gov)
  • In other words, there is some maximum rate of diffusion Vmax when all the carrier pro teins are saturated. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Rate of Diffusion of. (bartleby.com)
  • The effect of molecular weight on the rate of diffusion was determined using the Agar-water Gel Test. (bartleby.com)
  • Results showed that as the time elapsed increases, the rate of diffusion decreases and the substance with the lowest molecular weight had the highest diffusion. (bartleby.com)
  • Computing for the partial rates and average rates of diffusion, potassium permanganate still had the highest average rate of diffusion (0.40 mm/min) followed by potassium dichromate (0.30 mm/min) and methylene blue (0.20 mm/min). (bartleby.com)
  • Hypothesis: First, it is hypothesized that methylene blue will not travel as far as potassium permanganate in the gel solution because the particle size and rate of diffusion is inversely related. (bartleby.com)
  • Using PLIF to analyse water channel simulations of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer A. Butet METEO-FRANCE CNRM/GMEI/SPEA, 42 Av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France 1 Introduction The physical simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer with a water channel is used to study air pollution. (witpress.com)
  • The experimental simulations carried out at Meteo-France by creating the atmospheric boundary layer at a laboratory scale allows the study of the pollutant diffusion released in stable and refounded conditions. (witpress.com)
  • in the other sample, two half-cut samples (two cores) with 0.15 wt% water at the boundary were put together in the apparatus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Liquid water remains one of the most important environments in which physical, chemical, and biological processes occur. (pnas.org)
  • Thus our results call into serious question the widespread assumption that the square root model can be applied to estimate the kinetic fractionation of noble gas isotopes caused by diffusion in ambient liquid water. (escholarship.org)
  • At high electric current density, water vapor, which is the product of this reaction, reach the condensation pressure and precipitate as liquid water reducing the active area of the CL. (uprm.edu)
  • Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) is inserted next to the catalyst layer in order to assist the CL with water drainage, trying to maintain the active area free of liquid. (uprm.edu)
  • The two phases are model as singles phases using the assumption that one movement mechanism at the time which was either as liquid water or vapor. (uprm.edu)
  • Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • When separate time scales are present in a fluorescence revovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiment the reaction and diffusion components can be studied separately. (diva-portal.org)
  • The experiment was conducted in a high-pressure diffusion cell containing a brine-saturated porous column in the middle and gas in the annulus between the porous column and the cell. (begellhouse.com)
  • Furthermore a novel test experiment on the same instrument will be carried out to measure the structure of the water. (psi.ch)
  • Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. (pnas.org)
  • In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes. (springer.com)
  • We use coarse grain simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the relaxations for water-glucose glass, finding two pathways for water diffusion: (i) water jumps into neighbor water positions (linking to water structure), and (ii) water jumps into glucose positions (coupling to glucose rotation). (caltech.edu)
  • The biochemical and molecular characteristics of water channel pathways are not known at present. (ndif.org)
  • Freezing curve, NMR relaxation data, and steady field gradient and pulsed field gradient experiments were conducted on samples of water-logged woods excavated from the Tudor warship, the Mary Rose and on similar samples impregnated with Polyethylene-Glycol solutions: the polymer used as a bulking agent to prevent decay. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Thus, there is a continuous gradient toward the inside of the cell, and the facilitated diffusion system will always bring glucose into the cell. (gabrielgoulddesign.com)
  • Gradient diffusion strips (sometimes referred to by the trade name Etest™) are an accurate, inexpensive methodology for testing yeasts for antifungal susceptibility. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, there are at least three commercial manufacturers of gradient diffusion strips that measure antifungal susceptibility: Biomerieux, Liofilchem and Himed. (cdc.gov)
  • Besides water, the researchers also searched for molecular features arising from the expected major carbon- and oxygen-bearing gases at the observed wavelengths, like water carbon dioxide and methane. (phys.org)
  • This approach can be used to observe changes in water diffusion around cortical cells. (go.jp)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate morphology and changes in water diffusion in the hippocampus during the course of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in vivo using high resolution MRI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We would like to investigate the numerical criteria for calculating the density diffusion in a water reservoir using twodimensional convective diffusion equations. (witpress.com)
  • Despite being one of the most-studied liquids, the properties of water and the nature of its interactions with other physical systems continue to be at the forefront of current research in many fields of science ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is fascinating showing how liquids of different densities can be floated on top of each other before diffusion causes mixing at the interfaces. (practicalphysics.org)
  • The Stokes-Einstein equation describes how viscosity is inversely correlated with the translational diffusion coefficient of the diffusing species. (rsc.org)
  • At steady state, the flux across the water barrier took the form of Fick's First Law. (geotracerkitchen.org)
  • Agar gel provides support for the water barrier without strongly influencing diffusion through it. (geotracerkitchen.org)
  • Its practical applicability is typically bounded, however, by the so-called "spin diffusion barrier," which relates to the poor efficiency of polarization transfer from highly polarized nuclei close to paramagnetic centers to bulk nuclei. (sciencemag.org)
  • In clay particles water is usually intercalated in a form of integer number of molecular water layers. (psi.ch)
  • My hypothesis is that theorem two is the real reason why red blood cells appear bigger in distilled water. (ipl.org)
  • This implies that the contribution of the fast water diffusion to the total water transport in volcanic glass becomes larger under higher water vapor pressure conditions. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Cheng X, Zeng Y, Guo Z, Zhu L. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China. (mdpi.com)
  • A new method for determining the gas effective diffusion coefficient in brine-saturated porous rocks was developed on the basis of the radial diffusion model. (begellhouse.com)
  • They obtained a total of 42 spectra allowing them to observe the radial-velocity shift of the water features in the planet's day side atmosphere . (phys.org)
  • We used high-resolution (R~100,000), 3.2 micron spectra taken with CRIRES/VLT to trace the radial-velocity shift of the water features in the planet's dayside atmosphere during 4 hours of its 4.23-day orbit after superior conjunction. (phys.org)
  • The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review. (nih.gov)
  • Pertinent pathological models, developmental studies and theoretical analyses provide further insight into the basis of anisotropic diffusion and its potential utility in the nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Another study in the thesis reports that erythropoietin can regulate the water permeability of astrocytes and that it alters the pattern of Ca 2+ oscillations in astrocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The abundance of free volume in the silica glass structure estimated previously is higher than that of 2H observed in the fast diffusion in this study, suggesting that the free volume was not fully occupied by 2H (sub 2) O under the present experimental condition. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic film diffusion on the nitrification rate in a submerged biofilter. (dtu.dk)
  • Area based first order nitrification rate constants ranged from 0.065 m d−1 to 0.192 m d−1 for flow velocities between 2.5 m h−1 and 40 m h−1 (18 °C). This study documents that hydraulic film diffusion may have a significant impact on the nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters with geometry and hydraulic flows corresponding to our experimental RAS biofilters. (dtu.dk)
  • The present study will perform an 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional analysis of the water saturation in a GDL based in Darcy`s law macroscopic approach, using the Unsaturated Flow Theory (UFT) and modeling the pressure in terms of water saturation with the experimental correlation called Leverett Function. (uprm.edu)
  • Similar carbon paper with different thicknesses and different Teflon loadings are tested to study the effects of geometrical and surface properties on the water transport. (nebraska.edu)
  • We studied the changes in brain water diffusion in childhood as seen on diffusion-weighted MRI in 30 children from 1 day of life to 17 years to provide a data base and to investigate the correlation of diffusion changes with known patterns of white matter maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, although we observe a positive correlation between water scarcity and local filings of water patents, some countries with high water availability, in particular Switzerland or Norway, nevertheless appear as significant markets for water-efficiency technologies. (repec.org)
  • We document the spatial and seasonal variation in surface diffusion of CO 2 and CH 4 from Douglas Lake, a hydropower reservoir in Tennessee, USA. (mdpi.com)
  • Next, we developed statistical models using spatial and physicochemical variables to predict surface diffusions of CO 2 and CH 4 . (mdpi.com)
  • Troia, M.J. Spatial and Temporal Correlates of Greenhouse Gas Diffusion from a Hydropower Reservoir in the Southern United States. (mdpi.com)
  • A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. (mdpi.com)
  • 11 Finally, we determined water diffusion variations in aging thrombus to fully characterize all components of atherothrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Modern stroke research and treatment depend on the ability to accurately characterize and quantify diffusion volume. (ismrm.org)
  • Water diffusivities in trachytic melts were compared with water diffusivities in rhyolitic and basaltic melts. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Karnchanajindanun, J. , Srisa-ard, M. , Srihanam, P. and Baimark, Y. (2010) Preparation and characterization of genipin-cross-linked chitosan microparticles by water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. (scirp.org)
  • We propose here a new NMR method for plaque characterization measuring water diffusion in atherosclerotic components with a PFG sequence. (ahajournals.org)
  • Magnetic resonance can be used to measure the rate and direction of molecular translational diffusion. (umn.edu)
  • Diffusion-weighted (DW)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a recently reported technique for measuring neural activities by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (go.jp)
  • The influence of xanthan on the diffusion of cations was studied using magnetic resonance imaging. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • DTI is an advanced MRI technique that uses the properties of water diffusion within the brain to obtain information about fine brain structure," explained Catherine Lebel, a doctoral student in the department of biomedical engineering working on the project. (eurekalert.org)
  • Results showed that diffusion abnormalities in FASD go far beyond the corpus callosum region of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lebel added that brain-diffusion abnormalities not previously found or reported may, in fact, be widespread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Diffusion of water is sensitive to structural changes in the brain such as white matter maturation and may be useful in investigating white matter disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Patterns of age-related water diffusion changes in human brain by concordance and discordance analysis. (nih.gov)
  • We observed a significant impact of the blue light treatment (relative to the placebo) on the amount of water diffusion (QA) for multiple brain areas, including the corpus callosum, anterior corona radiata, and thalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using these new methodologies water absorbing capacities of existing iodine preparations [povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment, iodine-potassium iodide (IKI) gel, cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment] and another superabsorbent polymer dextranomer paste were evaluated. (ovid.com)
  • The anion-exclusive behaviour of exopolysaccharides, extracted from broth cultures of a range of rhizosphere microorganisms together with several commercial polysaccharides (i.e., xanthan, scleroglucan, dextran, guar gum) was investigated by measuring the electrochemical potential which developed as a result of the diffusion of KC1 across a polymer layer. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Matrix stress relaxation allows EVs to overcome the confinement, and a higher crosslinking density facilitates a fluctuating transport motion through the polymer mesh, which leads to free diffusion and fast transport. (nature.com)
  • A multidimensional diffusion flux mixture model was developed to simulate water jet two-phase flows. (hindawi.com)
  • The slip velocities between the continuous phase (gas) and the dispersed phase (water droplets) were able to be calculated through multidimensional diffusion flux velocities based on the modified multidimensional drift flux model. (hindawi.com)
  • A multidimensional diffusion flux mixture model (DFMM) was developed in this paper. (hindawi.com)
  • And the concentrations of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 − -N and NO 2 − -N in the sediment, pore water and overlying water were determined to evaluate the diffusion flux across the water-sediment interface. (iwaponline.com)
  • Because DOSI is a portable technology that can be used at the bedside, BWI may provide a low-cost measure of tissue water properties related to breast cancer biology. (escholarship.org)
  • Measure out 1.6 g of agar-agar and 200 ml water. (exploratorium.edu)
  • As part of an investigation of the physical basis underlying aspects of MOS processing technology, we have studied the transport mechanism by which water diffuses through thin SiO2 films. (dtic.mil)
  • We showed diffusion differences in the corpus callosum, which is in agreement with previous studies, but we also showed changes in many other white and deep gray matter structures that have not been previously reported. (eurekalert.org)
  • It has generally been recognized that molecular diffusion can be a significant process affecting the transport of carbon-14 in the subsurface when occurring either from a permeable aquifer into a confining layer or from a fracture into a rock matrix. (usgs.gov)
  • Water transport in gas diffusion media (GDM) is investigated by synchrotron radiography and tomography. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The radiography analysis reveals that water transport is practically not influenced by perforations applied only to the MPL. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In contrast, perforations through the whole GDM (including the MPL) have a strong influence on the overall water transport behavior and are therefore considered for a deeper analysis. (fraunhofer.de)
  • It is proposed that microbial polysaccharides behave anion-exclusively, permitting the transport of cations, but excluding the diffusion of anions. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The influence of O-acetyl groups in xanthan on the rate of water transport and degree of water binding was studied using stray field NMR methods. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, water permeation through aquaporin-1 mediates the EV deformability, which further supports EV transport in hydrogels and a decellularized matrix. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, it will analyze in 1-dimension the effect of inserting Multiple Layers such as micro porous layers (MPL) and the influence of its morphological properties in the water transport. (uprm.edu)
  • The generated distributions of hydrophobic (PTFE) and hydrophilic (carbon) regions representative of commercial GDL materials provides water transport modeling efforts with more accurate geometries to improve PEMFC water management. (rit.edu)
  • It requires a low activation energy (Ea) to set the water transport in motion. (ndif.org)
  • Uncertainty in modeling transport to ground water. (elsevier.com)
  • Diffusion is part of the transport phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of mass transport mechanisms, molecular diffusion is known as a slower one. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, diffusion is a main form of transport for necessary materials such as amino acids within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because chemical diffusion is a net transport process, the system in which it takes place is not an equilibrium system (i.e. it is not at rest yet). (wikipedia.org)
  • The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. (mdpi.com)
  • The obtained fast diffusion coefficient suggests that the diffusion species responsible for the fast diffusion is not molecular hydrogen but molecular water. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • In this paper, we refer to call the velocity increase as the density diffusion, since the velocity increase seems to allow the area of DO diffusion to increase in the vertical direction. (witpress.com)
  • Using the signs of the space division h=s), the time increment k=t), the diffusion parameter  (= D*k/(h)2 ), and the Courant number Cr (=V*k/h), we discuss the order estimate for calculating the density diffusion. (witpress.com)
  • Interaction between water and carbon nanostructures: How good are current density functional approximations? (ucl.ac.uk)