Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Trimethadione: An anticonvulsant effective in absence seizures, but generally reserved for refractory cases because of its toxicity. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p378)Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Osmometry: Measurement of the OSMOLARITY of solutions or BODY FLUIDS.Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.

Effect of individual or combined ablation of the nuclear groups of the lamina terminalis on water drinking in sheep. (1/308)

The subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) were ablated either individually or in various combinations, and the effects on drinking induced by either intravenous infusion of hypertonic 4 M NaCl (1.3 ml/min for 30 min) or water deprivation for 48 h were studied. Ablation of either the OVLT or SFO alone did not affect drinking in response to intravenous 4 M NaCl, although combined ablation of these two circumventricular organs substantially reduced but did not abolish such drinking. Ablation of the MnPO or MnPO and SFO together also substantially reduced, but did not abolish, drinking in response to intravenous hypertonic NaCl. Only near-total destruction of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, MnPO, and part or all of the SFO) abolished acute osmotically induced drinking. The large lesions also reduced drinking after water deprivation, whereas none of the other lesions significantly affected such drinking. None of these lesions altered feeding. The results show that all parts of the lamina terminalis play a role in the drinking induced by acute increases in plasma tonicity. The lamina terminalis appears to play a less crucial role in the drinking response after water deprivation than for the drinking response to acute intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline.  (+info)

A rapid feedback signal is not always necessary for termination of a drinking bout. (2/308)

When a pig is deprived of drinking water, a deficit of body water develops that is corrected when the pig drinks to satiation. If food is available during the deprivation, the stimulus to drinking is plasma hyperosmolality. Because of the delay in correction of plasma hyperosmolality as ingested water is slowly absorbed, it has been thought that a rapid inhibitory signal from the digestive tract is necessary to prevent overdrinking. This concept was tested by measuring changes in plasma osmolality before and during drinking after such deprivation and also after infusion of hypertonic saline. As drinking began, there was a rapid fall of plasma osmolality to levels insufficient to drive drinking by the time drinking ended. This fall of plasma hyperosmolality to subthreshold levels while the pig is drinking seems to make a rapid inhibitory control signal from the digestive tract unnecessary to terminate the drinking bout under these conditions.  (+info)

Thermal dehydration-induced thirst in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (3/308)

Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to either 25 or 37.5 degrees C for 3.5 h, and their thermal and water balance responses were compared. After exposure, either a blood sample was obtained or the rats were allowed to rehydrate for 4 h. SH rats had both higher core temperatures and evaporative water losses during heat exposure. Measurements of hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, plasma protein and sodium concentrations, and plasma osmolality indirectly showed that the SH rats were dehydrated relative to the WKY rats after exposure to either 25 or 37.5 degrees C. SH rats drank significantly more water but also had significantly higher urine volumes than the WKY rats and thus rehydrated only slightly better than the WKY rats. SH and WKY rats had similar levels of water intake and urine output after 24 h of water deprivation. The elevated thermal response of SH rats to heat exposure does not appear to lead to uncompensatable changes in body water status.  (+info)

Osmolality: a physiological long-term regulator of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. (4/308)

Acute infusion of hypertonic fluid increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) in part by elevating nonrenal sympathetic activity. However, it is not known whether chronic, physiological increases in osmolality also increase sympathetic activity. To test this hypothesis, MAP, heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) were measured in conscious, 48-h water-deprived rats (WD) during a progressive reduction in osmolality produced by a 2-h systemic infusion (0.12 ml/min) of 5% dextrose in water (5DW). Water deprivation significantly increased osmolality (308 +/- 2 vs. 290 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH2O, P < 0.001), HR (453 +/- 7 vs. 421 +/- 10 beats/min, P < 0.05), and LSNA (63.5 +/- 1.8 vs. 51.9 +/- 3.8% baroreflex maximum, P < 0.01). Two hours of 5DW infusion reduced osmolality (-15 +/- 5 mosmol/kgH2O), LSNA (-23 +/- 3% baseline), and MAP (-10 +/- 1 mmHg). To evaluate the role of vasopressin in these changes, rats were pretreated with a V1-vasopressin receptor antagonist. The antagonist lowered MAP (-5 +/- 1 mmHg) and elevated HR (32 +/- 7 beats/min) and LSNA (11 +/- 3% baseline) in WD (P < 0. 05), but not in water-replete, rats. 5DW infusion had a similar cumulative effect on all variables in V1-blocked WD rats, but had no effect in water-replete rats. Infusion of the same volume of normal saline in WD rats did not change osmolality, LSNA or MAP. Together these data indicate that, in dehydrated rats, vasopressin supports MAP and suppresses LSNA and HR and that physiological changes in osmolality directly influence sympathetic activity and blood pressure independently of changes in vasopressin and blood volume.  (+info)

Effect of dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei knife cuts on ingestive behavior. (5/308)

Previous findings show that rats with electrolytic or excitotoxic lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) are hypophagic and hypodipsic and have reduced ponderal and linear growth but normal body composition. DMN-lesioned (DMNL) rats also show altered ingestive responses to naloxone. The present study investigated the intrahypothalamic nerve pathways involved in these DMNL effects and the response of the pathways to deprivation challenges by placing knife cuts posterior (Post), lateral (Lat), ventral (Vent), dorsal, or anterior to the DMN or by administering sham operations. One major finding was that rats with Post or Vent were hypophagic (P < 0. 05) and had reduced body weight but responded normally to deprivation challenges. Post and Lat groups were hypodipsic (P < 0. 05), but plasma Na+, K+, and osmolality and 24-h post-water-deprivation drinking responses were similar in all groups. Naloxone did not suppress the intake of Post rats. It appears that the hypophagia and the reduced body weight after DMNL involve fibers entering or leaving the DMN from ventral and posterior directions, and they may be part of an opioid feeding system.  (+info)

An enhanced effect of arginine vasopressin in bradykinin B2 receptor null mutant mice. (6/308)

Under water restriction, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released and promotes water reabsorption in the distal nephron, mainly through AVP V2-receptors. It has been proposed that renal kinins counteract the hydro-osmotic effect of AVP. We hypothesized that kinins acting through B2 receptors antagonize the urinary concentrating effect of AVP. To test this, bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice (B2-KO) and 129/SvEv mice (controls) were placed in metabolic cages and urine collected for 24 hours (water ad libitum). After that, urine was again collected from the same mice during 24 hours of water restriction. Urinary volume (UV), urinary osmolarity (UOsm), and urinary Na+ (UNaV) and K+ (UKV) excretion were determined. On water restriction, UV in controls decreased by approximately 25%, whereas in B2-KO mice there was almost a 60% drop in urinary output (P=0.001 versus controls). In the controls, water restriction increased UOsm by 347 mOsm/kg H2O, approximately 14% above baseline (NS), whereas in knockout mice the increase was 3 times that seen in the controls: >1000 mOsm/kg H2O (P=0.001 versus controls). Compared with normohydration, UNaV and UKV in the water-restricted state increased more in controls than in B2-KO mice. This difference in electrolyte excretion could be explained by greater dehydration in the controls (dehydration natriuresis). In a second protocol, we tried to mimic the effect of endogenous AVP by exogenous administration of an AVP V2-receptor agonist, desmopressin (DDAVP). To suppress endogenous AVP levels before DDAVP administration, mice were volume-overloaded with dextrose and alcohol. UOsm was 685+/-125 and 561+/-58 mOsm/kg H2O in water-loaded controls and B2-KO mice, respectively. After DDAVP was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 1 microgram/kg, UOsm increased to 1175+/-86 mOsm/kg H2O (Delta+490 mOsm) in the controls and 2347+/-518 mOsm/kg H2O (Delta+1786 mOsm) in B2-KO mice (P<0.05 versus controls). We concluded that water restriction or exogenous administration of an AVP V2-receptor agonist has a greater urinary concentrating effect in B2-KO mice than in controls, suggesting that endogenous kinins acting through B2 receptors oppose the antidiuretic effect of AVP in vivo.  (+info)

Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in rat is mediated by a vasopressin-dependent apical pathway. (7/308)

Clinical studies have shown that aquaporin-2 (AQP2), the vasopressin-regulated water channel, is excreted in the urine, and that the excretion increases in response to vasopressin. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in AQP2 excretion are unknown, and it is unknown whether the excretion correlates with AQP2 levels in kidney or levels in the apical plasma membrane. The present study was undertaken to clarify these issues. Immunoblotting of rat urine samples revealed significant excretion of AQP2, whereas AQP3, being a basolateral aquaporin in the same cells, was undetectable. Thus, there was a nonproportional excretion of AQP2 and AQP3 (compared with kidney levels), indicating that AQP2 is excreted predominantly via a selective apical pathway and not by whole cell shedding. Urinary AQP2 was associated with small vesicles, membrane fragments, and multivesicular bodies as determined by immunoelectron microscopy and negative staining techniques. In rats with normal water supply, daily urinary excretion of AQP2 was 3.9+/-0.9% (n = 6) of total kidney expression. Treatment with desmopressin acetate subcutaneously caused a fourfold increase in urinary excretion of AQP2 during 8 h. Forty-eight hours of thirsting, known to increase endogenous vasopressin secretion, resulted in a three-fold increase in kidney AQP2 levels but urinary excretion increased ninefold to 15+/-3% (n = 6) of AQP2 in kidney of thirsted rats. Moreover, rats that were thirsted for 48 h and subsequently allowed free access to water for 24 h produced a decrease in urinary AQP2 excretion to 38+/-15% (n = 6) of that during thirsting. In Brattleboro rats or lithium-treated normal rats completely lacking vasopressin action, and hence having extremely low levels of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane, AQP2 was undetectable in urine. Thus, conditions with known altered vasopressin levels and altered levels of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane were associated with corresponding major changes in AQP2 urine excretion. In contrast, in such conditions, kidney AQP2 levels and urinary AQP2 excretion did not show a proportional relationship.  (+info)

Effects of water deprivation on atrial natriuretic peptide secretion and density of binding sites in adrenal glands and kidneys of maternal and fetal rats in late gestation. (8/308)

The effects of water deprivation for 3 days were studied in pregnant rats and their fetuses on day 21 of gestation. Maternal water deprivation induced a significant decrease of the body weight in both maternal and fetal rats. This weight loss was accompanied by significant increases in plasma osmolality and haematocrit in both maternal and fetal rats. Similarly, dehydration significantly decreased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and increased plasma aldosterone concentrations in maternal and fetal rats. Water-deprived maternal rats presented a significant increase in total ANP receptor density in isolated renal glomeruli and adrenal zona glomerulosa membranes. This increase was due to a significant increase in ANPc receptor density in both renal glomeruli and adrenal zona glomerulosa. The densities of total ANP, ANPb and ANPc receptors in fetal kidneys and adrenal glands were not affected by maternal dehydration. These results suggest that the dehydrated maternal rat is able to up-regulate the number of its ANP receptors in its kidneys and adrenal glands, in response to a decrease in plasma ANP concentrations. In contrast, the fetal rat does not seem to be able to regulate its own ANP receptors in response to maternal dehydration, in spite of a decrease in plasma ANP concentrations.  (+info)

  • Water deprivation resulted in increased TRPC4 mRNA expression in the PVN, while it decreased channel expression levels in the SON. (unthsc.edu)
  • Given that water withdrawal is one of the major stressors for animals during long-distance transports, it was the aim to study the effects of prolonged water deprivation on different blood and behavioural parameters of goats and sheep under stable conditions. (unibz.it)
  • Withdrawal periods corresponded to EU transport regulations, which allow sheep and goats to be transported for a maximum period of 14 hours, followed by a rest period of at least one hour sufficient for them to drink water, if a further 14-h travel is necessary. (unibz.it)
  • Osmotic homeostasis is vitally important for regulating cell volume and function, and in mammals, osmotic equilibrium is regulated through the countercurrent system in the renal medulla, where water exchange through endothelium occurs against an osmotic pressure gradient. (au.dk)
  • Water deprivation test, in which participants will go for 24 hours without water or food and respond to questions about how hungry and thirsty they feel. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To do so, we will ask lean and obese individuals to undergo tests that include a period of approximately 24 hours without drinking any water, and on a separate day a shorter period of an intravenous high salt solution infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High salt infusion test, in which an infusion of saline (salt water) will be given for 2 hours and participants will respond to questions about how hungry and thirsty they feel during the procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nedungadi, TP & Cunningham, JT 2014, ' Differential regulation of TRPC4 in the vasopressin magnocellular system by water deprivation and hepatic cirrhosis in the rat ', American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 306, no. 5, pp. (unthsc.edu)
  • For all its impressive growth, China must grapple with serious water deprivation , especially in the northern part of China. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present study tools for authorities to approve the offer of water were evaluated. (unibz.it)
  • In this study, the regulation of TRPC4 expression was investigated in water deprivation and hepatic cirrhosis. (unthsc.edu)
  • Measurement of free-living energy using doubly-labeled water, in which participants will drink a sample of water with extra-heavy atoms of hydrogen and oxygen to evaluate the amount of water in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After periods of three, seven and fourteen days of water deprivation, the distribution of renal HA changed considerably, and there was a general down-regulation of HAS mRNA expression. (edu.au)
  • Bartolo, Ray C. and Donald, John 2003, The effect of water deprivation on the expression of the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein in the Spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis , in ANZSCPB Proceedings, Volume 20 : 20th Annual Meeting of Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry , University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tas. (edu.au)
  • Second, we examined the effect of water deprivation, with and without subsequent intake, on circulating GLP-1, and on expression of the GLP-1 precursor protein, proglucagon, and GLP-1R in the ileum and NTS to test the hypothesis that perturbations of fluid intake affect endogenous GLP-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • After four hours of sleep, Abu Ja'far al-Iraqi was subjected to an additional 52 hours of sleep deprivation, after which CIA headquarters informed interrogators that eight hours was the minimum rest period between sleep deprivation sessions exceeding 48 hours. (usatoday.com)
  • An early diagnosis of NDI is important, since adequate managements such as low- solute diet with restricted protein and salt intake or such as water intake at frequent intervals can prevent the hyperosmolality which would develop the delayed mental and physical developments. (ndif.org)
  • Water intake was restricted for four hours, urine samples taken hourly and body weight measured hourly. (ndif.org)
  • Harmless Copious Water Intake or Hormone Disorder? (medscape.com)
  • A fluid or water deprivation test is a medical test which can be used to determine whether the patient has diabetes insipidus as opposed to other causes of polydipsia (a condition of excessive thirst that causes an excessive intake of water). (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient is required, for a prolonged period, to forgo intake of water completely, to determine the cause of the thirst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. (jneurosci.org)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • First, we tested the effect of central administration of the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9 (Ex-9), on water and saline intakes to test the hypothesis that endogenous GLP-1 controls stimulated fluid intake. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is concluded that water deprivation following feeding intensifies physiological heat stress related indicators such as respiratory rate and panting score and changes behavioral parameters such as water intake and urine excretion frequency in heat stressed ewes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Body weight, water intake, urine output, solute and urea excretion, serum and urine osmolality, serum creatinine, 24-h creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were comparable among the three groups. (asnjournals.org)
  • Moreover, treatments that typically cause water intake stimulate salt intake under some circumstances particularly when serotonin receptors in the LPBN are blocked. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistent with its anatomical connectivity, the LPBN plays a crucial role in inhibiting water and sodium intake in response to increases in BP and volume and conversely, stimulating water intake in response to hypovolemia and hypotension. (frontiersin.org)
  • Those with a low fluid intake showed an increase in positive emotion, satisfaction, and calmness when they increased their water intake. (healthline.com)
  • 2002 ), reducing the differences in deprivation among communities might also be associated with the better health outcomes. (springer.com)
  • 2002). Sleep deprivation can lead to traffic accidents due to fatigue and alterations in the biological rhythm. (scielo.br)
  • This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, inactivation of the LPBN induces overdrinking of water in response to a range of dipsogenic treatments primarily, but not exclusively, those associated with endogenous centrally acting angiotensin II. (frontiersin.org)
  • This work is to study the baicalin and its three analogs, baicalin, wogonoside, and wogonin, on the protective effect of neuron from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression in OGD damage. (hindawi.com)
  • In these instances, stores of water and glucose are depleted. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chronic sleep deprivation can also lead to depression, weight gain, increased risk of diabetes and cancer and increased risk of accidents. (mercola.com)
  • Given that chronic sleep difficulties affect approximately 10-30% of the population, and that for some people, sleeplessness is an occupational hazard ( 5 , 6 ), it is important to better understand the psychopathological effects of sleep deprivation, and what happens with increasing time awake. (frontiersin.org)
  • NADPH-d/c-Fos double-stained neurons in the mP-PVN did not significantly change depending on different water conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, we demonstrated that gene disruption of nNOS prevents activation of Bcl-2, p53 and caspase-9 expression during water deprivation, and that nNOS deficiency did not affect survival of magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of the countercurrent concentrating mechanism, which is initiated by increased sodium-potassium-2 chloride (Na-K-2Cl) co-transporter in the water impermeable ascending limb, creates the osmotic driving force for passive water reabsorption across the collecting duct. (asnjournals.org)
  • Ethnicity, education, administrative region, distance to urban centres, and drought-induced migration significantly predict differences in the mean level of deprivation across Bolivian villages. (springer.com)
  • A lack of water also messes with the temperature of your body, which could lead to hyperthermia - when the body's temperature is significantly above normal. (carenow.com)
  • Notably, a significantly increased orexin level in VP is accompanied by an increase in serum corticosterone in animals exposed to acute stresses, including forced swimming, food/water deprivation and social rank stress, rather than non-stress situations. (nature.com)
  • So the wrong therapy can have grave consequences "if you don't have diabetes insipidus," but are given the treatment for it, synthetic desmopressin , that "can lead to water intoxication, which can be life threatening," Christ-Crain explained. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists have long known that warmer water increases this problem, but a new study Monday in the journal Global Change Biology by Smithsonian Institution researchers found about two dozen different ways - biologically, chemically and physically - that climate change worsens the oxygen depletion. (cbsnews.com)
  • Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while. (innovations-report.com)
  • La técnica TUNEL se utilizó para detectar apoptosis en secciones del diencéfalo incluidas en parafina . (bvsalud.org)
  • La privación de agua prenatal indujo la apoptosis en el desarrollo del NDS de las ratas macho derivadas por la reducción de concentración de testosterona sérica. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies done in animals suggest that individuals with greater body fat may tolerate periods without water better than lean animals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Other research has found a link between the ability to tolerate periods without water and increased body weight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus, at least in animals, others have found a link between ability to tolerate periods without water and increased body weight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Withdrawal periods corresponded to EU transport regulations, which allow sheep and goats to be transported for a maximum period of 14 hours, followed by a rest period of at least one hour sufficient for them to drink water, if a further 14-h travel is necessary. (unibz.it)
  • Short-IRTs that characterized fixed-ratio 20 performance were resistant to change with increasing doses of amphetamine, but were increased in duration with decreasing water deprivation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It has occasionally been suggested that gazelles may be able to live indefinitely on dry food without water, like desert rodents, but no experiments have been made to determine if this is true or whether, like camels, they need to drink. (nature.com)
  • Others were subject to experiments on nutrient or water deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Making water available before the session lowered the amphetamine dose-response curve along the vertical axis, suggesting that amphetamine did not mimic satiation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Water is the most critical nutrient for both plant and animal life- to maintain cellular osmotic pressure, for transport of metabolites and as the medium in which reactions take place. (world-agriculture.net)
  • Patients are very thirsty and drink much more than 3 or 4 L/day, and then may wake in the night to drink more water or go to the bathroom. (medscape.com)
  • When you're really thirsty and you get water as a reward, the impact of that reward may be more prevailing to the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Disturbances in the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep deprivation are increasingly frequent due to events that are progressively more common in modern life in more developed countries (Spiegel et al. (scielo.br)
  • This is indicated by increased levels of plasma cortisol that may be partly responsible for an observed increase in the output of water and N in urine and faeces. (qld.gov.au)
  • Changes induced by doses of amphetamine or alterations in level of water deprivation were compared and contrasted. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Paradoxical sleep deprivation: neurochemical, hormonal and behavioral alterations. (scielo.br)
  • This article reviews past and current literature on the paradoxical sleep deprivation method as well as data on its consequences to animals, ranging from behavioral changes to alterations in the gene expression. (scielo.br)
  • This investigation used three schedules of water reinforcement (fixed-ratio 20, fixed-interval 90-seconds and variable-interval 20-seconds) to examine how these IRT classes are influenced by changes in water deprivation conditions or amphetamine administration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since sleep deprivation exceeding 48 h is considered unethical today, an examination of historical studies with extreme sleep-loss duration is needed to obtain information about what happens during prolonged sleep loss. (frontiersin.org)
  • This paper presents an examination of psychopathological experiences reported by healthy individuals who participated in sleep-deprivation studies ranging in duration from 24 h up to 11 days. (frontiersin.org)