Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Kv1.1 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.PhloretinMicroscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.KCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits: The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.Nobel PrizeRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Calcium Channels, R-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Mimosa: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Water SofteningProtein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Degenerin Sodium Channels: A family of mechanosensitive sodium channels found primarily in NEMATODES where they play a role in CELLULAR MECHANOTRANSDUCTION. Degenerin sodium channels are structurally-related to EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS and are named after the fact that loss of their activity results in cellular degeneration.
Sacred waters. Channel 4 - Time Team. Skyvova, P. Fingallian Holy Wells. Swords, Dublin: Fingal County Libraries, 2005, pp. 62- ... Clootie well Nuragic holy well Nature worship Holy water Water deity Well dressing Well of Wyrd Stoddart, John (1800), Remarks ... The term holy well is commonly employed to refer to any water source of limited size (i.e. not a lake or river, but including ... In Christian legend, the water is often said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme especially in ...
Steps and narrow water channel. Common Carp, Goldfish and Koi are kept in the garden's pond. Stone sculpture by Naser Houshmand ... the walk paths accommodate a network of small and narrow channels that bring water from the pond to the lower areas of the park ... creating smaller water features. There are numerous restaurants, traditional teahouses (houses of culture which represent the ...
The new channel incorporated a sluice, which maintained the water levels normally, so that the mills could still operate. By ... In order to achieve this, a new lock and sluice structure was built on the Prescott Channel, but in order to maintain water at ... They were fed by the waters of the River Lea, supplemented by tidal water which flowed up the Bow Back Rivers from the River ... As part of the 1930s scheme, Three Mills Back River was filled in, and a flood relief channel called Prescott Channel was built ...
It provides the main passage for the waters of the Hudson River as it empties through the Narrows. The channel of the Hudson as ... "Replacement of Anchorage Channel Water Siphons". New York City Economic Development Commission. February 13, 2013. Retrieved ... The Upper Bay is fed by the waters of the Hudson River (historically called the North River as it passes Manhattan), as well as ... to replace two water mains between Brooklyn and Staten Island which will eventually allowing for dredging of the channel to ...
ISBN 978-0-7153-7415-3. BW-London (August 2006). "Prescott Channel Water Control Structure" (PDF). British Waterways. ... The head of water created by the lock may be used to fill the mill pound and once more allow operation of the Three Mills tidal ... Three Mills Lock, also known as the Prescott Lock is a lock on the Prescott Channel on the River Lea in London. The project was ... Three Mills Lock has been built on the Prescott Channel, which was constructed in the 1930s as part of a scheme for flood ...
"Whites Creek Stormwater Channel No 95". Sydney Water. 1 January 2000. Retrieved 17 July 2017. "Whites Creek Sewage Aqueduct". ... The waterway was concreted and became a Whites Creek Channel between 1898 and 1935, to cope with the runnoff from the ... Wetlands were constructed adjacent to the Whites Creek Channel in 2002, to filter out excess nutrients and improve the quality ... Sydney Water. 1 January 2000. Retrieved 17 July 2017. Rienits, Rex (1967). "White, John (1756-1832)". Australian Dictionary of ...
Dixon, R. M. and Peterson, A. E. (1971). "Water infiltration control: A channel system concept." Soil Science Society of ... Dixon, R. M. (1995). "Water infiltration control at the soil surface: Theory and practice." Journal of Soil and Water ... Root systems create macroports at the bottom of the troughs, into which water can infiltrate. At the same time, the small ... The seedbed may remain dry for some time before water infiltrates and germination occurs. In the meantime, the stable imprint ...
"Discharge of effluents into water channel continues". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December 2016. "Wide and clean now". The Hindu. ... The canal gets sourced by the rain water through rivulets and the seepage water from LBP Canal near Nasiyanur, which further ... In 2001, the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board constructed a Sewage treatment plant to treat the contaminated water of ... This plant with a capacity to treat 5.7 million litres of water/day, is located near Vairapalayam in the Veerappanchatram Zone ...
Li X, Yu H, Koide SS (1994). "The water channel gene in human uterus". Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 32 (2): 371-7. PMID 7517253. ... Borgnia M, Nielsen S, Engel A, Agre P (2000). "Cellular and molecular biology of the aquaporin water channels". Annu. Rev. ... Preston GM, Carroll TP, Guggino WB, Agre P (1992). "Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 ... AQP1 is a widely expressed water channel, whose physiological function has been most thoroughly characterized in the kidney. It ...
Agre, P (2006). "The aquaporin water channels". Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. 3 (1): 5-13. doi:10.1513/pats. ... About 97.5% of the water is saline; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water. Most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in ice ... Fish breathe by extracting oxygen from water through gills. Fins propel and stabilize the fish in the water. Fish fall into two ... Sea snakes generally prefer shallow waters nearby land, around islands, especially waters that are somewhat sheltered, as well ...
"YOG Torch Relay takes to water on Tuesday". Channel NewsAsia. MediaCorp. 10 August 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010. "Schedule ... Water represented Singapore, which is an island country surrounded entirely by water bodies and which had its origins as a ... It was transported through water to Goree Island, a former slave colony and a UNESCO World Heritage site, where the City ... It was designed to incorporate the elements of fire and water, and was constructed using aluminum and polymers. The reflective ...
Channel NewsAsia. Central News Agency. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015. Reuters. "Taiwan water park explosion claims 10th ... Michael Forsythe (June 27, 2015). "Taiwan Water Park Blast Leaves Hundreds Injured". "Taiwan Water Park Explosion". CNN. CNN. ... Benjamin Yeh (July 2, 2015). "Second death after Taiwan water park disaster". "University student dies following Taiwan water ... Water Park Ecology World The theme park is accessible by bus from Guandu Station of Taipei Metro. On 27 June 2015, flammable ...
"Marina Reservoir to supply 10% of water needs". Channel News Asia. 2010-11-20. Marina Reservoir. ... when excess water was released out to the sea after heavy rains. The reservoir will provide 10% of the island's water needs. ... With an extensive water frontage along the Marina Reservoir, the Gardens will provide an excellent vantage point. The ... "Dealing with Water Scarcity in Singapore: Institutions, Strategies, and Enforcement". The World Bank. 2006. Retrieved Sep 14, ...
We reached the bottom of the valley at 12.20; and noticed its deep water-channel, now dry.-The road thus far from 'Attil was ... A reservoir to supply the town with fresh water without the frustration of residents physically transporting water from Tulkarm ... 1 Tulkarm and Qalqilya: Keep the Water flowing in Deir al-Ghusun United Nations Development Programme. pp. 16-17. Projected Mid ... was built in 2003 and replaced a dysfunctional older water tank, built in 1978. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of ...
Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major ... "Entrez Gene: AQP5 aquaporin 5". Verkman AS (2003). "Role of aquaporin water channels in eye function". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Distribution of aquaporin water channels AQP1 and AQP5 in the ductal system of the human pancreas". Gut. 52 (7): 1008- ... 2001). "Identification and localization of aquaporin water channels in human salivary glands". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...
The keel is only 5 cm (2 in) thick and constructed of planks; it contains a central channel to collect water. There is no ...
The gate is also known as Namsomun (남소문, " South Small Gate"). It was originally called Sugumun "Water Channel Gate." ...
Condensing water was taken from the Bristol Channel. The CEGB fully converted the two power stations to burn oil when ... Welsh coal was also brought across the Bristol Channel from the South Wales coalfield by a fleet of boats. The Dock Master ...
Next to the pyramid was a water channel. The water feature was designed to pump water from underneath the pyramid and along the ... The Pyramid's water feature was prone to blockages, causing failure of the pumping mechanism. By the early 1970s the local ... channel, to a waterfall. The council had intended to build a second parade of shops underneath the Reestones Place flats, the ...
A water channel forms where the Incas bathed. "Machay¨ means "sanctuary". The site that houses the ruins of Machay belongs to ... Its waters are the color emerald. In addition, 30 meters from the waterfall is another one that has a natural pool suitable for ... It has a beautiful natural water landscape, typical meals, and a dance floor. This natural beauty belongs to Canton Pangua; ...
Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major ... Viggiano L, Rocchi M, Svelto M, Calamita G (Jul 1999). "Assignment of the aquaporin-8 water channel gene (AQP8) to human ...
High water speed may make a channel unnavigable. Waters may be unnavigable because of ice, particularly in winter. Navigability ... Here, "Waters of the United States" include not only navigable waters, but also tributaries of navigable waters and nearby ... the Clean Water Act has introduced the terms "traditional navigable waters," and "waters of the United States" to define the ... Navigable waters, as defined by the US Army Corps of Engineers as codified under 33 CFR 329, are those waters that are subject ...
The sole outflow for the water in Lake Chippewa was the Mackinac Channel, with a water depth of as much as 70 meters (230 feet ... This channel was very efficient at draining water; the Great Lakes drainage basin was as big then as it is now, and collected a ... it discharged its water over Mackinac Falls. Later, the North Bay channel was blocked by further post-glacial rebound, forcing ... In response, the water formed a horseshoe curve detour to the north around the area. Just east of Mackinac Island were the ...
An underground water channel runs underneath the mosque. There is a stairway that connects the mosque to the water channel and ... The waste water flows out along the channel and joins the main qanat channel with a gradual slope 15 meter further down. This ... The water is supplied by the Keykhosrow qanat channel and the mill is placed almost 28 m underground. The access corridor to ... A qanat channel crosses 9 meter above the mill and fills the huge 9 meter diameter water tank. When enough pressure is provided ...
"More individuals, firms doing their part to save water". Channel NewsAsia. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-08-28. "SYF Central ... The school converted the school pond into a Constructed Treatment Wetland to recycle used water to water the plants in the ... "NEA to offer Environmental Education modules to more schools". Channel NewsAsia. 2007-11-06. Retrieved 2007-11-06. " ... "Commonwealth Secondary launches small wastewater treatment centre". Channel NewsAsia. 2008-07-11. Retrieved 2008-07-11. " ...
Bodies of water. *Buffalo Bayou. *Galveston Bay. *Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. *Houston Ship Channel ... "The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 11, 2010.. *^ "State of the Air 2005, National and Regional Analysis". American Lung ... "The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2006.. "National Climatic Data ... Baytown Nature Center, located on a 450-acre (1.8 km2) peninsula along the Houston Ship Channel and surrounded on three sides ...
Water Channel was a digital cable television channel that aired programming devoted to water sports. It was the only channel of ... Cinema and aired extensively on the Water Channel throughout the channels existence. Water Channel initially launched on Dish ... featuring programming of interest to those who enjoy activities in and around water. Water Channel was independently owned and ... It was also available on various Time Warner Cable and Cox Cable systems, however, in late 2009 the channel ceased operations. ...
Water and Ice will follow local Alaskan fun-seekers as they turn the states aquatic landscape into a playground for everything ... from polar bear plunging to snowmobile water-skipping to iceberg wake-boarding. ... Travel Channel Newsletter To sign up, please enable JavaScript. Get our latest travel news and trends delivered to your inbox. ... Dont look for manmade water slides here, Alaskan water parks come naturally. This special will follow local Alaskan fun- ...
... of channel-water and water-water interactions and on the water in-pore electrostatic dipolar profile within the channel. ... Biomimetic water channels. Inspired by the investigation of natural water-channels, the development of artificial biomimetic ... Applications to water transport systems. The result of the fast transport of water through the channels has important practical ... Hydrodynamics in water channels (modelling and computational biophysical-chemistry). *Self-assembly of channels in lipids and ...
Water Cooler Interview with Eric Shupps 18:37. Emily Gibson Visual Studio 2010 Simulcast (Part 3 of 6): SharePoint and Office ... Water Cooler Interview with Jeff Becraft from AT&T 10:22. Related episodes. Kirk Evans ... Water Cooler Interview with Tom Resing on the BDC 12:12. Kirk Evans ... Water Cooler Interview with Tom Resing on the BDC 12:12. Kirk Evans ...
Water Cooler Interview with Shane Young 11:26. Kirk Evans Water Cooler Interview with Doug Ware and Brendon Schwartz 13:59. ... Water Cooler Interview with Shane Young 11:26. Kirk Evans Water Cooler Interview with Jeff Deverter from Rackspace 06:12. ... Water Cooler Interview with Tom Resing on the BDC 12:12. Emily Gibson ... Water Cooler Interview with Jeff Becraft from AT&T 10:22. Kirk Evans ...
candidate in the department of BioResource Engineering, looks at her research based on water and gender issues in Barbados. ... candidate in the department of BioResource Engineering, looks at her research based on water and gender issues in Barbados. ... Channels. James Administration Building. 845 Sherbrooke Street West. Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G4. ...
Dual Channel Handheld Oil in Water Analyzer by Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, Inc.. Important Product Update-- After ... oil-in-water analyzer dual channel oil-in-water analyzer crude oil in produced water produced water oil-in-water analysis oil ... dual channel handheld oil in water analyzer oil-in-water handheld oil-in-water analyzer condensate in produced water ... The discharge of oil into water, land, or storm water drains can be very harmful to our environment. Recent oily water ...
Introducing Elite Digital Two Channel Gauges. New Products AutoMeter is proud to introduce our new Elite Digital Two Channel ... Buy the Race Display System with Water Pressure Channel today.. #gallery-1 {margin: auto;} #gallery-1 .gallery-item {float: ... and an optional Water Pressure channel (with the purchase of a separate sensor) on a single, compact digital display. This dash ... Custom alarm points can be programmed for each channel to trigger an external device that gives you a visual warning. The alarm ...
... and those appendages carry a water channel called aquaporin 4 (Aqp4). To test whether the astrocytic water channels were ... Brain Drain-"Glymphatic" Pathway Clears Aβ, Requires Water Channel. Quick Links. *Article ... The pathway depends on a specific water channel found on astrocytes and seems important for clearing brain amyloid-β in mice, ... They found that these cells express the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and propose that AQP1 expression represents an ...
Safe water marks are at the entrance to channels and let ships that are leaving know that there is now safe water (it is deep ... Death traps on Nigerias water channels. On August 24, 2019. 9:32 amIn Crime Alert, Crime Guardby Emmanuel Okogba ... When asked which part of Lagos waters falls under NPAs coverage, he responded, "our channels are Tin-Can, down to Apapa". ... From major waters in Delta state, to Cross River, Rivers and Lagos states, down to the inland waters , the situation is same: ...
Water weight loss: What causes it?. Can you explain why so many diets cause water weight loss rather than true weight loss? ... On a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, the initial weight loss is caused by your bodys release of extra water. This happens ... This metabolic process increases the amount of water you lose. However, when your body uses all its glycogen reserves, itll ... Also, what steps can I take to avoid losing water weight?. -Emily from Georgia ...
Water is set to become this countrys biggest problem. ... Why water is now the biggest threat to our island nation. * ... In this case, "soft" defences that make more use of open spaces to absorb water could be an important adaptive strategy. ... Tonight I have watched your very negative report on Channel 4 News regarding the flooding after the surge in December in ... In a nutshell, its water that will become our island nations biggest problem. ...
The aquaporins are a family of water channels expressed in several water-transporting tissues, including the kidney. We have ... Aquaporin-3 water channel localization and regulation in rat kidney.. [C A Ecelbarger, J Terris, G Frindt, M Echevarria, D ... Anti-Water Channel Aquaporin 3 antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody pricing ... suggesting that this water channel is not regulated acutely through vesicular trafficking. Immunoblotting studies revealed that ...
The water-repellent properties of the surrounding fabric also help drive water down the channels. ... Unlike conventional fabrics, the water-pumping effect keeps working even when the water-conducting fibers are completely ... water-attracting) threads stitched into a highly water-repellent fabric. ... They were able to create patterns of threads that suck droplets of water from one side of the fabric, propel them along the ...
... are a family of homologous water channels expressed in many epithelial and endothelial cell types involved in fluid transport. ... Aquaporin water channels and endothelial cell function J Anat. 2002 Jun;200(6):617-27. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00058.x. ... The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of homologous water channels expressed in many epithelial and endothelial cell types involved ... For example, mice lacking AQP1 have low alveolar-capillary water permeability but unimpaired lung fluid absorption, as well as ...
Those that responded to Channel NewsAsias queries said they water their fairways and greens using harvested water. ... PUB told Channel NewsAsia this clause has been in the Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations since the 1970s. ... MANUAL WATERING USING PUB WATER LESS EFFICIENT THAN SPRINKLERS?. Out of more than 10 landed properties along Andrew Road that ... Mr Chua agreed: "I would think it can be as much as 50 per cent more water consumed when you water using a hose." ...
Get the Channel NewsAsia newsletter in your inbox Invalid email address. It looks like the email address you entered is not ... More information about Channel News Asia. jump to top of page. Sections. * Asia Pacific ... Singapore and Malaysia need to look at ways to increase the supply of fresh water from the Johor River, even as a new barrage ... PUTRAJAYA: Singapore and Malaysia need to look at ways to increase the supply of fresh water from the Johor River, even as a ...
Water temperature dynamics in experimental field channels : analysis and modeling. [H G Stefan; Environmental Research ... Water temperature dynamics in experimental field channels : analysis and modeling. Author:. H G Stefan; Environmental Research ... rdfs:label "Water temperature dynamics in experimental field channels." ;. schema:description "Online version:" ;. schema: ... schema:name "Water temperature dynamics in experimental field channels : analysis and modeling"@en ;. schema:productID " ...
Variants in Water Channel Gene Tied to More Restful Sleep. The gene, aquaporin-4, is critical in rodents for the cerebrospinal ... S.M. Ulv Larsen et al., "Haplotype of the astrocytic water channel AQP4 is associated with slow wave energy regulation in human ... Critical to the cleaning process is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is present in the membranes of astrocytes, ... "The fact that we can see this association between this channel that allows that [glymphatic] flow in the rodent brain and how ...
Pristine Water Filters (http://shop.pristinewaterfilters.com) delivers water filtration/revival systems to all ... Pristine Water Filters To Be Aired on The Discovery Channel Tommorrow, October 16, 2015, Via the NewsWatch Television Episode ... The NewsWatch TV Pristine Water Filters Review episode airs on the Discovery Channel (7:00-7:30am EST/PST), except on DISH ... PristineHydro™s water is not only filtered to waters natural purity, but is also is infused with high levels of magnesium ...
Just 12 molecules of water cause the long post-activation recovery period required by potassium ion channels before they can ... The water molecules are released slowly only after the external stimulus has been removed, allowing the channel to be ready for ... Just 12 molecules of water cause the long post-activation recovery period required by potassium ion channels before they can ... They found that when the potassium channel is open, water molecules quickly bind to tiny cavities within the protein structure ...
What is Water Channel? Meaning of Water Channel as a finance term. What does Water Channel mean in finance? ... Definition of Water Channel in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Water Channel financial definition of Water Channel https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Water+Channel ... redirected from Water Channel). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. channel. In ...
We then tested TRP channels as gustatory water receptor candidates. However, several TRP channel mutants (Trpl302, Nan36a, Pyx3 ... Amiloride antagonized gustatory water reception in Drosophila. A, Effects of ion channel antagonists on water-elicited spiking ... channels (niflumic acid and NPPB), and TRP channels (2-APB and SKF-96365). Interestingly, amiloride partially reduced water- ... degenerin/epithelial sodium channel) family member, abolished the water-induced activity of water gustatory receptor neurons ...
Transcellular water transport in lung alveolar epithelium through mercury-sensitive water channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994 ... Vasopressin increases water permeability of kidney collecting duct by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water channels to ... Secretin promotes osmotic water transport in rat cholangiocytes by incresing aquaporin-1 water channels in plasma membrane. ... Water channel properties of major intrinsic protein of lens. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 9010-9016. *CrossRef, ...
Redistribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 and the K+ channel protein Kir4.1 differs in low- and high-grade human ... These domains are characterized by the aggregation of, among other molecules, the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the ... Yang B, Brown D, Verkman AS (1996) The mercurial insensitive water channel (AQP-4) forms orthogonal arrays in stably ... Guadagno E, Moukhles H (2004) Laminin-induced aggregation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir4.1, and the water- ...
  • The development of synthetic biomimetic artificial water-channels and pores is key for a better understanding of the natural function of protein channels. (rsc.org)
  • While synthetic chemists have produced sophisticated architectures able to confine water clusters, most water channel based work is being conducted with natural protein channels as selectivity components, embedded in the diverse arrays of bio-assisted artificial systems. (rsc.org)
  • Most protein channels share some structural aspects, such as their self-assembled multiple subunits within trans-membrane domains and the selectivity of these protein channels is usually driven by the narrowest region of the pore, showing gating behaviours generated by the structural motion of the external subunits in response to voltage, ligand and pH stimuli. (rsc.org)
  • On a low-carbohydrate , high-protein diet, the initial weight loss is caused by your body's release of extra water. (thedietchannel.com)
  • They found that when the potassium channel is open, water molecules quickly bind to tiny cavities within the protein structure, where they block the channel in a state that prevents the passage of ions. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Here we show that NMO-IgG binds selectively to the aquaporin-4 water channel, a component of the dystroglycan protein complex located in astrocytic foot processes at the blood-brain barrier. (rupress.org)
  • We hyperpolarised water proton spins via dynamic nuclear polarisation followed by sample dissolution (d-DNP) and transferred the created polarisation to -NH groups with high solvent accessibility in an intrinsically disordered protein domain. (rsc.org)
  • Immunoblotting of these fractions showed that the transmembrane water channel protein aquaporin-1 was amply expressed on the endothelial cell surface at levels comparable to rat erythrocyte plasma membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The fully assembled PSII complex consists of approximately 20 protein subunits and multiple redox-active cofactors that allow PSII to function as a catalyst for the light-driven oxidation of water and concomitant reduction of plastoquinone ( 1 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For these and many other enzymes, it is becoming increasingly clear that water dynamics is exquisitely tuned by the protein scaffold to fit the enzyme's function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, a single inhaled anesthetic can allosterically modulate function of a large number of structurally diverse and phylogenetically unrelated ion channels-including many different ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, and leak channels-and cell surface receptors-including many different channel-linked receptors, enzyme-linked receptors, and G protein-coupled receptors. (springer.com)
  • Anesthetic modulation of protein function firstly depends upon the presence of an agent in sufficient concentration to desolvate, displace weakly-bound water molecules within an allosteric binding site, and only then bind to the allosteric site. (springer.com)
  • We postulate that drugs with insufficient water solubility to competitively displace water from this amphipathic allosteric site would be unable to bind and modulate the protein-a cut-off effect-even at a saturated aqueous phase drug concentration. (springer.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that [gamma]-TIP, one of the MIP homologs found in the vacuolar membrane of plant cells, is an aquaporin or water channel protein (C. Maurel, J. Reizer, J.I. Schroeder, M.J. Chrispeels EMBO J 12: 2241-2247). (plantphysiol.org)
  • To find out if RD28 is a water channel protein, rd28 cRNA was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Introduction of a cysteine residue next to the second conserved NPA motif creates a mercury-sensitive water channel, suggesting that this conserved loop is critical to the activity of the protein. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The protein is present in leaves and roots of well-watered plants, suggesting that its presence in plants does not require a specific desiccation regime. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Abstract: Because of the difference between oil and water in physical and chemical properties, research on the design method of water hydraulic slide valve is important to design the water hydraulic servo valve. (scientific.net)
  • Abstract: Based on the slab caster mold of ChengGang Company as prototype, the water model with 1:1 scale was used to study the effects of casting speed、nozzle port angle、immersion depth、bottom structure、mold width and other parameters on the surface flow velocity of liquid steel in slab caster mold. (scientific.net)
  • The molecular-scale hydrodynamics of water through a channel will depend, as in natural ones, on the biometics of channel-water and water-water interactions and on the water in-pore electrostatic dipolar profile within the channel. (rsc.org)
  • Using molecular simulations that modeled a potassium channel and its immediate cellular environment, atom for atom, University of Chicago scientists have revealed this new mechanism in the function of a nearly universal biological structure, with implications ranging from fundamental biology to the design of pharmaceuticals. (uchospitals.edu)
  • This gives us better understanding of fundamental biology and should improve the rational design of drugs, which often target the inactivated state of channels' said Benoît Roux, PhD, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Chicago. (uchospitals.edu)
  • In contrast, the molecular basis of gustatory water reception remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • It also aids in lowering the overpotential at which the catalyst operates using water as a base, demonstrating the multi-functional role of a proton channel in molecular catalysts, and possibly in enzymes. (osti.gov)
  • Recently, a molecular water channel (AQP-CD) has been cloned whose expression appears to be limited to the collecting duct. (pnas.org)
  • The conduction of water, H 2 O 2 and urea was compared, using molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure of SoPIP2;1 from spinach. (portlandpress.com)
  • Photosystem II (PSII), a unique membrane-bound oxidoreductase, catalyzes light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. (sciencemag.org)
  • A number of computational studies have searched for water channels by examining cavities within the static PSII crystal structure ( 22 - 24 ) or by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ( 25 - 30 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Using an approach without differentiating technically between the transcellular and paracellular route, we measured transepithelial water flux with and without selective molecular perturbation of the TJ to unequivocally attribute changes to the paracellular pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Although selective for water, the molecular structure of these channels is unknown. (jhu.edu)
  • The re-entry of teleosts into seawater, however, most likely required new molecular adaptations to maintain water homeostasis, which is especially important for gametes and early embryos that do not have osmoregulatory systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of its importance for normal water homeostasis and its involvement in many water balance disorders , aquaporin-2 , the predominant vasopressin - regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct , is discussed in detail. (ndif.org)
  • Water excretion by the kidney is regulated by the peptide hormone vasopressin. (pnas.org)
  • 9. Hays RM, Leaf A. Studies on the movement of water through the isolated toad bladder and its modification by vasopressin. (findaphd.com)
  • We used patch-clamp electrophysiology on isolated, split-open murine collecting ducts (CD) to test the hypothesis that regulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity is a physiologically important effect of vasopressin. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, we quantified possible synergistic regulation of ENaC by vasopressin and aldosterone associating this with a requirement for distal nephron Na+ reabsorption during water conservation vs. maintenance of Na+ balance. (nih.gov)
  • Water restriction (18-24 h) and pretreatment of isolated CD with vasopressin (approximately 30 min) resulted in a similar increase in P(o). (nih.gov)
  • Stressing animals with water and salt restriction separately and jointly revealed an important effect of vasopressin: conservation of water and Na+ each independently increased ENaC activity and jointly had a synergistic effect on channel activity. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate a quantitatively important action of vasopressin on ENaC suggesting that distal nephron Na+ reabsorption mediated by this channel contributes to maintenance of water reabsorption. (nih.gov)
  • Arginine vasopressin (AVP) rapidly increases epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity by increasing open. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to previous findings with AQP-2, there was only limited AQP-3 labeling of intracellular vesicles, suggesting that this water channel is not regulated acutely through vesicular trafficking. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Water uptake in vesicles and the subsequent exchange between water protons and amide -NH protons in amino acids can be followed by a new, highly sensitive, type of magnetic resonance spectroscopy: dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP)-enhanced NMR in the liquid state. (rsc.org)
  • In both cell types, 'coated' carrier vesicles are involved in this process, but whereas clathrin-coated vesicles are involved in the endocytotic phase of water channel recycling, the transporting vesicles in intercalated cells are coated with the cytoplasmic domains of the proton pumping ATPase. (biologists.org)
  • By a combination of morphological and functional techniques using FITC-dextran as an endosomal marker, we have shown that recycling endosomes from intercalated cells are acidifying vesicles but that they do not contain water channels. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, principal cell vesicles that recycle water channels do not acidify their lumens in response to ATP. (biologists.org)
  • They were able to create patterns of threads that suck droplets of water from one side of the fabric, propel them along the threads and expel them from the other side. (futurity.org)
  • Unlike conventional fabrics, the water-pumping effect keeps working even when the water-conducting fibers are completely saturated, because of the sustaining pressure gradient generated by the surface tension of droplets. (futurity.org)
  • Fog and dew both emanate from water vapor in the air condensing to form water droplets, either suspended in air, or formed onto a surface [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Borescope examination of patient-used endoscopes has shown visible water droplets in 95% of endoscope suction channels ( 19 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Proton channels facilitate the movement of protons over large distances and are critical in many reactions, from controlling proton delivery in metalloenzymes to moving protons through PEM fuel cells. (osti.gov)
  • Hydrogenases are enzymes that use proton channels to deliver protons to or from the enzyme active site to achieve high rates of hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials. (osti.gov)
  • A proton channel may aid in addressing these outstanding issues, and the well-studied nature of these catalysts allows them to serve as a platform to investigate the role of a proton channel in solving these problems. (osti.gov)
  • The detected rates for amide proton-water proton exchange can be modulated by membrane-crossing rates, when a membrane channel is interposed. (rsc.org)
  • The hindrance of effective water proton transfer rate constants observed in free solvent when a membrane-crossing step is involved is discussed. (rsc.org)
  • We identify three channels from the oxygen evolving centre, which we associate with possible water entry and the exit of proton and dioxygen. (springer.com)
  • Ishikita H, Saenger W, Loll B, Biesiadka J, Knapp E‐W (2006) Energetics of a possible proton exit pathway for water oxidation in photosystem II. (springer.com)
  • These simulations confirm our characterization of the structure, and show that the ordered hydrated layers improve proton diffusion relative to tortuous channels of the same chemical composition. (aps.org)
  • This work reports an application of reflective terahertz (THz) imaging for identification of water distribution in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. (scientific.net)
  • Investigation of water distribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via Terahertz imaging, Nucl. (scientific.net)
  • In Alaska, where the average temperature is 26 degrees, water play is an adrenaline-fueled ice bath! (travelchannel.com)
  • This display allows racers to monitor RPM, Oil Pressure, Oil Temperature, Water Temperature, Carbureted Fuel Pressure, Battery Voltage, and an optional Water Pressure channel (with the purchase of a separate sensor) on a single, compact digital display. (autometer.com)
  • When watering the plants, try to use water that is the same temperature as the room. (gardeningchannel.com)
  • Using a mechanistic water temperature model and restoration scenarios based on the historical condition, we predicted that stream restoration in the impacted watersheds could notably decrease average water temperatures-especially when channel narrowing is coupled with riparian restoration-up to a 6.6°C reduction in the upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0°C in Catherine Creek. (critfc.org)
  • These reductions in water temperature translated to substantial changes in the percentage of stream network habitable to salmon and steelhead migration (from 29% in the present condition to 79% in the fully restored scenario) and to core juvenile rearing (from 13% in the present condition to 36% in the fully restored scenario). (critfc.org)
  • The MC20 provides a handheld measuring instrument designed for water flow, humidity and temperature measurements. (omniinstruments.co.uk)
  • The MC20 is a dual channel handheld measuring instrument suitable for water flow, temperature and humidity measurements using the detachable turbine flow sensor and HygroAir 20 probes. (omniinstruments.co.uk)
  • Data collection in support of the design and engineering phase modeling includes lower ship channel bathymetry, Calcasieu Lake sediment cores (to investigate geotechnical properties and sedimentation rates), as well as boat-based and fixed station hydrological measurements (salinity, temperature, and water level), cross-sectional channel flow, and turbidity for estimation of suspended sediment transport. (thewaterinstitute.org)
  • Murray JW, Barber J (2007) Structural characteristics of channels and pathways in photosystem II including the identification of an oxygen channel. (springer.com)
  • Although it has been established for several years that ions pass these epithelia by means of transcellular as well as paracellular pathways, the routes taken by water are still under controversial discussion. (biologists.org)
  • In the design and engineering phase, the Institute undertook an additional phase of data collection and modeling to get a better picture of the pathways of sediment movement through the system, and to develop a sediment budget in order to get a better understanding of how the proposed project might impact dredging operations in the channel. (thewaterinstitute.org)
  • To shed light on this phenomenon, Roux and his team used supercomputers to simulate the movement and behavior of every individual atom in the potassium channel and its immediate environment. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Connors NC, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Kofuji P (2004) The potassium channel Kir4.1 associates with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex via α-syntrophin in glia. (springer.com)
  • Just like certain epithelia, endothelia might express physiologically relevant amounts of aquaporin-1 on their cell surface to permit direct, mercurial-sensitive, transcellular transport of water. (nih.gov)
  • Whether or not significant amounts of water pass the tight junction (TJ) of leaky epithelia is still unresolved, because it is difficult to separate transcellular water flux from TJ-controlled paracellular water flux. (biologists.org)
  • The converse approach, blocking the transcellular water channels and measuring the resulting decrease in transepithelial water flux ( Carpi-Medina and Whittembury, 1988 ), turned out to be problematic for three reasons. (biologists.org)
  • The worldwide market for Water and Wastewater Treatment is estimated to grow at a CAGR of roughly X.X% in the next 8 years, and will reach X.X million US$ in 2026, from X.X million US$ in 2019. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • A fourth satellite imagery of 2019 further shows destruction of both the inflow channel and the water body. (counterview.net)
  • The challenge facing the region and the state is in finding the best way to stop the inflow of salt water into the system while also maintaining an open passage for navigation along the vital Calcasieu Ship Channel which is responsible more than 30 percent of the jobs in the Lake Charles metropolitan area. (thewaterinstitute.org)
  • Pointing out that the due to "destruction" of the inflow channel of the water body as also of the water body, rain water is not able to take its natural course, resulting into the flooding, , she blamed for this "official lack of diligence of duty and lack of application of mind", which has resulted into loss of "fresh water inflows into the water body, causing misery to the residents. (counterview.net)
  • While the first satellite imagery shows inflow of Bholakpur channel as well as water body in Survey No 288, and a second one shows existence of inflow channel and water body as of 2015, a third satellite image of 2017 shows existence of the inflow channel north of water body but destruction of the water body. (counterview.net)
  • We now urge you to promptly restore the inflow channel and the water body by removing all obstructions to rain water inflows", the letter states, adding, "The flood water inundating Navanami residency should find its rightful place in the water body in survey No 288. (counterview.net)
  • In this study, we observed a mislocalization of Kir4.1 in various human brain tumors (low- and high-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas), suggesting that buffering capacity of glial cells may be compromised, leading to water influx (cytotoxic edema). (springer.com)
  • Horio Y (2001) Potassium channels of glial cells: distribution and function. (springer.com)
  • By adjusting the pattern of water-conducting fibers and how they are stitched on each side of the fabric, the researchers can control where sweat is collected and where it drains away on the outside. (futurity.org)
  • Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while. (innovations-report.com)
  • To probe the length, width and depth of these underground channels, the researchers used the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Shallow Radar (SHARAD). (scitechdaily.com)
  • On the flip side, the researchers also modeled what would happen if flow frequencies were held constant while shifts in channel capacity occurred. (fondriest.com)
  • Researchers found that changes in river channel boundaries have direct impacts on flood hazard trends. (fondriest.com)
  • Glycine or GABA A receptors or TREK-1, TRESK, Na v 1.2, or Na v 1.4 channels were expressed separately in frog oocytes. (springer.com)
  • The water channel and cell-to-cell adhesion properties of these truncated AQP0 were studied by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes through cRNA injection and by transfecting them into adhesion-deficient mouse fibroblast L-cells, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mr Masagos noted that the water level at Johor's Linggiu Reservoir, which fell to a historic low this year, currently stands at 26 per cent. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Instead, their results suggest that the behavior of the geysers supports a mathematical model that treats the vents as nozzles that channel water vapor from a liquid reservoir to the surface of the moon. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • The water could have accumulated in an underground reservoir and been released by tectonic or volcanic activity. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The mat absorbs water from a reservoir and the pots are able to draw a steady supply of water from it, absorbing the exact amount they need, when they need it. (gardeningchannel.com)
  • The obvious benefit is convenience - all you have to do is fill the water reservoir once or twice a week and the plants get exactly what they need, when they need it. (gardeningchannel.com)
  • Our results provide the most comprehensive experimental evidence to date of physiologically relevant oxidized residues in PSII and illuminate three possible channels for water between the catalytic Mn cluster in the PSII complex and the bulk medium around it. (sciencemag.org)
  • For this purpose, experimental data have been collected in a mini-channel with the hydraulic diameter of 0.4 mm and 0.8 m length, so that the predictions of the correlations can be compared with the values from the experiments. (purdue.edu)
  • Although TJs are often named aqueous pores, there is, as yet, no direct experimental evidence of paracellular water flux. (biologists.org)
  • This Faraday Discussion will focus on the chemistry, physics and material sciences contributions toward the rapidly evolving field of artificial water channels. (rsc.org)
  • The focus of the discussions will be on the chemistry, physics and material sciences breakthroughs in the rapidly evolving field of artificial water channels, and will aim to uncover novel interactive water channels that might parallel those in biomolecular systems. (rsc.org)
  • When AVP absents itself from the cell surface , the AQP2s exit the apical membrane , returning it to its much less water permeable state. (ndif.org)
  • The direction of this water flow is contingent on the osmotic pressure. (innovations-report.com)
  • At present, product water is moved through the channels to the exit via the gas flow only. (ct-si.org)
  • The movement of the water drops in the gas flow channels is inhibited by pinning of the three-phase region where the gas, liquid and solid coincide. (ct-si.org)
  • This paper discusses enhanced water removal from the gas flow channels of a PEM fuel cell by oscillation of water drops near their natural frequency. (ct-si.org)
  • This greatly increases the amount of water that can flow through the membrane . (ndif.org)
  • Field observations and a similarity between predicted and observed area‐slope relations suggest that the location of channel heads on steep slopes may be controlled by subsurface flow‐induced instability of the colluvial fill. (deepdyve.com)
  • Preliminary field observations also suggest that abrupt channel heads on gentle slopes are controlled by seepage erosion, whereas gradual channel head locations appear to be governed by saturation overland flow. (deepdyve.com)
  • This paper presents and compares the most suitable correlations available in the literature for mini-channel heat transfer and pressure drop during two-phase flow. (purdue.edu)
  • Therefore, it is possible to observe a trend in flood hazard based only on changes to the channel geometry or its roughness, with no associated change in the amount of flow delivered from upstream. (fondriest.com)
  • A map showing where flow frequency (upper) and channel capacity (lower) are expressed and offset each other. (fondriest.com)
  • Reliable non-contact open channel measurement was needed to monitor the flow rates through each weir with indication and alarms. (flowline.com)
  • The MiniWater 20 handheld open channel flow meter consists of an MC20 display and portable turbine flow sensor. (omniinstruments.co.uk)
  • Based on the flow fluid simulation of incompressible flow, according to the design parameters of water hydraulic slide valve, CFD software Fluent is used to simulate and analyze the flow characteristics of water hydraulic slide valve. (scientific.net)
  • Quartly, Graham D. . 2003 Ultraplankton distribution in surface waters of the Mozambique Channel - flow cytometry and satellite imagery. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Using the crystal structure of Photosystem II (PSII) we have investigated the presence of channels for the entry of substrates, and exits of products, from catalytic sites within the complex. (springer.com)
  • The transport and adsorption behavior of ions and water in nanometer pores is influenced by the composition of the substrate. (rsc.org)
  • Leaky epithelia such as the kidney proximal tubule and small intestine are characterized by high transport rates of ions and water. (biologists.org)
  • Levees suddenly decrease in height above the channel floor mid-way along the lower linear reach close to where the channel makes a 90° turn to the southwest. (mdpi.com)
  • Apart from the capture of the moisture and fog on the surface, water transport and collection both play an important part in fog-harvesting systems as it prevents the loss of captured water through evaporation and makes the surface available for the capture of water again. (mdpi.com)
  • These integrated multiscale channels have also been replicated using a facile soft lithography technique to prepare biomimetic surfaces and it has been proved that it is the surface architecture that plays a role in the water transport rather than the material's properties (waxes present on the surface of the leaves). (mdpi.com)
  • Based on our studies, we infer that the microlevel hierarchy of the structures make the surface hydrophilic and the multiscale channels allow the efficient passage and transport of water. (mdpi.com)
  • The understanding of the efficient and well-directed water transport and collection in D. marginata is expected to provide valuable insights to design efficient surfaces for fog-harvesting applications. (mdpi.com)
  • Classically, water transport across endothelium of the continuous type found in the microvessels of many organs such as lung was thought to occur almost completely via the paracellular pathway through intercellular junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Mercurial sulfhydryl reagents such as HgCl2 reversibly reduced tritiated water uptake without affecting small solute transport. (nih.gov)
  • Water transport within PSII is of prime interest, given water's unprecedented role as substrate and the problems associated with unrestricted water access to the active site. (sciencemag.org)
  • We conclude that claudin-2, but not claudin-10b, forms a paracellular water channel and thus mediates paracellular water transport in leaky epithelia. (biologists.org)
  • Nevertheless, in all of the C-terminal mutants the water transport and cell-to-cell adhesion functions with respect to the amount AQP0 expressed at the membrane, were not impeded and remained comparable to those of intact AQP0. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, C-A-S-H gel immobilizes more sodium and chloride ions on the surface than C-S-H. Sodium ions can coordinate with about two to three oxygen atoms in the aluminate tetrahedron tessellated in the narrow vacancy of the silicate channel, forming inner adsorbed species. (rsc.org)
  • Several flora and fauna species found in arid areas have adapted themselves to collect water by developing unique structures and to intake the collected moisture. (mdpi.com)
  • Due to the strong Na-Os binding on the C-A-S-H surface, the diffusion coefficient of the Na ions confined in the nanometer pores is reduced by 50% and the hydration time for the Na ions associated with surrounding water is increased by 40% as compared with bulk solution. (rsc.org)
  • The pathway depends on a specific water channel found on astrocytes and seems important for clearing brain amyloid-β in mice, the scientists report. (alzforum.org)
  • Originally, magnesium bicarbonate was found in nature's water but though the industrialization of mankind, the drinking water generally available now is deficient of this important mineral content. (prweb.com)
  • We found that amiloride and its analogs specifically antagonized the response of water gustatory receptor neurons and the behavior of flies toward water stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Channel Bass ( Sciaenops ocellatus ) are usually found in large numbers along the Tar Heel coastal waters, and have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds--although most large ones average between 30 and 40 pounds. (ncpedia.org)
  • Channel Bass are found in coastal and estuarine waters from Massachusetts to Key West, Fla., and along the cost of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico. (ncpedia.org)
  • The entire channel floor is smooth at the resolution of the data and only two large mounds and one large sediment pile were found on the channel floor. (mdpi.com)
  • The team, including, found that the source of plumes may be vents on the moon that channel water vapor from a warm, probably liquid source to the surface at supersonic speeds. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • But the team found more water vapor coming from the vents in 2007 at a time when the theory predicted there should have been less. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • By observing the flickering light of a star as the geysers blocked it out, the team found that the water vapor forms narrow jets. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • A trapezoidal channel with 1:4.5 side-slopes was found to be the least severe and an asymmetric triangular channel with 1:1 and 1:5 side-slopes was the most severe. (trl.co.uk)
  • To try and improve knowledge of her condition, Niah has setup her own YouTube channel, which can be found by searching her name on the site. (sussexexpress.co.uk)
  • But new research has found that the shape of a channel, what scientists call its morphology, is just as important to assessing that risk because it affects the channel's capacity to carry water overall. (fondriest.com)
  • That's why many of the 800,000 people who were evacuated found themselves in seemingly sturdy concrete buildings that could not protect them when the storm surge - sea water pushed by the typhoon - rushed in. (cbs8.com)