Water Pollutants, Chemical
Water Pollutants, Radioactive
Extravascular Lung Water
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Colony Count, Microbial
Cell Membrane Permeability
Molecular Sequence Data
Oceans and Seas
Kidney Concentrating Ability
Waste Disposal, Fluid
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Conservation of Natural Resources
Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/15056)It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice. (+info)
The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (2/15056)The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity. (+info)
The accessibility of iron at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase to water as studied by 1H NMR paramagnetic relaxation. Effect of L-Phe and comparison with the rat enzyme. (3/15056)The high-spin (S = 5/2) Fe(III) ion at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has a paramagnetic effect on the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons. This effect is proportional to the concentration of enzyme, with a paramagnetic molar-relaxivity value at 400 MHz and 25 degrees C of 1. 3 (+/- 0.03) x 10(3) s-1 M-1. The value of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) for the relaxation rate was -14.4 +/- 1.1 kJ/mol for the resting enzyme, indicating a fast exchange of water protons in the paramagnetic environment. The frequency dependence of the relaxation rate also supported this hypothesis. Thus, the recombinant human PAH appears to have a more solvent-accessible catalytic iron than the rat enzyme, in which the water coordinated to the metal is slowly exchanging with the solvent. These findings may be related to the level of basal activity before activation for these enzymes, which is higher for human than for rat PAH. In the presence of saturating (5 mM) concentrations of the substrate L-Phe, the paramagnetic molar relaxivity for human PAH decreased to 0.72 (+/- 0.05) x 10(3) s-1 M-1 with no significant change in the Ea. Effective correlation times (tauC) of 1.8 (+/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and 1.25 (+/- 0.2) x 10(-10) s-1 were calculated for the enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively, and most likely represent the electron spin relaxation rate (tauS) for Fe(III) in each case. Together with the paramagnetic molar-relaxivity values, the tauC values were used to estimate Fe(III)-water distances. It seems that at least one of the three water molecules coordinated to the iron in the resting rat and human enzymes is displaced from coordination on the binding of L-Phe at the active site. (+info)
Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (4/15056)Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface. (+info)
Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (5/15056)Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed. (+info)
Charge pairing of headgroups in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A molecular dynamics simulation study. (6/15056)Molecular dynamics simulation of the hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase was carried out for 5 ns to study the interaction among DMPC headgroups in the membrane/water interface region. The phosphatidylcholine headgroup contains a positively charged choline group and negatively charged phosphate and carbonyl groups, although it is a neutral molecule as a whole. Our previous study (Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M., Y. Takaoka, H. Miyagawa, K. Kitamura, and A. Kusumi. 1997. J. Phys. Chem. 101:3677-3691) showed the formation of water cross-bridges between negatively charged groups in which a water molecule is simultaneously hydrogen bonded to two DMPC molecules. Water bridges link 76% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. In the present study we show that relatively stable charge associations (charge pairs) are formed between the positively and negatively charged groups of two DMPC molecules. Charge pairs link 93% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. Water bridges and charge pairs together form an extended network of interactions among DMPC headgroups linking 98% of all membrane phospholipids. The average lifetimes of DMPC-DMPC associations via charge pairs, water bridges and both, are at least 730, 1400, and over 1500 ps, respectively. However, these associations are dynamic states and they break and re-form several times during their lifetime. (+info)
Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (7/15056)The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin. (+info)
Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface. (8/15056)Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal. (+info)
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Aquaporins are a family of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across cell membranes. They are found in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans, and play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of water and other small solutes in cells and tissues. In the medical field, aquaporins are of particular interest because they are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the movement of water across the blood-brain barrier, and the transport of water and other solutes across epithelial tissues such as the kidney and the lungs. Abnormalities in aquaporin function have been linked to a number of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, polycystic kidney disease, and certain types of cancer. As such, aquaporins are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field, with the goal of developing new treatments and therapies for these and other diseases.
Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of water and other small molecules across cell membranes. It is primarily expressed in the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, as well as in the epithelial cells that line the lungs, kidneys, and other organs. In the medical field, AQP1 is of particular interest because it is involved in a number of important physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the maintenance of fluid balance, and the clearance of waste products from the body. It is also involved in the development of certain diseases, such as hypertension, kidney disease, and pulmonary edema. AQP1 is a member of the aquaporin family of proteins, which are specialized channels that facilitate the movement of water and other small molecules across cell membranes. These channels are essential for many physiological processes, and their dysfunction can lead to a range of health problems.
In the medical field, "waste water" typically refers to water that has been contaminated with various types of biological, chemical, and physical pollutants, including bacteria, viruses, pharmaceuticals, and other harmful substances. This type of water is often generated by hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as by laboratories and research facilities that handle biological materials. Waste water from healthcare facilities can contain a wide range of contaminants, including blood, urine, feces, and other bodily fluids, as well as chemicals used in cleaning and disinfection. These contaminants can pose a significant risk to public health if they are not properly treated and disposed of. To prevent the spread of disease and protect public health, healthcare facilities are required to follow strict regulations for the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water. This typically involves the use of specialized treatment systems, such as biological treatment systems, chemical treatment systems, or advanced oxidation processes, to remove or neutralize contaminants before the water is discharged into the environment.
Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It is a highly reactive gas that is commonly used in various industries, including medicine. In the medical field, chlorine is used as a disinfectant to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that can cause infections. It is often used in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities to disinfect surfaces, equipment, and water. Chlorine is also used in the production of various medical products, such as chlorhexidine, a widely used antiseptic in healthcare settings. Chlorine is also used in the production of certain medications, such as chloramphenicol, an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. However, it is important to note that chlorine can also be toxic in high concentrations and can cause respiratory problems, skin irritation, and other health issues if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety protocols when handling and using chlorine in the medical field.
In the medical field, sewage refers to the waste water that is generated from households, industries, and commercial establishments. It contains a mixture of water, solid waste, and various contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and chemicals. Sewage is considered a potential source of disease transmission and can pose a risk to public health if not properly treated and disposed of. Therefore, the collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage are important public health measures to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases.
In the medical field, oxygen isotopes refer to the different forms of the element oxygen that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Oxygen-16 is the most abundant and is the form of oxygen that is found in the air we breathe. Oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 are less abundant and are often used in medical research and diagnostic imaging. Oxygen isotopes can be used to study the metabolism and function of various organs and tissues in the body, and can also be used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions.
Deuterium oxide, also known as heavy water, is a chemical compound composed of one oxygen atom and two deuterium atoms. It has the chemical formula D2O and is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is similar in appearance and properties to regular water (H2O). In the medical field, deuterium oxide is used as a tracer in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a non-invasive imaging technique that can provide detailed information about the structure and function of molecules in the body. Deuterium oxide is often used as a substitute for regular water in NMR studies because its slightly different chemical properties allow it to be distinguished from regular water in the spectra. Deuterium oxide has also been used in some clinical trials as a potential treatment for certain medical conditions, such as cancer and heart disease. However, its use in medicine is still limited and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.
In the medical field, "Water Pollutants, Radioactive" refers to any substances that contaminate water sources with radioactive materials. These substances can come from a variety of sources, including nuclear power plants, mining operations, and medical facilities that handle radioactive materials. Radioactive water pollutants can pose significant health risks to humans and the environment. When ingested or inhaled, radioactive materials can damage cells and DNA, leading to an increased risk of cancer and other health problems. In addition, radioactive water pollutants can contaminate crops and drinking water supplies, leading to long-term health effects for people who consume these contaminated products. To prevent the spread of radioactive water pollutants, it is important to monitor water sources for radioactive contamination and to implement strict regulations and safety protocols for facilities that handle radioactive materials.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
In the medical field, arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that can cause a range of health problems when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Arsenic is found naturally in the environment and can also be released into the air, water, and soil through human activities such as mining, smelting, and the use of certain pesticides and herbicides. Long-term exposure to arsenic can lead to a variety of health problems, including skin lesions, respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Arsenic poisoning can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache. In severe cases, it can lead to organ failure and death. In the medical field, arsenic poisoning is treated by removing the source of exposure and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, chelation therapy may be used to remove arsenic from the body. It is important to note that the risk of arsenic poisoning can be reduced by avoiding exposure to contaminated water and soil, and by following safe practices when handling and disposing of arsenic-containing materials.
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are a group of organic chemicals that are formed when chlorine or other disinfectants react with organic matter in water. They are commonly found in drinking water and can be a potential health concern. In the medical field, THMs are often studied as potential carcinogens and have been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer. They can also cause other health problems, such as liver and kidney damage, and may have negative effects on the nervous system. THMs are typically measured in drinking water to ensure that they are within safe levels. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for THMs of 80 parts per billion (ppb) in drinking water.
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the movement of water and other small molecules across cell membranes, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). It is the most abundant water channel protein in the brain and spinal cord, and it is primarily expressed in astrocytes, a type of glial cell that provides support and protection to neurons. In the medical field, AQP4 is of particular interest because it has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and Alexander disease. In MS and NMO, AQP4 is thought to be involved in the formation of inflammatory lesions in the brain and spinal cord, while in Alexander disease, it is associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in astrocytes. AQP4 has also been studied in the context of other neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy, as well as in the development of new therapies for these conditions. For example, drugs that target AQP4 have shown promise in preclinical studies as potential treatments for MS and NMO, and ongoing clinical trials are evaluating their safety and efficacy in humans.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of water balance in the body. It is primarily expressed in the kidney, where it is responsible for the reabsorption of water from the filtrate in the collecting ducts. This process is essential for maintaining proper hydration levels in the body and preventing dehydration. AQP2 is regulated by the hormone vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus in response to dehydration or low blood pressure. Vasopressin binds to receptors on the surface of the collecting duct cells, activating a signaling cascade that leads to the insertion of AQP2 into the cell membrane. This allows water to pass through the cell membrane and into the bloodstream, where it can be transported to the rest of the body. Abnormal regulation of AQP2 can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive urine production and dehydration, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency in AQP2.
Chlorine compounds are chemical compounds that contain chlorine as an element. In the medical field, chlorine compounds are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and antifungals. They are also used in the production of various pharmaceuticals and medical devices. One of the most well-known chlorine compounds used in medicine is hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is produced by the immune system as a natural defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is also used as a disinfectant in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Other chlorine compounds used in medicine include chlorhexidine, which is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and skin cleansers, and chloramphenicol, which is used as an antibiotic to treat bacterial infections. However, it is important to note that some chlorine compounds can be toxic and can cause harm if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety protocols when handling and using chlorine compounds in the medical field.
In the medical field, "ice" typically refers to the use of cold therapy to reduce pain, inflammation, and swelling. Ice is often applied to the affected area for 15-20 minutes at a time, several times a day, to help alleviate discomfort and promote healing. Ice therapy is commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including sprains, strains, bruises, and muscle soreness. It can also be used to reduce inflammation and swelling after surgery or other medical procedures. It's important to note that while ice therapy can be effective for many conditions, it's not appropriate for everyone. People with certain medical conditions, such as Raynaud's disease or diabetes, may need to avoid ice therapy or use it with caution. It's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before using ice therapy to ensure that it's safe and appropriate for your individual needs.
Vasopressins are a group of hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. They play a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. There are two main types of vasopressins: arginine vasopressin (AVP) and desmopressin (DDAVP). AVP is primarily responsible for regulating water balance in the body, while DDAVP is used to treat certain types of bleeding disorders. Vasopressins work by constricting blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. They also stimulate the kidneys to retain water, which helps to maintain blood volume and blood pressure. In addition, vasopressins can affect the heart rate and contractility, as well as the permeability of blood vessels. Abnormal levels of vasopressins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP. Vasopressin levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as diuretics, and by certain medical conditions, such as heart failure and kidney disease.
Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is a protein that acts as a water channel in the cell membrane of various tissues in the human body. It is primarily expressed in the skin, where it plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). AQP3 is also found in the kidney, where it helps to regulate the concentration of solutes in the urine. In addition, AQP3 has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as skin disorders, kidney disease, and cancer.
Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen that has one extra neutron in its nucleus compared to the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. In the medical field, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer in nuclear medicine imaging studies. For example, deuterium oxide (heavy water) can be used to label certain molecules, such as glucose or amino acids, which can then be injected into the body and imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This can help doctors to visualize the uptake and metabolism of these molecules in different tissues and organs, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions. Deuterium is also used in some types of radiation therapy, where it is used to replace hydrogen atoms in certain molecules to make them more radioactive, allowing them to be targeted to specific cancer cells.
In the medical field, carbonated water refers to water that has been infused with carbon dioxide gas under pressure, resulting in the formation of carbonic acid and the characteristic fizzy texture and taste. Carbonated water is often used as a beverage, but it can also be used in medical treatments for various conditions. For example, carbonated water can be used to help relieve symptoms of acid reflux by neutralizing stomach acid. It can also be used as a gargle to soothe a sore throat or as a compress to reduce swelling and inflammation. In some cases, carbonated water may be used as a laxative to help relieve constipation. However, it's important to note that carbonated water should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment for serious conditions. If you have a medical condition, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate treatment.
Electrolytes are minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. They are ions that carry an electrical charge and are necessary for maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In the medical field, electrolytes are often measured in blood and urine tests to assess the body's electrolyte balance. The most common electrolytes measured in these tests are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to various factors, including dehydration, kidney disease, heart failure, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. Therefore, it is important to maintain proper electrolyte balance through a balanced diet and appropriate medical treatment when necessary.
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
Aquaporin 6 (AQP6) is a protein that acts as a water channel in the cell membrane of various tissues in the human body. It is primarily expressed in the kidney, where it plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of water from the filtrate in the renal tubules. AQP6 is also found in the lens of the eye, where it helps regulate the movement of water and ions to maintain the shape and transparency of the lens. In addition, AQP6 has been implicated in the regulation of cell volume, transepithelial transport, and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Mutations in the AQP6 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including cataracts, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Arsenic poisoning is a condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high levels of arsenic, a toxic element that can be found in the environment, food, and water. Arsenic poisoning can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin rash, hair loss, and damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. In severe cases, arsenic poisoning can lead to organ failure, coma, and death. Treatment for arsenic poisoning typically involves removing the person from the source of exposure, providing supportive care to manage symptoms, and in some cases, administering medications to remove arsenic from the body.
In the medical field, industrial waste refers to any waste materials generated during the production, processing, or distribution of medical products or services. This can include a wide range of materials, such as packaging materials, contaminated equipment, used needles and syringes, biological waste, and chemical waste. Medical industrial waste is considered hazardous because it can contain infectious agents, toxins, and other harmful substances that can pose a risk to human health and the environment if not properly managed. As a result, medical facilities are required to follow strict regulations and guidelines for the collection, storage, transportation, and disposal of medical industrial waste to ensure that it is handled safely and responsibly.
Urea is a chemical compound that is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism. It is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, urea is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure kidney function. High levels of urea in the blood can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions, while low levels may indicate malnutrition or other problems. Urea is also used as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
In the medical field, the term "carbon" typically refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 6, which is a vital component of all living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues. In medicine, carbon is also used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, carbon-13 (13C) is a stable isotope of carbon that is used in metabolic studies to investigate the function of enzymes and pathways in the body. Carbon-14 (14C) is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials, including human remains. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced by the body during respiration and is exhaled. It is also used in medical applications, such as in carbon dioxide laser therapy, which uses the energy of CO2 lasers to treat various medical conditions, including skin disorders, tumors, and eye diseases.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
Fluorides are compounds that contain the fluoride ion (F-). In the medical field, fluorides are commonly used to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health. They can be found in a variety of products, including toothpaste, mouthwashes, and fluoride supplements. Fluoride works by strengthening tooth enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It can also help to remineralize tooth enamel that has already been damaged by acid. Fluoride is also used in water treatment to reduce the risk of tooth decay in communities. In addition, fluoride is sometimes used in dental procedures, such as fluoride varnishes and fluoride gels, to further strengthen teeth and prevent decay. While fluoride is generally considered safe and effective, excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis, a condition that causes white or brown stains on the teeth. It is important to use fluoride products in moderation and to follow the instructions on the label.
Water & Solutions
Healthy Water | CDC
Water Disinfection | CDC Yellow Book 2024
Water Pollution: MedlinePlus
Water purification | UNICEF Cuba
Roger Waters - Wikipedia
EWG Tap Water Database | Manassas
The OECD Principles on Water Governance - OECD
Legionella Infections | Healthy Swimming | Healthy Water | CDC
Water Sports in Whittier, CA | ACTIVE
Lithuanian Water Bottles - CafePress
Water & Sparkling Water | Safeway
4th Water Conference | AIChE
Water - Food
USGS Water-Year Summary for Site 02198375
Category:Water in Charente-Maritime - Wikimedia Commons
Hillsborough lifts water restrictions in south county
Water Modeling | Camp Lejeune | ATSDR
Wheelie For Water | charity: water
Bottled Water - Ralphs
9 Ways to Reduce Your Water Bill - Experian
Where was the water lilies pond painted? - Answers
Energy and Water Use | Union of Concerned Scientists
Water Resources Department : Transfers : Transfers : State of Oregon
Water Research Institute - University of Barcelona
Patagonia Home Water Trout Uprisal Hoody
Water worlds in the Milky Way
Construction company accused of stealing water
Water from Cole-Parmer
Sanitation and hygiene1
- Damaged and disrupted by the several years of conflict, water, sanitation and hygiene services and facilities have impacted the safe and regular access of about 14.6 million people to safe water, among other WASH services, while 7.6 million people are estimated to be in acute need for WASH services. (unicef.org)
- Skip the bland disposable bottles and show off your unique style or mood with a water bottle. (cafepress.com)
- Many types of bacteria and viruses can cause intestinal (enteric) infection through drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Parasitic worms are not commonly transmitted through drinking water, but drinking water is a potential means of transmission for some. (cdc.gov)
- Substantial progress has been made toward the goal of safe drinking water and sanitation worldwide, particularly in Asia and Latin America. (cdc.gov)
- All international travelers-especially long-term travelers and expatriates-should become familiar with and use simple methods to ensure safe drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- About 844 million people lack even a basic drinking-water service. (news-medical.net)
- Additionally, at least 2 billion people utilize a drinking water source that is contaminated with feces. (news-medical.net)
- It is mainly caused by bacteria named Vibrio cholerae via consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. (news-medical.net)
- Sparkling water , seltzer water, and bottled drinking water have quickly become must-have additions to every grocery list. (safeway.com)
- Signature Select Refreshe Drinking Water - 24-16.9 Fl. (safeway.com)
- Aquafina Purified Drinking Water - 24-16.9 Fl. (safeway.com)
- Source water assessments evaluate local conditions and support development of strategies to manage risk to sources of supply for drinking water. (amwater.com)
- In 2021, the county said it had committed to providing an additional 6 million gallons a day of drinking water to 23,000 new homes and apartments over the coming six years. (yahoo.com)
- Water modeling will help identify where and when certain areas at Camp Lejeune received VOC-contaminated drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Implementation of these recommendations should contribute to the achievement of continuous levels of optimally fluoridated drinking water for the U.S. population, minimize potential fluoride overfeeds (i.e., any fluoride level that is greater than the recommended control range of the water system), and contribute to the safe operation of all fluoridated water systems. (cdc.gov)
- Water fluoridation is the deliberate addition of the natural trace element fluorine (in the ionic form as fluoride) into drinking water in accordance with scientific and dental guidelines (1-9). (cdc.gov)
- Additional comments were obtained from state dental officials, state drinking water personnel, and others (e.g., schools of public health, dental societies, and engineers from private industry). (cdc.gov)
- In 2015, 91% of the world's population had access to an improved drinking-water source, compared with 76% in 1990. (who.int)
- 2.6 billion people have gained access to an improved drinking-water source since 1990. (who.int)
- Globally, at least 1.8 billion people use a drinking-water source contaminated with faeces. (who.int)
- Contaminated drinking-water is estimated to cause 502 000 diarrhoeal deaths each year. (who.int)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets regulations for treating and monitoring drinking water delivered by community water systems. (cdc.gov)
- Drinking water protection programs at the state and national levels play a critical role in ensuring high-quality drinking water and in protecting the public's health. (cdc.gov)
- The Tracking Network has data and information about the levels of several contaminants that can be found in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- These contaminants were selected for the Tracking Network because they occur more frequently in drinking water at levels that may be of public health significance. (cdc.gov)
- The drinking water data used in the Tracking Network are gathered as part of the water quality monitoring requirements set out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies. (cdc.gov)
- Tracking Network data are the only set of consistent drinking water quality data nationwide. (cdc.gov)
- The indicators for drinking water describe public water use and the levels of various contaminants in public water supplies. (cdc.gov)
- These data show quarterly and yearly average concentrations of a contaminant in finished drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- You can use these data to estimate potential long-term exposure to contaminants in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Making sure that drinking water remains in compliance with recommended standards is the most important way to prevent health problems caused by contaminants in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Protecting water sources, providing effective and reliable water treatment, and monitoring water quality are the main strategies for providing high-quality drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- Achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. (bvsalud.org)
- In both high-income and low- and middle-income countries, lack of potable water is one of the most immediate public health problems faced after natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis), or in refugee camps. (cdc.gov)
- Some larger hotels and resorts might use additional onsite water treatment to generate potable water. (cdc.gov)
- emergency supply of potable water. (cdc.gov)
Compromised by contaminants1
- Efficacy is not compromised by contaminants or particles in the water. (cdc.gov)
- Contaminants can enter water supplies by direct runoff, contributing flow from smaller streams, and/or infiltration into the ground. (amwater.com)
- The data is gathered from state grant recipients and can be used to estimate the population potentially exposed to contaminants in community water systems. (cdc.gov)
- These data show the number of community water systems and their concentrations of contaminants. (cdc.gov)
- These data show estimates of the number of people served by community water systems along with the concentration of contaminants. (cdc.gov)
Gallons of water4
- The county built a storage tank holding 3 million gallons of water a day to be used during peak demand, and a booster pump station near the intersection of Big Bend and Balm Riverview roads to increase pressure in water lines. (yahoo.com)
- The average American uses 82 gallons of water daily, costing the average family $1,100 annually, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports. (experian.com)
- And because the average family wastes 180 gallons of water per week, according to the EPA, there's lots of opportunity to save. (experian.com)
- A bath uses as much as 70 gallons of water, per the EPA, while a five-minute shower uses 10 to 25. (experian.com)
- NSF performs electrical safety certifications for food equipment, municipal water products and systems, on-site wastewater products and pool and spa equipment. (nsf.org)
- Be part of an important discussion on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from water and wastewater utilities and the immediate research needed to address this issue. (aiche.org)
- Water is needed for domestic purposes, for agricultural, industrial and energy production, and these uses are highly inter-linked, potentially in competition, and they generate wastewater that may cause pollution. (bvsalud.org)
- Improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. (bvsalud.org)
- In 1990, Waters staged one of the largest rock concerts in history, The Wall - Live in Berlin , with an attendance of 450,000. (wikipedia.org)
- The deterioration in WASH related services such as the lack of treatment of water supply systems, the contamination of water due to damages and leaks in sewer lines and inadequate chlorination levels in addition to the prevalence of sub-optimal hygiene practices that have contributed to the re-emergence and outbreak of water-borne diseases such as hepatitis and watery diarrhoea. (unicef.org)
- For advisories without evidence of contamination, tap water may be used for patients with healthy immune systems. (cdc.gov)
- For advisories with evidence of contamination (microbial/chemical) do not use tap water for bath or shower. (cdc.gov)
- This can increase the risk of household water contamination and provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes. (who.int)
- Bacteria, viruses, parasites and pollution contaminate freshwater stores resulting in water scarcity. (who.int)
- Water scarcity is a major problem even in areas where there is plenty of rainfall. (who.int)
- Water scarcity can also lead to diseases such as trachoma (an eye infection that can lead to blindness), plague and typhus. (who.int)
- Water scarcity affects 1 in 3 people in the African Region and is getting worse with population growth, urbanization and increases in household and industrial uses. (who.int)
- Water scarcity often encourages people to store water in their homes. (who.int)
- climate change severs water scarcity in some parts of the world, and the risk of flooding in others. (bvsalud.org)
- Substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity. (bvsalud.org)
Dependent on surface water2
- Waterborne diseases are a risk for international travelers who visit countries where access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and proper hygiene is limited, and for wilderness visitors who rely on surface water in any country, including the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Majority of water-borne diseases worldwide mainly affect children due to poor hygiene and weak immunity. (news-medical.net)
- We focus on affected populations in Syria to ensure those in need and the most vulnerable receive timely, life-saving and gender responsive Water, Sanitation & Hygiene assistance. (unicef.org)
- Strengthening hygiene education, through WASH-in-schools projects which focus on safe water provision, handwashing, menstrual hygiene management and food preparation, and working with partners on hygiene education to manage the risks of contaminated irrigation products. (unicef.org)
- Fresh water is not only needed for drinking but also cooking, food production and a variety of other uses such as sanitation, hygiene and cleanliness practises. (who.int)
- All activities outlined in the UN-Water Work Programme are primarily implemented through Members and Partners. (unwater.org)
- Keep your hydration on lock and stop using boring, plastic water bottles. (cafepress.com)
- Shop our wide variety of Lithuanian Water Bottles to express your personality and shrink your environmental footprint. (cafepress.com)
- Fill two plastic soda bottles with sand or pebbles and put them in your toilet tank to reduce water flow. (experian.com)
- By 2025, half of the world's population will be living in water-stressed areas. (who.int)
- Where untreated surface or well water is used, and no sanitation infrastructure exists, the risk for waterborne infection is high. (cdc.gov)
- The low pressure, attributed to peak demand from landscape watering, raised having to issue possible boil water notices for customers or potentially hampering firefighting efforts in the region. (yahoo.com)
- Protecting and meeting water and sanitation needs of vulnerable families and children, especially those in remote or peripheral areas, who due to the disruption of water treatment facilities have had to resort to unsafe alternatives, risking their wellbeing and at times their lives. (unicef.org)
- Alkaline water brand FulHum says its jet black mineral water can disrupt the bottled water and energy drinks sectors. (nutraingredients.com)
- According to a new projection from the Department of the Interior, Lake Mead's water level will be below 1,050 feet above sea level come January -- the threshold required to declare a Tier 2 shortage starting in 2023. (tetongravity.com)
- Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), Emergency Water Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities (2012) pdf icon [PDF - 2.07 MB] and standards published by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) external icon ), United States Pharmaocopeia (USP), and manufacturers' instructions. (cdc.gov)
- Topo Chico Mineral Water - 12-12 Fl. (safeway.com)
- S. PELLEGRINO Sparkling Natural Mineral Water - 12-16.9 Fl. (safeway.com)
- Regular consumption of silicon-rich mineral water could help to reduce the clinical signs of Alzheimer's disease by removing excess levels of aluminium that are linked to the disease, suggest researchers. (nutraingredients.com)
- Check manufacturer's instructions for use for type of water to be used typically they may indicate the use of sterile, distilled, or demineralized bottled water for humidifiers. (cdc.gov)
- The OECD Water Governance Principles provide the 12 must-do's for governments to design and implement effective, efficient, and inclusive water policies. (oecd.org)
- These recommendations are written with the assumption that the reader either has an engineering background or at least is familiar with basic water supply engineering principles. (cdc.gov)
- Healthcare facilities should develop an Emergency Water Supply Plan ( EWSP pdf icon [PDF - 2.07 MB]) to prepare for, respond to, and recover from a total or partial interruption of the facilities' normal water supply. (cdc.gov)
- Water supply interruption can be caused by several types of events such as a natural disaster, a failure of the community water system, construction damage or even an act of terrorism. (cdc.gov)
- The recommendations address water fluoridation for both community public water supply systems and school public water supply systems. (cdc.gov)
- Improved water supply and sanitation, and better management of water resources, can boost countries' economic growth and can contribute greatly to poverty reduction. (who.int)
- We know from other studies regarding lung disease that NTM are in the water supply, and we know that many of our patients had used tap water to irrigate their sinuses, even though we discourage them from using tap water. (cdc.gov)
- Water-borne diseases are the ones caused by pathogenic microbes spread via contaminated water. (news-medical.net)
- The knowledge of the different types of water-borne diseases has come to the forefront with the advent of globalization over the past few decades. (news-medical.net)
- These water sources can transmit water-borne diseases, which have been linked to about 502,000 diarrheal deaths every year. (news-medical.net)
- The most common of all water-borne diseases, diarrhea, mainly affects children below five years of age. (news-medical.net)
- It possesses a mortality rate that is alarmingly high among the water-borne diseases. (news-medical.net)
- Major precipitation events such as heavy rains or snowfall increase the risk of the water-borne diseases. (news-medical.net)
- A lack of clean water increases the risk of diarrhoeal diseases as cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne tropical diseases. (who.int)
- International travelers and wilderness visitors have no reliable resources to evaluate local water system quality. (cdc.gov)
- Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute fresh or salt water. (medlineplus.gov)
- Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria transmitted via contaminated water. (news-medical.net)
- Eleclean's advanced 'Electro-Oxidation' technology turns water into ROS - disinfectant that effectively destroy activity of virus and bacteria. (who.int)
- Use bottled or boiled water for infants, young children and anyone with a weakened immune system, wounds, or abrasions. (cdc.gov)
- Small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants may also have a particularly high body water content (90% for SGA infants vs 84% for appropriate for gestational age [AGA] infants at 25-30 weeks' gestation). (medscape.com)
- Focusing on transitional WASH projects that would bridge the gap between humanitarian response and longer-term investments, such as water and waste water treatment technologies, wetlands construction and the use of treated waste water for irrigation. (unicef.org)
- It's an era of opportunity for bottled water, with consumers wanting a healthy alternative to many other drinks on the market. (nutraingredients.com)
- UK-based Market researcher Zenith International reports regular carbonated drinks are no longer the world's biggest beverage category as they were surpassed by bottled waters in volume terms in 2007. (nutraingredients.com)
- Where treated tap water is available, aging or inadequate water treatment infrastructure might not effectively disinfect water or maintain water quality during distribution. (cdc.gov)
- In some places, the availability of water is so scarce that people have neither the time nor the money to afford the water purifiers or other water treatment mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
- People can get Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever when they breathe in small droplets of water (mist) that contain Legionella . (cdc.gov)
- The county's south-central water system serves 465,000 people. (yahoo.com)
- If everyone who hits the 'like' button would donate $25, just think of what Wheelie for Water could do for these people! (charitywater.org)
- Prior to the conflict, people in Syria had benefited from well-developed centrally-managed water systems, while in terms of sewage systems and treatment plants only major cities were being adequately served. (unicef.org)
- That affected the share of treatable and drinkable water reaching people in peripheral locations, who had to resort to less-developed technologies and possibly unsafe alternatives to cater for their needs. (unicef.org)
- About 90% of people in the United States get their water from a community water system. (cdc.gov)
- This indicator shows the number of community water systems per state and the number of people receiving water from those community water systems. (cdc.gov)
- Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical for thriving people, planet and prosperity. (bvsalud.org)
- Integrated water resources management is essential to harness synergies as well as to manage potential trade-offs across sectors and regions, to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. (bvsalud.org)
- Implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate. (bvsalud.org)
- The temporary rules, approved by the County Commission in December 2020, were intended to offset what the county termed "dangerously low" water pressure in the southern part of the county utility system. (yahoo.com)
- Through UN-Water they address the cross-cutting nature of water and maximize system-wide coordinated action and coherence. (unwater.org)
- View point-level community water system data using Tracking Network's data explorer tool. (cdc.gov)
- Watershed conditions can directly affect the quantity and quality of source water supplies. (amwater.com)
- While they are not gathered specifically to assess the level of exposure or to track changes in water quality over time, they can be used to determine the potential for public health impacts from contaminant levels of concern. (cdc.gov)
- You can use these data to see how well the community water systems are producing high-quality water. (cdc.gov)
- NSF Health Sciences, LLC provides training, risk assessments and water management plan development for building owners and managers. (nsf.org)
- Clearly allocate and distinguish roles and responsibilities for water policymaking, policy implementation, operational management and regulation, and foster co-ordination across these responsible authorities. (oecd.org)
- Commercial and residential property owners now will follow the same twice-a-week countywide watering schedule set by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. (yahoo.com)
- It becomes a health concern when it grows and spreads in human-made water systems. (cdc.gov)
- This deterioration jeopardizes public health and sustains a high risk of disease for children and families in the areas lacking adequate water and sanitation facilities. (unicef.org)
- and Evanston, Illinois) demonstrated the oral health benefits of fluoridated water in several communities and established water fluoridation as a practical, effective public health measure that would prevent dental caries (11-14). (cdc.gov)
- Water is essential for life and good health. (who.int)
- In low- and middle-income countries, 38% of health care facilities lack improved water source, 19% do not have improved sanitation and 35% lack water and soap for handwashing. (who.int)
- These measures provide information to the public on the water systems where PFAS chemicals and perchlorate were detected, and where the two chemicals with the EPA health advisory (PFOA and PFOS) were found in exceedance of that level. (cdc.gov)
- Savvy consumers now look well beyond classic nutritional attributes such as vitamins and minerals, and are thirsty for functional beverages, says hydrogen-rich water HFactor. (nutraingredients.com)
- Get wet, turn the water off, soap up and turn the water back on to rinse off. (experian.com)
- News of rising prices and growing water shortages may have you thinking about ways to reduce water usage-and shrink your water bill. (experian.com)
- We have plenty of water to drink -- even the water in our toilets is clean! (charitywater.org)
- Many developing countries do not have proper water treatment plants, especially in the rural areas. (news-medical.net)
- As the Global Bottled Water Congress takes place in Lisbon this week, Zenith International takes a look at areas to keep an. (nutraingredients.com)
- The rules, which also prohibited overnight watering, applied to the areas south of the Alafia River. (yahoo.com)
- UN-Water's Members and Partners all have specific mandates and focus areas related to water and sanitation. (unwater.org)
- The two-year rule, which the county estimated would reduce peak daily demand by 15 million gallons, allowed the county time to complete a pair of projects to boost water pressure. (yahoo.com)
- Natural calamities such as earthquakes or major cyclones often cause drastic changes in the ecosystem of the water bodies. (news-medical.net)
- Transmission of these pathogens occurs while using infected water for drinking, food preparation, and washing clothes, among others. (news-medical.net)
- This method is a quantitative procedure for the measurement of perchlorate, nitrate and iodide in tap water using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
- Measures of perchlorate, nitrate, and iodide in water were assessed in a subsample of participants aged 12 years and older. (cdc.gov)
Access to safe water1
- Assuring continuous access to safe water for children. (unicef.org)
- Water travels over the land's surface - farm fields, forests, lawns and city streets - on its course to a waterway. (amwater.com)