Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Water Pollution, RadioactiveSwimming PoolsAquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Carbonated Water: Water naturally or artificially infused with CARBON DIOXIDE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (1/15056)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (2/15056)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

The accessibility of iron at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase to water as studied by 1H NMR paramagnetic relaxation. Effect of L-Phe and comparison with the rat enzyme. (3/15056)

The high-spin (S = 5/2) Fe(III) ion at the active site of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has a paramagnetic effect on the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons. This effect is proportional to the concentration of enzyme, with a paramagnetic molar-relaxivity value at 400 MHz and 25 degrees C of 1. 3 (+/- 0.03) x 10(3) s-1 M-1. The value of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) for the relaxation rate was -14.4 +/- 1.1 kJ/mol for the resting enzyme, indicating a fast exchange of water protons in the paramagnetic environment. The frequency dependence of the relaxation rate also supported this hypothesis. Thus, the recombinant human PAH appears to have a more solvent-accessible catalytic iron than the rat enzyme, in which the water coordinated to the metal is slowly exchanging with the solvent. These findings may be related to the level of basal activity before activation for these enzymes, which is higher for human than for rat PAH. In the presence of saturating (5 mM) concentrations of the substrate L-Phe, the paramagnetic molar relaxivity for human PAH decreased to 0.72 (+/- 0.05) x 10(3) s-1 M-1 with no significant change in the Ea. Effective correlation times (tauC) of 1.8 (+/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and 1.25 (+/- 0.2) x 10(-10) s-1 were calculated for the enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively, and most likely represent the electron spin relaxation rate (tauS) for Fe(III) in each case. Together with the paramagnetic molar-relaxivity values, the tauC values were used to estimate Fe(III)-water distances. It seems that at least one of the three water molecules coordinated to the iron in the resting rat and human enzymes is displaced from coordination on the binding of L-Phe at the active site.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (4/15056)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (5/15056)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Charge pairing of headgroups in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A molecular dynamics simulation study. (6/15056)

Molecular dynamics simulation of the hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase was carried out for 5 ns to study the interaction among DMPC headgroups in the membrane/water interface region. The phosphatidylcholine headgroup contains a positively charged choline group and negatively charged phosphate and carbonyl groups, although it is a neutral molecule as a whole. Our previous study (Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M., Y. Takaoka, H. Miyagawa, K. Kitamura, and A. Kusumi. 1997. J. Phys. Chem. 101:3677-3691) showed the formation of water cross-bridges between negatively charged groups in which a water molecule is simultaneously hydrogen bonded to two DMPC molecules. Water bridges link 76% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. In the present study we show that relatively stable charge associations (charge pairs) are formed between the positively and negatively charged groups of two DMPC molecules. Charge pairs link 93% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. Water bridges and charge pairs together form an extended network of interactions among DMPC headgroups linking 98% of all membrane phospholipids. The average lifetimes of DMPC-DMPC associations via charge pairs, water bridges and both, are at least 730, 1400, and over 1500 ps, respectively. However, these associations are dynamic states and they break and re-form several times during their lifetime.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (7/15056)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface. (8/15056)

Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantum chemical MP2 results on some hydrates of cytosine. T2 - Binding sites, energies and the first hydration shell. AU - Fogarasi, Géza. AU - Szalay, Péter G.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A detailed quantum chemical investigation was undertaken to obtain the structure and energetics of cytosine hydrates Cyt·nH2O, with n = 1 to 7. The MP2(fc)/aug-cc-pVDZ level was used as the standard, with some DFT (B3LYP) and coupled cluster calculations, as well as calculations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set added for comparison. In a systematic search for microhydrated forms of cytosine, we have found that several structures have not yet been reported in the literature. The energies of different isomers, as well as binding energies are compared. When predicting the stability of a complex, we suggest using a scheme where the water molecules are extracted from a finite model of bulk water. Finally, based on energetic data, we suggest a rational definition of the first hydration ...
The following is an incomplete list of [[models]] used in [[Computer simulation techniques , computer simulations]] of [[water]]: {{columns-list,3, ==A== *[[AMOEBA]] *[[ASP-S]] *[[ASP-W]] ==B== *[[Baranyai water model , Baranyai]] *[[BBL model of water , BBL]] *[[Bell-Lavis model of water , Bell-Lavis]] *[[Ben-Naim models of water ,Ben-Naim models ]] *[[BF]] *[[BJH]] *[[BK water models , BK3]] *[[BK water models , BKd1]] *[[BK water models , BKd2]] *[[BK water models , BKd3]] *[[Ben-Naim models of water#BNS model , BNS]] *[[Bol model of water , Bol]] *[[BSV]] ==C== *[[CC-pol]] *[[CF]] *[[CI]] *[[COS model of water,COS]] *[[COS model of water,COS/B2]] *[[COS model of water,COS/D2]] *[[COS model of water,COS/G2]] *[[COS model of water,COS/G3]] *[[CMP]] *[[CKL]] ==D== *[[Dahl and Andersen model of water,Dahl and Andersen]] *[[Dang97]] *[[DCF]] *[[DEC]] *[[DPP]] *[[DPP#DPP2,DPP2]] ==E== *[[E3B water model , E3B]] *[[E3B water model#E3B2 , E3B2]] *[[E3B water model#E3B3 , E3B3]] *[[ELBA water ...
We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature. ...
Introduction. An Experiment to determine Water Potential in Potato Tissue Introduction Osmosis is the movement of water molecules move from a region of high water concentration (high water potential) to a region of low water concentration (low water potential). The water molecules also move through a partially permeable membrane. Osmosis affects the shape of plant cells. When a plant cell is in a lower water potential (highly concentrated solution), water from the plant cell moves out and therefore it becomes flaccid, and this is when the cell membrane of the plant cell shrinks. When a plant cell is in a solution which has higher water potential, the water moves into the cell and therefore it becomes turgid, this is when the cell membrane expands. In both cases, it is only the cell membrane that changes its shape. The cell wall always keeps its shape. The mass of plant cells change as well. This is because water is moved into or out of the plant cell and therefore a change occurs to its mass. At ...
Based on molecular dynamics simulations, an analysis of structure and dynamics is performed on interfacial water at a liquid crystalline dipalmitoylphosphatidycholine/water system. Water properties relevant for understanding NMR relaxation are emphasized. The first and second rank orientational order parameters of the water O-H bonds were calculated, where the second rank order parameter is in agreement with experimental determined quadrupolar splittings. Also, two different interfacial water regions (bound water regions) are revealed with respect to different signs of the second rank order parameter. The water reorientation correlation function reveals a mixture of fast and slow decaying parts. The fast (ps) part of the correlation function is due to local anisotropic water reorientation whereas the much slower part is due to more complicated processes including lateral diffusion along the interface and chemical exchange between free and bound water molecules. The 100-ns-long molecular dynamics ...
Hard Science: hydrodynamics, water purification technology, electrolysis, bond angle relationships and energy states, environmental issues, photo chemistry, ionics, ORP, chemistry, oxidative states in water. Interdisciplinary: vortex mechanics, magnetic resonance in water, liquid crystal states, advanced ozonation, colloidal chemistry, structured water, homeopathic effects in relationship to energized water, radio frequency effects on water, energization states in water, magnetic field effects on water dynamics and structure, energy systems utilizing water dynamics or structure. Exploratory: subtle energy effects in water, consciousness and water, effects of harmonic geometries on water, scalar wave effects on water, energization and transformation in the water molecule, memory in water states, biological effects of energized and structured water. Final invited speakers: Joseph Bender: keynote speaker "The Stewardship of Water", and also Jim Beal, Ron Carson, Dr. Lee Cowden, Prof. Carlton ...
Molecularly imprinted polymers are often used in aqueous medium in order to recognize specifically a target molecule. The molecular recognition is usually based on hydrogen bonding. In this case, water molecule presents a serious competition towards the target molecule. In this study, the water sorption by molecularly imprinted polymers was studied in aqueous medium. The molecularly imprinted polymers were specific for iprodione fungicide and were prepared using a 24 full factorial experimental design. They were synthesized using EGDMA or TRIM as crosslinker, methacrylamide or styrene as functional monomer and using bulk or precipitation polymerization. The water sorption isotherms were established in a range of water activities 0.05-0.90 at 25 °C. The kinetics of water sorption by the polymers were modeled using Pelegs equation. This model shows that polymers having the highest water sorption capacities have high values of imprinting factor. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer isotherm equations were
Many people today suffer from diabetes, a disease in which the blood contains high levels of sugar.. Vegetables that have high water content may help lower your blood sugar.. Certain vegetables may help people with diabetes because the high amounts of water help to flush out toxin and other harmful wastes from the body, balancing the sugars in the blood.. If you have high blood sugar levels, you can take steps to help lower it. Foods such as avocados, cabbage, cucumbers, and tomatoes are all high in water content and fiber and have been shown to lower blood sugar in the body. These fruits and vegetables are not only good for you, but they are also low in calories.. By eating these vegetables with high water content, your body does not convert them into sugar quickly, but uses them as a source of fuel, slowly giving you energy throughout the day.. Another tip when you have high blood sugar is to avoid the vegetables with high starch content such as potatoes because the body quickly converts them ...
The Brazil flavored and functional water market is expected to rise from a valuation of US$5.0 bn to reach US$9.4 bn by 2024, expanding at a 7.3% CAGR therein.. Vitamins and Minerals Widely Used Ingredients in Flavored and Functional Water. In 2015, the vitamins and minerals segment accounted for a share of around 90% in terms of volume. Exhibiting a 7.1% CAGR by volume, the segment is also projected to emerge as one of the most lucrative investment options for players in the Brazil flavored and functional water market. Based on the nature of flavored and functional water, non-carbonated beverages are likely to retain their dominance in the market, registering a high growth rate in terms of value as well as volume.. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=16133. On the basis of distribution channel, the retail store segment is expected to lead the Brazil flavored and functional water market throughout the forecast period, with e-commerce ...
The Brazil flavored and functional water market is expected to rise from a valuation of US$5.0 bn to reach US$9.4 bn by 2024, expanding at a 7.3% CAGR therein.. Vitamins and Minerals Widely Used Ingredients in Flavored and Functional Water. In 2015, the vitamins and minerals segment accounted for a share of around 90% in terms of volume. Exhibiting a 7.1% CAGR by volume, the segment is also projected to emerge as one of the most lucrative investment options for players in the Brazil flavored and functional water market. Based on the nature of flavored and functional water, non-carbonated beverages are likely to retain their dominance in the market, registering a high growth rate in terms of value as well as volume.. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=16133. On the basis of distribution channel, the retail store segment is expected to lead the Brazil flavored and functional water market throughout the forecast period, with e-commerce ...
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Now we are living in the age in which everywhere we can find huge demand for water.. "Water Water everywhere, but no water to Drink". Thinking about water took me to the word, PURE WATER? Which water is 100% pure? Many marketing campaigns about bottled waters try to convince us that water must be pure to be good. Natural water has mineral content and after removing minerals, water becomes acidic and will try to replace some of the minerals. So consuming natural water after demineralization will be more dangerous as it may dissolve the mineral content in our body.. Good water can be produced by distillation but some gases, and organic compounds will still remain in distilled water.. Rain water is considered as safe and pure, but rainwater collects particles and chemicals when it falls through the atmosphere.. Reverse osmosis is another method to purify water. Unfortunately, some bacteria, and gases still remain in that water.. ...
Abstract. A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but ...
Water is a good solvent. The water molecules possess free energy. The free energy as per the laws of thermodynamic is the energy of a system capable of doing works. Thus it is the energy that determines the direction in which physical and chemical changes would occur.. The chemical potential is the free energy per mole of any substance i.e., per gram molecular weight. Chemical potential of water is of great importance in explaining movement of water from soil to plant and within plant and is called water potential. Water potential may be defined as the difference in free energy per unit volume, between pure water and osmotic ally constrained metrically bound or pressurized water (e.g., solution) at the same temperature. So, water potential of any system is equivalent to the chemical potential of water in that system. Water potential is denoted by the symbol of (Psi, a Greek letter) and is measured in terms of pressure e.g., bars or atmospheres.. The water potential of pure water is arbitrarily ...
If you yourself do not have access to purified water already or do not have access to already alkaline or acidic water yourself, there is a way to use the water you do have access to manipulate the pH level for your own benefit. If there is a certain pH you are looking for in your water, the wonderful benefit of water is that you can use various systems to alter the pH level of the water while still providing the cleanest water for drinking and health! In this way water is your best bet for clean drinking and a healthy pH balance! If you are looking to raise the pH level of your water (if it is too acidic) you can put your water through a water distiller. The water distiller heats the water into steam and then condenses the water, helping to remove unwanted acidic particles and therefore effectively increasing the ph. If you find that you do not have access to purified water and wish to take your water and change the pH level to neutral like purified water then you can use a neutralizing water ...
The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals
An instant hot water dispenser or boiling water tap is an appliance that dispenses water at about 94 °C (201 °F) (near-boiling). There are hot-only and hot and cool water models, and the water may be filtered as well as heated. Instant hot water dispensers became popular in the 1970s. Instant hot water dispensers are very similar to portable shower devices; the latter is fitted with a heating element and quickly heats up water, once a switch has been activated. Boil-on-demand are as known as instant hot water dispensers consist of a heater and boil a small amount of water very quickly. They are small and portable, do not take up much space, are cheap, do not need to be installed, waste no electricity as water is heated only when required, are fast but not instantaneous, do not waste electricity keeping water hot, are not suitable for heating more than a cup or two of water at a time, and need to be refilled. Hot water tank dispensers are plumbed directly into the water supply and heated in an ...
Define solvent drag. solvent drag synonyms, solvent drag pronunciation, solvent drag translation, English dictionary definition of solvent drag. adj. 1. Capable of meeting financial obligations. 2. Chemistry Capable of dissolving another substance. n. 1. Chemistry a. A substance in which another...
Introduction. An Investigation to Determine the Water Potential of a Plant Tissue An Investigation to Determine the Water Potential of Plant Tissue Introduction The plant tissue to be used in this investigation will be that of potato tubers. The cells of a white potato are parenchyma cells. These cells are large, thin-walled, and usually have a large central vacuole. They are often partially separated from each other. In areas not exposed to light, as in a potato, food storage in the form of starch grains is the main function (Where light is present, e.g. in a leaf, photosynthesis is the main function). The amount of water present in these cells results in them having certain water potentials. Water potential is the amount of water available to move across a membrane from a solution. The process by which water moves across a membrane is known as osmosis and is described as the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high water potential to a region of low ...
A solvation shell is the solvent interface of any chemical compound or biomolecule that constitutes the solute. When the solvent is water it is often referred to as a hydration shell or hydration sphere.. A classic example is when water molecules arrange around a metal ion. For example, if the latter were a cation, the electronegative oxygen atom of the water molecule would be attracted electrostatically to the positive charge on the metal ion. The result is a solvation shell of water molecules that surround the ion. This shell can be several molecules thick, dependent upon the charge of the ion, its distribution and spatial dimensions.. A number of molecules of solvent is involved in the solvation shell around anions and cations from a dissolved salt in a solvent. Metal ions in aqueous solutions form metal aquo complexes. This number can be determined by various methods like compressibility and NMR measurements among others.. ...
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Figure 1: Average Intake and Output of water per day. An individual who engages in physical exercise or is in a hot environment will loss additional water via sweat. The amount of additional water loss via sweat may be up to several liters per day. The environmental factors that effect water loss for each bodily organ and system, include: Skin and lungs - If the air is dry and hot, water loss is increased Urine - Urine water loss is dependent on the volume of the fluid consumed and total losses by other routes. Urine water loss is also dependent on sodium chloride content in the diet as well as protein consumption. The more sodium chloride and protein consumed, the more water loss is decreased due to the limited capacity of the kidneys to concentrate the urine. If water intake is restricted, the kidneys will conserve water by producing a more concentrated urine.. To maintain a healthy homeostatic state, the intake of water should be more than the loss via skin, lungs and feces and the any ...
Water supply categories: Self-supply; Public water supply, Irrigation systems and other supply: (raw and reused/ wastewater received from other users).. Gross water abstraction is a sum of fresh water abstracted for distribution and self-supply of the enterprises. Water for production of hydroelectricity is a separate category and not included in the total abstraction. Self-supply of households is not covered.. Returned water: The water abstracted from any fresh water source and discharged back into it without use (primarily at mining and quarrying, and construction activities).. Fresh water net abstraction: the fresh water gross abstraction minus returned water.. Water used is a sum of water used by the categories of supply:. Water losses are formed from physical losses in the transport of water, irregular use, errors in measurements, etc. The volume of losses is aggregated for a group of operators in order to avoid the double counting. On RBD level water losses are calculated using a ...
A heater for providing steady-temperature heated water for domestic hot water or hygienic purposes. Water is heated in a drum-shaped tank that is divided into two chambers by a piston that can slide longitudinally within the tank. Attached to the tank is a reverse value that can direct cold water from an inlet into either chamber and direct heated water from the other chamber to an outlet leading to a heated water use. Electric component and a cycle regulator control the direction of water flow through the reverse valve and the direction of motion of the piston. When there is a demand for heated water, the cycle regulator causes the piston to move to expel heated water from one chamber while concurrently cold water enters the other chamber. After heated water is expelled from that chamber, the cycle is reversed. Because cold water and heated water are in separate chambers steady-temperature heated water can be maintained. Either electricity or gas can be used in heat water in the tank. When the use of
Liquids in narrowly confined spaces have properties that are very different from those of the bulk. In this thesis three different systems with semi-confined water have been studies using computer simulations. The first is a molecular dynamics study of liquid water between parallel plates subjected to an external electric field. Unlike earlier simulations, this system is open to a heat and particle bath. A uniform electric field between the plates is seen to deplete the water density in this region, in contrast to predication of earlier studies. The second study is a Monte Carlo simulation of water inside a carbon nanotube. We study the electric field dependence of the equilibrium between the empty and filled states of the nanotube. We also investigate the electric field dependence of the equilibrium between the up and down states of the filled tube that correspond to two orientations of the total dipole moment of the water chain along the tube axis. A two-state statistical mechanics model shows
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a unique polymer material with enormous applicability in many industrial and scientific fields. Here, its use as macromolecular crowder to mimic the cellular environment in vitro is the focus of the present study. We show that femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy using three different IR probes, HDO, HN3, and azido-derivatized crowder, provides complete and stereoscopic information on water structure and dynamics in the cytoplasm-like macromolecular crowding environment. Our experimental results suggest two distinct subpopulations of water molecules: those that interact with other water molecules and those that are part of a hydration shell of crowder on its surface. Interestingly, water dynamics even in highly crowded environment remains bulk-like in spite of significant perturbation to the tetrahedral H-bonding network of water molecules. That is possible because of the formation of water aggregates (pools) even in water-deficient PEGDME-water solutions. In ...
There are hundreds of brands of bottled water. The advertising on the various bottled water brands and general perception is that bottled water is the healthiest water to drink. This site will hopefully allow you to look at bottled water in a new light. Bottled water brands are part of a multi-billion dollar industry, which got that way by convincing consumers that their bottled water was cleaner and healthier than tap water. However my comparisons of bottled water vs tap water have shown that you can filter your own tap water for a fraction of the cost and much more conveniently, and you can make it absolutely cleaner, safer and healthier than bottled water. Peer-reviewed research validates this fact: 4-year study done by the Natural Resources Defense Council. PH is another whole issue, but is definitely related to the healthiness of your water. Bottled water brands are often acidic, and research tells us that alkaline water is the healthiest water to drink. There are very few brands of bottled ...
The Chisos Basin in Big Bend National Park is experiencing a severe water shortage and the superintendent has authorized a limit to the publics use of water.
In an earlier study, Guo and his collaborators had used the same ALS beamline to study the geometry and electronic structure of pure liquid water at room temperature. They found that water molecules formed cluster structures, with hydrogen bonds serving as the glue that holds these clusters together. These hydrogen bonds, however, rapidly break and reform, so that at any given moment there are "free-swimming" water molecules present in liquid water. Because these hydrogen-bonded clusters interact with methanol chains in alcohol and water solutions, there are never any free-swimming water molecules present. This helps explain why entropy decreases for such solutions ...
Many substances dissolve in water, and its commonly known as the universal solvent. Purifying water can be accomplished easily if its a small amount that is somewhat clean, but larger amounts that are extremely polluted are far more complicated. Due to the extensive hydrogen bonding in water, the molecules have a tendency to stick to one another in a standard pattern.. Humans require water that doesnt contain an excessive amount of salt or other impurities. Its beneficial for aquatic animals since they use water for a habitat. The body is composed of nearly 70 percent water.. The ground substance plays a crucial part in the hydration and moisture levels within the epidermis. One of both elements which make up water, hydrogen has interesting chemical properties also. In the event that you were expecting a textbook or academic study site, you could be trying to find the former Boundless site.. Its liquid phase, the most typical phase of water on Earth, is the form thats generally meant by the ...
We studied the hydration of a single methanol molecule in aqueous solution by first-principle DFT-based molecular dynamics simulation. The calculations show that the local structural and short-time dynamical properties of the water molecules remain almost unchanged by the presence of the methanol, confirming the observation from recent experimental structural data for dilute solutions. We also see, in accordance with this experimental work, a distinct shell of water molecules that consists of about 15 molecules. We found no evidence for a strong tangential ordering of the water molecules in the first hydration shell. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
Submerge the water pump into the white vinegar.. 3. Plug the small fish tank water pump or small water-garden pump in to the electrical outlet. (A GFI safety plug should be used for this in order to protect against electrocution).. 4. Place both the silver water ionizer hose / tube and acid water ionizer hose into the white vinegar container so the entire water ionizer circuit system is recirculating.. 5. At first, there may be very little flow through the silver water ionizer hose. However, as long as the slightest amount of vinegar is flowing through the silver water ionizer hose , the vinegar will eventually dissolve the calcium that is blocking the water from flowing out the water ionizer system .. 6.Water Ionizer cleaning takes about 2-12 hours depending on how much calcium and other minerals have been deposited on the water ionizer platinum plates/ electrodes in the water ionizer chamber or on the water ionizer hoses that are in(ternal) the water ionizer circuit system .. 7. Reattach the ...
Enhanced athletic performance. Most people feel the difference within 5 minutes after beginning to drink oxygenated water. Oxygen-rich ?cocktails? have been given to European Olympic athletes for years.. There have been several oxygenated waters on the market for years. But the Oxygen-enriched water that I recommend is called hiOsilver Oxygen Water. I prefer this water because it comes from a spring deep in the earth in Modesto California. The people there really protect where this water comes from.. Their water is also slightly alkaline with a pH of 8.4 and has high levels of Magnesium at 34 mg per 12 ounce bottle. The folks at hiOsilver Oxygen Water take this naturally alkaline water and load it with medical-grade Oxygen gas, so that this water has about 10 times the oxygen content as regular water. And, another important thing about this water is that it is bottled in glass. This is to keep the O2 dissolved in the water because plastic allows the O2 to leak out. And, of course, plastic is ...
#EggSocial Fact: Human eggs, the bodys largest cell, have a very high water content, which makes freezing them a complex task due the increased risk of ice crystal formations. JOIN OUR NEXT #EggSocial. LIMITED SEATING AVAILABLE. RESERVE YOUR SEAT TODAY: http://eggsocial.com/
Water concentration and distribution in biotissues are important factors in many applications. THz-wave is a viable tool for water content measurement due to its highly sensitivity to water. In this study, the measuring errors of water concentration using THz-wave induced by transmittance and sample thickness were analyzed theoretically. The chosen basis for sample thickness and measuring THz frequency were presented theoretically. Measurements of the water two-dimensional mapping in different animal tissue samples were demonstrated experimentally, which clearly shows the spatial distribution of the tissues.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Besides quenching our thirst, water does many other very important things. Take for example that water is the main ingredient in all of the processes needed to break down, digest and excrete our food. Without enough water in the system, a problem somewhere along the alimentary tract (in the digestive system) usually pops up. Problems can range from constipation to kidney stone formation.. Water helps to extract and distribute the necessary water soluble vitamins from food such as Vitamins B and C. It helps to pull out and deliver other important macro minerals like protein and carbohydrates as well. In essence, if you eat, you must have water in order to get any benefit out of food. Lucky for us, fruits and vegetables have a high water content that help to replenish our water needs.. Water is also important in all of the bodys joints, tissues and organs as it acts as a lubricating agent. Additionally, the water in our bodies helps to eliminate toxins that are produced during cellular ...
RIGOTTO, C et al. Evaluation of HA negatively charged membranes in the recovery of human adenoviruses and hepatitis A virus in different water matrices. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2009, vol.104, n.7, pp.970-974. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762009000700005.. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are shed in the faeces and consequently may be present in environmental waters, resulting in an increase in pathogen concentration that can affect water quality and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate an adsorption-elution method which utilizes negatively charged membrane HA to determine the efficient recovery of HAdV and HAV from different water matrices and to combine this procedure with a qualitative molecular method (nested RT-PCR and nested PCR). The best efficiency recovery was achieved in distilled water and treated wastewater effluent (100%) for both viruses and in recreational lagoon water for HAV (100%). The efficiency recovery was 10% ...
article{cb437336-fd0c-487a-a4f8-49c365159bc3, abstract = {Hydration of hen egg white lysozyme was studied by using the method of sorption calorimetry at 25, 40, and 50degreesC. Desorption calorimetric measurements were performed at 25 and 40degreesC. The activity of water and partial molar enthalpy of mixing of water were determined as functions of water content. Hydration of lysozyme occurs in four steps: slow penetration of water into the protein-protein interface; gradual glass transition, which occurs in every protein molecule independently of other molecules; further water uptake with disaggregation of protein aggregates and formation of a monolayer of water; and accumulation of free water. The amount of bound water found in desorption experiments is 420 water molecules per lysozyme molecule. Two hysteresis loops were found in the sorption isotherm of lysozyme. The small loop is caused by the slow penetration of water molecules into the protein-protein interface at very low water contents, ...
Fat mass does not take up water. It brings with it less water percentage than lean mass and so a person with more fat mass will have relatively less % body water. Additional mass as fat contributed relatively less water than additional mass as lean tissue.. Consider a 50 kg individual who is extremely lean. From your numbers, if this individual is 75% water (will will assume lean tissue is 75% water) that is 50 * .75 = 37.5kg water and 12.5kg nonwater body mass.. Now this 50 kg individual puts on 50 kg of fat. The fat is 10% water (from your numbers) so an additional 10 kg of water. This individual its now 47.5kg water and 52.5 nonwater; since this obese person weighs 100 kg now she has 47.5% water, similar to your example. Suppose instead your 50kg person grew up into a 100 kg performance athlete. Still no fat. She is still 75% water because the lean tissue has 75% water.. It has to do with the % water each type of body mass brings with it. This is with no special knowledge; using just the ...
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The goal of the City of Asheville Water Resources Department is to operate its water production facilities in the most efficient manner possible. This includes ensuring optimal operation of the water production and distribution systems, including the production of high quality water, providing timely maintenance and repair of the water infrastructure, and promoting efficient and conservative use of regional water resources.. Our primary water source is a 6 billion gallon lake located in Black Mountain, North Carolina - the North Fork Reservoir. This lake is located within a 22,000 acre protected watershed. Along with the Bee Tree and the Mills River Water Treatment Plants, these facilities provide water to more than 125,000 area residents.. The City of Asheville uses a computerized drought management model to help predict future lake levels and drought conditions. This model takes into account current water levels, forecasted precipitation, past lake levels and recent rainfall to predict future ...
All public entities holding water rights in Oregon and a portion of larger, non-government water users are required to track and report the amount of water used each month. These reported amounts provide a sample of the total amount of water used in the state, which can assist in forecasting water demand and wisely managing water supplies. In 2014, the Department added personnel to assist water users with reporting use, to provide data quality control, and to develop improved tools that allow the public greater access to this data. Whether you are researching water use in a basin, or are interested in use of a particular water right over time, there are new tools for viewing, printing or downloading water use data. Click here to search by water user, point of diversion, water right, or select criteria to create a summary report ...
Water is a chemical compound needed by most plants and animals on Earth in order to sustain life. Pure water is a tasteless, odorless, transparent liquid. In small amounts it is colorless, but it takes on a bluish tint in larger amounts. Water is an excellent solvent and as a result it usually contains a wide variety of dissolved minerals and other chemicals. It can also carry and support bacteria. Most of the water distributed through municipal water systems is treated to remove harmful substances. Some bottled waters undergo even further treatment to remove almost all impurities. The English word water is derived from the German word wasser, which in turn is derived from an ancient Indo-European word meaning to wet or wash. The controlled use of water dates to at least 8,000 B.C. when farmers in Egypt and parts of Asia trapped floodwaters for crop irrigation. The concept of using irrigation canals to bring water to crops, rather than waiting for a flood, was first developed about 2,000 B.C. in ...
Water quality is driven by the Drinking Water Protection Act and Regulation. Our annual water quality sampling program exceeds the requirements of the legislation. We sample over 2,000 times annually to monitor water quality. To date, all tests have shown that our water meets the legislation and the Canadian Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. This success is attributed to the cooperative management between the City and the land owners.. The water quality testing program has continually been modified to keep up with current regulations against outside laboratories testing of the water to the lowest levels for micro biological and chemical contamination.. The water is tested at the source, the South Fork Water Treatment Plant and throughout the distribution system on a regular basis. The water sampling points were selected to cover all of the water system zones and where the most likely water problems would occur.. The program includes daily tests for coliforms, monthly tests for total ...
In recent work, there has been considerable speculation about atmospheric reaction of methylenimine (CH2NH), because this compound is highly reactive, soluble in water, and sticky, thus posing severe experimental challenges. In this work, we have revisited the kinetics of OH + CH2NH reaction assisted by a si
Abstract. Organic compounds and liquid water are major aerosol constituents in the southeast United States (SE US). Water associated with inorganic constituents (inorganic water) can contribute to the partitioning medium for organic aerosol when relative humidities or organic matter to organic carbon (OM ∕ OC) ratios are high such that separation relative humidities (SRH) are below the ambient relative humidity (RH). As OM ∕ OC ratios in the SE US are often between 1.8 and 2.2, organic aerosol experiences both mixing with inorganic water and separation from it. Regional chemical transport model simulations including inorganic water (but excluding water uptake by organic compounds) in the partitioning medium for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) when RH , SRH led to increased SOA concentrations, particularly at night. Water uptake to the organic phase resulted in even greater SOA concentrations as a result of a positive feedback in which water uptake increased SOA, which further increased ...
In addition to physical availability, the legal availability of a surface water supply is also an important consideration in water management. As described in detail in Appendix C, the legal framework and process under which surface water right applications and claims are administered and determined is complex. Rights to surface water are subject to the doctrine of prior appropriation which is based on the tenet "first in time, first in right". This means that the person who first put the water to a beneficial use acquires a right that is superior to all other surface water rights with a later priority date. Under the Public Water Code, beneficial use is the basis, measure and limit to the use of water. Each type of surface water right filing is assigned a unique number as explained in Appendix C and shown in Table 6.0-7. A Certificate of Water Right (CWR) may be issued if the terms of the permit to appropriate water (3R, 4A, or 33, and in certain cases 38) are met. CWRs retain the original ...
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Looking at water, you might think that its the most simple thing around. Pure water is practically colorless, odorless, and tasteless. But its not at all simple and plain and it is vital for all life on Earth. Where there is water there is life, and where water is scarce, life has to struggle or just "throw in the towel." Continue on to learn about dozens of water properties.. ...
Increase water storage capacity. The simple fact is that Georgia has plenty of water, mainly from precipitation, however we obviously lack adequate water storage for current and future needs. By implementing the provisions of the Water Conservation and Drought Relief Act (SB 342), communities can apply for state funding to enlarge existing reservoirs and obtain permits to construct new ones. Then, under the current Statewide Water Plan, require all affected counties and municipalities to immediately identify their water needs and determine the best sites for new reservoirs as well as increasing freeboards and existing reservoirs. Every corner of the state is a potential place for water storage. To the north, a reservoir on public and private property, as well as Chattahoochee National Forest land, could supplement water inflow to Lanier, maintain adequate water levels and provide direct access to drinking water (as described in SR 107). There are also many appropriate sites in North Georgia that ...
Total dissolved solids - Total dissolved solids is a measure of salinity. Water salinity may be derived from any inorganic substance dissolved in water, but the ions of magnesium, calcium, sodium and chloride are the primary contributors to salinity. Animal tolerance to salinity varies with age, species, water requirement, season of the year, and physiological condition. As the salinity of water increases, animals will increase their intake of water until the salinity increases to the point that animals will refuse to drink it. Use the table below for guidance. The slight salinity in good water may cause mild diarrhea to animals accustomed to better quality water. Animals may temporarily refuse water of fair quality or have diarrhea. Poor water is unsatisfactory for lactating or pregnant animals. Water that approaches the unacceptable level should be especially avoided during hot weather, although older animals may tolerate it during times of low stress ...
In order to find the answer to these questions, I headed to UCLAs Environmental Science and Engineering School and discovered Dr. I.H. (Mel) Suffets 2001 Report Card about bottled water. According to this study, "more than 50% of Americans drink bottled water." So what is the difference between bottled and tap water? According to Dr. Suffet, the biggest difference between the two is the marketing.. According to both Dr. Suffet, and the Environmental Protection Agencys website on water, "Bottled water is not necessarily safer than your tap water". In fact, both of my sources agree, most of the appeal of bottled water is aesthetic. Both taste and look are two of the biggest reasons why Americans buy bottled water instead of turning on their faucets. The EPA website also mentions that where the EPA sets standards for tap water provided by public water systems, the Food and Drug Administration "sets bottled water standards based on the EPAs tap water standards." This means that the two are ...
BACKGROUND: Salt water is made during the movement of water on land over time. The components of rocks are eroded and become part of a "salty" solution. Remind students that the word "salt" refers not just to table salt, but to many chemicals that are classified as salts. Salt water or seawater has characteristics similar to fresh water with some noticeable differences because of the salts that are dissolved in water. The viscosity (i.e., internal resistance to flow) of seawater, for example, is higher than that of fresh water because of its higher salinity. The density of seawater also is higher. Seawaters freezing point is lower than that of pure water and its boiling point is higher. It is easier to float objects in seawater than in fresh water. Many humans can "float" in seawater but not fresh water. The reason is that water with salt in it, is more dense. So objects that cannot float in fresh water may be able to float in seawater. Floating refers to having a substance rise to the top of ...
These results show that cold tap water and tap water based beverages constitute a major part of daily fluid intake for pregnant women, and that the majority of tap water intake occurs at home for both unemployed and employed women. However, for employed women some tap water ingestion occurs at work and this should be considered in DBP exposure assessment. Many previous studies on DBPs and adverse birth outcomes have assessed exposure only at the mothers home, e.g. by using trihalomethane concentrations in the water supply of the mothers residence at time of birth. If, as our study suggests, the majority of tap water intake occurs at home, potential exposure misclassification from excluding exposures at other locations should be relatively small.. Water exposures in our study were higher than reported by the only other UK study on water use by pregnant women. Kaur et al. [8] found overall total tap water intake to be 1.31 l/day (calculated from their reported consumption per week), and that ...
The final key to water quality is the management of the water as it enters and leaves the water body. Most water leaves the system by evaporation. Therefore, in most architectural water bodies, the biggest long-term factor affecting water quality is the buildup of precipitates of salts and other elements left behind when the water evaporates. Some of these elements can be removed through filtration, but in severe situations the only way to remove them is to replace a volume of water. A regular schedule of replacing the water is the best method for maintaining the level of these elements. This can be accomplished by providing an overflow stream that dumps to a storm drain. If the water body is large enough, overflow could be used as a source for irrigation, as opposed to allowing the water to go to the storm drain ...
For every gallon of clean water produced by a RO system, an average of 3 gallons of brine water is used and discarded. This brine (waste) water is constantly used by the system to clean the membrane and allows the filter to work effectively and last for many years. Remember, RO systems clean your water and remove thousands of unhealthy contaminants from tap water that countertop and faucet filters cannot.. Reverse osmosis brine water is the equivalent of an extra 3 to 4 toilet flushes a day. You actually waste more water each day when you wash your dishes or clothes than from a RO system. You will probably pay a extra 25 to 50 cents a month from RO waste water.Waste water from RO systems is actually pretty clean and similar to tap water in purity levels. It can be channeled for use in gardens watering plants or stored and used for other household applications.. Water that flows down the sink is not wasted and can be recycled into clean water. Orange County, California already recycles their ...
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Water in spores and bacteria is highly fluid It has long been known that the ability of spores to survive has to do with the low water content in the spore core, where the bacterial cells DNA and most enzymes are stored. Many scientists previously thought that this water was transformed to a solid state, a so-called glass. This glass would protect the enzymes and lock down all cell machinery. This seems to be what happens in other hardy life forms, such as plant seeds. "What we have discovered is that the water in the spore is nearly as fluid as in regular bacteria, while the enzymes are largely immobile. We therefore think that spores heat resistance and ability to shut down their cell machinery can be ascribed to the fact that certain critical enzymes do not function in the low water content in the spore core. But much more work is needed to figure out the details of the mechanism," explains Bertil Halle, professor of physical chemistry, who, together with Erik Sunde, a Ph D student in his ...
Want to know if its possible to convert your car to run on water and gas? And can this water for gas conversion system really improve your vehicles fuel efficiency or is it a scam?. The buzz on this water for gas hybrid technology began when fuel prices around the world escalated to record highs. With no immediate relief from oil companies or the government in sight, ordinary folks began searching for alternative energy resources or gas saving technologies that will help them combat the rising cost of fuel. And currently, one of the most controversial and talked about solution is how to convert ones car to run on water and gas to increase fuel efficiency.. Run Your Car On Water - The Truth. To begin with, run your car on water is not about adding water to the gas tank and driving your car completely on water. This kind of water fuel combination wont mix and will result in serious damages to your car. Which is why the general community is having problems believing such water for gas ...
An apparatus accurately controls output water temperature of an instantaneous water heater to maintain a desired outlet temperature. A first electronic sensing device senses a flow of water through the heater, and an ignition sequence commences when flow has been detected. A second electronic sensing device senses an outlet water temperature of the heater, and a third electronic sensing device senses a midway water temperature of the heater. The burner output or outputs are controlled to maintain the desired outlet temperature, based on changes in water flow and incoming water temperature. With multiple burners, the burner outputs are staged to accurately control the output water temperature of the instantaneous water heater to maintain the desired outlet temperature.
We think of ourselves as shrewd and thrifty shoppers. And yet, when it comes to bottled water, North Americans are annually conned to the tune of eight billion gallons and 15 billion dollars, paying twice for a commodity we already own.. The truth is most of us in the United States and Canada can be assured that the water that flows from our taps is as clean as bottled water- and our taxes have already paid for it.. In fact, tap water may actually be cleaner.. In May, researchers found that some bottled water contains more bacteria than tap water. More than 70 percent of the popular brands tested in this new study failed to meet bacterial standards set by the United States Pharmacopeia, a non-governmental agency that sets safety standards for medications and health-care products, reports the Montreal Gazette.. In comparison, tap water is usually so pure, bottled water companies can simply bottle it and sell it to you. For example, Coca Cola-owned Dasani bottled water often comes from local water ...
Tap or bottled? just might be the new environmental phrase to take over from paper or plastic? And just as the paper-or-plastic debate has its arguments on both sides, so too does the tap water versus bottled water dispute. But more and more, it seems tap water is gaining the upper hand. The bottled water industry has taken a few hits of late for the huge landfill problem plastic bottles generate, while tap water gets rave reviews for how well it stacks up to bottled water, both in safety and taste. Now, a new report throws more cold water on the notion that bottled is safer. And none too soon, since Americans drink twice as much bottled water today as they did 10 years ago, guzzling a grand total of nine billion gallons a year. Bottled Waters a Bust in Test. The Environmental Working Group (EWG), a nonprofit public health advocacy group based in Washington, D.C., commissioned the latest study that tested 10 brands of bottled water. The disturbing results? EWG found an alarming 38 pollutants in total,
The size of the global water market has been estimated to be greater than $500 billion making water one of the three largest non-financial industries in terms of value of assets deployed. Providing clean water to the worlds ever increasing population becomes ever more challenging as clean water sources become depleted and threatened by human wastes and industrial pollution. While earth is a water rich planet, what is in short supply is clean water that people can afford to buy.. Industry leaders and experts will share their insights on economics and investment strategies, novel and proven solutions, along with whats new and whats next in water.. Join us as we discuss the challenges and opportunities in municipal water, desalination, waste water, industrial water e.g. produced water in oil and gas exploration, ballast water for ships, food & beverage, mining and metals extraction etc.. We are interested in papers that deal with the above topics and encourage you to submit for review.. *If ...
The U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) is a comprehensive and distributed application that supports the acquisition, processing, and long-term storage of water data. USGS Water Data for the Nation Site serves as the publicly available portal to a geographically seamless set of much of the water data maintained within NWIS (additional background). USGS Water Data for the Nation Site provides access to water data from over 1.5 million sites in all 50 States and additional border and territorial sites. The data are organized within the categories listed to the left. The water data available via this site have been acquired as part of the USGS investigations of the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of the surface and underground waters that constitute the Nations water resources. Additional information about the USGS and water resources of the Nation is available at water.usgs.gov. About Us Help Tutorial ...
The U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) is a comprehensive and distributed application that supports the acquisition, processing, and long-term storage of water data. USGS Water Data for the Nation Site serves as the publicly available portal to a geographically seamless set of much of the water data maintained within NWIS (additional background). USGS Water Data for the Nation Site provides access to water data from over 1.5 million sites in all 50 States and additional border and territorial sites. The data are organized within the categories listed to the left. The water data available via this site have been acquired as part of the USGS investigations of the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of the surface and underground waters that constitute the Nations water resources. Additional information about the USGS and water resources of the Nation is available at water.usgs.gov. About Us Help Tutorial ...
If you want to enjoy the benefits of drinking water without getting totally bored of drinking the same old tasteless life-saving water then you can surely do so, and that too right at home. You can now learn how to make carbonated water right in your own home and enjoy glass-upon-glass of tasty bubbly carbonated water with your loved ones for years to come.. You can easily construct your own diy water carbonation kit in your home with a few items that are available at any hardware or home improvement store. Carbonated water is the result of injecting carbon dioxide gas into plain or spring water. The result is instant carbonated or sparkling water that contains bubbles of co2 gas that tantalizingly rise to the surface of the bottle or glass. Your homemade soda maker or carbonated water kit will require a co2 canister along with a regulator to inject the desired amount of gas into a bottle of plain water. You can also make a larger kit by using a 20 lb co2 gas tank with a metered regulator, ...
I didnt realize it until recently, but water is apparently making a comeback. Even if its been here for years. In bottles and on tap it appears. Making tears and when it rain, it makes mud. Listen to your throat go chug. Dehydration, overpowering. Jump into the bathroom, Im showering.. Okay, okay, enough with the LL Cool J lyrics. I know, I know, I was stretching it a bit with the "overpowering/showering" rhyme.. Anyway, it seems like everyone is coming out with their own water or selling water. McDonalds gives us the option of having bottled water with our Big Mac and fries. The Macys stores here on this rock in the middle of the Pacific Ocean even sell their own brand of bottled water. With the amounts of bottled water being sold, Im surprised Lil Jon hasnt come up with his own brand of water called, Crunk Water.. Not only are there tons of bottled water to choose from, theres also tons of flavored water to choose from, like lemon-flavored bottled water, berry-flavored bottle water, ...
China Kid′s Water House Playgound Structures with Water Slide, Animal Shaped, Water Spray, Find details about China Water House, Water Park from Kid′s Water House Playgound Structures with Water Slide, Animal Shaped, Water Spray - Guangzhou Greenspa Waterpark Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
In the wake of the severe water shortages in and around Cape Town, Eskoms Koeberg nuclear power station has launched a mobile groundwater desalination plant which will take care of the stations water needs. The temporary groundwater desalination plant has a 920 kilolitre-a-day capacity. The high-quality potable water will be used for process purposes, as well as for use by Koeberg staff and contractors in the buildings and areas within the power stations direct water reticulation network.
Comilla faces pure drinking water shortage. COMILLA, June 8: Due to arsenic contamination of groundwater, the people of five upazilas of the district are facing an acute crisis of pure drinking water, reports BSS.The ground water in the upazilas of Muradnagar, Chandina, Debidwar, Homna and Daudkandi has been contaminated beyond safe level forcing the people of the areas to survive on alternative sources.. Of the total 13 upazilas of the district, 12 were identified as the arsenic prone areas. Most of the tubewells, including deep tubewells in the areas were sealed as arsenic was detected in their water beyond the tolerable limit of human consumption. According to available statistics, as many as 350 people have been suffering from various complications in the district due to the arsenic poisoning. Different NGOs and offices of the government have been trying to provide pure drinking water to the affected people through different programmes. But, the efforts are inadequate against the ...
Estimates of water productivity are appearing with increasing frequency in the literature pertaining to agronomy, water management, and water policy. Some authors report such estimates as one of the outcome variables of experiment station studies, while others calculate water productivities when comparing regional crop production information. Many authors suggest or imply that higher values of water productivity are needed to ensure that future food production goals are achieved. Yet maximizing water productivity might not be consistent with farm-level goals or with societal objectives regarding water allocation and management. Farmers in both rainfed and irrigated settings must address a complex set of issues pertaining to risk, uncertainty, prices, and opportunity costs, when selecting activities and determining optimal strategies. It is not clear that farmers in either setting will or should choose to maximize water productivity. Upon examining water productivity, both conceptually and empirically,
Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. Each individual water molecule which transitions between a more associated (liquid) and a less associated (vapor/gas) state does so through the absorption or release of kinetic energy. The aggregate measurement of this kinetic energy transfer is defined as thermal energy and occurs only when there is differential in the temperature of the water molecules. Liquid water that becomes water vapor takes a parcel of heat with it, in a process called evaporative cooling.[2] The amount of water vapor in the air determines how fast each molecule will return back to the surface. When a net evaporation occurs, the body of water will undergo a net cooling directly related to the loss of water.. Full article ▸. ...
If you can determine how much water your plants actually need, then you wont overwater them and waste water. It is important to not only understand a plants particular watering requirements, but also evapotranspiration.. Evapotranspiration (Et) is the amount of water that is evaporated from the soil and transpired through the plants leaves. This amount of water needs to be replaced through watering. If you know your areas Et rate, you can plan the amount of water to be replaced through irrigation. Call your local water district or cooperative extension service and ask about your Et rate. Your particular microclimate will also affect evapotranspiration in different areas of your yard.. Its best to water or irrigate your plants in the early morning when evaporation rates are low. This also provides plants with water before mid-day when the evaporation rate is the highest. ...
It is true that plants have a faster growth with the help of carbonated water than the regular tap water. This is just not an assumption but a fact that has been proved with the help of experiments. Carbonated water has high level of micro nutrients that provide the plants with required ingredients. Thus, it results in quick growth and also gives the plant a good shade of green. Gardeners these days prefer to feed their plants with carbonated water for healthy growth of plants.. The experiment conducted to show the effects of carbonated water on plants had plants divided in two groups. Both the groups of plants were given equal amount of sun, and other nutrients. The care given to each was also same, the only difference was one group was given carbonated water and the other normal tap water. Each day the plants were measured, for about 10 days and guess what, plants fed with carbonated water actually did grow faster then the other group. It also showed healthier shade of green than the rest. ...
From Clayton, the inventor:"This fluid machine is a multiple vortex. It makes the water spin in both directions simultaneously at multiple times. That aspect of vortexing has a great attribute to fixing water, fixing pollution. Water is the machine; no moving parts, no chemicals, no magnetics, nothing in there to interfere with. Water works upon itself, just like in Nature. The water is working on itself, cleaning itself. It has geometric forms in it, flow form devices, basically, that cause the water to, in an extremely short period of time, structure itself. Structured water is free of memory. It has balanced pH. The main contingent of structured water is life force energy, and that life force energy comes down to the water molecule itself. The water molecule has the power, the individual mandate to protect life, and that is to protect it from the things that are adverse to life and to generously provide the things that are good for life. The water itself is the moving part; it is the machine. ...
Dormancy of Pinot Noir grapevines was characterized. Primary buds required ca 300 cumulative chilling hours (CCH) to initiate the transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy, which occurred in mid November. Additional chilling, up to 1000 CCH, improved budbreak. Changes in bud water content were estimated by gravimetric and spectroscopic methods. Total, intra-, and extracellular water were measured gravimetrically. The total water and the intracellular fraction increased during the ecodormant period. A method to evaluate bud water status by proton-nuclear magnetic resonance was developed. Grape buds present anisotropic behavior. Using this method, water content was partitioned into free and bound fractions. Free water was always larger than bound water. Furthermore, bound water reached its peak in January when ecodormant plants were exposed to colder temperatures. These results support former evidence that bound water is composed of one population with restricted mobility, and another in a ...
Additionally, once construction associated with a water project has been completed and full beneficial use of water under a water use permit or transfer has been accomplished, the water user must hire a certified water right examiner to complete a survey of water use and submit to the Department a map and report detailing how and where water is being applied. If water has been used according to the provisions of the permit or transfer, a water right certificate is issued based upon the report findings. This individual that prepares the map and report of water use (also known as a claim of beneficial use) is certified to collect and report data and conduct surveys. ...
Tap water sometimes looks, smells or tastes funny. Most often, that is because there has been a heavy algae bloom on the reservoir your water comes from, or excess iron or manganese has accumulated in the lines that deliver it to your home. While these substances may affect your waters appearance, smell or taste, they are not harmful to your health. Bottled water may taste better than the water that comes out of your tap, but its a lot more expensive and isnt necessarily "healthier." Home water treatment devices, such as filters, certainly can make tap water taste better-but they also can breed bacteria if they are not properly maintained. Before investing in a treatment device or bottled water, try chilling your tap water. Most people find that does the trick. If you do decide to listen to a sales pitch for bottled water or a filtration unit, remember that its against the law for anyone other than a state-certified laboratory to test your water for bacteria or chemicals.. ...
Hibiscus require generous amounts of water in the growing season. In warm weather, many hibiscus enthusiasts advise daily watering, but this is a general rule of thumb. Observe your hibiscus closely for signs of under- or over-watering. During the winter, hibiscus require less water. Allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings, then water lavishly, irrigating until water runs out the holes in the bottom of the container. To avoid root rot -- to which hibiscus are susceptible -- empty excess water from the saucer after half an hour. Avoid using cold water; tepid water -- between 95 and 102 degrees -- is more in keeping with the plants tropical heritage. Hibiscus prefer water that is slightly acid; a pH of between 5.5 to 6.5 is ideal. If your water is very alkaline, Bachmans Floral Gifts and Garden advises adding 1 tbsp. of vinegar to each gallon. Hibiscus plants require not only ample water but adequate humidity as well. Using a spray mister with tepid water several times a week can ...
Effective water treatment is imperative for keeping the environment clean, as potable water or for reliable operation of industrial processes. The use of Filternox® Automatic Self Cleaning Filters helps maintain optimum pumping conditions by preventing pressure drop caused by sediment build up. A multi-media filter is backwashed in the same manner as a sand filter, using reverse or upward flow of water through the filter bed. Removes over 90% of sediment and chlorine from the water. We pride ourselves on working with leading technology in water softening, filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization, and many other processes. These filters are only suitable for spring water with a low turbidity (low turbidity water), medicine water treatment machine containing little algae and with no unpleasant colour due to contamination. The water comes through clean tasting because it doesnt use any chemicals so your water is cleaner and fresh. Originally designed as an emergency water treatment method, the ...
Ajmer: Chief minister Vasundhra Raje gathered appreciation and admiration by inaugurating quality water supply project in four blocks of Nagaur on Thursday, through Indira Gandhi lift canal project. This is the first time after independence that quality water has reached the camel hump landscape of Nagaur district.. Raje inaugurated the water supply project in Makrana and later in Ladanu. In the last three days she inaugurated the water supply project in two more towns of Didwana and Jayal. Here dams are built on the canal to store water for supplying in different regions, water pumps and lift systems.. People of Nagaur were facing acute water problem and Raje herself went to them and gifted them the water system. The main region of Nagaur remained backward from development because of water scarcity and almost 80 percent of regions faced fluoride and saline water.. Even in the scorching heat a crowd of women were gathered to cheer the occasion. The chief minister said that the nightmare of water ...
We all know the importance of saving water. But to some people, they think water is the most abundant natural resources that they could just take for granted. Unfortunately, most of the water on this earth is not directly in potable form. Saving water means saving the energy required to filter and purity water. "Poor Little Fish" basin design tries to persuade consumers to reduce the waste of water in an emotional way. Instead of forcing people to consume less which usually lead to uncomfortable experience, this basin will make people think differently about saving water by making consumption tangible.. Poor Little Fish Basin consists of traditional shaped fish bowl and a basin. While using the water, you will notice the water level in the bowl gradually falls, it will go back to the same level once the water stops. There are separated pipelines so the water that comes from the tap is pure and clean while the one in the bowl is not really changing. Designer : Yan Lu. ...
Sea Water Pump Market: Type Analysis. Sea Water Pump Market: Application Analysis. The Sea Water Pump report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected Sea Water Pump sales revenue, Sea Water Pump growth, Sea Water Pump demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of Sea Water Pump market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the Sea Water Pump manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other Sea Water Pump market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: https://market.biz/report/global-sea-water-pump-market-2017/39708/#requestforsample. Key Emphasizes Of The Sea Water Pump Market:. The fundamental details related to Sea Water Pump industry like the product definition, cost, ...
We say that distilling water removes contaminants and produces the highest possible quality pure drinking water. But, what exactly are these contaminants you may need removed from your tap or well water, and what are the health consequences of not removing them? And why not just buy bottled water? Lets address all these questions.. First off, when you want a drink of water, thats probably exactly what you wanted. You didnt ask for any arsenic, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fluoride, radionuclides, lead, chlorine, volatile organic compounds, etc., you wanted pure drinking water. But, in many cases, they are there.. The human body is two-thirds water, and the quality of the water you put in is directly related to how well the human body will run. Following is a list of the contaminants that are most common in water supplies of the United States and the health problems they cause:. Arsenic- some people who drink water containing arsenic over many years could experience skin damage, circulatory ...
Figure 6-2. The Effects of Substitute Fluids. 6-3. Heavy dew can provide water. Tie rags or tufts of fine grass around your ankles and walk through dew-covered grass before sunrise. As the rags or grass tufts absorb the dew, wring the water into a container. Repeat the process until you have a supply of water or until the dew is gone. Australian natives sometimes mop up as much as 1 liter an hour this way.. 6-4. Bees or ants going into a hole in a tree may point to a water-filled hole. Siphon the water with plastic tubing or scoop it up with an improvised dipper. You can also stuff cloth in the hole to absorb the water and then wring it from the cloth.. 6-5. Water sometimes gathers in tree crotches or rock crevices. Use the above procedures to get the water. In arid areas, bird droppings around a crack in the rocks may indicate water in or near the crack. 6-6. Green bamboo thickets are an excellent source of fresh water. Water from green bamboo is clear and odorless. To get the water, bend a ...
A water dispenser belong to that group of commodities, that can satisfy their customers anywhere and everywhere. You see them in peoples houses, you seem them in doctors clinics and hospitals, you see them everywhere. Its a universal fact that we need water.. Sometimes we may need hot water to warm our bodies on cold winter mornings. Or, we may just need ice-cold water to quench ones thirst on a Sunny day. Many of the water dispensers these days, have this feature installed in them.. Customers have the option of hot water, cold water and some of them even offer lukewarm water, perse. So how can one not love such a commodity, it satisfies your individual need as per preference to some extent, and one of the physiological needs according to Maslow, called thirst.. Best quality and affordable instant water heater from top brands in India. Best RO + UV based water purifier from Top brands to buy online in India. When you are looking to buy a water dispenser, there are some things that you could ...
Disposal to natural hydrological systems. There are a limited number of options available when trying to decide where and how to dispose of agricultural drainage Water into the natural hydrological system. The common option is to return the water either to the land as part of the irrigation water supply, or to rivers and lakes, or to salt sinks, such as the ocean. The options available to any single project may be limited because of water quality concerns. Drainage water quality may vary within a catchment. Frequently, in developing countries, agricultural drains are used for the disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater, or for the disposal of polluted water from other non-agricultural sources. This may adversely affect the quality of agricultural drainage water, and limit its potential for reuse. Surface water Downstream beneficial uses of any surface water body to which drainage water is added must be protected. For example, it may not be appropriate to discharge saline drainage water ...
Water is one of the main components in determining the quality of our lives. Although water covers more than 70% of the Earth, only 1% of the Earths water is available as a source of drinking. Yet, our society continues to contaminate this precious resource. Water is known as a natural solvent. Before it reaches the consumers tap, it comes into contact with many different substances, including organic and inorganic matter, chemicals, and other contaminants. Many public water systems treat water with chlorine to destroy disease-producing contaminants that may be present in the water. Although disinfection is an important step in the treatment of potable water, the taste and odor of chlorine is objectionable. And, the disinfectants that are used to prevent disease, can create byproducts which may pose significant health risks. Today, drinking water treatment at the point-of-use is no longer a luxury, it is a necessity! It is important to take matters into your own hands and determine the quality ...
Although, we know that one-third of the world is covered with water but yet there is a scarcity of drinking water. Water is available everywhere, in oceans, in the seas, rivers, lakes but this water is not suitable for consumption by human beings. If consumed, it may cause many types of water-borne diseases like dysentery, cholera, which is due to the dissolved impurities in the water. The water of different sources may evaporate microorganisms like bacteria, fungi as well as many suspended particles which are harmful to health.. However, drinking an adequate amount of water is immensely important for your optimum fitness performance. In other words, drinking healthy water is essential for your well-being. Studies depict that our body cells and organs need water to function properly. So, you ought to use water-intake calculator to calculate your ideal water intake. This hydrated calculator also shows general water intake recommendations according to EFSA and IOM the institute of medicine. Thus, ...
A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership ...
A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership ...
by Sue Pollock, ND PTC DHM DRM DCH DHT PGD.Phyto PGD.Nutr. D.Ay.M.. "One of the main causes of fatigue, toxemia, constipation, and premature aging is simply that most people dont drink enough water.". A common statement found in literature everywhere. Water is involved with every metabolic process, electrical exchange, biochemical pathway, physical and mental action in the body. Three quarters of the body is water.. Our muscles are 70% water, our blood 82%, bones contain up to 25% water, and our brain 85% water. If your body doesnt get enough water it will have to recycle what it already has, this means it has to re-filter it through the kidneys placing extra burden on them and the liver.. Water is the element which extracts nutrients from food, transports them to the blood, replenishes vital fluids, as well as helping detoxify the body. Dehydration is one of the main causes of fluid retention. The body is forced to store water if its not getting enough- the bodys survival mechanism. ...
Although there are varying estimates as to the degree of enzyme hydration required for activity, a threshold value of ca. 0.2 g of water per gram of protein has been widely accepted. The evidence upon which this is based is reviewed here. In particular, results from the use of gas-phase substrates are discussed. Results using solid-phase enzyme-substrate mixtures are not altogether in accord with those obtained using gas-phase substrates. The use of gaseous substrates and products provides an experimental system in which the hydration of the enzyme can be easily controlled, but which is not limited by diffusion.. All the results show that increasing hydration enhances activity. The results using gas-phase substrates do not support the existence of a critical hydration value below which enzymatic activity is absent, and suggest that enzyme activity is possible at much lower hydrations than previously thought; they do not support the notion that significant hydration of the surface polar groups is ...
Fig. 3 presents a flowchart of the principal steps involved in preparing a polycarbonate-containing liquid chemical formulation in accordance with the invention and then using the liquid formulation to make a thin, solid polycarbonate film according to the inventions teachings. Fig. 3 illustrates the preferred case in which the principal solvent consists substantially of 1-methylpyrrolidinone (again, NMP).. The first steps in making the polycarbonate film are, as indicated in blocks 10, 11 and 12 of Fig. 3, to provide: (a) polycarbonate material, (b) a principal solvent formed with 1-methylpyrrolidinone, and, optionally, (c) a surfactant. The principal solvent preferably consists of essentially 100% 1-methylpyrrolidinone and has a low water content. Alternatively, the principal solvent can consist of essentially 100% pyridine at a low water content. In either case, the principal solvent constitutes the full polycarbonate solvent when no cosolvent is used.. The polycarbonate material typically ...
Most of us are used to alkaline ionized water but there are a number of acidic iodized water benefits and they are:. - It prevents and treats acne, pimples and rash. The water has an astringent effect on the skin as it smoothens and tightens the skin. Its sterilizing effect helps in treating minor skin wounds.. - When used during and after shampooing, this water protects the hair, and it prevents itching, dandruff and hair loss.. - On burns, this water eases the pain and enhances recovery.. - Acidic water prevents noodles from becoming soggy while cooking them.. - Fruits and vegetables washed in this water are free from harmful bacteria as it kills them.. - Before cooking fish, soaking it in the water helps tighten the meat, thus making it easy to cook.. - The water helps to sterilize and disinfect teeth if it is regularly used when brushing teeth.. - On sunburns, the acidic water helps ease the inflammation and hasten recovery.. - Using acidic water to gargle kills the microbes that cause colds ...
Patent Rights. Worldwide Pure Water™ is a global drinking water solutions provider and it holds the patent assignment along with exclusive global marketing rights to this unique nanotechnology.. Drinking Water. An eco-friendly replacement to the carcinogenic compound commonly known as Chlorine is long overdue. In 1994 President Clinton backed a call to ban Chlorine. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg14119121.300-clinton-backs-call-to-ban-chlorine-.html. For more details visit: http://www.biophysica.com/chlorine.html. The Science Behind The Formula. The effects of Silver Nano-particles and Copper Pentahydrate on water borne pathogens are well documented.. Colloidal Silver in a water solution produces a toxic effect to a majority of water borne pathogens. Copper Pentahydrate strips an enzyme from unicellular organisms that is necessary for their reproductive cycle. Without that enzyme bacteria can no longer reproduce and therefore shall die decreasing the number of water borne pathogens in ...
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mungbean protein isolate (MPI) on the potential possibility of water binding agent and as a substrate for the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in myofibrillar protein. Cooking loss (CL,%), gel strength (GS, gf), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were measured. The addition of MPI reduced CL, indicating that it has a water binding capacity during cooking. The major protein band (53 kDa) of MPI appeared when MPI was mixed with MP, but it disappeared when MTGase was incorporated. MPI treatment changed the endothermic peaks as compared with those of CTL. MTGase (1%) mediated pork MP increased CL and GS (P , 0.05), and reduced peak temperatures with vanishing of endothermic intensity at 1st and 3rd peaks, suggesting the structural changes of protein gelation. In microstructures, MTGase treatment showed a finely stranded ...
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The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the amount of water absorbed by six commercially available resin-modified glass ionomer cements and to investigate the possible influence of time and resin content on water sorption. The materials evaluated included Variglass used as a restoration, base and liner; Fuji II LC; Fuji Liner; Vitrebond; Vitremer and Photac-Bond. Z100, a composite resin, was used as control. All specimens were manipulated according to manufacturers instructions and then subjected to a water sorption test based on the ISO 4049 requirements. Storage in water was further extended to 1 month to evaluate the effects of time and indirectly cement maturity on water sorption. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncans test at 0.05 significance level. Results show that the composite resin control had significantly less water sorption than all the resin-modified polyalkenoate cements evaluated. Variglass when used as a base or restorative had the least water sorption ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of enzyme catalysis. T2 - The case of histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9. AU - Wang, Shenglong. AU - Hu, Po. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2007/4/12. Y1 - 2007/4/12. N2 - To elucidate enzyme catalysis through computer simulation, a prerequisite is to reliably compute free energy barriers for both enzyme and solution reactions. By employing on-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with the ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach and the umbrella sampling method, we have determined free energy profiles for the methyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by the histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9 and its corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in aqueous solution, respectively. Our calculated activation free energy barrier for the enzyme catalyzed reaction is 22.5 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experimental value of 20.9 kcal/mol. The difference in potential of mean ...
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In northern China, dog images made by cutting paper were thrown in the water as part of the ritual of the Double Fifth (Duanwu ...
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... positioning in shallow water so that the ships could be run aground to save the lives of the crews as a final resort. The ... Spanish mines exploded but were ineffective as they were well below the draft of any of the ships due to the depth of the water ...
... is water.[3] ...
Kadinsky, Sergey (2016). Hidden Waters of New York City: A History and Guide to 101 Forgotten Lakes, Ponds, Creeks, and Streams ... 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant, also operated by the NYCDEP, in Starrett City on the shore of Hendrix Creek. It was ... Spring Creek Auxiliary Water Pollution Control Plant (Spring Creek AWPCP), operated by the New York City Department of ... and water treatment plant in the area, and noise from the nearby Idlewild Airport (now John F. Kennedy International Airport).[ ...
The failure of the Indian monsoon has been linked to the suppression of evaporation of water from the Indian Ocean due to the ... The heating of the atmosphere aloft also leads to a cooling of the surface, resulting in less evaporation of surface water. The ... The site and extent of absorption of inhaled gases and vapors are determined by their solubility in water. Absorption is also ... Wet scrubbers pass the dirty air through a scrubbing solution (usually a mixture of water and other compounds) allowing the ...
... used in deep waters. Shallower water cable typically has more protective armour than offshore, deeper cable. ... 1 - Polyethylene2 - Mylar tape 3 - Stranded steel wires4 - Aluminium water barrier 5 - Polycarbonate6 - Copper or aluminium ...
These bacteria are common and are found in fresh and salt water, in household dust and in soil.[3] MAC bacteria only cause ...
Water sticks to all of the rock in the soil. But, water sticks best to clay. Water is taken into (absorbed) into humus like a ... Rain water makes small things in the soil move down with the water. When the things in the water get stuck in the soil those ... Water can enter the soil because there are spaces in the soil. Plants drink the water and the minerals in the water. Plant ... The water that flows down takes plant nutrients down too. The plant roots can not get at the water and plant nutrients if they ...
Ereshkigal becomes enraged when she hears Asu-shu-namir's demand, but she is forced to give them the water of life. Asu-shu- ... The gala-tura and the kur-jara sprinkle Inanna's corpse with the food and water of life and revive her.[199][200][193] Galla ... the god of water and human culture.[131] In ancient Sumerian mythology, the mes were sacred powers or properties belonging the ... which they must sprinkle with the food and water of life.[194][196] When they come before Ereshkigal, she is in agony like a ...
... is plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water[1] to halt the cooking process.[2] ...
Sarah Waters per Carezze di velluto (Tipping the velvet) - £1,000. Anni 2000-2009[modifica , modifica wikitesto]. 2000 ...
California has also long been a hub for motorsports and auto racing. The city of Long Beach holds an event every year in the month of April, which is host to IndyCar Series racing through the streets of downtown. Long Beach has hosted Formula One events there in the past, and also currently hosts an event on the United SportsCar Championship schedule. Auto Club Speedway is a speedway in Fontana and currently hosts one NASCAR Cup Series race along with the 2nd-tier Xfinity Series a year. Sonoma Raceway is a multi-purpose facility outside Sonoma, featuring a road course and a drag strip. Different versions of the road course are home to a NASCAR event and an IndyCar event. The drag strip hosts a yearly NHRA event. Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca is a road course near Monterey that currently hosts an ALMS event, a round of the Rolex Sports Car Series and the Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion. The Auto Club Raceway at Pomona has hosted NHRA drag racing for over 50 years. The NASCAR Cup Series holds two ...
In 2011 Panama had an unemployment rate of 2.7%.[4] Panama also had a food surplus in August 2008. Panama was ranked at number 60 on the Human Development Index in 2008. Panama's economy has experienced an economic boom in recent years. Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was over 10.4% from 2006-2008. The Panamanian economy has been one of the fastest growing and best managed in Latin America. Latin Business Chronicle has predicted that Panama will be the fastest growing economy in Latin America in the five-year period of 2010-14.[5] Panama is impacted by the global financial crisis. It threatens to damage the social gains made in the past few years. The expansion project of the Panama Canal and the free trade agreement with the United States is expected to boost and extend the economy. ...
Most of them settled in the farming district of Bismarck, attracted by the cheap land and an abundance of clean water. The area ...
Water in fuel can damage a fuel injection pump; some diesel fuel filters also trap water. Water contamination in diesel fuel ... The freezing water that saturates the fuel will sometimes clog the fuel injector pump.[64] Once the water inside the fuel tank ... "Water Contamination in Fuel: Cause and Effect - American Filtration and Separations Society". Archived from the original on ... These microbes form a colony that lives at the interface of fuel and water. They grow quite fast in warmer temperatures. They ...
His sports and hobbies include, and have included - skin diving, scuba diving and competitive water skiing (one time national ... He left university and manufactured water skis. However subsequently he completed the first ever postgraduate course on ...
The Trust operates as one of the State's premier cultural institutions within the Create NSW portfolio. It is constituted as a body corporate under the Sydney Opera House Trust Act 1961.[2] It has 10 members appointed by the Governor of New South Wales on the nomination of the Minister for the Arts. The Trustees must include at least two persons who have knowledge of or experience in the performing arts. A Trustee holds office for three years and is eligible for reappointment for no more than three consecutive terms.[3] The Trust's objectives are:[3] ...
The neuromast is a mechanoreceptive organ which allows the sensing of mechanical changes in water. There are two main varieties ... As mechanical motion is transmitted through water to the neuromast, the cupula bends and is displaced. Varying in magnitude ... The lateral line system allows the detection of movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the water surrounding an animal ... Budelmann, Bernd U.; Bleckmann, Horst (1988). "A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic ...
Guatemala: Leaves are applied externally by adults for myasis, headache and wounds; hot water extract of the dried leaf is ...
... and that water was frequently over it. Landing aircraft sprayed water about, and sometimes skidded off the runway and became ... 3 Airstrip at Gili Gili.[59] A shortage of water craft, however, delayed D Company's departure until the evening of 25/26 ... Later that evening, two of the small water craft that D Company were using to withdraw to Gili Gili encountered the Japanese ...
An indication of water in the magma is determined by the presence of brown mica.[17] ...
The sodium salt is, however, around twenty times more soluble in water than the potassium salt (49 g/L at 0 °C) and its ... This step solubilizes the chromium and allows it to be extracted into hot water. At this stage, other components of the ore ... Above 62 °C, these salts lose water spontaneously to give the anhydrous material. It is crystallised around 30 to 35 degrees C ... Relative to the potassium salt, the main advantage of sodium dichromate is its greater solubility in water and polar solvents ...
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1 with the low-water line, and extends for 80 nautical miles along that parallel of latitude to Point A. From this point, the ...
Run warm water over your eyelids for 30 seconds. Being careful to not get any in your eyes, use an anti-dandruff shampoo to ...
These roles included floodplain management engineer, water allocation engineer, land and water officer, section head/water ... A first-of-its-kind prototype, his Hybrid Atmospheric Water Generation (HAWgen) system harvests water from air, even in desert ... HAWgen is recognized internationally; Bahrami received the UAE MBR International Water Award in R&D for this invention in 2017 ... cooling and atmospheric water-harvesting technologies with potential to change the world. Since joining SFU, Bahrami has ...
S: (n) water mold (parasitic or saprobic organisms living chiefly in fresh water or moist soil) ...
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S: (n) water on the knee (hydrarthrosis affecting the knee) *S: (n) ileitis (inflammation of the ileum) ...
The water pipes can easily be pulled off, easily kinked to throttle the flow. There is nothing to stop 20kV hitting the water ... It holds a gallon of water and keeps the pump submerged. If the laser isnt going to be used for a few days, I dump the water ... It writes about "air and water included in the glass" - that would be visible bubbles and water will evaporate at glassworking ... There is no water flow cutoff, no over temperature shut off. No grommet on the hole where the HT wires passes through, no ...
Otherwise algae will grow in the water and destroy the roots of the plant." posted to How to start a hydroponic garden. ...
Hydrogels can retain and absorb water (suitable for biological surfaces) and the addition of the other polymer helps in ...
Watering. *Swelling of the eyelid. Treatment. *Corneal Transplant: Treating corneal blindness is possible through corneal ...
The infection can be transmitted by air or water (eg, by swimming in lakes or swimming pools without adequate chlorine). ...
Water Treatment Plant: Multiple classes predict plant state. 28. Wholesale customers: The data set refers to clients of a ...
Contemporary Eurasian lineage HPAI H5N1 viruses have caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and water fowl including ...
16] reported that aquaporins (AQP), proteins that control water secretion and play an important role during the first step of ...
Washes into your sewage systems and pollutes water bodies. On top of all this, ANTI-BACTERIAL SOAP OFFERS NO PROVEN BENEFIT ... A joint project of Food & Water Watch and Beyond Pesticides has created a FACT SHEET on the dangers of triclosan. It contains a ... It is now found in our drinking water, in our rivers, in our bodies. Several other countries, including the members of the ... Aside from killing 99% of our useful microbes along with the harmful ones, triclosan also reacts with water to form chloroform ...
This plasma, at this point called tissue fluid, consists of water and dissolved molecules small enough to fit through the small ... The lymphatic system consists mostly of water so a dehydrated body causes it to slow down. If youre dehydrated, the system ... Adding essential oils of these fruits to your water bottle to drink throughout the day also stimulates lymphatic drainage and ... This invigorating technique consists of switching the water in your shower between very hot and very cold - emulating a Finnish ...
Millions of New Genes and Many New Proteins Are Found in Ocean Water ... Millions of New Genes and Many New Proteins Are Found in Ocean Water ...
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This year try Green Bean Casserole with Bacon Bits and Water Chestunts on Thanksgiving Day for a recipe with a creamy, crunch ... This Green Bean Casserole with Bacon Bits and Water Chestnuts recipe also has cheddar for a creamy and crunchy texture! Your ...
Its another water-soluble vitamin that is essential for cell growth and metabolism. You will most likely get enough of this ... Theres even water thats loaded with vitamins (apparently). Then youll hear all about the natural ways to get your vitamins, ... The other vitamins are water soluble, so we get rid of them. Its not possible to create stores and some we dont create ... This is because theyre water-soluble, so they are excreted from your body easily. The others are absorbed by the body and used ...
High Chlorine in tap water can kill the good stuff. Luke warm water works best for a fast hydrolysis The seeds should flatten ...
South Asian Water Studies Journal SAWAS, South Asian Water Studies, Volume 2, Number 1, p.37-48 (2010) ... The place of the tribunal in Inter-State water disputes. Publication Type:. Journal Articles ... The enthusiasm in official circles for Tribunals to settle inter-state river water disputes has not been matched by that of the ... This throws up a rather fundamental question: What role, if any, can Tribunals play in resolving inter-state river water ...
On-line tritiated water detection by in situ ATR-FTIR. Hill, A. & Webster, R. ... On-line tritiated water detection by in situ ATR-FTIR. Hill, A. & Webster, R. ...
Drink several glasses of water per day and gargle each sip until you finish the glass of water ...
I feel a rush of proverbial cool water wash over my brain every time I recall the memory. ...
So, she says, "If you take an ice cube into your mouth and you swallow the cold water, the cold water will go down your ... so together the patient and the manager fixed certain shelves in the freezers where they put plastic bags filled with water to ...
  • 3)YOGA:---ANILUM VILUM 10mints ,KPALBHATHI 20 mints Do BUTTERFLY yoga,liedown in straight position then raise up your leg s to 90dregrees gradually,( 4)DRINK PLENTY OF WATER up to 3 litres. (zawaj.com)
  • Drinking plenty of water every day can also help you achieve healthy blood circulation. (docmillersports.com)
  • A generous quantity of water down numbing medication (anesthetic) service is then injected by needle around the area of the saphenous vein. (drmackay.com)
  • When you swim, your body is supported by water, taking pressure off your muscles and veins. (thealmostdone.com)
  • It is best to choose beverages like milk, which helps to strengthen teeth and build stronger enamel, and water which hydrates your body. (5000yongedental.com)
  • Transportation of the unnecessary water weight and extra size of each product leads to excess pollution. (simplyspruce.com)
  • The camp was established on the west on open arable ground, close to one well which has a Shaduf, or long pole with a weight for drawing up water. (wikipedia.org)
  • I've had a headache most of the after post second S4 dose but this could be down to dehydration as I haven't managed to drink as much water as I normally do today. (isarms.com)
  • How to Create the Best Tasting Water to Drink More H2O! (thriftymommaramblings.com)
  • But there's a premise buried in there that doesn't hold water for the average civilian who carries a firearm for self-defense purposes. (thetruthaboutguns.com)