A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal
Actin-Related Protein 2
Actin-Related Protein 3
Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between phylogenetically distant insect species by a naturally occurring mechanism. (1/879)Wolbachia is a genus of alpha-proteobacteria found in obligate intracellular association with a wide variety of arthropods, including an estimated 10-20% of all insect species . Wolbachia represents one of a number of recently identified 'reproductive parasites'  which manipulate the reproduction of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission       . The influence of Wolbachia infection on the dynamics of host populations has focused considerable interest on its possible role in speciation through reproductive isolation    and as an agent of biological control   . Although Wolbachia normally undergoes vertical transmission through the maternal line of its host population , there is compelling evidence from molecular phylogenies that extensive horizontal (intertaxon) transmission must have occurred     . Some of the best candidate vectors for the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia are insect parasitoids , which comprise around 25% of all insect species and attack arthropods from an enormous range of taxa . In this study, we used both fluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification with Wolbachia-specific primers to show that Wolbachia can be transmitted to a parasitic wasp (Leptopilina boulardi) from its infected host (Drosophila simulans) and subsequently undergo diminishing vertical transmission in this novel host species. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to reveal a natural horizontal transfer route for Wolbachia between phylogenetically distant insect species. (+info)
Genetic localization of a Drosophila melanogaster resistance gene to a parasitoid wasp and physical mapping of the region. (2/879)Drosophila melanogaster larvae usually react against eggs of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi by surrounding them with a multicellular melanotic capsule. The genetic determinism of this response has been studied previously using susceptible (non-capsule-forming) and resistant (capsule-forming) strains. The results suggest that differences in their encapsulation response involve a single gene, resistance to Leptopilina boulardi (Rlb), with two alleles, the resistant one being dominant. Rlb confers specific protection against Leptopilina boulardi and is thus probably involved in parasitoid recognition. Recent studies have localized this gene on the right arm of the second chromosome and our aim was to precisely determine its genetic and molecular location. Using strains bearing deletions, we demonstrated that resistance to Leptopilina boulardi is conferred by the 55C; 55F3 region and that the 55E2-E6; F3 region is particularly involved. A physical map of the 55C; 56A region was then constructed, based on a set of overlapping cosmid and P1 phage clones. Using single and double digests, cross hybridization of restriction fragments, and location of genetically mapped genes and STSs, a complete, five-enzyme restriction map of this 830-kb region was obtained. (+info)
Developmental analysis of Ganaspis xanthopoda, a larval parasitoid of Drosophila melanogaster. (3/879)Ganaspis xanthopoda is a solitary larval parasitoid wasp of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The life cycle of Ganaspis xanthopoda in the wild-type and developmental mutant ecdysoneless strains of Drosophila melanogaster is described. The female infects a second-instar host larva. The parasitoid embryo hatches into a mobile first-instar (L1) larva. The L1 parasitoid has fleshy appendages and, while mobile, it remains confined within the wandering larval host. The second-instar larva (L2) is an endoparasite within the host prepupa and lacks appendages. The L2-to-L3 molt is dependent on pupation and marks the transition of the endoparasite into an ectoparasite. The third-instar larva (L3) is a sessile ectoparasite, develops an extensive tracheal system and consumes the host as it progresses through its prepupal and pupal stages. A single adult male or female emerges from the host puparium. The developmental analysis of Ganaspis xanthopoda reveals a tight synchrony between host and parasitoid development which is, at least in part, dependent on the ecdysone levels of the host. (+info)
Mapping of hybrid incompatibility loci in Nasonia. (4/879)According to theory, F(2) hybrid breakdown (lethality or sterility) is due to incompatibilities between interacting genes of the different species (i.e., the breaking up of coadapted gene complexes). Detection of such incompatibilities is particularly straightforward in haplodiploid species, because virgin F(1) hybrid females will produce haploid recombinant F(2) males. This feature allows for screening of the complete genome for recessive genetic incompatibilities. Crosses were performed between Nasonia vitripennis (v) and its sibling species N. giraulti (g). First, a linkage map was produced using RAPD markers. RAPD markers showed an overall bias toward vitripennis alleles, a pattern not predicted by the basic two-interactor Dobzhansky-Muller model. Recovery patterns of visible markers were consistent with those of linked RAPD markers. If particular genetic interactions between two loci are causing hybrid lethality, then those genotypes should be underrepresented or absent among adult F(2) males. Four sets of significant incompatibilities were detected by performing pairwise comparisons of markers on different chromosomes. Likely explanations for the observed patterns are maternal effect-zygotic gene incompatibilities or clustering of incompatibility loci. Due to the short generation time, advantages of haplodiploidy, and availability of markers, Nasonia promises to be a productive system for investigating the genetics of hybrid inviability. (+info)
Genetic support for the evolutionary theory of reproductive transactions in social wasps. (5/879)Recent evolutionary models of reproductive partitioning within animal societies (known as 'optimal skew', 'concessions' or 'transactional' models) predict that a dominant individual will often yield some fraction of the group's reproduction to a subordinate as an incentive to stay in the group and help rear the dominant's offspring. These models quantitatively predict how the magnitude of the subordinate's 'staying incentive' will vary with the genetic relatedness between dominant and subordinate, the overall expected group output and the subordinate's expected output if it breeds solitarily. We report that these predictions accord remarkably well with the observed reproductive partitioning between conesting dominant and subordinate queens in the social paper wasp Polistes fuscatus. In particular, the theory correctly predicts that (i) the dominant's share of reproduction, i.e. the skew, increases as the colony cycle progresses and (ii) the skew is positively associated both with the colony's productivity and with the relatedness between dominant and subordinate. Moreover, aggression between foundresses positively correlated with the skew, as predicted by transactional but not alternative tug-of-war models of societal evolution. Thus, our results provide the strongest (quantitative support yet for a unifying model of social evolution. (+info)
Glucosinolate genetics and the attraction of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae to Brassica. (6/879)The control of insect pests using parasitoids and carnivores has been successfully applied in protected cropping systems, orchards and forestry. Their success in annual field crops has been more limited due largely to the difficulties of attracting and maintaining a sufficient density of parasitoids in the crop before the levls of the insect herbivores become economically damaging. Parasitoids are known to be attracted to host-plant volatiles; thus, manipulating the host-plant chemistry may provide a means of enhancing the attraction of parasitoids to their prey. In this study we describe the differential attraction of the braconid wasp Diaeretiella rapae to two near-isogenic lines of Brassica oleracea which differ in a gene which alters the chemical structure of the isothiocyanates which are emitted following tissue damage. We demonstrate that, by enhancing the production of but-3-enyl isothiocyanate in B. oleracea and Brassica napus (oilseed rape), we can increase the attraction of D. rapae to these plants under standard field conditions. (+info)
Estimating ancestral geographical distributions: a Gondwanan origin for aphid parasitoids? (7/879)We tested the published hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin for the overwhelmingly northern hemisphere aphid parasitoids (Aphidiinae) as follows: (i) finding their sister group by a phylogenetic analysis of the entire Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenopterai using sequence data from approximately 500 bp fragments of both the nuclear 28S (D2 region) and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes, (ii) using this sister-group relationship and the more informative 28S D2 gene to estimate the phylogeny of the Aphidiinae and (iii) estimating the ancestral distribution for the Aphidiinae using maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods. Both methods indicated a Gondwanan origin. (+info)
A gene encoding a polydnavirus structural polypeptide is not encapsidated. (8/879)Polydnaviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with some parasitic Hymenoptera that are vertically transmitted as proviruses within wasp genomes. To study this symbiotic association a gene encoding an abundant Campoletis sonorensis polydnavirus virion protein was characterized. This gene is not encapsidated but resides in the wasp genome where it is expressed only during virus replication. Immunolocalization studies detected the encoded 44-kDa protein only in oviduct tissue with ultrastructural studies detecting epitopes between or on virion envelopes. Expression and localization of the 44-kDa protein are consistent with its being a viral structural protein but localization of the gene only within the wasp genome is atypical, raising the possibility that this protein is adventitiously packaged during virion assembly. To address this possibility, quantitative dot blot and genomic Southern blot hybridizations were performed to determine whether the copy number of the p44 gene increased disproportionately during replication, as would be expected for a gene encoding a virion protein. The copy number of the p44 gene increases in tissues supporting virus replication but is unchanged in other tissues, suggesting that this gene is amplified in replicative cells. The data indicate that genes encoding polydnavirus virion proteins may be distributed between wasp and encapsidated viral genomes. (+info)
Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus - Download Animals
Fine Art Photography: Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus Author: Alfred Schauhuber Date: 2006-08-21 Maximum available size: 18. DOWNLOAD
Inheritance of Gynandromorphism in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis | Genetics
ALMOST all taxa contain species with two sexes: males and females. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the establishment of the two sexes are quite diverse. From an evolutionary point of view, it is important to understand the genetics behind the various mechanisms. In many organisms sex determination relies on heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In mammals the presence of the Y chromosome is the primary determinant of maleness and in Drosophila the ratio of X chromosome to autosomes is the key factor for sex determination. Chromosomal sex determination also applies for birds and fish. This type of primary sex determination does not hold for the order Hymenoptera, which includes ants, bees, and wasps. These insects have a haplo-diploid sex determination system: haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs, while diploid females arise from fertilized eggs. However, diploid males and triploid females have also been reported (Whiting 1960), but never haploid females. It is unclear how this can be ...
Genetic and epigenetic architecture of sex-biased expression in the jewel wasps Nasonia vitripennis and giraulti. - British...
Description: There is extraordinary diversity in sexual dimorphism (SD) among animals, but little is known about its epigenetic basis. To study the epigenetic architecture of SD in a haplodiploid system, we performed RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of adult females and males from two closely related parasitoid wasps, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti. More than 75% of expressed genes displayed significantly sex-biased expression. As a consequence, expression profiles are more similar between species within each sex than between sexes within each species. Furthermore, extremely male- and female-biased genes are enriched for totally different functional categories: male-biased genes for key enzymes in sexpheromone synthesis and female-biased genes for genes involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Remarkably, just 70 highly expressed, extremely male-biased genes account for 10% of all transcripts in adult males. Unlike expression profiles, DNA methylomes are ...
Mischocyttarus mexicanus cubicola - Wikipedia
Mischocyttarus mexicanus cubicola is a neotropical paper wasp found in the New World. It is a social wasp that demonstrates two different types of nesting strategies, depending upon context. This context-dependent trait makes Mischocyttarus mexicanus cubicola a good model to study social biology within social wasps. In detail, this trait allows for the females of this species to form nests both individually and as co-founders with other females within the same colony. This subspecies is also known to exhibit cannibalism, with M. m. cubicola queens feeding on their own larvae for nourishment when unaided by workers. Mischocyttarus mexicanus cubicola is part of the Vespidae family, which classifies the species as a wasp. Wasps, including M. m. cubicola are classified under the order of Hymenoptera, making ants, bees, and sawflies, which fall under the same order, relatives of wasps. It then falls under the Polistinae subfamily, which is home to paper wasps specifically. The genus of this species, ...
Flight activity in the parasitoid waspNasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) - Semantic Scholar
Flight activity in females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis(Walker) was examined by measuring still-air tethered flight. There was a large amount of variation among females in flight duration. The longest single flight (with no pauses of more than 5 s) was more than 2 h long. Mating status had a significant and large effect on flight: mated females flew twice as long as virgin females. There also was a slight but significant effect of age on flight, with 3-day-old females being less likely to fly than 1-day-old females. Flight duration was not affected by prior exposure to other females, to honey, or to a low or a high host density.
How Do Paper Wasps Make Their Paper? | Juniors Book
Paper wasps are the paper-makers of the insect world. These social insects live together and build nests made of paper. They make their paper by chewing bits of old wood scraped from boards or woody plants and mixing it with their saliva. The wet material is patted and shaped into rows of paper cells, much like the wax cells of a bee honeycomb.. When the paper paste dries, the wasps have a strong paper nest in which to raise the young wasps. Paper wasp nests are often built to hang upside down from tree limbs or attached beneath the eaves of buildings. Their nests include numerous compartments within which wasps lay their eggs and rear their young.. The nests typically do not have an outer shell with the cells of the nest visible. In fact, it somewhat resembles an umbrella and is the reason they may be called umbrella wasps.. In North America alone, there are over 22 species of paper wasps. Paper wasps belong to the genus Polistes. Worldwide, there are over 200 species. These wasps measure 1.9 ...
The Absence of Interspecific Host Discrimination in Asobara Tabida Nees and Leptopilina Heterotoma (Thomson), Coexisting Larval...
The primary, solitary parasitoids Asobara tabida Nees (Braconidae: Alysiinae) and Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson) (= Pseudeucoila bochei Weld): Eucoilidae) are sympatric, show seasonal overlap and share the same hosts, viz. larvae of Drosophila species. Discrimination between unparasitized hosts and hosts parasitized by the other species was studied. No differences were found in their behaviour towards the two kinds of hosts: these were accepted equally well for parasitization.
Effects of deletions on mitotic stability of the paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome from Nasonia
Paternal-Sex-Ratio (PSR) is a B chromosome that causes all-male offspring in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is only transmitted via sperm of carrier males and destroys the other paternal chromosomes during the first mitotic division of the fertilized egg. Because of haplodiploidy, the e …
UMR CNRS 5558 Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive - Equipe Epigénétique et Formation du Zygote
Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic bacteria which is vastly distributed in arthropods and is known for its ability to manipulate the reproduction of its host to favor its own vertical transmission. In flies, Wolbachia causes a sterility syndrome known as Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI). CI occurs when sperm from infected males fertilize uninfected eggs. Paternal chromosomes in these eggs appear unable to properly divide during the first zygotic cycle but the molecular bases of this intriguing phenotype remain elusive. We are interested in understanding how Wolbachia interferes with the remodeling of paternal chromatin at fertilization in Drosophila, as well as in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis.. ...
Vespula acadica - Wikipedia
Vespula acadica, also known as the Forest Yellowjacket, is a North American species of eusocial wasp which is part of the rufa group within the genus Vespula. It is a black and yellow wasp that is found in arboreal areas and builds its nests most often in decaying vegetation like logs, but has occasionally been found to build aerial nests. Due to its preference for forests V. acadica does not normally come into contact with humans; however, when colonies are disturbed, workers of this yellowjacket may be quite aggressive and persistent and sting repeatedly. V. acadica belongs to the genus of Vespula which includes numerous species of social wasps. The wasps within the Vespula genus are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and are commonly referred to as Yellow Jackets in North America. Vespula wasps are commonly mistaken for other genera, most often the paper wasps of the genus Polistes. V. acadica is considered to be a member of the Vespula rufa group and is most closely related to other ...
Biochemical characterization of a phospholipase A 2 homologue from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis | Journal...
Wasp venoms constitute a molecular reservoir of new pharmacological substances such as peptides and proteins, biological property holders, many of which are yet to be identified. Exploring these sources may lead to the discovery of molecules hitherto unknown. This study describes, for the first time in hymenopteran venoms, the identification of an enzymatically inactive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis. P. occidentalis venom was fractioned by molecular exclusion and reverse phase chromatography. For the biochemical characterization of the protein, 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE were performed, along with phospholipase activity assays on synthetic substrates, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and sequencing by Edman degradation. The protein, called PocTX, was isolated using two chromatographic steps. Based on the phospholipase activity assay, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the protein presented a high degree of purity, with a mass of 13,896.47 Da and a basic pI. After
Figs kill wasp larvae when wasps do not pollinate figs
Figs and fig wasps have evolved to help each other out: Fig wasps lay their eggs inside the fruit where the wasp larvae can safely develop, and in return, the wasps pollinate the figs.. But what happens when a wasp lays its eggs but fails to pollinate the fig?. The trees get even by dropping those figs to the ground, killing the baby wasps inside, reports a Cornell and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (published online Jan. 13).. The findings suggest that when one species in a mutually beneficial relationship fails to hold up its end of the bargain, sanctions may be a necessary part of maintaining the relationship.. We want to know what forces maintain this 80 million-year-old mutualism between figs and their wasp pollinators, said lead author Charlotte Jandér, a Cornell graduate student in neurobiology and behavior, who conducted the study as a Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute predoctoral fellow. ...
Why Do I Have So Many Wasps Around My House - Accessible Property Register
Wasps - they are the most unwelcomed guests you can have outside your home. They sting, they swarm, and for some reason, you have a bunch of them outside your house wanting to come in. What is attracting wasps to your house? Is it your wasp-y lifestyle? Are they there for cocktail parties and hot gossip? No, probably not. Actually, definitely not. All joking aside, if you have an abundant amount of wasps around your house there might be a very preventable reason that could help you get rid of them. **What Attracts Wasps?** While wasps come in a variety of different species, all species can be placed in two classifications - solitary or social. Solitary wasps, like their name suggests, live in smaller communities, if not by themselves. These solitary wasps, like mud daubers or cicada killers, build small homes on the eaves of your building or in the dirt. Social wasps, however, live in larger communities that like secluded places that are safe to build a community. This can be in t...
Wasp larvae jump to the dark side - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News
Jumping is not about fun and games for insect larvae. They must do it to survive. This manoeuvre is all about finding a shady spot to develop in, according to researchers from Kyushu University in Japan, who led research into the jumping behavior of a minute parasitic wasp, published in Springers journal The Science of Nature.. The use of jumping as a means of movement has only been observed in a few species of parasitic wasp larvae, suggesting that this behavior does not easily evolve. One such wasp is the three millimeter long Bathyplectes anurus. This parasite is used as a form of biological pest control against alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica), a destructive agricultural pest that attacks legumes. Adult Bathyplectes anurus wasps lay their eggs in alfalfa weevil larvae. When the wasp larva develops, it crawls out from inside its host and promptly feeds on it. It then spends ten months in a self-spun cocoon inside the cocoon of the alfalfa weevil larva it has eaten, before developing into a ...
Parasitic wasps hitchhike on butterflies by smelling for chemical chastity belts - Not Exactly Rocket Science
Its not every day that you hear about spy missions that involve a lack of sex, but clearly parasitic wasps dont pay much attention to Hollywood clichés. These insects merge the thriller, science-fiction and horror genres, They lay their eggs inside other animals, turning them into slaves and living larders that are destined to be eaten inside-out by the developing grubs. To find their victims, they perform feats of espionage worthy of any secret agent, tapping into their marks communication lines, tailing them back to their homes and infiltrating their families. Two species of parasitoid wasp - Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens - are particularly skilled at chemical espionage. Theyve learned to home in on sexual chemicals used by male cabbage white butterflies. After sex, a male coats the female with anti-aphrodisiac that turns off other suitors and protects the males sexual investment. These chemicals are signals from one male to another that say, Buzz off, shes taken. ...
Linking the coevolutionary and population dynamics of host-parasitoid interactions<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking the coevolutionary and population dynamics of host-parasitoid interactions. AU - Fellowes, M D E AU - Travis, J M J PY - 2000/8. Y1 - 2000/8. N2 - The interplay between coevolutionary and population or community dynamics is currently the focus of much empirical and theoretical consideration. Here, we develop a simulation model to study the coevolutionary and population dynamics of a hypothetical host-parasitoid interaction. In the model, host resistance and parasitoid virulence are allowed to coevolve. We investigate how trade-offs associated with these traits modify the systems coevolutionary and population dynamics. The most important influence on these dynamics comes from the incorporation of density-dependent costs of resistance ability. We find three main outcomes. First, if the costs of resistance are high, then one or both of the players go extinct. Second, when the costs of resistance are intermediate to low, cycling population and coevolutionary dynamics are ...
alaska wood wasp sting
Once the Horntail feels it, they will start dying. In this method, the harmful or dusty material directly can be thrown into the infected area or hole. By clicking the â Submitâ button, I authorize Orkin to contact me about their services at this number using an auto dialer. Wood wasps do not sting, but they may cause other problems for the homeowner. alaska wood wasp sting The suborder name Symphyta derives from the Greek word symphyton, meaning grown together, referring to the groups distinctive lack of a wasp waist between prostomium and peristomium. Other Names: Wood wasps. The larvae emerge into an adult wood wasp by chewing wood. There are many sprays as well as some liquid products which as like the stomach poison for wood wasps. Firstly completely inspect the area, and after each method, check the area which is still untreated and treat it until no horntails left. Then this method will be the best choice for those desperate persons. Wasps/now Identified As A Big Old Hornet - Page ...
PLOS ONE: Placenta-Like Structure of the Aphid Endoparasitic Wasp Aphidius ervi: A Strategy of Optimal Resources Acquisition
Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to
Toxoneuron nigriceps, Tobacco Budworm Parasitoid Wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Members of this wasp species primarily attack tobacco budworms and related caterpillars. These detrimental moth caterpillars attack not only tobacco, as suggested by the common name, but also soybeans and cotton, along with many other plant species. These two crops are particularly important to the Louisiana agricultural economy, making their natural enemies important in integrated pest management of pest species. Tobacco budworms and related species of noctuid moths are among the most important of these crop pests based on a number of classical life history studies and results of current research. Because of the narrow host specificity of tobacco budworm parasitoids, several species of these wasps are important to the natural control of tobacco budworm populations. Releases of tobacco budworm parasitoids in tobacco fields have been shown to be highly effective, and wasp rearing and release programs have great potential for improving pest management of these pests in many parts of the world. ...
Mutual assessment via visual status signals in Polistes dominulus wasps | Biology Letters
Overall, an individuals rival choice decisions were influenced by the advertised quality of the individual, their rivals and the interaction between the two, consistent with a process of mutual assessment. Individuals were more likely to challenge one of the guards when the guards had few facial spots than when the guards had many facial spots. Further, focal wasps with facial patterns signalling high quality were more likely to challenge one of the guards than focal wasps with facial patterns signalling lower quality.. The particular guard that individuals challenged was also influenced by the signal intensity of the focal wasp and her rivals, but the relationship is more complex. Individuals did not use a simple decision rule like always challenge the lower-quality rival. Instead, individuals chose the lower-quality rival when rivals were close to their own quality, but they were less choosy when both rivals were either higher or lower quality. For example, wasps with high-quality facial ...
PD Stock photo : Lare Spider In Nest With Parasitoid Wasp Larva On Back , Thailand
Buy or license direct from the photographer this stunning image of : Lare Spider In Nest With Parasitoid Wasp Larva On Back , Thailand
New Species of Parasitic Wasps Found in Fossil Flies
August 28, 2018 - When scientists scanned 35 million-year-old fly pupae, they discovered a hidden intruder-fossilized parasitic wasps. Out of 1,510 ancient fly pupae that were discovered at a site in France, 55 housed the parasitic invaders. Several species of parasitic wasp injected their eggs into the pupae as the maggots transformed into flies. The wasps hatched inside the fly pupae and ate the young flies. Scientists identified four new wasp species among the cache of fossils.
New Species of Parasitic Wasps Found in Fossil Flies
August 28, 2018 - When scientists scanned 35 million-year-old fly pupae, they discovered a hidden intruder-fossilized parasitic wasps. Out of 1,510 ancient fly pupae that were discovered at a site in France, 55 housed the parasitic invaders. Several species of parasitic wasp injected their eggs into the pupae as the maggots transformed into flies. The wasps hatched inside the fly pupae and ate the young flies. Scientists identified four new wasp species among the cache of fossils.
Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp | BMC Evolutionary Biology |...
Haplodiploidy, where females develop from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs, is abundant in some insect lineages. Some species in these lineages reproduce by thelytoky that is caused by infection with endosymbionts: infected females lay haploid eggs that undergo diploidization and develop into females, while males are very rare or absent. It is generally assumed that in thelytokous wasps, endosymbionts merely diploidize the unfertilized eggs, which would then trigger female development. We found that females in the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica infected with thelytoky-inducing Wolbachia produce 0.7-1.2 % male offspring. Seven to 39 % of these males are diploid, indicating that diploidization and female development can be uncoupled in A. japonica. Wolbachia titer in adults was correlated with their ploidy and sex: diploids carried much higher Wolbachia titers than haploids, and diploid females carried more Wolbachia than diploid males. Data from introgression lines
Genome sequencing of 3 parasitoid wasp species | EurekAlert! Science News
An international consortium of scientists, including Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona researcher Deodoro Oliveira, have sequenced the genome of three species of parasitoid wasps of the genus Nasonia. The research offers new basic information on the genetic mechanisms of evolution. It is also of great importance for the control of agricultural pests and of insect-borne diseases.
EENY663/IN1160: Jumping Gall Wasp, California Jumping Gall Wasp, Jumping Oak Gall, Flea Seeds Neuroterus saltatorius Edwards ...
Allen JA. 1910. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. XXVII. New York: Published by order of the Trustees.. Duncan RW. 1997. Jumping gall wasp. Forest Pest Leaflet (Fo 29-6/80-1997E). Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, British Columbia, Canada.. Guthmiller M. 2015. Southern Wisconsin Forest Health Update. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Forest Health Protection Unit, 12. http://dnr.wi.gov (6 June 2016). Kinsey, AC. 1922. The gall wasp genus Neuroterus (Hymenoptera). Indiana University Studies 58, pp. 150.. Liu T. 1991. The association between fungal endophytes and the Jumping gall wasp (Neuroterus saltatorius) on Garry oak (Quercus garryana). Masters thesis. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, US.. Marshall P. 1999. A jumping gall invades southern Indiana forests. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, 8 (31 March 2016). McCracken I, Egbert D. 1922. California gall-making Cynipidae with descriptions ...
Category:Vespa - Wikimedia Commons
Vespa (es); Tebuan (ms); стършели (bg); Vespa (ro); 虎頭蜂 (zh-hk); bålgetingar (sv); Cabridan (oc); Aśióla (eml); 虎頭蜂 (zh-hant); Horniso (io); Qovogʻarilar (uz); Vespo (eo); Стршлени (mk); ভীমরুল (bn); Vespa (fr); Stršljeni (hr); गांधीलमाशी (mr); Ong bắp cày (vi); Sirseņi (lv); Tsísʼnáłtsooítsoh (nv); 虎头蜂 (zh-sg); Runnen (lb); Vespa (nn); geithamser (nb); ಕಣಜ (ಕೀಟ) (kn); Vespa (en); زنبور (ar); Лопшаҥге (mhr); hornet (ast); Vespa (ca); Тыраж (ba); Hornissen (de); Шершни (ce); Anëza (sq); زنبور سرخ (fa); 虎頭蜂 (zh); ონავარი (ka); スズメバチ属 (ja); וספה (he); tatekun (szy); Herhiläiset (fi); Vespa (it); Vapsik (et); hoornaars (nl); 虎头蜂 (zh-hans); Vespa (pt); Vespa (ceb); Vespa (war); Hó͘-thâu-phang (nan); Širšės (lt); अरिङ्गाल (ne); Vespa (la); Шэршні (be); ձիաբոռ (hy); Tabuhan (id); Vespa (pl); ...
Gene flow between sexual and asexual strains of parasitic wasps: A possible case of sympatric speciation caused by a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene flow between sexual and asexual strains of parasitic wasps. T2 - A possible case of sympatric speciation caused by a parthenogenesis-inducing bacterium. AU - Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya. AU - Miura, Kazuki. AU - Abe, Yoshihisa. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Sympatric speciation is strictly defined as the emergence of two species from a population in which mating has been random with respect to the place of birth of the mating partners. Mathematical models have shown that sympatric speciation is possible, but very few examples have been documented in nature. In this article, we demonstrate that arrhenotokous and thelytokous strains of a parasitic wasp, Neochrysocharis formosa, speciated sympatrically through infection by a symbiotic bacterium Rickettsia for the following reasons: First, Rickettsia infection was detected in all of the thelytokous strains collected throughout Japan. Second, the arrhenotokous and thelytokous strains have been collected sympatrically. Third, ...
Host-Parasitoid Interactions - Ecology - Oxford Bibliographies
Parasitoids were initially recognized from the order Hymenoptera, but later research showed that a number of families in the Diptera order and one in the Coleoptera order also contain true parasitoids. In describing parasitic insects, the term parasitoid was first used in Reuter 1913. His definition referred to an organism that goes through complete metamorphosis and whose larvae are parasitic but whose adults are free living (see Defining Parasitoids). Since that time, the term has been greatly refined to accommodate the plethora of life-history strategies that are found in parasitoids. Some of the most important pioneering research on host-parasitoid interactions was performed by George Salt (Salt 1941) and Stanley Flanders (Flanders 1942 and Flanders 1950), whose early works on development and reproduction are still considered to be of profound importance today. Their studies also influenced later generations of entomologists working on parasitoids. Doutt 1959 wrote the first comprehensive ...
Bug Eric: Wasp Wednesday: Four-toothed Mason Wasp
Each female wasp may create more than one nest, as long as she is physically able to do so. Inside the nest, each egg takes about two days to hatch. The larva then begins consuming its larder of caterpillars. It takes an average of 4-8 days to finish eating before preparing for pupation.. The wasp larvae do not spin cocoons, but do secrete some kind of varnish that they apply over the interior walls of their cells in the course of one to three days. Each larva enters the inactive pre-pupal stage about five days after it finishes feeding. About three days later, the larva pupates (in summer generations; it may overwinter as a pre-pupa later in the year). Ten to twenty-one days elapse before an adult wasp emerges (again, for the summer generation). Males take less time to metamorphose than females. The eclosed (emerged) adult wasp then lingers inside its nest cell for another 2-3 days while its exoskeleton hardens and it is able to chew its way through the mud partition(s) to freedom.. Not all ...
Donegal Wildlife: July 2016
I have written many times about parasitoid wasps and their lifestyle. In summary, the female wasp finds her target host - usually a caterpillar or larva of a sawfly - and deposits an egg inside it. The egg remains dormant until the host larva has grown sufficiently large and then it hatches and the wasp larva eats the host larva. Sometimes the wasp waits until the host larva has pupated, but the outcome is the same: the host dies and the wasp larva pupates and emerges as an adult wasp at a later date ...
Trained wasps to sniff out chemicals and ulcers - We Make Money Not Art
Scientists started working with a type of parasitic wasp called Microplitis croceipes, decades ago.. Biological engineer Glen Rains says the wasps can be trained -with sugar water by using the Pavlovs conditioning techniques- to detect fungal diseases on crops while the damage is still below ground. This method would help farmers avoid having to spread toxic fungicide over an entire crop after the disease spreads. The wasps may also be trained for medical uses, including detecting cancer or ulcers by smelling someones breath. They probably can also be trained like dogs to find bodies buried in rubble.. Five wasps are placed in a plastic cylinder that is 15 inches tall. This Wasp Hound has a vent in one end and a camera that connects to a laptop computer. When the wasps pick up an odor theyve been trained to detect they gather by the vent - a response that can be measured by the computer or actually seen by observers.. The scientists say their device is ready for pilot tests and could be ...
Treasure none. Like the more powerful retriever, the warmonger wasp is a construct built from the protoplasmic flesh and chaotic fecundity of the Abyss itself. Appearing as partially organic, partially metallic, warmonger wasps serve the demonic armies as air support in large battles, and the armies of demon infested lands are no exception. Their electricity based explosions work well on battlefields where demons and mortals clash, as electrical attacks have no effect on demons. Its more accurate to say that warmonger wasps are grown rather than constructed, and while the procedure of crafting these foul constructs is beyond the ken of mortal crafters, spellcasters can conjure them to do their bidding (see below). Warmonger wasps are only intelligent enough to understand simple commands, and only ones universally associated with battlefield conditions.. In a demon infested land, a large number of warmonger wasps have been left to their own devices. These wild wasps buzz through the skies, ...
Parasitoid wasps may turn spiders into zombies by hacking their internal code
Parasitoid wasps lay their eggs on a spiders back. This team proposes that by injecting the spider host with the molting hormone, ecdysone, the wasp induces the spider to make a special web for the wasps pupa.
Good Bug Bad Bug? Lets See Some ID Please… The Gardeners...
No one stands between me and my golden tomatoes. Bring in the mercenaries: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly!. ** Click Here To Cue The Theme Song! **. The parasitic wasp (including the hornworm destroying Braconid) is a natural, female mercenary extraordinaire. Non-stinging and pollen-eating, parasitic wasps are attracted to flowering plants in your garden, where they will happily co-exist with other beneficial insects and animals. Draw braconid wasps to your garden with creative companion planting. Adult braconids are attracted to the pollen and nectar of flowers such as Queen Annes Lace and tansy, and herb blossoms; including dill, fennel, mint and parsley. So plant lots of flowering herbs, edible blossoms and posies for picking in your potager.. The braconid wasp is a clever killer. As you can see below, its not the delicate wasp herself who actually does the dirty deed to the hornworm. Oh no… She tasks her voracious off-spring with the job; depositing her eggs on the backs of her ...
Who you gonna call? Wasps! - Illuminating science and drug chemical blog
One neat thing is how they trained the wasps - hungry wasps are exposed to the desired scent, then fed sugar water. Wait, repeat two times and bingo - your wasps are fully trained! The wasps would have a 48 hour shift before being released to live out the rest of the 2-3 week lifespan.. And these guys arent the only ones doing insect research - another group has been exploring fitting a tiny transmitter to bees, which have been trained to detect explosives, drugs or other chemicals of interest. They point out that their bees are better than the wasps for open area searching, but not quite so good for crowded airports given that the bees can roam free… This all seems to be part of a growing field of using insects as biological sensors - guess it wont be long before having computer bugs is a good thing!. ...
In Need of Symbiosis
A cockroach is crawling in a dark alley, looking for the nights meal. He crawls over the human waste and rubbish, produced by the high concentration of over 12 million people in the city of Mumbai. Its paradise for a pest like him. You couldnt see him, but you might see the enemy that is about to strike. A metallic, blue-green speck, glinting softly in the yellow light coming out of the dirty glass of the apartments on either side. Its a small, solitary wasp. This wasp doesnt build nests to raise its larvae in. It doesnt work together with other wasps. And it definitely answers to no queen.. The wasp isnt looking for nectar tonight. Shes far from any flowers and has egg-laying on her tiny wasp brain. She is a jewel wasp. Jewel wasps are parasites that sting a cockroach and lay their eggs on a soft part of the roachs leg so they can emerge and enter the roachs body. But the craziest part of the whole murder mystery is that the roach remains alive after being stung and even after the ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Polydnaviruses do not replicate in the traditional sense of virus replication, which is one reason they have not usually been included in comprehensive reviews on DNA virus replication. Whereas in all other cases infection of host cells would lead to production of progeny virions, polydnaviruses instead have evolved by anomalous lifecycle and replication strategies requiring two insect hosts. The replication of polydnavirus DNA and packaging and production of progeny virions are limited to certain specialized cells found only in females of the parasitoid wasps where they are produced and harbored. Furthermore, replication is directed by a linear provirus form of the virus, integrated within the parasitoid wasp chromosomes. Finally, genes for most, if not all, virion structural proteins are not packaged into polydnavirus particles. Our understanding of the unique attributes of the polydnavirus particle, its formation through novel replication and life ...
May 19, 2008 - Number of Comments » 1. Paper Wasp - Polistes sp. - I believe this particular Paper Wasp is Polistes fuscatus, but it…. ...
Watch out: Wasps are capable of logical thinking, according to this study - Entertainment & Life - Wilmington Star News -...
As summer approaches and our lest favorite bugs start to emerge, heres something to keep in mind: Wasps are capable of thinking logically, according to a study by the University of Michigan. The research showed that wasps can use a form of reasoning known as transitive inference to use known relationships to infer unknown relationships. That means wasps can work out that is X is greater than Y, and Y is greater than Z, then X is greater than Z. This thinking was also
Master Naturalists: Wasps play role in wine making | Advosports | Victoria Advocate - Victoria, TX
Unique yeast strains. The field research by the Florence researchers has some interesting implications. Not surprisingly to Paul, the maximum number of wasps in a colony happens to coincide with the peak sugar content in vineyards (harvest time), lots of food, lots of wasps, lots of rapidly-multiplying yeast to pass on - a symbiotic relationship where everyone wins. Based on DNA sequencing, they found that genetically unique strains of yeast were passed on to the same vineyards. What makes Champagne wines different from a Sangiovese (used to make Italian Chianti) may very well be the result of the unique yeast they harbor in overwintering wasps. We can further appreciate the unique ways that nature adapts and evolves, benefiting mankind as a whole. Without these wasps, Edward FitzGeralds Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam quote, A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread - and Thou, Beside me singing in the Wilderness ., might be meaningless.. Sources: Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and ...
Insects | Free Full-Text | Exceptional Use of Sex Pheromones by Parasitoids of the Genus Cotesia: Males Are Strongly Attracted...
Sex pheromones have rarely been studied in parasitoids, and it remains largely unknown how male and female parasitoids locate each other. We investigated possible attraction (and repellency) between the sexes of two braconid wasps belonging to the same genus, the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), and the solitary parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson). Males of both species were strongly attracted to conspecific virgin females. Interestingly, in C. glomerata, the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. This repellency of mated females was only evident hours after mating, implying a change in pheromone composition. Males of C. marginiventris were also no longer attracted, but not repelled, by mated females. Females of both species showed no attraction to the odors of conspecific individuals, male or female, and C. glomerata females even appeared to be repelled by mated males. Moreover, the pheromones were found to be highly specific, as males
WASP and SCAR/WAVE proteins: the drivers of actin assembly | Journal of Cell Science
WASP and N-WASP are predominantly found in an autoinhibited conformation in which the C-terminus of the protein is occluded through its interaction with the N-terminus. This autoinhibition is released by the competitive binding of the small GTPase Cdc42 and the phospholipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Kim et al., 2000), although it is not clear whether the lipid acts as a signalling molecule or merely as an anionic marker of the plasma membrane (Insall and Weiner, 2001). Other proteins are thought to bind to WASPs and regulate their activity - WIP is a frequently observed binding partner (Ramesh et al., 1997) and TOCA1, which (like WASP) binds to Cdc42, might add selectivity and cooperation to the Cdc42-dependent activation of WASPs (Ho et al., 2004). The role of SH3-domain adaptors such as Nck and Grb2 in WASP activation remains a mystery; early papers reported that they bound to the proline-rich domains of both WASP and SCAR, but these have been relatively unsupported by recent data (Buday, 1999).. Unlike ...
VESPA Amino Acid Wasp Extract - Ben Greenfield Fitness - Diet, Fat Loss and Performance Advice
Buy now from Vespa: Use Code GETKION18 For 10% Off The key to sustaining athletic performance for long periods of time lies in optimizing your bodys ability to metabolize fat. But the conventional wisdom of carb-loading has limitations.. See, your body can only store a limited supply of glucose as glycogen in the muscles and liver. Furthermore, you are limited in the amount of carbohydrates and simple sugars you can ingest during physical activity - and this amount is not enough to sustain a high level of activity.. Fortunately, your body has a plentiful and highly concentrated supply of energy in the form of fat. Training for endurance develops large mitochondria, which increases your bodys ability to burn fatty acids for energy. And this is where VESPA Amino Acid Wasp Extract fits in - especially in our version: the 12 pack of the Ultra-Concentrate - the most potent form of amino acid wasp extract you can get.. The Asian Mandarin Wasp (Vespa mandarina) is one of natures most potent ...
Murder and mayhem in aphid land: Ladybugs, Coccinellidae; Flower flies, Syrphidae; and parasitic wasps, Chalcidoidea and...
One more group of aphid killers made their presence known this week. These are the parasitic wasps. While observing the aphid colony, two distinctly different types of aphids were seen. Some were plump, juicy, mobile aphids of green or pink. Others were strange, motionless, papery aphids light brown or tan in color. These papery aphids are called aphid mummies because of their brown parchment-like skin. Tiny parasitic wasps attacked aphid mummies. A female wasp inserted an egg through the skin of each aphid. Eggs hatched into wasp larvae that ate the internal organs of the aphid killing it in its tracks. This process caused the aphid to change from its normal color of green or pink to the telltale brown of the aphid mummy. After devouring the aphid from within the small wasp pupates in the papery shell. From the pupa emerges the wasp that chews a hole in the abdomen of the aphid, pops out, and searches for another aphid victim to sting and insert her egg, thereby completing the circle of life. ...
Oviposition Experience of Parasitoid Wasps with Nonhost Larvae Affects their Olfactory and Contact-Behavioral Responses toward...
In nature, parasitoid wasps encounter and sometimes show oviposition behavior to nonhost species. However, little is known about the effect of such negative incidences on their subsequent host-searching behavior. We tested this effect in a tritrophic system of maize plants (Zea mays), common armyworms (hosts), tobacco cutworms (nonhosts), and parasitoid wasps, Cotesia kariyai. We used oviposition inexperienced C. kariyai and negative-experienced individuals that had expressed oviposition behavior toward nonhosts on nonhost-infested maize leaves. We first observed the olfactory behavior of C. kariyai to volatiles from host-infested plants or nonhost-infested plants in a wind tunnel. Negative-experienced wasps showed significantly lower rates of taking-off behavior (Step-1), significantly longer duration until landing (Step-2), and lower rates of landing behavior (Step-3) toward nonhost-infested plants than inexperienced wasps. However, the negative-experience did not affect these three steps ...
Identification of the main venom protein components of Aphidius ervi, a parasitoid wasp of the aphid model Acyrthosiphon pisum ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
Mapping of multiple complementary sex determination loci in a parasitoid wasp | DORA Eawag
Sex determination has evolved in a variety of ways and can depend on environmental and genetic signals. A widespread form of genetic sex determination is haplodiploidy, where unfertilized, haploid eggs develop into males and fertilized diploid eggs into females. One of the molecular mechanisms underlying haplodiploidy in Hymenoptera, the large insect order comprising ants, bees, and wasps, is complementary sex determination (CSD). In species with CSD, heterozygosity at one or several loci induces female development. Here, we identify the genomic regions putatively underlying multilocus CSD in the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing. By analyzing segregation patterns at polymorphic sites among 331 diploid males and females, we identify up to four CSD candidate regions, all on different chromosomes. None of the candidate regions feature evidence for homology with the csd gene from the honey bee, the only species in which CSD has been characterized, ...
New Parasitoid Wasp Species Discovered That Can Manipulate Spiders Behavior
Acrotaphus wasps are fascinating because they are very sizeable parasitoids. The largest species can grow multiple centimeters in length and are also very colorful. Previously, only 11 species of the genus were known, so this new research gives significant new information on the diversity of insects in rain forests, tells postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the new study Diego Pádua, who has worked both for the INPA and the Biodiversity Unit of the University of Turku.. The parasitoid Acrotaphus wasps parasitize on spiders. A female Acrotaphus attacks a spider in its web and temporarily paralyzes it with a venomous sting. After this, the wasp lays a single egg on the spider, and a larva hatches from the egg. The larva gradually consumes the spider and eventually pupates.. The Acrotaphus wasps studied are very interesting as they are able to manipulate the behavior of the host spider in a complex way. During the time period preceding the host spiders death, it does not spin a normal web ...
277 terrifying new species of parasitic wasps discovered in Costa Rica - The Tico Times | Costa Rica News | Travel | Real Estate
The study, published Wednesday in the journal ZooKeys, released details of the new species, all part of a category of parasitic wasps known as Heterospilini.. Parasitic wasps inject their eggs into other insects. When the baby wasps hatch into larvae, they feed off the hosts insides, predictably killing it. The larvae then pupate, which is a gross-sounding word for when a wasp bursts out of a dead hosts skin.. The Heteospilini have taken this already disturbing birth method to a whole new level, injecting their hosts with viruses that weaken its immune system. The virus actually comes from a template in the wasps DNA.. The studys head researcher, Paul Marsh of the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, described the process as extraordinary and morbid in a press release. He also said he believes there are many more undiscovered wasps out there.. We estimate that perhaps another 50-100 species could be added to the total to contribute to the astonishing biodiversity of Costa Rica, he ...
Sustainable Spotted Wing Drosophila Management
Posted: 11/6/2018 - 1 year ago. The Issue:. In the spotted-wing drosophilas native range in East Asia, a wide number of natural enemies keep SWD numbers in check. These natural enemies include parasitoid wasps that lay eggs in SWD larvae or pupae, and then the developing wasp larvae slowly consume the flies from the inside, ultimately killing them. In North America, native parasitoid wasps rarely parasitize spotted-wing drosophila, and those that do have difficulty developing, likely due to the flys robust immune response. Introducing a more effective parasitoid wasp from the native range of SWD may help to limit SWD population growth in non-crop areas where the flies can take refuge from on-farm management tactics. If parasitoid wasps are able to reproduce fast enough and kill SWD hosts effectively, the resulting population reduction would lower cost and effort for farmers to control SWD. Obtaining information about a parasitoid wasps reproductive potential is essential to determine if it is ...
Functional bases of host acceptance behaviour in the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) | IRIS Università...
The host acceptance behaviour in Aphidius ervi is investigated, assessing the role of both external and internal host-associated cues, offered to the experimental parasitoids with parafilm-made aphid dummies. The reaction to internal cues present in the host haemolymph is clearly evident, and its intensity is enhanced by external cues. Parasitoid females lay few eggs in aphid dummies filled with host haemolymph. A significant increase in the number of both oviposition reactions (host stinging) and egg laying is observed only when these dummies are coated with cornicle secretion. However, this enhancement is not observed when the aphid dummies contain distilled water. Thus, the host acceptance behaviour of A. ervi females appears to be controlled by the integration of both external and internal chemical cues. The physiological basis of this behavioural response is investigated with a detailed study on the anatomy and ultrastructure of A. ervi ovipositor. The detection of chemical cues present in ...
Functional Interactions between Polydnavirus and Host Cellular Innexins - Kent Academic Repository
Polydnaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses associated with some subfamilies of ichneumonoid parasitoid wasps. Polydnavirus virions are delivered during wasp parasitization of a host, and virus gene expression in the host induces alterations of host physiology. Infection of susceptible host caterpillars by the polydnavirus Campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus (CsIV) leads to expression of virus genes, resulting in immune and developmental disruptions. CsIV carries four homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) termed vinnexins, which are expressed in multiple tissues of infected caterpillars. Previously, we demonstrated that two of these, VinnexinD and VinnexinG, form functional gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes. Here we show that VinnexinQ1 and VinnexinQ2, likewise, form junctions in this heterologous system. Moreover, we demonstrate that the vinnexins interact differentially with the Innexin2 orthologue of an ichnovirus host, Spodoptera frugiperda. Cell pairs coexpressing a ...
Evolutionary mechanisms driving the evolution of a large polydnavirus gene family coding for protein tyrosine phosphatases |...
Gene duplications have been recognized as an important source of evolutionary innovation and adaptation in a variety of organisms [1-5]. Here we study gene duplications in the genomes of a virus group, the polydnaviruses (PDVs), which are unique in their obligatory association with parasitoid wasps. We analyze a gene family which has been subjected to particularly strong expansion. The genes encode Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs), well known in vertebrates for their role in regulation of signal transduction pathways.. PDVs are stably integrated as proviruses in the genome of their associated parasitoid wasps [6-8] and transmitted exclusively by chromosomal inheritance. Particle replication is restricted to wasp ovaries, and virus particles are injected into the lepidopteran host of the wasp during oviposition at the same time as wasp eggs. PDV particles enter host cells, but unlike pathogenic viruses they do not replicate in the infected cells. Instead they express a battery of genes that ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: Chen, Y., Higgins, J.A., Gundersen, D.E. 2004. Quantification of a glyptapanteles indiensis polydnavirus gene expression in its parasitized host, lymantria dispar by real-time quantitative rt-pcr. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Interpretive Summary: Parasitic wasps have great potential for the control of moth species that are pests of agricultural crops and forests. The survival of many of these parasites is enhanced by a virus, called a polydnavirus, that is injected along with the wasp egg into the host caterpillar. In the current paper, we have used modern molecular techniques to analyze expression of a polydnavirus gene that may be involved in protecting the parasitic wasp egg and assisting the wasp survival. We found the protein associated with this virus gene was made soon after infection at a high level in the caterpillar pest hemolymph (insect blood). This knowledge may help us to understand how the virus assists in the wasps survival, information which may lead to ...
PDF] Honey bees (Apis cerana) use animal feces as a tool to defend colonies against group attack by giant hornets (Vespa soror)...
Honey bees (genus Apis) are well known for the impressive suite of nest defenses they have evolved to protect their abundant stockpiles of food and the large colonies they sustain. In Asia, honey bees have evolved under tremendous predatory pressure from social wasps in the genus Vespa, the most formidable of which are the giant hornets that attack colonies in groups, kill adult defenders, and prey on brood. We document for the first time an extraordinary collective defense used by Apis cerana against the giant hornet Vespa soror. In response to attack by V. soror, A. cerana workers foraged for and applied spots of animal feces around their nest entrances. Fecal spotting increased after colonies were exposed either to naturally occurring attacks or to chemicals that scout hornets use to target colonies for mass attack. Spotting continued for days after attacks ceased and occurred in response to V. soror, which frequently landed at and chewed on entrances to breach nests, but not Vespa velutina, a
DtIV - Diadegma Terebrans Ichnovirus (virology) | AcronymFinder
How is Diadegma Terebrans Ichnovirus (virology) abbreviated? DtIV stands for Diadegma Terebrans Ichnovirus (virology). DtIV is defined as Diadegma Terebrans Ichnovirus (virology) somewhat frequently.
Response of the wasp ( Cotesia glomerata) to larvae of the large white butterfly ( Pieris brassicae) | SpringerLink
The large white butterfly ( Pieris brassicae L) first invaded northernmost Japan from Siberia around 1994, and after a few years, began to expand its range. The wasp, Cotesia glomerata (L) parasitizes
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Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp
Many animals avoid attack from predators through toxicity or the emission of repellent chemicals. Defensive mimicry has evolved in many species to deceive shared predators, for instance through colouration and other morphological adaptations, but mimicry hardly ever seems to involve multi-trait similarities. Here we report on a wingless parasitoid wasp that exhibits a full spectrum of traits mimicing ants and affording protection against ground-dwelling predators (wolf spiders). In body size, morphology and movement Gelis agilis (Ichneumonidae) is highly similar to the black garden ant (Lasius niger) that shares the same habitat. When threatened, G. agilis also emits a volatile chemical that is similar to an ant-produced chemical that repels spiders. In bioassays with L. niger, G. agilis, G. areator, Cotesia glomerata and Drosophila melanogaster, ants and G. agilis were virtually immune to spider attack, in contrast the other species were not. Volatile characterisation with gas ...
Figs, pollinators, and parasites: a longitudinal study on the effects of nematode infection on fig wasp fitness | Nason Lab
Mutualisms are interactions between two species in which the fitnesses of both symbionts benefit from the relationship. Although examples of mutualism are ubiquitous in nature, the ecology, evolution, and stability of mutualism has rarely been studied in the broader, multi-species community context in which they occur. The pollination mutualism between figs and fig wasps provides an excellent model system for investigating interactions between obligate mutualists and antagonists. The fig pollination mutualism is exploited by a diverse community of non- pollinating fig wasps that develop within fig fruit at the expense of fig seeds and pollinators. Much less well studied, however, are consequences of the interaction between female pollinating wasps and their host-specialist nematode parasites. Here we focus on a tri-trophic system comprised of a fig (Ficus petiolaris), pollinating wasp (Pegoscapus sp.), and nematode (Parasitodiplogaster sp.), investigating geographical variation in the incidence ...
RAINFOREST LIANAS, FIGS, EPIPHYTES, FERNS, BROMELAIDS AND FUNGI | Facts and Details
strangler fig Some fig species are dependent on specific wasps species for pollination. The wasps use fig fruit as a safe place to lay their eggs. If a wasp species linked to a particular fig were ever to become extinct, so too would the fig. The symbiotic relationship between the fig and wasp works like this: A female wasp, carrying pollen from male flowers inside the fig where she was born, enters the fig through an entryway at the bottom of the fruit. She lays her eggs in figs ovaries, spreading pollen from the male flowers as you goes. This allows the fig to reproduce. After she is finished she dies. Young wasp larvae emerge from the eggs and feed on the fruits flesh and mate. Male wasps die inside the fruit and females, covered with pollen, emerge to begin the cycle again. Many animals and birds eat the fruit produced by strangler figs. Unlike fruit trees such as mangos that produce all their fruit at once during one season, each species of strangler figs produce fruit year round. ...
Differential parasitism of seed-feeding <i>Cydia</i> (Lepidoptera: Tor by Peter T. Oboyski, John W....
Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control
Almost 200 new species of parasitoid wasps named after local parataxonomists in Costa Rica
An inventory of wild-caught caterpillars, its food plants and parasitoids, has been going on for more than 34 years in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), a protected area of approximately 1200 km2 in northwestern Costa Rica. As a result, more than 10,000 species of moths and butterflies are estimated to live in ACG. Their caterpillars are in turn attacked by many parasitoid wasps, also numbering thousands of species. However, most of those wasps have never been described and remain unknown.
Enforcer Wasp & Hornet Killer | Horse Health USA
Enforcer Wasp & Hornet Killer kills wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and their entire nests. Jet blast spray provides instant knockdown from up to 22 ft away. Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer is non-conductive up to 47,300 volts. Contains 0.1% tetramethrin, 0.25% permethrin and 0.5% piperonyl butoxide. Wasp and Hornet Spray is for indoor and outdoor u
Physique Signs New Partnership with Wasps Netball - News | Physique
Physique Management is delighted to announce a new partnership with Wasps Netball. The move makes Physique the Official Supplier to Wasps Netball. Physique supply sports injury products across a wide range of sports; specialising in rehabilitation and prevention products, as well as training. Wasps Netball Physiotherapist, Andrew Holbrook explains the advantages of working with a supplier of Physiques quality.. The benefit of working with a company like Physique is that I can trust the quality and despatch speed of everything we order. I am delighted that they have agreed to support us and provide our medical supplies again this season. Physique became a supplier to Wasps Rugby Coach class programme in 2017 and have expanded the Wasps sporting connection to the Wasps Netball team. Kevin Peters, Managing Director at Physique Management explains how Physique products can aid the performance of the team. ...
First Aid Treatment for Wasp Stings
Wasps are common summer insects with a painful sting. Read on to find out what you can do for first aid treatment of wasp stings.
Beetle larva living on a spider-hunting wasp | Wellcome Collection
Differential interference contrast (DIC) micrograph of a beetle larva living on the mouthparts of a spider-hunting wasp. The beetle is a 1st instar larva of either a rhipiphorid (an unusual family of beetles), or possibly a twisted-wing fly (Strepsiptera). Both Rhipiphorids and Strepsiptera are partially parasitoids of bees or wasps, though they are also known to attack other hosts. The tiny 1st instar larvae are known as triungulins, and board adult bees or wasps (Hymenoptera), in order to be brought back to their nests. Once there, the triungulin attacks either the larvae of the bee or wasp as a parasitoid, or the host of the wasp. Length of beetle larva is 0.1 mm.
Defining the T cell antigen proteome of wasp venom. - Experimental Medicine Division
BACKGROUND: While modulation of T cell function is believed to be important in the successful acquisition of clinical tolerance during venom immunotherapy, little is known of the role of wasp venom specific T cell antigens. OBJECTIVE: We sought comprehensively to characterize the T cell proteome for wasp venom to facilitate the future development of T cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. METHODS: Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from wasp venom-allergic individuals and IL-4 ELISPOT analysis, we characterized T cell responses to whole venom and gel filtration/ion exchange-fractionated venom. Reactive fractions were purified and identified using highly sensitive electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Wasp venom-allergic individuals have detectable whole wasp venom-specific T cells directly ex vivo, which show rapid IL-4 effector function. T cell responses to gel filtration/ion exchange fractionated venom were dominated by responses to phospholipase A(1), hyaluronidase and antigen 5.
Give Your Samsung Galaxy Gear Some Love with Triangulum, its First Custom Kernel
The Samsung Galaxy Gear is a somewhat unusual device. The smartwatch was originally designed for the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 and Galaxy S 4 flagships, and quickly became one of the most popular devices in its category. Despite this, its still up for debate whether the Galaxy Gear will ever become a commercially successful device. This doesnt change the fact that development on XDA is quite fruitful, as weve already covered a custom ROM made by XDA Senior Member fOmey.. Those of you who use Sony devices may be familiar with XDA Recognized Developer lilstevie. If your memorys a little rusty, he managed to release LittleKernel and a custom bootloader for several Sony devices some time ago. Recently, lilstevie decided to put his efforts into kernel development for the Galaxy Gear, and thats how Triangulum kernel was born.. Triangulum is the first custom kernel for the Galaxy Gear, and it adds a few nice things like auto-rooting, init.d support, and most importantly, it unlocks the devices second ...
SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDI+DICLOXACILLIN+AMOXYCILLIN / AMOXICILLIN: Learn About SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDI+DICLOXACILLIN+AMOXYCILLIN /...
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Diversity and evolution of bodyguard manipulation | Journal of Experimental Biology
In contrast to the previous examples where manipulated hosts played an active and direct role against natural enemies of the parasitoid, the following studies describe cases where the host is manipulated prior to parasitoid pupation in order to provide shelter against potential biotic and abiotic threats. Although these bodyguards do not directly face the threats, the benefits for parasitoid survival are equally important.. With their studies on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes, Brodeur and McNeil tested the hypothesis that parasitic wasps could avoid natural enemies in time or space through the selection of suitable pupation sites by modifying the behaviour of their host (Brodeur and McNeil, 1989; Brodeur and McNeil, 1992) (Table 1). Aphidius nigripes, an endoparasitoid of the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae, completes its pupal development within its eviscerated host (termed mummy). Inside the mummy, the parasitic wasp spins a cocoon and pupates (Fig. 1D). In this state, it remains ...
Ecdysteroids affect female reproductive status and outcome of contest over hosts in the parasitoid wasp Eupelmus vuilleti -...
Anthony G.E. Mathiron, Charly Dixneuf, Nathalie Mondy, Charlotte Lécureuil, Ryan Earley, et al.. Ecdysteroids affect female reproductive status and outcome of contest over hosts in the parasitoid wasp Eupelmus vuilleti. Hormones and Behavior, Elsevier, 2020, 125, pp.104819. ⟨10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104819⟩. ⟨hal-02971516⟩ ...
Punnetts Square: Alteration of Butterflies Genes Using...Parasites?
The monarch butterfly, along with the silkworm and many other types of butterflies, have been found to be genetically modified by parasites, more specifically, genes from parasitic wasps. Researchers discovered that These genes were acquired through a virus that weaves in and out of DNA...Parasitic insects known as braconid wasps lay their eggs inside the caterpillars of butterflies and moths. The wasp larvae that hatch from the eggs typically kill the host caterpillars (Live Science). The wasps also inject what is called a bracovirus, which can then incorporate themselves into the genomes of caterpillars. These viruses benefit the parasite, allowing it to live freely inside its host, the caterpillar, and from there, can then weave themselves into the hosts genomes, allowing the virus to inhibit the immune defense of the host, protecting the larvae of the wasp (Live Science ...
Invertebrate Diaries: July 2009
1) Struggle: A parasitoid wasp locates a cockroach and grabs it by the pronotum. (2) Head sting: The wasp injects a venom cocktail into the preys cerebral ganglia. The cockroach shown here was anaesthetized and tethered to allow filming from below. (3) Host feeding: The wasp cuts the cockroachs antennae and feeds off hemolymph from the cut end. Notice that the cockroach does not escape the wasp, although it is not paralyzed. (4) Host transportation: The wasp grabs the cockroach by the antenna stump and walks backward toward its nest, while the cockroach follows in a docile manner. Notice the expression of an alternating-tripod gait when the cockroach is following the wasp. (5) Host concealment: The cockroach is inserted into the wasps nest without resisting or trying to escape. (6) Oviposition: The wasp lays one egg on the cockroach leg and exits the nest. The cockroach stays at the same spot, although it is not paralyzed. (7) Entombment: The wasp collects nearby pieces of paper and seals the ...
ReP USP - Detalhe do registro: Parasites of mutualism: strategies of resource utilization in two nonpollinating fig wasp...
Pereira, R. A. S., & Elias, L. G. (2006). Parasites of mutualism: strategies of resource utilization in two nonpollinating fig wasp species, genus Idarnes. In Program and Abstracts. Kunming ...
Culture-Free Survey Reveals Diverse and Distinctive Fungal Communities Associated with Developing Figs (Ficus spp.) in Panama<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Culture-Free Survey Reveals Diverse and Distinctive Fungal Communities Associated with Developing Figs (Ficus spp.) in Panama. AU - Martinson, Ellen O.. AU - Herre, Edward Allen. AU - Machado, Carlos A.. AU - Arnold, A. Elizabeth. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - The ancient association of figs (Ficus spp.) and their pollinating wasps (fig wasps; Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) is one of the most interdependent plant-insect mutualisms known. In addition to pollinating wasps, a diverse community of organisms develops within the microcosm of the fig inflorescence and fruit. To better understand the multipartite context of the fig-fig wasp association, we used a culture-free approach to examine fungal communities associated with syconia of six species of Ficus and their pollinating wasps in lowland Panama. Diverse fungi were recovered from surface-sterilized flowers of all Ficus species, including gall- and seed flowers at four developmental stages. Fungal communities in syconia and ...
Sugar feeding by the aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis: How does honeydew compare to other sugar sources? - Lancaster EPrints
Parasitoids commonly forage in agricultural settings where the predominant sugar source is homopteran honeydew. The aphidiine braconid, Binodoxys communis, is an Asian parasitoid currently being released against the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in North American soybean fields. We conducted a number of laboratory experiments evaluating the quality of A. glycines honeydew as a sugar source for this parasitoid. Wasps readily fed on droplets of A. glycines honeydew, honey and 50% sucrose solution, but the length of feeding bouts on honey was significantly longer than on the other foods. Parasitoids lived significantly longer when fed honey or sucrose than honeydew, while starved wasps had the shortest lifespan. At 21±1 °C and 25±5% R.H., male B. communis that were fed honey lived for a maximum of 14 days, while females lived up to 20 days. Honeydew-fed wasps of both sexes lived approximately 3 days on average, which was 2-3 times longer than when they were only allowed access to water. ...
Social parasites in polistine wasps are monophyletic: implications for sympatric speciation | Proceedings of the Royal Society...
A social parasite uses workers of another social insect species to rear its own progeny. They are often so closely related to their hosts that it has been suggested that they could have evolved sympatrically from them. To address the question of whether social parasites evolved from their hosts we present a partial sequence of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene for nine species of Polistes, comprising all known species of social parasites, their hosts and two outgroups. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of the data support monophyly for these social parasites. The trees supporting monophyly are significantly shorter than the trees supporting sympatric speciation of parasites from their hosts. These data support the hypothesis that speciation occurred allopatrically and independently of the evolution of social parasitism. Where the social parasite parasitizes more than one species, the two species used are most closely related to each other. Although social parasites are monophyletic and did ...
Small Things Considered: Good Guys, Bad Guys
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
This Wasps Larvae Sometimes Grow Hundreds of Soldier Clones-But Why?
Previous research showed that the presence of competitors was linked with increased soldier production in C. floridanum. Smith and colleagues tested whether other external factors were also related. (Shifts in caste development in other insect groups are commonly exhibited as responses to environmental conditions.) They found, however, that heat shock and bacterial infection had no influence on soldier production. Only multiparasitism, in the form the presence of competitor parasitoid Microplitis demolitor, led to increased soldier production in their experiment.. What about M. demolitor causes C. floridanum to shift toward more soldier production? The researchers tested that, too, and found that the M. demolitor egg chorion is the trigger.. As C. floridanum embryos proliferate, the differentiator between reproductive and soldier larvae is the presence or absence of a primary germ cell during embryo division. Embryos without the primary germ cells become soldier larvae. Smith and colleagues ...
Common wasp (Yellow jacket) - Phadia - Setting the Standard - Phadia.com
The immunological relationship between different Vespula species has been demonstrated by in vitro specific IgE measurements (RAST) and RAST-inhibition studies (13). Significant immunological differences among the species were found and these differences correlated with the morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics of the species. Cross-reactivity between venoms from yellow jacket (Vespula spp), hornets (Dolichovespula spp, i2 or i5 and Vespa spp, i75) and wasp (Polistes spp, i4) has also been investigated by specific IgE measurements and RAST inhibition studies (2-3). These studies showed that there are varying extents of antigenic cross-reactivity between venoms, depending on the patient sera. The results reflect in part the variable immune response of patients to venoms because venoms are mixtures of allergens. Cross-reactivity between different major allergens from yellow jacket (YJ) and from honeybee and different wasp and hornet species has been identified (4-6). There is a ...
Bee & Wasp Sting: Treatment, Remedy & Relief for Swelling Reaction
How to treat bee and wasp stings, home remedies, swelling, infection, and more. Learn how to recognize an allergic reaction to a sting from a bumblebee, honey bee, hornet, or yellow jacket.
Effect of floral nectar, water, and feeding frequency on Cotesia glomerata longevity - Fingerprint - [email protected]
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of floral nectar, water, and feeding frequency on Cotesia glomerata longevity. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
AusBonsai | View topic - Are these fat aphids?
Not live aphids. These are the remains of aphids after they have been parasitised by braconid parasitoid wasps and are referred to as aphid mummies. These wasps are natural predators and do a pretty good job at keeping aphid levels low if you dont spray insecticide. If you just use a jet of water to remove live adult aphids (which are black or green), the mummies stay put. They are also produced commercially http://www.goodbugs.org.au/Good%20bugs/aphidius.html and you can transfer the mummies to other plants with aphids, assuming the adult wasps havent emerged ...
Chalcid Wasps on a pupa | Observation | UK and Ireland | iSpot Nature
Observation - Chalcid Wasps on a pupa - UK and Ireland. Description: I took these photos of a newly pupated Small Tortoiseshell but it was only when processing them that I noticed the 3 parasitoid wasps. I think theyre a type of Chalcid Wasp that attacks the pupa while it is still soft and lay their eggs inside it so tha
Karyotypes of parasitic wasps of the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) attacking leaf-mining Lepidoptera (Gracillariidae,...
Karyotypes of eleven parasitoid species of the family Eulophidae were examined, namely, Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) (2n = 10), Chrysocharis sp. aff. laomedon (n = 5, 2n = 10), Chrysocharis sp. aff. albipes (Ashmead, 1904) (2n = 12), Mischotetrastichus petiolatus (Erdös, 1961) (n = 6, 2n = 12), Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834) (n = 5, 2n = 10), Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) (2n = 12), Hyssopus geniculatus (Hartig, 1838) (2n = 16), Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) (2n = 12), S. sericeicornis (Nees, 1834) (2n = 12), Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839) (2n = 12 + 0-2B) and Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (2n = 12 + 0-6B) reared from Phyllonorycter acerifoliella (Zeller, 1839), Ph. apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855), Ph. issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Gracillariidae) and Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg, 1794) (Gelechiidae). Chromosome sets of all species except P. agraules and P. gyamiensis were studied for the first time. B chromosomes were detected in the two latter species; in
Prednisone for Bee/wasp sting - Dermatology - MedHelp
Went to the dr today for a bite and he says its either a bee sting or a wasp sting he gave me .20 mg of prednisone 3 pills for 10 days....why is that? I thought I should get an antibiotic.
A tritrophic signal that attracts parasitoids to host-damaged plants withstands disruption by non-host herbivores | BMC Plant...
Predators and parasitoids are important natural enemies of herbivorous insects. By reducing the abundance of herbivores, they can help protect plants from damage. Parasitoids in particular can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as host-searching cues [1, 2]. Such volatile-mediated tritrophic interactions have a considerable potential to shape ecosystem dynamics , but it remains unclear to what extend the plant signals are emitted by the plant to specifically attract natural enemies of herbivores . If HIPVs are indeed emitted by the plant to attract the third tropic level, specificity of the signals should be an important aspect of the interactions . This is particularly relevant under natural conditions, where plants are often attacked by non-hosts or by multiple herbivores simultaneously. While specialist parasitoids can distinguish between plants attacked by hosts and plants attacked by non-hosts using HIPV cues , the impact of non-hosts feeding on the same plant as the ...
"Wasps Vs Harlequins - The Rivalry , Ricoh Arena , Wasps". www.cbsarena.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2022. "Who Are Harlequins ... Wasps were founded as a result of a disagreement between members of the club a year later. Hampstead Football Club changed its ... Despite Wasps' move away from the London metro area to Coventry in 2014, the rivalry still persists because of its historical ... Harlequins beat Castres Olympique in the first ever European Rugby Champions Cup match before an away win at Wasps and ...
List of 2018-19 Super Rugby transfers (New Zealand)
"Brad Shields to join Wasps in 2018/19 season" (Press release). Wasps. 19 November 2017. Archived from the original on 21 ...
Wasps. STORY QUARTERLY 9 Spring 1979 p22-8. In Cassill, R. V., ed., The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction, 3rd edition. New ...
After he left London Irish, Sailosi signed for Premiership rivals Wasps from the 2014-15 season. In September 2016 Wasps ... "Wasps sign Samoan winger Sailosi Tagicakibau from London Irish". Sky Sports. 15 August 2014. "Sailosi Tagicakibau released from ... Sailosi Tagicakibau (born 14 November 1982) is a rugby union footballer who has played at wing for London Irish and Wasps in ... "Sailosi Tagicakibau". Wasps. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. "Sailosi Tagicakibau profile". Premiership Rugby. ...
"Wasps name young squad for Premiership Rugby Cup opener". Wasps. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2019. "Wasps Verdict: Five ... Buckley was also invited to play for Wasps during their opening fixture of the 2018-19 Premiership Rugby Cup in October 2018. ... Wasps RFC players, Ealing Trailfinders Rugby Club players, Expatriate rugby union players in England, Irish expatriate rugby ...
List of 2017-18 Premiership Rugby transfers
"Wasps sign Paul Doran-Jones and David Langley". Wasps. 19 June 2017. "Darren Dawidiuk: London Irish sign Gloucester hooker". ... "Wasps sign Lovobalavu". Planet Rugby. 27 February 2017. "Wasps confirm De Jongh signing". Planet Rugby. 30 May 2017. "De Luca ... "Alapati Leiua agrees switch to Bristol from Wasps". Sky Sports. 30 January 2017. "Tom Howe: Worcester sign Wasps winger for ... "Frank Halai: Wasps winger to join Pau at end of season". BBC Sport. 16 March 2017. "FIVE MORE SIGNINGS FOR 2017/18". Bedford ...
Wasps. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. "Three from three for Wasps". Wasps. Archived ... "Playing squad 2013/2014 Elliot Daly". Wasps. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. "Wasps ... and he played a vital role for Wasps whether he was at 13, 11, or 15. On 4 February 2019, Daly agreed to leave Wasps to join ... Daly joined Wasps' Elite Player Development Squad before progressing to the academy. He debuted at centre against Exeter Chiefs ...
"Wasps! Vikings! Sea Serpents!". Fangoria. No. 52. 1986. Corman, Roger; Jerome, Jim (1998). How I made a hundred movies in ...
Tom Willis (rugby union, born 1999)
... a fellow Wasps teammate. In October 2017 he made his Premiership debut for Wasps against Saracens. Willis was included in the ... Wasps entered administration on 17 October 2022 and Willis was made redundant along with all other players and coaching staff ... "Tom Willis". Wasps. Retrieved 9 July 2020. "Tom Willis". Premiership Rugby. Retrieved 9 July 2020. "Academy septet graduate to ... Bridge, Bobby (17 October 2022). "Wasps' administration confirmed as 167 employees made redundant". CoventryLive. Retrieved 20 ...
List of 2016-17 Super Rugby transfers (Australia)
"Wasps sign Wallaby Kurtley Beale" (Press release). Wasps. 13 May 2016. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 13 ...
"Wasps capture All Black centre Fekitoa". Wasps. 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019. "Malakai Fekitoa To Join Munster ... "Wasps to support Malakai Fekitoa's fundraising efforts for the Tongan tsunami". Wasps RFC. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 20 ... Wasps, Fekitoa's club at the time, supported his fundraising effort by donating 20% of the match ticket revenue from their ... In January 2019, it was announced that Fekitoa had signed for English Premiership Rugby side Wasps from the beginning of the ...
The Saga of the Viking Women and Their Voyage to the Waters of the Great Sea Serpent
July 2022 Weaver p 56-57 Weaver and Brunas p 16 Weaver, Tom; Brunas, John (March 1986). "Wasps! Vikings! Sea Serpents!". ...
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
Before WASP came into use in the 1960s, the term Anglo-Saxon served some of the same purposes. Like the newer term WASP, the ... The term WASP became associated with an upper class in the United States due to over-representation of WASPs in the upper ... The reversal of WASP fortune was exemplified by the Supreme Court. Historically, almost all its justices were of WASP or ... "Essay: Are the WASPS Coming Back? Have They Ever Been Away?". Time. January 17, 1969. Carlos E. Cortés (ed.). "WASPs (White ...
"Elliot Millar-Mills joins Wasps family". Wasps. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021. Bridge, Bobby (17 October 2022 ... Wasps entered administration on 17 October 2022 and Millar-Mills was made redundant along with all other players and coaching ... On 27 January 2021, Millar-Mills makes his move up to the Premiership Rugby competition with Wasps from the 2021-22 season. ... Wasps RFC players, Leeds Tykes players, Edinburgh Rugby players, Rugby union players from Stockport, Rugby union props). ...
"Matt Mullan to join Wasps". Wasps. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2014. "Matt Mullan: Wasps ... In January 2013 he agreed to join Wasps for the 2013-14 season. In January 2019 Mullen retired from rugby citing a lack of ... Worcester Warriors profile Wasps profile RFU profile (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... between 2010 and 2017 he gained 17 caps for England while playing club rugby for Wasps and Worcester Warriors in Premiership ...
... or Clitagora or Kleitagora (Greek: Κλειταγόρα) was a lyric poetess mentioned by Aristophanes in his Wasps and his ... However, the scholiast on the Wasps says that Cleitagora was Thessalian, and Hesychius says that she was from Lesbos. ... Aristophanes (1971). MacDowell, Douglas (ed.). Wasps. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pomeroy, Sarah B. (2002). Spartan Women. Oxford ...
Tom Cruse (rugby union)
"Tom Cruse signs new deal with Wasps". www.wasps.co.uk. Retrieved 25 February 2021. Bridge, Bobby (17 October 2022). "Wasps' ... "Tom Cruse signs new contract". Wasps. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2021. "Tom Cruse signs new Wasps contract as squad ... Wasps entered administration on 17 October 2022 and Cruse was made redundant along with all other players and coaching staff. ... Wasps profile ESPN profile Its Rugby Profile Ultimate Rugby Profile v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
Women Airforce Service Pilots
"WASPS". No. #16. Army-Navy Screen Magazine. WASP (1943) Government produced newsreel film. 1943. "Female WASPS Flew Warplanes ... Other aspects of the WASP legacy include the designs and symbols of the WASP organization. Shutsy-Reynolds took over WASP ... WASP, Nurse Corps) Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) Remembered by those who knew them Wings Across America; a WASP digital ... Army Homepage WASP in the Spotlight Upcoming Events TWU WASP Homepage WASP Digital Archives Classbooks Oral Histories ...
Loeb Classical Library
Wasps. Peace L179N) Volume III. Birds. Lysistrata. Women at the Thesmophoria L180N) Volume IV. Frogs. Assemblywomen. Wealth ...
Ben Jacobs (rugby union)
"Wasps RFC - Ben Jacobs". web page. Wasps. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2011. Rays ... Ben Jacobs (born 17 May 1982) is a former Australian rugby union footballer who last played for Wasps RFC in the Aviva ... Wasps RFC players, Australian expatriate rugby union players, New South Wales Waratahs players, Western Force players, ...
Mary Jane West-Eberhard
The Social Biology of Polistine Wasps. Misc. Publ. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. 140:1-101. OCLC 70050 1970. Wasps. (with H. E. Evans ... She is also an entomologist notable for her work on the behavior and evolution of social wasps. She is a member both of the ... Wasp societies as microcosms for the study of development and evolution., pp. 290-317. In Natural history and evolution of ... with W. T. Wcislo and W. G. Eberhard). Natural history and behavior of a primitively social wasp Auplopus semialatus, and a ...
List of 2015-16 Super Rugby transfers (New Zealand)
"Wasps sign All Black winger Frank Halai" (Press release). Wasps. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015. "Storm star ... Retrieved 12 September 2015.[permanent dead link] "Wasps sign All Black Charles Piutau" (Press release). Wasps. 10 September ...
"South African back row Nizaam Carr to join Wasps on short-term contract" (Press release). Wasps. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 31 ... after the conclusion of his contract with Wasps. On 28 June 2021, it was announced that Carr would once again return to Wasps, ... "Ex-Wasps back-rower Nizaam Carr has named his new URC club". Rugby Pass. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022. "SA Under ... Wasps entered administration on 17 October 2022 and Carr was made redundant along with all other players and coaching staff. ...
Willie le Roux
"Wasps sign Springbok Willie Le Roux" (Press release). Wasps. 4 August 2016. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. ... He left Wasps in 2019 having played 46 games and scoring 50 points. On 5 May 2019 Le Roux returned to Japan to sign for Toyota ... "Springbok Willie le Roux signs with Japanese club sealing Wasps exit". Rugby Pass. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019. "New ... In August 2016, English Premiership side Wasps announced Le Roux would join them in January 2017 after finishing his ...
It is a member of the family Vespidae, which includes paper wasps (subfamily Polistinae), pollen wasps (subfamily Masarinae), ... It was about 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall and had the same diameter.[clarification needed] While most social wasps have annual nests ... These behaviors are chemically mediated, and these alarm pheromones cause many social wasp species to leave the nest and attack ... "Wasps , National Geographic". Animals. November 9, 2010. Buck, Matthias et al. , Canadian Journal of Arthropod ...
List of 2017-18 Super Rugby transfers (South Africa)
"Wasps sign Springbok centre Juan De Jongh" (Press release). Wasps. 30 May 2017. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. ...
Schmidt, Justin O. (2009). "Wasps". Wasps - ScienceDirect. Encyclopedia of Insects (Second ed.). pp. 1049-1052. doi:10.1016/ ... A parasitoid, such as an ichneumon wasp, lays its eggs in or on its host; the eggs hatch into larvae, which eat the host, and ... Among invertebrates, social wasps (yellowjackets) are both hunters and scavengers of other insects. While examples of predators ... Other solitary predators include the northern pike, wolf spiders and all the thousands of species of solitary wasps among ...
List of 2021-22 Super Rugby transfers (New Zealand)
"Wasps sign All Black forward Vaea Fifita" (Press release). Wasps. 30 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021. "All Black Ardie Savea ...
"Wasps". Almeida Theatre. "Musicool (TV Series 2007- ) - IMDb" - via www.imdb.com. Dowell, Ben (26 May 2009). "Sky Arts to ... for the Welsh National Opera The Wasps (2015) - a new adaptation by Laird from Aristophanes' original play - Almeida Theatre ...
List of 2016-17 Super Rugby transfers (South Africa)
"Wasps sign Springbok Willie Le Roux" (Press release). Wasps. 4 August 2016. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. ...
Aphids hide from parasitic wasps among the corpses of their peers
Theyre a message to the wasps too and apparently, they say "Its not worth it." When Fievet placed female wasps in a glass ... Perhaps, they were even trying to avoid the dangers of hyperparasites - wasps that attack other species of parasitic wasps. ... On hatching, the wasp grubs use the aphid as a living larder and eat their way out, leaving behind a mummified aphid-shaped ... Fievet thinks that from the wasps point of view, the dead aphids are a sign that this particular plant had already been mined ...
Bees, Wasps, and Hornets | NIOSH | CDC
... wasps, and hornets are most abundant in the warmer months. Nests and hives may be found in trees, under roof eaves, or on ... Bees, wasps, and hornets are most abundant in the warmer months. Nests and hives may be found in trees, under roof eaves, or on ... If a worker is stung by a bee, wasp, or hornet:. *Have someone stay with the worker to be sure that they do not have an ... Social wasps thrive in places where humans discard food.. *Remain calm and still if a single stinging insect is flying around ...
BWARS | Bees, Wasps & Ants Recording Society
BAE to maintain and modernise USS Wasp - Naval Technology
The USS Wasp is also being used by the US Navy as the test platform for the Lockheed Martin-built F-35 Lightning II joint ... Image: USS Wasp stationed at a shipyard. Photo: courtesy of BAE Systems. ... The USS Wasp was the navys vessel of choice in responding to Hurricane Irene in 2011, as well as Super Storm Sandy in 2012. ... To provide anti-air warfare protection, the 40,500t Wasp-class ships are armed with semi-active radar-guided Nato Sea Sparrow ...
The Wasp Spider | Project Noah
Wasp sting: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
This article describes the effects of a wasp sting. ... To treat the wasp sting:. *Try to remove the stinger from the ... Wasps carry this venom. Some people are allergic to the venom and have a serious reaction if they are stung. Most people do not ... If you have an allergy to wasp, bee, hornet or yellow jacket stings, always carry a bee sting kit and know how to use it. These ... This article describes the effects of a wasp sting.. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage a ...
Wasp | The HuntingPA.com Outdoor Community
Glass Wasp Figure - Glass Russian Animals
Wasp versus ant - Science Learning Hub
A wasp (Vespula vulgaris) competes with an ant for a protein-rich insect meal. ... Angry wasp versus hungry ant. Scientists at Victoria University were amazed to witness a hitherto unknown behaviour among ... A wasp (Vespula vulgaris) competes with an ant for a protein-rich insect meal. ... introduced wasps (Vespula vulgaris) - when competing with native ants (Prolasius advenus) for protein-rich food, the wasps will ...
WASP POWER + FILTRATION SOLUTIONS - Data Centre World London 2023
In 2021, WASP PFS Inc was opened in Illinois USA; and a new range of sidestream filtration products was launched. MLA ... In 2022, WASP merged into a new group, which bought low and medium voltage switchgear to their offer ... WASP invent, design and manufacture customisedÂ fuel filtration equipmentÂ andÂ fuel additives, including the innovativeÂ fuel ... WASP has over 35 years of experience and plenty of heritage and unmatched expertise. ...
Scientists discover even wasps make trade deals : News and events : School of Life Sciences : Schools and services : University...
The dominant wasps then compete to give the helper wasps the best deal, by allowing them to work less hard, to ensure they ... applies to populations of paper wasps - in which helper wasps raise the offspring of dominant breeders in small social groups ... Wasps have trading partners and compete for the best trade deals, according to scientists from the University of Sussex. ... "Our findings reveal intriguing parallels between wasp populations and our own business world: a bad deal is better than no deal ...
Black and yellow bee (or wasp) - Hylaeus mesillae - BugGuide.Net
Black and yellow bee (or wasp) - Hylaeus mesillae. West of Pryor, Mayes County, Oklahoma, USA. April 25, 2013. Size: 4.5 - 5 mm ... Home » Guide » Arthropods (Arthropoda) » Hexapods (Hexapoda) » Insects (Insecta) » Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies (Hymenoptera) ... Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps » Anthophila (Apoidea) - Bees » Cellophane, Plasterer, Masked, and Allied Bees ( ...
Starspots And Spin-orbit Alignment In the Wasp-4 Exoplanetary System | MIT Kavli Institute
Mitt Romney: The last of the WASPs?
... By Rich Lowry Social Links for Rich Lowry * View Author Archive ... "Salty," as he was known, was of, by and for the WASP ascendancy. His family was here for centuries. He rowed for the Harvard ... Mitt Romney is the last WASP, Mormon edition.. Romney skeptics worry that hes another John McCain or Bob Dole. Maybe hes ... He seems uncomfortable with his own success, a classic WASP trait. When he says he makes no apologies for his wealth, he ...
Live - Harlequins v London Wasps commentary - BBC Sport
Two new species of parasitic wasps described | EurekAlert!
Two new species of parasitic wasps described from an altitude of over 3,400 m in Tibet Peer-Reviewed Publication Pensoft ... The new to science wasps are described and illustrated in a paper published in the open-access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal ... However, so far they have only found its male, whereas a reliable description of a new microgastrine wasp requires the presence ... The latter group comprises tiny, mostly black or brown wasps that develop in the larvae of specific moths or butterflies. ...
Wasps Learned to Sew Way Before Humans - The Atlantic
By sealing the nest when it leaves, the wasp might: protect its wasps egg from other parasites; prevent the nest from drying ... Most wasps would fly off. But this one kept on plunging its sting back into the silk in a zigzagging motion. "When I first saw ... Wasps Learned to Sew Way Before Humans. The insects use their stingers to tangle spider silk, just as people use felting ... As the wasp pulls the ovipositor out, these snag the silken threads of the spiders nest, entangling the inner ones with the ...
charlie-wasp's gists · GitHub
The Wasps Characters - eNotes.com
A Chorus of wasps A Chorus of wasps, all old men and Philocleons fellow dicasts. Like him, they are bewitched by the power ... The Wasps is one of the eleven plays written by Aristophanes. The play ridicules the law courts, which constitute the Athenian ... "The Wasps - Characters Discussed" Great Characters in Literature Ed. A. J. Sobczak and Frank N. Magill. eNotes.com, Inc. 1998 ... "The Wasps - Characters" eNotes Publishing Ed. eNotes Editorial. eNotes.com, Inc. eNotes.com 7 Dec. 2022 ,https://www.enotes.com ...
Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Primul trailer, de la D23, a fost pus online de către fani - CineMagia.ro
Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Primul trailer, de la D23, a fost pus online de către fani. de Gloria Sauciuc în 5 Oct 2022 ... Cinemagia , Ştiri , Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Primul trailer, de la D23, a fost pus online de către fani ... Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Primul trailer, de la D23, a fost pus online de către fani ... Primul trailer de la Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania a fost postat online de către unii participanți la eveniment. Putem acum ...
Unstoppable Wasp: Meeting of the Minds | Marvel
Unstoppable Wasp: Meeting of the Minds. Jeremy Whitley and Elsa Charretier recruit real world scientists to back up their new ... "UNSTOPPABLE WASP is all about young female super scientists setting out to change the world," notes Whitley. "It made perfect ... Her original plan was to post these on Twitter or Tumblr, but ever since I started working on UNSTOPPABLE WASP Id wanted to do ... When Nadia Pym spreads her wings on January 4, 2017 with the release of UNSTOPPABLE WASP #1 by Jeremy Whitley and Elsa ...
Pest control - Wasps - Exeter City Council
Wasps are commonly found throughout the UK. They are social creatures, and form colonies consisting of workers (infertile ... Wasps. Do wasps cause any real harm?. A wasp sting is caused by the injection of venom into the victim, causing redness and ... You can use a domestic insect spray to knock down and kill flying wasps. But domestic treatments will not control or eliminate ...
wasp - WinFuture.de
Wasps queue for top job | UCL News - UCL - University College London
Scientists at UCL have discovered that even wasps are driven by their status. ... The wasps in this queue face a fundamental trade-off: by working harder, they help the group as a whole and as a result ... In hover wasps, helpers spend between 0 and 95 per cent of their time foraging to feed the queens larvae. Previous scientific ... We have found that the brighter the individual wasps future, the less likely it is to take risks by leaving the safety of its ...
American Women in World War II: WACs WAVES & WASPS - HISTORY - HISTORY
More than 1,000 WASPs served, and 38 of them lost their lives during the war. Considered civil service employees and without ... Did you know? On March 10, 2010, at a ceremony in the U.S. Capitol, the WASPs received the Congressional Gold Medal, one of the ... One of the lesser-known roles women played in the war effort was provided by the Womens Airforce Service Pilots, or WASPs. ... and it wasnt until 1977 that the WASPs received full military status. ...
parasitoid wasps - Trivia, Quizzes, and Brain Teasers | Mental Floss
Microscopic Wasps Will Help Stamp Out a Moth Infestation at Anne Boleyns Ancestral Home. Its the Godzilla vs. Kong of the ... Caterpillars Get Infection-Fighting Genes From Parasitic Wasps. The next butterfly you see flitting about might just be a ... This isnt the work of scientists trying to save pollinators, but parasitic wasps intent on rendering th ...
Clip Art: Insects: Wasp Color - Abcteach
Kengis wasp has a nifty pattern on the wings.. I thought at first that there are two wasps in rqs picture. I dont remember ... Yes, Im with w00dview, the Kengi wasp might actually be a fly masquerading as a wasp. Incredible shot, though, everything is ... one of the most memorable things I observed during that time was a wasp (it was one of the social wasps, or yellowjackets as ... I think the first photo might be a fly, not a wasp. The sponge like mouthparts, absence of obvious antenna and tiny white ...
Wasps-In-Waiting | Science News | Naked Scientists
Scientists have discovered that the altruistic behaviour of European Paper wasps, Polistes dominulus, even towards non-related ... Surprisingly they found that the subordinate wasps did at least as well as the lone wasps, and often better. ... The curious aspect of the species is that wasps choose to give up reproduction in favour of helping a dominant wasp build her ... P.dominulus are a species of primitively eusocial wasp, meaning that the subordinate (lower ranked) wasps have the same ...
StingsInsectsLarvaeParasitic waspsHornetsBees and waspsFemale waspsSpecies of waspNests20182016Parasitoid waspsAntsLondon WaspsHornetPredatory waspsPolistesStungDominant waspsOvipositorBehaviourNest removalMothsLarva2017InfestationScientistsClistopygaContentPredationCuckooHymenopteraInjectsIchneumonAdultHatchVespulaPreyLarvalParasitismVenomStingingEusocialCentreInsectPaperSwarmCaterpillarBeneficialPestTargetsGenusHumansCommunalNewsFlewPremiershipEliminateVast majorityHttpsColony
- If you have an allergy to wasp, bee, hornet or yellow jacket stings, always carry a bee sting kit and know how to use it. (medlineplus.gov)
- Why Do Bee And Wasp Stings Hurt? (terminix.com)
- While most people react to stings with some localized swelling and pain, some people are very allergic to wasp and bee stings. (terminix.com)
- It's the ability of wasps to cause painful stings that concerns people most. (richmondshire.gov.uk)
- And this is a type of insect which stings and attacks called wasps. (skepchick.org)
- Bee and wasp stings can be quite unpleasant, and some people can have allergic reactions and have extra reason to take care. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
- Buzzing around mineral cans and ice lollies up and down the country, they are not only an annoyance, but also pose a risk to ones self as wasp stings are designed primarily to repel vertebrate attacks with little if no effect on other insects (Schmidt, 2009 Encyclopedia of Insects pp. 1049-1052). (blogspot.com)
- Be certain beyond a shadow of a doubt you are not hypersensitive to wasps stings, and afterward put away at any rate an hour for the assignment. (pestcontroloxfordshire.com)
- Because of their tendency to become aggressive, it is important to hire a bee and wasp control team that can keep you safe from stings when you have an infestation. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Acute renal failure following wasp stings. (who.int)
- Laosombat V, Chub-uppakarn S. Acute renal failure following wasp stings. (who.int)
- During 2000-2017, a total of 1,109 deaths from hornet, wasp, and bee stings occurred, for an annual average of 62 deaths. (cdc.gov)
- Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. (medlineplus.gov)
- Aphids, like almost all insects, are the targets of parasitic wasps that implant eggs inside their bodies. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Specimens kept in the collection of the Institute of Beneficial Insects at the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU, China) revealed the existence of two previously unknown species of endoparasitoid wasps. (eurekalert.org)
- Originally collected in 2013, the insects are known to inhabit prairies and bushes at above 3,400 m, which is quite an unusual altitude for this group of wasps. (eurekalert.org)
- The defining feature of eusocial animals - including insects like bees, ants and wasps, and vertebrates like meerkats and the naked mole rat - is that some individuals forgo their own reproduction to help rear the offspring of others. (ucl.ac.uk)
- This Insects: Wasp Color clipart is great to illustrate your teaching materials. (abcteach.com)
- This Insects: Wasp Color clipart is provided in jpeg format. (abcteach.com)
- Scientists have discovered that the altruistic behaviour of European Paper wasps, Polistes dominulus , even towards non-related insects, actually improves their reproductive success. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Take a look at the following seven facts about paper wasps and discover how fascinating these insects really are. (terminix.com)
- Female wasps have a long, needle-like organ called an ovipositor which they use to pierce plant tissues or the exoskeletons of insects and deposit their eggs. (newscientist.com)
- The first candidate species tested , Eurytoma , ignored native gall-forming insects and feasted only on erythrina gall wasps. (scienceline.org)
- Wasps are beneficial garden insects, collecting insects and larvae to feed to developing wasp l arvae in the nest during the summer. (richmondshire.gov.uk)
- the insects they anesthetize are stashed in the tunnel's chambers, each one with a wasp egg placed on it. (uwm.edu)
- Bees are necessary to plants because of their pollination duties, while wasps are beneficial to a garden as they feed on pest insects. (gardenguides.com)
- Planting it as a border keeps wasps and other unwanted insects and animals out of your garden. (gardenguides.com)
- Easily the most numerous to be seen engaged in this activity are the very similar Common Wasp ( Vespula vulgaris ) and the German Wasp ( V. germanica ) (Chinery, 1997 Collins Gem Insects, pp. 234). (blogspot.com)
- Our bee and wasp removal experts have the skills and experience to protect your home or business from stinging insects year-round. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Whether you're in charge of a school, retail store, or restaurant, the best move you can make to deal with stinging insects is to hire professional bee and wasp removal experts. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- It's important to trust a professional bee, wasp, and hornet exterminator with stinging insect removal-the task can be dangerous if enough insects are present. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. (cdc.gov)
- However, if you know you are allergic to any insects, like bees or wasps, keep an emergency epinephrine kit handy. (medlineplus.gov)
- The latter group comprises tiny, mostly black or brown wasps that develop in the larvae of specific moths or butterflies. (eurekalert.org)
- And Fritzén has seen many females investigating the bodies of spiders, finding the eggs or larvae of other wasps, and using their ovipositors to sting and discard these preceding parasites. (theatlantic.com)
- In hover wasps, helpers spend between 0 and 95 per cent of their time foraging to feed the queen's larvae. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Additionally, adult paper wasps will often chew up those nuisance caterpillars in order to feed their wasp larvae. (terminix.com)
- The eggs will grow into larvae, which will develop into male and female wasps. (howstuffworks.com)
- It also creates a stable microclimate inside the spiders' nest, stops awakening spiders from escaping and prevents hatched wasp larvae from accidently leaving the nest. (newscientist.com)
- A team of ecologists from the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture and the University of Hawai'i pulled off their coup by importing an East African parasitic wasp that feasts on the larvae of the invasive erythrina gall wasps while leaving native wasps alone. (scienceline.org)
- Some species of predatory wasps, called parasitoid wasps, feed on gall wasp larvae. (scienceline.org)
- The queen wasp lays eggs in the nest and hatch into larvae within a few days. (richmondshire.gov.uk)
- The larvae of a few wasps bore or mine into trunks, twigs, or pithy stems such as roses. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
- Parasitoid wasp larvae are already on or in their host when they hatch. (scorpionfly.ca)
- Wasps are great pollinators (and given the state of our honey bee population we need all the help we can get) and they also take insect pests back to the nest to feed to their larvae. (theanxiousgardener.com)
- They certainly react in this way when directly faced with parasitic wasps. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Perhaps, they were even trying to avoid the dangers of hyperparasites - wasps that attack other species of parasitic wasps. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Parasitic wasps are pretty common, but many folks just don't know about them. (huntingpa.com)
- It's a fantastic analogy," says Namrata Gundiah from the Indian Institute of Science, who has studied parasitic wasps. (theatlantic.com)
- The ovipositors of parasitic wasps are extraordinary devices. (theatlantic.com)
- But one group of parasitic wasps uses it not only for egg-laying, but also to make a type of felt with which to stitch up spider nests. (newscientist.com)
- State and local agriculture officials gathered in northwest Bakersfield Tuesday morning to make the first release of parasitic wasps in Kern County. (turnto23.com)
- Bees, wasps, and hornets are most abundant in the warmer months. (cdc.gov)
- Bees, wasps, and hornets are found throughout the United States. (cdc.gov)
- People who are not allergic to wasps, bees, hornets or yellow jackets usually get better within 1 week. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hornets and yellow jackets are aggressive in summer: Stinging wasps' social insect behavior. (slate.com)
- Bald-faced hornets like making their nests in trees and under the eaves of houses while paper wasps favor exposed beams. (slate.com)
- Predatory Wasps and Hornets are found in many different shapes and colors. (aamericanpestcontrol.net)
- We are all aware of the environmental benefits that bees, wasps, and hornets come with. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- We are proud to have spent over 45 years removing bees, wasps, and hornets from Mississippi Gulf Coast properties. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Wasps and hornets like to forage for sweets and protein-rich foods in our garbage cans and gardens. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
Bees and wasps5
- However, several herb varieties and red perennials help keep bees and wasps from unwanted areas, such as pools or children's play areas. (gardenguides.com)
- Of course, with bees and wasps, there is a genuine element of threat, but when you objectively consider what danger a sting of this nature is, it is clear that the fear is out of all proportion. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
- Overcome Fear of Bees and Wasps is an audio hypnosis session developed by psychologists with wide experience in helping people overcome phobias and fears. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
- Download Overcome Fear of Bees and Wasps and free yourself to be relaxed, no matter what little critters are flying around. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
- Fear of Bees and Wasps has been purchased by 297 customers . (hypnosisdownloads.com)
- When Fievet placed female wasps in a glass cage with aphid-infested plants, he found that they abandoned plants with 5 mummies and 10 healthy aphids more quickly than those with just 10 healthy aphids. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The study, published in 'Nature', shows that lower-ranked female wasps work harder to help their queen than those higher up the chain because they have less to lose, and consequently are prepared to take more risks and wear themselves out. (ucl.ac.uk)
- After hatching, the blind, wingless male wasps will spend the remainder of their lives digging tunnels through the fig. The female wasps then emerge through these tunnels and fly off to find a new fig - carrying precious pollen with them. (howstuffworks.com)
- Though edible figs may not be filled with baby wasps, doesn't this mean that these figs contain a lot of female wasps who died of loneliness? (howstuffworks.com)
Species of wasp2
- If that is so, then the extraterrestrial has just returned the favour, lending its name to a newly discovered Australian species of wasp that shares its gruesome reproductive strategies. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- Bbbbzzzzzzzzzzzz" and again, he can't identify which species of wasp this is! (jokes-hub.com)
- During the study, which was carried out in southern Spain over a period of three months, the team marked and genotyped 1,500 wasps and recorded social behaviour within 43 separate nests along a cactus hedge. (sussex.ac.uk)
- He collected more jumping spider nests, offered them to his new wasp, and watched what she did using a microscope . (theatlantic.com)
- As the name suggests, most paper wasps build their nests out of paper they make from chewing up wood and other vegetation. (terminix.com)
- The easiest way to identify paper wasps is probably by their nests, which look like round, upside-down paper combs. (terminix.com)
- Some people say the nests look like umbrellas, which is why this insect is sometimes called an umbrella wasp . (terminix.com)
- The team collected a single larva of the wasp on a paralysed adult jumping spider, along with small pieces of bark that contained spider nests. (newscientist.com)
- They then offered spiders within their silken nests to the wasp and observed what happened. (newscientist.com)
- Unlike paper wasps, which view with hostility any approach to their nests and emit "attack! (uwm.edu)
- New queen wasps that were hatched between August and September will have mated at this time and hibernate over winter to begin new nests in the spring (Archer, 1985 Journal of Animal Ecology 54 pp. 473-485). (blogspot.com)
- I know many people hate and fear wasps and exterminate their nests on sight. (theanxiousgardener.com)
- We use safe and humane strategies to remove all wasp and hornet nests. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- We then perform preventative bee or wasp control to ensure that no further nests are built. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Movie 'Ant-Man and the Wasp' was released in July 4, 2018 in genre Action. (barcasupermarket.com)
- MEDITERRANEAN SEA (Sept. 24, 2016) An MV-22 Osprey lands on the flight deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp (LHD 1). (strategypage.com)
- Parasitoid wasps are differentiated from predator wasps by their behaviour. (scorpionfly.ca)
- There were several wasp-ant interactions when ants investigated the hole or the wasp. (uwm.edu)
- Listen to live commentary of Harlequins v London Wasps from BBC London 94.9. (bbc.com)
- This calendar aims to list all fixtures for the London Wasps Rugby Union team. (icalshare.com)
- London Wasps claimed a 9-3 victory over Newcastle Falcons in their Anglo Welsh LV= Cup tie at Kingston Park on Sunday. (rugbyweek.com)
- For over 45 years, Southern Pest Control has offered the best bee, wasp, and hornet control on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Need Bee, Wasp, or Hornet Control? (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Need help with Bee, Wasp, or Hornet Removal? (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Deaths from hornet, wasp, and bee sting as underlying cause of death are coded as X23 in the International Classification of Diseases , Tenth Revision . (cdc.gov)
- However, Hawai'i didn't have these predatory wasps. (scienceline.org)
- Paper wasp " is the moniker given to several species of wasps that belong to the Polistes sub-family. (terminix.com)
- This study describes the first case of water landing for water collection in the European paper wasp Polistes dominulus . (bvsalud.org)
- It's not a good idea to remove a paper wasp nest on your own, as there's a good chance you'll be stung. (terminix.com)
- If you dream that you are stung by a wasp - it portends you envy and hatred of enemies or rivals in love. (in.ua)
- If you dream you are stung by a wasp, in real life you seriously suffer from the evil machinations of your enemies. (in.ua)
- To be stung by a wasp in a dream foretells intrigues of rivals which will do much harm to the relations with the beloved (beloved). (in.ua)
- To dream that you are stung by a wasp, symbolizes growing envy and hatred towards you. (in.ua)
- For no apparent reason a wasp landed on his forehead and stung him. (theanxiousgardener.com)
- The dominant wasps then compete to give the helper wasps the 'best deal', by allowing them to work less hard, to ensure they stay in their particular nest. (sussex.ac.uk)
- A team from the University of Sussex investigated the theory that the subordinates helped dominant wasps in the hope of inheriting the nest at the end of the season. (thenakedscientists.com)
- As the wasp pulls the ovipositor out, these snag the silken threads of the spider's nest, entangling the inner ones with the outer ones. (theatlantic.com)
- One wasp was seen carrying a spider around on its ovipositor. (theatlantic.com)
- Using its very long ovipositor - a needle-like delivery organ - the wasp injects eggs into the caterpillar. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- The wasp inserts its ovipositor tip into the jumping spider, preventing it from escaping while the wasp injects the venom. (newscientist.com)
- Having laid its eggs, the wasp uses its ovipositor to poke at and pick up the spider silk of the nest, and closes openings in a zigzag stitching fashion. (newscientist.com)
- Dr Lena Grinsted, from the University of Sussex, said: "It is remarkable to discover that simply changing the wasps' surrounding social environment has a clear effect on cooperative behaviour within groups. (sussex.ac.uk)
- The University of Sussex study entitled ' Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps ' has been published in Nature Communications . (sussex.ac.uk)
- We charge £68.00 for wasp nest removal. (exeter.gov.uk)
- I heard that the Trichogramma Wasps may be useful for getting rid of clothing moths. (planetnatural.com)
- Trichogramma Wasps work for pantry moths but not clothes moth. (planetnatural.com)
- For this to happen, a fig plant needs to share its genetic material (in the form of pollen) with another of its kind, and the fig wasp needs a place where its larva can grow and feed. (howstuffworks.com)
- The larva basically excretes hormones which co-opt the plant's cells and causes them to reproduce almost like a cancerous growth," explains Daniel Rubinoff, a University of Hawai'i entomologist who studies gall wasps. (scienceline.org)
- With beneficial wasps, either the egg is laid directly on the prey, in the prey or the prey is paralysed and carried to a chamber where it it left for the larva upon hatching. (scorpionfly.ca)
- At this point, the damage to the caterpillar is already done as it is the larva of the wasp that eat through the insides of a caterpillar. (scorpionfly.ca)
- When Nadia Pym spreads her wings on January 4, 2017 with the release of UNSTOPPABLE WASP #1 by Jeremy Whitley and Elsa Charretier, she'll be the Marvel Universe's newest super hero with a big brain to match her abilities-and she won't be alone. (marvel.com)
- for more, check out every issue of UNSTOPPABLE WASP starting with #1 on January 4, 2017! (marvel.com)
- The gall wasp infestation has been costly to the islands. (scienceline.org)
- Wasps have trading partners and compete for the 'best trade deals', according to scientists from the University of Sussex. (sussex.ac.uk)
- By increasing the number of nest spots and nesting partners available around the hedge, the scientists discovered the helper wasps provide less help to their own 'bosses' (the dominant breeders) when alternative nesting options are available. (sussex.ac.uk)
- Each month in the letters page of UNSTOPPABLE WASP, space will be devoted to spotlighting real world female scientists and their work. (marvel.com)
- UNSTOPPABLE WASP is all about young female super scientists setting out to change the world," notes Whitley. (marvel.com)
- Scientists at UCL have discovered that even wasps are driven by their status. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Scientists have given the gall wasp what Hawai'i lacked: a natural predator. (scienceline.org)
- In 2015, Niclas Fritzén and Ilari Sääksjärvi of the University of Turku, Finland, ventured into the west of the country to track evasive Clistopyga wasps, which are poorly studied and easily confused with other wasps. (newscientist.com)
- Social, nest building wasps, these can reach very large numbers in the presence of foods, especially those with a high sugar content. (blogspot.com)
- The team thinks it may be an adaptation that protects the wasp eggs against predation or parasitism. (newscientist.com)
- It is one of three new species of parasitoid wasp that Fagan-Jeffries and her colleagues formally introduce in a paper published in the Journal of Hymenoptera Research . (cosmosmagazine.com)
- It has been suggested that the fearsome double-jawed, acid-dripping creature that stars in the wildly successful Alien movie franchise was ultimately inspired an ichneumon wasp - a solitary type of beast that injects its eggs into a host insect, which then undergoes a terrible fate. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- After two weeks, what emerged was a female ichneumon wasp-six millimeters long, with a black body and orange legs. (theatlantic.com)
- Adult beneficial wasps often feed on nectar and are important pollinators in their own right. (scorpionfly.ca)
- The adult wasps do not sting , which corresponds with our patients' symptoms of burning and erythema, and rarely cause actual pain. (who.int)
- It is only killed when the wasp eggs hatch and feed on its organs and body fluids before spinning cocoons. (eurekalert.org)
- A wasp ( Vespula vulgaris ) competes with an ant for a protein-rich insect meal. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- While searching for their prey, the wasps bumped into fewer living aphids when the mummies were around, although whenever they found one, they were just as likely to attack it. (nationalgeographic.com)
- This strategy, ensuring that the prey remains fresh to eat for the longest period of time, is commonly employed by beneficial wasps. (scorpionfly.ca)
- These tumor-like outgrowths, known as galls, then serve as a food source for larval wasps. (scienceline.org)
- Obviously, to have beneficial wasps make your garden their home you have to provide them with larval food. (scorpionfly.ca)
- Due to their parasitism, some microgastrine wasps are considered important pest biocontrol agents. (eurekalert.org)
- Wasp venom is toxic. (medlineplus.gov)
- Wasps carry this venom. (medlineplus.gov)
- A wasp sting is caused by the injection of venom into the victim, causing redness and swelling. (exeter.gov.uk)
- Those hosts are a kind of jumping spider , which the wasps first paralyse using venom. (newscientist.com)
- Paper wasps tend to get a bad reputation because they're known for stinging. (terminix.com)
- Due to their stinging and aggressiveness when they feel threatened, you probably don't want paper wasps living around your home. (terminix.com)
- These stinging, flying wasps ruin countless picnics with their aggressive appetite for candy, fruit, and soda. (slate.com)
- The vast majority stinging incidents involve common wasps known as yellowjackets in North America. (scorpionfly.ca)
- P.dominulus are a species of primitively eusocial wasp, meaning that the subordinate (lower ranked) wasps have the same reproductive ability as the dominant wasp. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Leinster's Ross Byrne is tackled by Wasps centre Michele Campagnaro. (irishtimes.com)
- You can use a domestic insect spray to knock down and kill flying wasps. (exeter.gov.uk)
- To really understand the wasp -eating dilemma associated with figs, you have to first look at the closely connected life cycles of both the plant and the insect. (howstuffworks.com)
- Additional herbs that serve as insect repellents and may help keep wasps and bees from your yard include basil, mint and pennyroyal. (gardenguides.com)
- Experts released tiny wasps throughout Bakersfield Tuesday, the wasps are cannot sting people and are uninterested in humans, pets or any other insect. (turnto23.com)
- In the study, the team from the University's School of Life Sciences looked at how the economic rule of 'supply and demand' applies to populations of paper wasps - in which 'helper wasps' raise the offspring of dominant breeders in small social groups in return for belonging in the nest. (sussex.ac.uk)
- The new to science wasps are described and illustrated in a paper published in the open-access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal ZooKeys by the team of Dr Wangzhen Zhang (FAFU and Fuzhou Airport Inspection and Quarantine Bureau) and his colleagues at FAFU: Dr Dongbao Song and Prof Jiahua Chen. (eurekalert.org)
- European Paper wasps, however, will often help non-relatives. (thenakedscientists.com)
- You may even make it a point to avoid anything having to do with paper wasps. (terminix.com)
- What Is a Paper Wasp? (terminix.com)
- What Do Paper Wasps Look Like? (terminix.com)
- Paper wasps can be anywhere from 0.5 to 1.5 inches long, though most come in around the 1-inch mark. (terminix.com)
- One of the most surprising facts about paper wasps is that they can benefit your garden . (terminix.com)
- A single fertilized queen is responsible for starting a new paper wasp nest. (terminix.com)
- Fertilized queens are the only paper wasps to survive until spring, when those that survive establish a new colony. (terminix.com)
- Do paper wasps sting? (terminix.com)
- Contact Terminix® so a trained technician can help you customize a paper wasp control and prevention plan . (terminix.com)
- Right before the first "roller coaster" structure there's a big paper wasp nest in a tree to the right of the trail. (evergreenmtb.org)
- the communal paper wasps and honeybees just get all the press). (uwm.edu)
- The article is based on a recent paper by Jake Turner et al which includes observations of 15 hot Jupiters, of which seven are WASP planets. (wasp-planets.net)
- Since paper wasp homes, otherwise called hanging homes, can be somewhat unstably connected to the overhead help, you must be extremely certain in your point. (pestcontroloxfordshire.com)
- You create a phantasmal image of a swarm of monstrous wasps. (d20pfsrd.com)
- To dream of a swarm of wasps - a sign that your boss treats you with great respect and, despite the machinations of your colleagues will contribute to your career development and issue premium. (in.ua)
- If you dream you are surrounded swarm of wasps, in real life happens to you such a nasty story that will make you leave your place of work. (in.ua)
- The caterpillar of the tomato hornworm is covered in coccoons from the parasitoid braconid wasp, Cotesia congregata. (scorpionfly.ca)
- Gardening to attract beneficial wasps. (scorpionfly.ca)
- Beneficial wasps are worth attracting to the garden because they are beautiful and interesting to watch. (scorpionfly.ca)
- For more ideas on providing shelter for beneficial wasps, read about shelters for bees . (scorpionfly.ca)
- Beneficial wasps, such as this Great Golden Digger wasp spend a large amount of their time collecting nectar. (scorpionfly.ca)
- Now, only two years later, the team is wrapping up the project, which has turned the gall wasp from a plague to a minor pest. (scienceline.org)
- A American Pest Control offer a treatment that will eliminate wasps nesting on your home. (aamericanpestcontrol.net)
- Call Oxfordshire Pest Control For All Your Pest Needs, Fast Reliable Pest Control, Wasp Nest Control Farmoor Oxfordshire. (pestcontroloxfordshire.com)
- Southern Pest Control can protect your business year-round with safe and effective bee and wasp removal techniques. (southernpestcontrol.biz)
- Though tests show another candidate wasp also targets gall wasps, Eurytoma wasps have been so successful, says Kaufman, that it is unlikely that the other candidate predators will need to be released. (scienceline.org)
- The erythrina gall wasp is named after its victims - trees in the Erythrina genus such as the wiliwili and coral tree. (scienceline.org)
- But things change for these communal, defense-minded wasps when the queen lays her final broods, which mature into fertile kings and queens that fly away to eventually form their own colonies. (slate.com)
- The WASP newsletter gathers news, recent activities and upcoming events within the program. (wasp-sweden.org)
- In a group of 10 healthy individuals, an average of 75% were injected with eggs before the wasp flew away. (nationalgeographic.com)
- As I approached the car door, the wasp flew out. (cccyukon.org)
- The next six weeks see Wasps play twice in the Anglo-Welsh Cup plus four Aviva Premiership games, three of which will be away from home. (coventrytelegraph.net)
- In the event that you choose to eliminate a wasp home yourself, the strategy you use will depend Wasp Nest Control Farmoor Oxfordshire to some extent on whether the home is found. (pestcontroloxfordshire.com)
- There is no point assaulting a home except if all or the vast majority of the wasps are there. (pestcontroloxfordshire.com)
- I am charlie_wasp ( https://keybase.io/charlie_wasp ) on keybase. (github.com)
- In late summer as the cohesion of the colony disintegrates and they get drunk on fermenting fruit, wasps can be (are) annoying and aggressive. (theanxiousgardener.com)