Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.ShoesElectromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.AmputeesPeripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Foot Orthoses: Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat. (1/4297)

In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands.  (+info)

Visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease. (2/4297)

The effect of placing parallel lines on the walking surface on parkinsonian gait was evaluated. To identify the kind of visual cues (static or dynamic) required for the control of locomotion, we tested two visual conditions: normal lighting and stroboscopic illumination (three flashes/s), the latter acting to suppress dynamic visual cues completely. Sixteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (nine males, seven females; mean age 68.8 years) and the same number of age-matched controls (seven males; nine females, mean age 67.5 years) were studied. During the baseline phase, Parkinson's disease patients walked with a short-stepped, slow velocity pattern. The double limb support duration was increased and the step cadence was reduced relative to normal. Under normal lighting, visual cues from the lines on the walking surface induced a significant improvement in gait velocity and stride length in Parkinson's disease patients. With stroboscopic illumination and without lines, both groups reduced their stride length and velocity but the changes were significant only in the Parkinson's disease group, indicating greater dependence on dynamic visual information. When stroboscopic light was used with stripes on the floor, the improvement in gait due to the stripes was suppressed in parkinsonian patients. These results demonstrate that the perceived motion of stripes, induced by the patient's walking, is essential to improve the gait parameters and thus favour the hypothesis of a specific visual-motor pathway which is particularly responsive to rapidly moving targets. Previous studies have proposed a cerebellar circuit, allowing the visual stimuli to by-pass the damaged basal ganglia.  (+info)

The psychometric properties of clinical rating scales used in multiple sclerosis. (3/4297)

OullII;l y Many clinical rating scales have been proposed to assess the impact of multiple sclerosis on patients, but only few have been evaluated formally for reliability, validity and responsiveness. We assessed the psychometric properties of five commonly used scales in multiple sclerosis, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Ambulation Index (AI) and the Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score (CAMBS). The score frequency distributions of all five scales were either bimodal (EDSS and AI) or severely skewed (SNRS, FIM and CAMBS). The reliability of each scale depended on the definition of 'agreement'. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were high when 'agreement' was considered to exist despite a difference of up to 1.0 EDSS point (two 0.5 steps), 13 SNRS points, 9 FIM points, 1 AI point and 1 point on the various CAMBS domains. The FIM, AI, and the relapse and progression domains of the CAMBS were sensitive to clinical change, but the EDSS and the SNRS were unresponsive. The validity of these scales as impairment (SNRS and EDSS) and disability (EDSS, FIM, AI and the disability domain of the CAMBS) measures was established. All scales correlated closely with other measures of handicap and quality of life. None of these scales satisfied the psychometric requirements of outcome measures completely, but each had some desirable properties. The SNRS and the EDSS were reliable and valid measures of impairment and disability, but they were unresponsive. The FIM was a reliable, valid and responsive measure of disability, but it is cumbersome to administer and has a limited content validity. The AI was a reliable and valid ambulation-related disability scale, but it was weakly responsive. The CAMBS was a reliable (all four domains) and responsive (relapse and progression domains) outcome measure, but had a limited validity (handicap domain). These psychometric properties should be considered when designing further clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Amplitude of the human soleus H reflex during walking and running. (4/4297)

1. The objective of the study was to investigate the amplitude and modulation of the human soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex during walking and during running at different speeds. 2. EMGs were recorded with surface electrodes from the soleus, the medial and lateral head of the gastrocnemius, the vastus lateralis and the anterior tibial muscles. The EMGs and the soleus H reflex were recorded while walking on a treadmill at 4.5 km h-1 and during running at 8, 12 and 15 km h-1. 3. The amplitudes of the M wave and the H reflex were normalized to the amplitude of a maximal M wave elicited by a supramaximal stimulus just after the H reflex to compensate for movements of the recording and stimulus electrodes relative to the nerve and muscle fibres. The stimulus intensity was set to produce M waves that had an amplitude near to 25 % of the maximal M wave measured during the movements. As an alternative, the method of averaging of sweeps in sixteen intervals of the gait cycle was applied to the data. In this case the amplitude of the H reflex was expressed relative to the maximal M wave measured whilst in the standing position. 4. The amplitude of the H reflex was modulated during the gait cycle at all speeds. During the stance phase the reflex was facilitated and during the swing and flight phases it was suppressed. The size of the maximal M wave varied during the gait cycle and this variation was consistent for each subject although different among subjects. 5. The peak amplitude of the H reflex increased significantly (P = 0.04) from walking at 4.5 km h-1 to running at 12 and 15 km h-1 when using the method of correcting for variations of the maximal M wave during the gait cycle. The sweep averaging method showed a small but non-significant decrease (P = 0. 3) from walking to running at 8 km h-1 and a small decrease with running speed (P = 0.3). The amplitude of the EMG increased from walking to running and with running speed. 6. The relatively large H reflex recorded during the stance phase in running indicates that the stretch reflex may influence the muscle mechanics during the stance phase by contributing to the motor output and enhancing muscle stiffness.  (+info)

Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization. (5/4297)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status.  (+info)

Chronic motor neuropathies: response to interferon-beta1a after failure of conventional therapies. (6/4297)

OBJECTIVES: The effect of interferon-beta1a (INF-beta1a; Rebif) was studied in patients with chronic motor neuropathies not improving after conventional treatments such as immunoglobulins, steroids, cyclophosphamide or plasma exchange. METHODS: A prospective open study was performed with a duration of 6-12 months. Three patients with a multifocal motor neuropathy and one patient with a pure motor form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy were enrolled. Three patients had anti-GM1 antibodies. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous injections of IBF-beta1a (6 MIU), three times a week. Primary outcome was assessed at the level of disability using the nine hole peg test, the 10 metres walking test, and the modified Rankin scale. Secondary outcome was measured at the impairment level using a slightly modified MRC sumscore. RESULTS: All patients showed a significant improvement on the modified MRC sumscore. The time required to walk 10 metres and to fulfil the nine hole peg test was also significantly reduced in the first 3 months in most patients. However, the translation of these results to functional improvement on the modified Rankin was only seen in two patients. There were no severe adverse events. Motor conduction blocks were partially restored in one patient only. Anti-GM1 antibody titres did not change. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that severely affected patients with chronic motor neuropathies not responding to conventional therapies may improve when treated with INF-beta1a. From this study it is suggested that INF-beta1a should be administered in patients with chronic motor neuropathies for a period of up to 3 months before deciding to cease treatment. A controlled trial is necessary to confirm these findings.  (+info)

Use of computed tomography and plantar pressure measurement for management of neuropathic ulcers in patients with diabetes. (7/4297)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Total contact casting is effective at healing neuropathic ulcers, but patients have a high rate (30%-57%) of ulcer recurrence when they resume walking without the cast. The purposes of this case report are to describe how data from plantar pressure measurement and spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) were used to help manage a patient with recurrent plantar ulcers and to discuss potential future benefits of this technology. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 62-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of 34 years' duration, peripheral neuropathy, and a recurrent plantar ulcer. Although total contact casting or relieving weight bearing with crutches apparently allowed the ulcer to heal, the ulcer recurred 3 times in an 18-month period. Spiral x-ray computed tomography and simultaneous pressure measurement were conducted to better understand the mechanism of his ulceration. OUTCOMES: The patient had a severe bony deformity that coincided with the location of highest plantar pressures (886 kPa). The results of the SXCT and pressure measurement convinced the patient to wear his prescribed footwear always, even when getting up in the middle of the night. The ulcer healed in 6 weeks, and the patient resumed his work, which required standing and walking for 8 to 10 hours a day. DISCUSSION: Following intervention, the patient's recurrent ulcer healed and remained healed for several months. Future benefits of these methods may include the ability to define how structural changes of the foot relate to increased plantar pressures and to help design and fabricate optimal orthoses.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (8/4297)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

  • 894 adults in NSW in 1998 (among the owners of approximately two million domestic dogs in NSW who were potential participants in dog-walking behaviours). (walk.com.au)
  • Validation Protocol All participants undertook five modes (i.e., supine rest, stepping, seated gaming, exergaming, treadmill walking and running, in the order listed) of physical activity/sedentary behavior while wearing three different activity monitors at the same time. (humankinetics.com)
  • Although this investigation's primary finding is an improvement in poststroke gait mechanics and energetics during exosuit-assisted walking versus walking with an exosuit unpowered, our secondary finding that wearing a passive exosuit did not significantly influence participants' walking is equally important for a complete appreciation of the exosuit technology," they write in their paper. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • Researchers at Humboldt State University and the University of Colorado, Boulder report that adults over age 65 who run at least 30 minutes 3 times a week were less likely to experience age-related physical decline in walking efficiency than those who simply walked. (painweek.org)
  • Decline in walking ability is a key predictor of morbidity in older adults. (painweek.org)
  • This article focuses on the epidemiology of dog walking, which generally has been ignawed by researchers, and eschewed by epidemiologists. (walk.com.au)
  • Conducted by researchers from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre - a collaboration between Leicester's Hospitals, the University of Leicester and Loughborough University - and published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the study affirmed that walking speed is linked to longevity. (naturalnews.com)
  • Even after considering weight, the researchers found that those who walked faster had longer lives while slow walkers had shorter life expectancy. (naturalnews.com)
  • In fact, researchers found that the category with the shortest life expectancy was underweight individuals who walked slowly. (naturalnews.com)
  • Researchers noted that walking speed is a sign of physical fitness. (naturalnews.com)
  • These improvements in paretic limb function contributed to a 20% reduction in forward propulsion interlimb asymmetry and a 10% reduction in the energy cost of walking, which is equal to a 32% reduction in the metabolic burden associated with poststroke walking, the researchers say. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • Future work will focus on understanding how exosuit-induced improvements in walking performance may be leveraged to improve mobility after stroke," the researchers conclude. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • Conclusions: In this longitudinal study, changes to the built environment were associated with changes in walking behaviors. (harvard.edu)
  • One area which has been less studied is the concept of dog walking, which provides physical activity for both dogs and people. (walk.com.au)
  • The increased use of recreational (vs. work) buildings, largely located at mid-range altitudes, as well as increased population density predicted greater walking distances.Having more bus services and a greater population density encouraged people to increase their walked altitude range. (harvard.edu)
  • Questions were asked about dog ownership, and the amount of time the respondent had spent walking his or her dog in the previous week. (walk.com.au)
  • 10 The study variables were total time engaged in dog walking, any walking and total physical activity. (walk.com.au)
  • However, one must walk about 50% further, and take about twice as much time walking briskly to expend the same amount of energy as running a 12-minute mile. (healthcanal.com)
  • Take the time to walk a couple of times a week and see its benefits. (naturalnews.com)
  • Previously, we demonstrated that slower walking speeds in neuropathic patients lead to improved local dynamic stability. (elsevier.com)
  • Trunk and lower extremity kinematics were examined from two prior experiments that compared patients with significant neuropathy to healthy controls and walking at multiple different speeds in young healthy subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Good posture and form while walking have more than just aesthetic value they facilitate proper breathing. (care2.com)
  • A walk can accommodate all ages and fitness levels it doesn t matter whether you are old or young, stiff or flexible, in vibrant health or recovering from a major trauma or illness. (care2.com)
  • Methods - A population cohort aged ≥55 years recruited from 1996-98 (n=28,451) completed a standardized questionnaire assessing demographics, health conditions, joint complaints and functional limitations, including difficulty walking in the past 3 months. (ices.on.ca)
  • The predicted probability of difficulty walking for a 60-year-old middle-income, normal-weight woman was 5-10% with no health conditions, 10-20% with diabetes and CV disease, 40% with OA in two hips/knees, 60-70% with diabetes, CV disease and OA in two hips/knees, and 80% with diabetes, CV disease and OA in all hips/knees. (ices.on.ca)
  • To describe the prevalence of dog walking in New South Wales, and to identify potential health gains if more dogs were walked. (walk.com.au)
  • However, more than half of dog owners did not walk their dogs, and were less likely than non-owners to meet recommended levels of physical activity sufficient for health benefits. (walk.com.au)
  • Hence this report cuts to the bone and unleashes an incisive public health argument for increasing dog walking in Australia. (walk.com.au)
  • Patients with gait deficits have a reduced Enet with excessive energy expenditure during sub-maximal walking. (bibsys.no)
  • A soft wearable robotic exosuit can help improve walking ability in stroke patients with chronic gait impairment, preliminary research suggests. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • The research team evaluated the immediate effects of the exosuit actively assisting the paretic limb of nine individuals in the chronic phase of stroke recovery during treadmill and overground walking. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • The study found that participation in high aerobic activity by this population results in a lower metabolic cost of walking, as compared with sedentary study subjects. (painweek.org)
  • Natural News ) Walking faster may add years to your life - no matter how much you weigh, a recent study has found. (naturalnews.com)
  • One study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that walking speed, along with age and sex, was a reliable predictor of life expectancy . (naturalnews.com)
  • Their study suggests that engaging in brisk walking can add years to a person's life expectancy regardless of weight. (naturalnews.com)
  • The study makes it clear that everyone can benefit from brisk walking . (naturalnews.com)
  • The present study was conducted to determine if and how significant changes in peripheral sensation and walking speed affect orbital stability during walking. (elsevier.com)
  • 1RM, Enet at 60 watt walking, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 36-items short form (SF-36) were measured pre and post intervention. (bibsys.no)
  • Given the importance of walking to engagement in physical activity for chronic disease management, greater attention to OA is warranted. (ices.on.ca)
  • Overall, 47.1% achieved the US Surgeon General's recommended 150 minutes of total physical activity per week, and 27% achieved this only through walking. (walk.com.au)
  • Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the determinants of walking difficulty and constructed a clinical nomogram. (ices.on.ca)
  • Multivariable linear regression models were used to test for associations between changes to the built environment and changes in walking behaviors. (harvard.edu)
  • 46% of households in NSW had a dog and, overall, dog owners walked 18 minutes per week more than non-dog owners. (walk.com.au)
  • Among dog owners, 59% reported no dog walking, 26% reported up to 2.5 hours per week, and 15% reported at least 2.5 hours per week. (walk.com.au)
Walking WITH God - Session 5 - YouTube
Walking WITH God - Session 5 - YouTube (youtube.com)
Walking in the City groups | Meetup
Walking in the City groups | Meetup (meetup.com)
Usm08 projection walk
Usm08 projection walk (google.com)
The Walking Dead: Season Two on Steam
The Walking Dead: Season Two on Steam (store.steampowered.com)
Craster Local History Walk
Craster Local History Walk (google.com)
Artistic Jaipur Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Artistic Jaipur Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Jaipur Divine Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Jaipur Divine Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Delhi Heritage Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Delhi Heritage Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Jaipur City Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Jaipur City Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Old Goa Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Old Goa Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Mumbai Night Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Mumbai Night Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Pewdiepie -- Don't Fear Me Making Cameo on 'Walking Dead'
Pewdiepie -- Don't Fear Me Making Cameo on 'Walking Dead' (tmz.com)
Woman arrested after driving onto walking trail
Woman arrested after driving onto walking trail (courierpress.com)
Walks with Walser - Google My Maps
Walks with Walser - Google My Maps (google.com)
'Walk!' by robbah |...
'Walk!' by robbah |... (redbubble.com)
'Moneyless Man' attempts to walk round the...
'Moneyless Man' attempts to walk round the... (ustream.tv)
International Civil Rights: Walk of Fame - Thurgood Marshall
International Civil Rights: Walk of Fame - Thurgood Marshall (nps.gov)
'Walking Dead' Producer: Tyreese and Father Gabriel Are Still...
'Walking Dead' Producer: Tyreese and Father Gabriel Are Still... (tmz.com)
Widower's Wood: Dead Men Walking | Board Game | BoardGameGeek
Widower's Wood: Dead Men Walking | Board Game | BoardGameGeek (boardgamegeek.com)
Outdoor Walking Meetings Provide boost to Your Mental and Physical health - CNN
Outdoor Walking Meetings Provide boost to Your Mental and Physical health - CNN (cnn.com)
Bully Breed Awareness Walk | Lexington Herald Leader
Bully Breed Awareness Walk | Lexington Herald Leader (kentucky.com)
Miz Berlin Walks by Jane Yolen | Scholastic
Miz Berlin Walks by Jane Yolen | Scholastic (scholastic.com)
Families gather for #WearYourStripes walks
Families gather for #WearYourStripes walks (irishexaminer.com)
Navarro's RBI walk | MLB.com
Navarro's RBI walk | MLB.com (mlb.com)
'Slut walk' crowded | TheSpec...
'Slut walk' crowded | TheSpec... (thespec.com)
Two Bossier schools see safety improvements, new walking tracks
Two Bossier schools see safety improvements, new walking tracks (shreveporttimes.com)
The Walking Dead: The Board Game | Board Game | BoardGameGeek
The Walking Dead: The Board Game | Board Game | BoardGameGeek (boardgamegeek.com)
Private Hanoi Seafood Tasting and Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities
Private Hanoi Seafood Tasting and Walking Tour | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)
Walking With Dinosaurs: Movie: Video Review | Common Sense Media
Walking With Dinosaurs: Movie: Video Review | Common Sense Media (commonsensemedia.org)
Andrew Koenig's Parents -- Why We Walked  | TMZ.com
Andrew Koenig's Parents -- Why We Walked | TMZ.com (tmz.com)
Goa Street Food Walk | AirAsia Activities
Goa Street Food Walk | AirAsia Activities (airasia.com)