A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (1/2490)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (2/2490)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Patterns of spontaneous purkinje cell complex spike activity in the awake rat. (3/2490)

The olivocerebellar system is known to generate periodic synchronous discharges that result in synchronous (to within 1 msec) climbing fiber activation of Purkinje cells (complex spikes) organized in parasagittally oriented strips. These results have been obtained primarily in anesthetized animals, and so the question remains whether the olivocerebellar system generates such patterns in the awake animal. To this end, multiple electrode recordings of crus 2a complex spike activity were obtained in awake rats conditioned to execute tongue movements in response to a tone. After removal of all movement- and tone-related activity, the remaining data were examined to characterize spontaneous complex spike activity in the alert animal. Spontaneous complex spikes occurred at an average firing rate of 1 Hz and a clear approximately 10 Hz rhythmicity. Analysis of the autocorrelograms using a rhythm index indicated that the large majority of Purkinje cells displayed rhythmicity, similar to that in the anesthetized preparation. In addition, the patterns of synchronous complex spike activity were also similar to those observed in the anesthetized preparation (i.e., simultaneous activity was found predominantly among Purkinje cells located within the same parasagittally oriented strip of cortex). The results provide unequivocal evidence that the olivocerebellar system is capable of generating periodic patterns of synchronous activity in the awake animal. These findings support the extrapolation of previous results obtained in the anesthetized preparation to the waking state and are consistent with the timing hypothesis concerning the role of the olivocerebellar system in motor coordination.  (+info)

Ageing and the circadian and homeostatic regulation of human sleep during forced desynchrony of rest, melatonin and temperature rhythms. (4/2490)

1. The circadian timing system has been implicated in age-related changes in sleep structure, timing and consolidation in humans. 2. We investigated the circadian regulation of sleep in 13 older men and women and 11 young men by forced desynchrony of polysomnographically recorded sleep episodes (total, 482; 9 h 20 min each) and the circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and core body temperature. 3. Stage 4 sleep was reduced in older people. Overall levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were not significantly affected by age. The latencies to REM sleep were shorter in older people when sleep coincided with the melatonin rhythm. REM sleep was increased in the first quarter of the sleep episode and the increase of REM sleep in the course of sleep was diminished in older people. 4. Sleep propensity co-varied with the circadian rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin in both age groups. Sleep latencies were longest just before the onset of melatonin secretion and short sleep latencies were observed close to the temperature nadir. In older people sleep latencies were longer close to the crest of the melatonin rhythm. 5. In older people sleep duration was reduced at all circadian phases and sleep consolidation deteriorated more rapidly during the course of sleep, especially when the second half of the sleep episode occurred after the crest of the melatonin rhythm. 6. The data demonstrate age-related decrements in sleep consolidation and increased susceptibility to circadian phase misalignment in older people. These changes, and the associated internal phase advance of the propensity to awaken from sleep, appear to be related to the interaction between a reduction in the homeostatic drive for sleep and a reduced strength of the circadian signal promoting sleep in the early morning.  (+info)

Influence of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure on central apnea in heart failure. (5/2490)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that acute pulmonary congestion induces hyperventilation and that hyperventilation-related hypocapnia leads to ventilatory control instability and central sleep apnea. Whether chronic pulmonary congestion due to congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with central apnea is unknown. We hypothesized that CHF patients with central apnea would have greater pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) than patients without central apnea and that PCWP would correlate with central apnea severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five stable CHF patients underwent right heart catheterization and, on the basis of overnight sleep studies, were divided into central apnea (n=33), obstructive apnea (n=20), or nonapnea groups (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] <5 events per hour). Mean PCWP was significantly greater in the central than in the obstructive and nonapnea groups (mean+/-SEM [range]: 22. 8+/-1.2 [11 to 38] versus 12.3+/-1.2 [4 to 21] versus 11.5+/-1.5 [3 to 28] mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001). Within the central apnea group, PCWP correlated with the frequency and severity of central apnea (AHI: r=0.47, P=0.006) and degree of hypocapnia (PaCO2: r=-0.42, P=0. 017). Intensive medical therapy in 7 patients with initially high PCWP and central apneas reduced both PCWP (29.0+/-2.6 [20 to 38] to 22.0+/-1.8 [17 to 27] mm Hg; P<0.001) and central apnea frequency (AHI) (38.5+/-7.7 [7 to 62] to 18.5+/-5.3 [1 to 31] events per hour; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: PCWP is elevated in CHF patients with central apneas compared with those with obstructive apnea or without apnea. Moreover, a highly significant relationship exists between PCWP, hypocapnia, and central apnea frequency and severity.  (+info)

Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. (6/2490)

As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques.  (+info)

Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. (7/2490)

Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings.  (+info)

Eastward long distance flights, sleep and wake patterns in air crews in connection with a two-day layover. (8/2490)

The present study describes the spontaneous sleep/wake pattern in connection with an eastward (Stockholm to Tokyo, +8 h) transmeridian flight and short (51 h) layovers. To describe all sleep episodes and the recovery process across 4 days, and to relate adjustment to individual differences, 49 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) air crew were monitored for 9 days with activity monitors and sleep/wake diary before-during-after flight. The outbound flight involved a period of wakefulness extended to 21 h, frequently (87% of air crew) terminated by a long nap in Tokyo which was calm but difficult to wake up from. Then followed two night oriented sleep periods of normal length but of reduced efficiency, containing many and long awakenings. Napping was common during the extended periods of wakefulness, particularly during flights. During the recovery days, ease of rising from sleep in the mornings was difficult throughout, and feelings of not being refreshed returned to baseline levels on the third recovery sleep. Elevated daytime sleepiness (24% of the day) was observed on the first recovery day. No individual differences related to gender, age or position (cabin/pilot) was found in sleep strategy. Poor adjusters, subjects with a perceived lowered capacity on recovery days, showed more premature awakenings abroad and less refreshing sleep during the last 12 months, suggesting a decreased ability to cope with air crew scheduling. Comparisons with a westbound flight showed the eastbound flight layover sleep to be more problematic and containing more napping.  (+info)

Modafinil, a novel compound for treating excessive sleepiness, potently increases wakefulness in laboratory rodents, cats, monkeys and humans. Although its mechanism of action is unknown, modafinil appears to be unlike classic stimulants. We investigated this generality by testing the selectivity of this compound for wake-promoting effects (e.g., relative to locomotor effects) and homeostatic sleep responses after drug-induced waking relative to the prototypical stimulant methamphetamine (METH). Continuous measures of electroencephalogram (EEG) sleep-wakefulness, locomotor activity (LMA) and body temperature (Tb) were obtained from adult male Wistar rats 3 days before and after treatment with modafinil (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p.), 0.25% methylcellulose (vehicle) or METH (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p.). Individually housed rats in a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 12:12) were treated 5 h after lights-on (CT-5). LMA and Tb were monitoredvia intraperitoneal telemetry. Sleep-wake stages and LMA were recorded ...
Neural activity is diverse, and varies depending on brain regions and sleep/wakefulness states. However, whether astrocyte activity differs between sleep/wakefulness states, and whether there are differences in astrocyte activity among brain regions remain poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we recorded astrocyte intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations of mice during sleep/wakefulness states in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pons using fiber photometry. For this purpose, male transgenic mice expressing the genetically encoded ratiometric Ca2+ sensor YCnano50 specifically in their astrocytes were used. We demonstrated that Ca2+ levels in astrocytes substantially decrease during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increase after the onset of wakefulness. In contrast, differences in Ca2+ levels during non-REM (NREM) sleep were observed among the different brain regions, and no significant decrease was observed in the hypothalamus and pons. Further analyses ...
Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. & Lennernäs, M. (2000). Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 14: 4, ss. 195-204.. Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. , Lennernäs, M. & Söderberg, L. (2000). Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 13: 4, ss. 213-225.. Bögglid, H. & Knutsson, A. (2000). Meta-analyse epidemiologischer literatur über schicharbeit und herzerkrankungen.. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft., vol. 54: 3/4, ss. 330-334.. Knutsson, A. (2000). The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, vol. 26: 5, ss. 455-455.. Peter, R. , Alfredsson, L. , Knutsson, A. , Siegrist, J. & Westerholm, P. (1999). Does a stressful psychosocial work environment mediate the effects of shift work on cardiovascular risk factors. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, vol. 25: 4, ss. 376-381.. Nilsson, E. , Pitkänen, P. & Knutsson, A. ...
Scientists already know the chemical histamine sends signals to the brain to make it awake. The new research suggests that the chemical GABA acts against histamine, like a chemical brake preventing wakefulness being too intense.. Researchers from the Imperial College London altered the levels of the GABA produced by the mices brains and measured what changes this had on their brain activity over the day and night.. They found that compared with normal mice, those without GABA ran twice as far and twice as fast, and maintained or even increased their overall activity over a 30 minute period.. The affected mice also stayed awake much longer in the day, and when they did sleep, the mice experienced just 65 per cent of normal sleep.. Wakefulness stimulated by histamine may be too much of a good thing, and so the brain has a built in brake on histamines wake-inducing actions, said Stephen Brickley, who participated in the study.. This discovery could help researchers to develop new drugs that ...
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The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to behavioural neuroscience.
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If youve ever lost your keys or stuck the milk in the cupboard and the cereal in the refrigerator, you may have been the victim of a tired brain region that was taking a quick nap.
1) Learn About Your Natural Sleep-Wake Cycle How familiar do the following sound? Why am I so tired all the time? If only I had 10 more minutes in bed this morning! Maybe I need another coffee? Why does it take me so long to fall asleep? Could I have insomnia? [1] Learning about your natural sleep-wake cycle, or you
Vanda Pharmaceuticals announced that tasimelteon was shown in the Phase 3 RESET study to reset the body clock and to align it to a constant 24-hour day in patients suffering from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24-Hour Disorder).
I woke way too early needing a wee and couldnt get back to sleep. My wakefulness was interpreting by our elderly cat to clomp slowly across the floor for a food/scratch nag. It was a scratch nag as he stayed silent and lay down by the side of the bed until I got up. Then…
Napping can help restore a sense of wakefulness during your work day, but is it right for you? Find out whether or not napping is the right tool to help you feel rested.
If You Dont Know What Is The Awakening, You Are Possibly Just 1 Step Away From A Milestone. If You Already Know - Here Are Few Tips How To Stay In That State.
Nine years ago, I was Thirty Two years old. One thing that has stuck in my mind was what happened a couple of weeks before my kundalini awakened. My parents got into a really bad argument while I was visiting them. My Father is very verbally abusive and when I heard him yelling and cussing,…
We have had Calvin for one month now. He hasnt learned too much yet besides how to efficiently eat, excrete, and make everyone melt because of his cuteness. He seems to be very close to smiling at people, but right now the only time he smiles is right after he eats, when he is tipsy with milk. He has had many visitors in the past month and is now lonely with just Tyler and me. We try to keep him busy with tummy time, swing time, wake time, etc. We hope you enjoy these pictures of highlights in the past month ...
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Whenever you see 11:11 it is really a positive thing, said Solara , a visionary author and lecturer who appeared on Tuesday nights show. She believes that seeing this number combination is a pre-encoded trigger that is meant to activate you when you reach a certain level of awakening. Its like a huge wake-up call, she said. That must have been good news to George Noory and the numerous listeners who have been seeing 11:11 with unusual frequency lately.
Everyone is the formless. Think about this whenever you are looking at a form and believing that it is something. It is a representation. It has something to teach you. But you are not form, and neither is anyone else. Allow, then, all of the forms you seem to see and experience to teach you. This is how you accept your own teaching function.
So, I have searched the forum and I do not know of any FAQ sources, so I have no idea where anything aboit this may have been already written. That is why I pos
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Modern society enables a shortening of sleep times, yet long-term consequences of extended wakefulness on the brain are largely unknown. Essential for optimal alertness, locus ceruleus neurons (LCns) are metabolically active neurons that fire at increased rates across sustained wakefulness. We hypothesized that wakefulness is a metabolic stressor to LCns and that, with extended wakefulness, adaptive mitochondrial metabolic responses fail and injury ensues. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin type 3 (SirT3) coordinates mitochondrial energy production and redox homeostasis. We find that brief wakefulness upregulates SirT3 and antioxidants in LCns, protecting metabolic homeostasis. Strikingly, mice lacking SirT3 lose the adaptive antioxidant response and incur oxidative injury in LCns across brief wakefulness. When wakefulness is extended for longer durations in wild-type mice, SirT3 protein declines in LCns, while oxidative stress and acetylation of mitochondrial ...
Orexins (also known as hypocretins), which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin 1 (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R). In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA) and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA), and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m), and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sleep/wake state on arterial blood pressure in genetically identical mice. AU - Schaub, C. D.. AU - Tankersley, C.. AU - Schwartz, A. R.. AU - Smith, P. L.. AU - Robotham, J. L.. AU - ODonnell, C. P.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Genetic determinants may contribute to the large variability in arterial blood pressure responses to changes in sleep/wake state in humans. In this study, we developed techniques to examine the relationship between sleep/wake state and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in unrestrained, genetically identical mice (C57BL/6J; n = 9). The left common carotid artery was catheterized, and arterial blood gases were analyzed 24-48 h postsurgery to verify normal respiratory and metabolic function. The animals were then allowed to cycle naturally through sleep/wake states over a 3- to 4-h period while continuous polysomnography and arterial pressure measurements were made. The MAP decreased from quiet wakefulness to non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (9.8 ± 1.3 ...
Supporting: 7, Mentioning: 41 - This longitudinal study investigated sleep-wake behavior patterns during and after pregnancy, using an actimeter worn on the non-dominant wrist and a sleep log. Records were obtained from ten mothers, from the 34th week of gestation until the 15th week postpartum. Ten non-pregnant women were used as a control group, data being collected from them for 2 weeks. The sleep-wake behavior after delivery, obtained from wrist actigraphy, was greater in the postpartum period. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and circadian amplitude decreased in the weeks immediately following parturition, but wake after sleep onset increased. Subsequently, all the sleep and circadian variables improved slightly, but they had not returned to the levels of the non-pregnant control group even by the 15th postpartum week. The length of daytime naps increased, in order to make up for nocturnal sleep deprivation when the number of awakenings during nighttime had increased. There were significant
Irregular breathing with sudden changes in both amplitude and frequency at times interrupted by central apneas lasting 10-30 seconds are noted in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. (These are physiologic changes and are different from abnormal breathing patterns noted in sleep disordered breathing). These breathing irregularities are not random, but correspond to bursts of eye movements. This breathing pattern is not controlled by the chemoreceptors, but is due to the activation of behavioral respiratory control system by REM sleep processes. Quantitative measure of airflow is quite variable in this sleep stage and has been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged. Tidal volume has also been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged by quantitative measures in REM sleep. So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was 6.46 +/- 0.29(SEM) liters/minute compared to 7.66 +/- 0.34 liters/minute when awake.[1] ...
Our experiments aimed to investigate whether different degrees of mental activity have a distinct effect on recovery processes during subsequent sleep. Sleep EEGs of 13 subjects, experiencing different degrees of mental activity, were scored visually. Also, the amount of SWA in the sleep EEG was calculated. The results indicate that light and heavy mental activity do not differentially affect sleep stages except for wakefulness after sleep onset. Subjects were less often awake shortly after sleep onset following heavy workload than after light mental activity. However, SWA, an indicator of sleep depth, did not reveal any difference between the light (A) and heavy condition (B). Neither the total amount of SWA expressed during the night, nor the amount of SWA in the first 120 min of NREM sleep, when recovery processes supposedly peak, showed a difference between the conditions. Even when the time course of SWA during sleep was studied in detail, the nights following light and heavy mental ...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
Sleep-wake patterns observed by a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. White bar: light cycle, Black bar: dark cycle, Gray bar: dark cycle during disruption ph
Video created by Universidad de Míchigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. Unit 2 continues the lecture from Helen Baghdoyan, Ph.D. on the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness. PLEASE NOTE: This content is only ...
Video created by University of Michigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. This unit begins with a Course Overview video from Ralph Lydic, Ph.D., followed by the first portion of the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness ...
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Advances in single-cell technologies have revealed vast differences between cells once thought to be in the same category, calling into question how we define cell type in the first place ...
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
An investigation of the effects of an acute 180 degree reversal of the sleep/wake cycle on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was studied in three pubertal boys and the data collected was combined with that from the study of a fourth boy. Two 24 hour periods of blood sampling every 20 minutes were carried out in each of the boys, aged 14 to 15 years. The first study was conducted during a normal s
Rats exposed to novel objects during periods of wakefulness generate neural activity that is correlated with patterns observed in subsequent sleep episodes.
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The Mathematical Structure of the Human Sleep-Wake Cycle by Steven Strogatz, 9780387171760, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
The sleep-wake cycle encompasses approximately 8 hours of sleep and 16 hours of wakefulness. It is important to understand that ideally the sleep period would be at night while the waking hours would be during the day. The darkness and sunlight are conducive to aiding with each state but this is not always practical, like in shift workers who may need to be awake at night and sleep during the day.. It is important to understand the factors that influence the sleep-wake cycle as it provides key ways to stay awake.. ...
AKA: (RS)-2- benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid. This powerful supplement is perfect for staying alert during sleep deprivation. Adrafinil is a prodrug to modafinil. Modafinil is a drug prescribed to people who work swing shifts as well as people suffering from narcolepsy. [1] Adrafinil and Modafinil have nearly identical pharmacological effects. [1] Mental clarity and general wakefulness can become apparent within 45-60 minutes of consumption. [1] The half-life of Modafinil is 15 hours. [2] Effects tend to become more pronounced after taking Adrafinil for several days due to its long half-life.. Adrafinil can cause wakefulness and alertness without the jitters. [2] Adrafinil works by increasing overall brain activity. [2] The overall increase in brain activity is likely the result of Adrafinil augmenting Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, suppressing GABA (an anxiolytic neurotransmitter), and increasing dopamine and glutamate (stimulatory neurotransmitters). [3]. Adrafinil can have cognitive ...
Studies show that light promotes wakefulness and that computer screens and small electronic devices can miscue the brain and promote wakefulness. Photoreceptors in the retina signal our brain about...
Some years later, in 1949, brain researchers Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun successfully triggered comas in cats by using coagulation to destroy the central part of the brainstem, known as the reticular formation. From this result they concluded that these comas were due to an absence of wakefulness.. In other experiments, Moruzzi and Magoun found that by stimulating the reticular formation, they could awaken animals from normal sleep. The two researchers also knew that the reticular formation receives many incoming messages, in particular via the sensory pathways. From these two facts, Moruzzi and Magoun developed the concept of the ascending activating reticular system. The reticular formation in the brainstem then became the prime contender for the title of wakefulness centre. But some of the conclusions drawn from these earlier, cruder, surgical interventions have since been invalidated by more selective experiments. In these experiments, neurotoxic substances were used to destroy ...
Participation in this study will require outpatient screening in addition to a 3 day/2 night stay at the clinical research unit. Participants will be randomized to either take placebo or a sleep aid at bedtime on both nights. A lumbar catheter (similar to a spinal tap or an epidural given at childbirth) will be in place for 36 hours and CSF will be drawn from the catheter every 2 hours. Wires will be applied to the scalp and face to monitor sleep/wake cycles.. ...
Experiments were conducted with 20 subjects on 9 evenings to study the effects of caffeine (150 mg and 300 mg) as compared with placebo upon objective tests of alertness and psychomotor coordination. Simultaneously, mood was assessed by means of a self-rating inventory. The same 20 subjects had also participated in an earlier study on the effects of caffeine upon sleep.. Caffeine had no demonstrable effect upon either objectively measured performance although at the same time it made the subjects feel more alert and physically active.. In some subjects caffeine caused a feeling of nervousness rather than of alertness.. There was a strong positive association between a subjects sensitivity to a mood-elevating effect of caffeine in this experiment and his sensitivity to the wakefulness caused by the drug in earlier experiments on sleep.. ...
University of Tsukuba-led researchers identified roles for SIK3 and NALCN proteins in controlling sleep/wakefulness in mice, through a large-scale genetic screen.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Your reasoning is correct. The two-processes model of sleep propensity does not explain why we best nap at mid-day. The two-processes model can be understood as the first iteration of the ultimate model of sleep and wakefulness. Borbely, Achermann and other researchers continue to enhance the model to better explain various phenomena without making the model overly complex. The optimum nap time is a concept that is best explained by mathematics. The optimum nap time is the time, somewhere in the middle of your waking day in free running sleep, that produces the maximum probability of falling asleep or the minimum average sleep latency. You can easily plot your optimum nap time with SleepChart. SleepChart collects your sleep block statistics and can accurately point to the time of day where your naps might be most beneficial. The only conditions you need to meet are: (1) you need to free run your sleep (SleepChart uses a technique of predicting your homeostatic and circadian sleepiness that ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
In a study of worms, MIT neuroscientists have discovered a gene that plays a critical role in controlling the switch between alternative behavioral states, which for humans include hunger and fullness, or sleep and wakefulness.. This gene, which the researchers dubbed vps-50, helps to regulate neuropeptides - tiny proteins that carry messages between neurons or from neurons to other cells. This kind of signaling is important for controlling physiology and behavior in animals, including humans. Deletions of the human counterpart of the vps-50 gene have been found in some people with autism.. Given what is reported in this paper about how the gene works, coupled with findings by others concerning the genetics of autism, we suggest that the disruption of the function of this gene could promote autism, says H. Robert Horvitz, the David H. Koch Professor of Biology and a member of MITs McGovern Institute for Brain Research.. Horvitz and Martha Constantine-Paton, an MIT professor of brain and ...
Samples meeting the 1994 Fukuda criteria were used; will findings hold true for patients meeting Canadian or International ME/CFS criteria?
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Doctors prescribe modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil, to improve wakefulness in adults who are experiencing excessive sleepiness.
Every parent knows first hand the importance of a good nights sleep for a childs behavior and wellbeing. While most kids experience the occasional night of tossing and turning, some are affected by disorders that routinely disturb their sleep and correspondinglytheir ability to function during the day. Sleep-wake disorders is an umbrella name for upwards of a dozen specific conditions that impair the quality or quantity of sleep a child gets enough to undermine her overall health and functioning. ...
1 January 2383. …a spark…. …a single glimpse of something…. …realization, a reality lost in swirling darkness recognized for what it was for the first time only because, in that single moment, the spark had illuminated the shadow eternity in which he lay, suspended in time…. …consciousness, slowly forming like an undulating tide moving unseen beneath a dark sea, breaching on shores of light which flooded the walls of his reality. Sensation striking him for the first time, though he knew not what it was; only that it was excruciating. Every fiber of his being suddenly ripped from out of darkness and thrust into the light. It was pain. Total, complete agony. It was wakefulness…. …it was a birth…. Initiating independent respiratory response.. …sound, another sensation. Audible tones without meaning, soon replaced by a different sound; that of air being sucked in. Muscles tensing beneath the layers of flesh and exo-armor, the boy felt his jaw pop open as the lungs within him ...
Just curious how many naps they take? My lo has taken 3 for the last 3 months or so and is now fighting his last one lately and so Im just curious if anyones baby is on 2 yet? Or do you get them to cat nap in the evening by holding them or what...also what are their wake times? Thx! My lo just turned 5 months and my first ds (dear son) took 3 naps for 7 months so diff babies are confusing me
Adrafinil is a common nootropic used to increase your level of alertness and wakefulness. Its also the precursor to the pharmaceutical, Modafinil.
The hours between 2am and 4am always seem to be the time when I am most troubled by wakefulness. By this time I have usually had three or four hours sleep. Not full sleep as there are often periods of light sleep during this time where I know I am in bed and should be…
Light in the brain is critical for learning, wakefulness, sleep, mood, hormonal regulation and maintenance of the circadian clock.
Though managing to keep himself from falling again into sleep, Einar spent a good while drifting in a hazy state somewhere between dream and wakefulness, brush bars before him, stars overhead and rock at his back, everything taking on strange and terrifying new meaning so that the task of keeping reality separated from dream-image soon became impossible, and all he wanted was to be out of the cramped confines of that little rock alcove. Wanted it awfully bad, and he struggled, fighting the screen of boughs before him and then when they seemed unwilling to yield turning his attention to the rock itself, bashing with knees, elbows, clawing with his fingers until they were raw and bloody but making no progress. He tried to climb then, wedging himself between the walls and seeking with counter-pressure of hands, feet, knees against opposing surfaces of rock to make some upward progress and at first he thought he might be getting somewhere but then he hit an impasse-of course, doggone cage has a ...
In our research group, we use combined fMRI-EEG and mathematical modelling in studies of brain function related to different mental states e.g., sleep, wakefulness, meditation, and pain.
Product descriptionv street price for provigil. INDICATIONS street price for provigil. Provigil (modafinil) is a medication that promotes wakefulness. It is thought to work by altering the natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain.
Product descriptionv generic for provigil. INDICATIONS generic for provigil. Provigil (modafinil) is a medication that promotes wakefulness. It is thought to work by altering the natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain.
How I knew I was Going Threw a Spiritual Awakening. Spiritual awakening Indicators Feeling Separated This sensation couldnt mean youre going via a spiritual awakening if youre really feeling separated from the word and right currently you do not recognize what to do. Its tough to tell occasionally when a person is experiencing a spiritual ... Read more
Each operator is responsible for the vessels wake. When a boats wake causes damage, you could face very serious consequences. Excessive boat wake may be enforced as Negligent Operation with a fine of $343. The operator also may be held responsible for the damage caused by a boats wake and face a civil lawsuit ...
Echo of Time: Awakening By: WarG-X Hello and welcome to Echo of Time: Awakening. This is a sequel to my previous RP and so the original cast was given the option to retain their slots, which most did. I did open up a couple more slots for those who are interested in playing, I assure we left off in a very good place to pick up for those newcomers that do decide this is something they are interested in. Please let me know if you have any questions as my goal is to make this a great and fun
The Awakening literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Awakening.
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DISCLAIMER: All statements, claims, views and opinions that appear anywhere on this site, whether stated as theories or absolute facts, are always presented by The Great Awakening Report (GAR) as unverified-and should be personally fact checked and discerned by you, the reader.Any opinions or statements herein presented are not necessarily promoted, endorsed, or agreed to by GAR, those who work with GAR, or those who read or subscribe to GAR.Any belief or conclusion gleaned from content on this site is solely the responsibility of you the reader to substantiate.Any actions taken by those who read material on this site are solely the responsibility of the acting party.You are encouraged to think for yourself and do your own research.Nothing on this site is meant to be believed without question or personal appraisal ...
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How will he know to one day wake himself from these lows to treat himself?? The think that gets me about last nights situation, is that as usual, I slightly woke him and got him to drink milk, and with his slight lows and back to bed he goes, but this time, I wanted to wake him enough to see how conscious he was.. and with a bright smile (yes this is rare when I wake him from a dream.. ) when I asked him how he felt, he said great momma, I love you.. good nite I asked him did he feel low, he said no, he felt fine... hummm... so low and did not feel it.... yikes ...
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"Wakefulness, Alertness, Sleep, and Dreams". www.csun.edu. Retrieved 15 April 2019. "The Consequences of Excessive Wakefulness ... Several systems originating in this part of the brain control the shift from wakefulness into sleep and sleep into wakefulness ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Wakefulness. Look up wakefulness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (Articles with short ... Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in ...
Wakefulness (Norwegian: Andvake) is a 2007 novella by Norwegian writer Jon Fosse. The story is set a few hundred years ago. The ... In 2015, Fosse was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the trilogy Wakefulness, Olav's Dreams and Weariness. ...
... was a name claimed by an Arab Sunni Muslim group that launched attacks on American and allied forces ...
jagariya: He practises wakefulness. Sati-sampajanna: He is mindful and self-possessed. First Jhana Second Jhana Third Jhana ... jagariya, wakefulness. satta saddhamma: He develops the seven "excellent qualities" (saddha, hiri, ottappa, bahussuta, viriya, ...
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep-Wakefulness, Environment and Physiology and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: Regulation and Function; ... ISBN 978-0-8247-0322-6. Birendra Nath Mallick (2001). Sleep-Wakefulness. National Book Trust. p. 108. ISBN 978-8123736235. B.N ... 25-. ISBN 978-0-387-27682-3. Neuroendocrine Correlates of Sleep/Wakefulness. Springer Science & Business Media. 14 March 2010. ... please clic Mallick carried his doctoral research on sleep and wakefulness on to his later career and worked on the neural ...
... maintain wakefulness; be aware of merit; and, develop the bodhipakkhiya dhammas throughout the day. In the Khuddaka Nikāya, the ...
In 2014, Igor consecrated the Flowing Wakefulness Fellowship, with a stated mission to serve "as a platform for revealing and ... "Flowing Wakefulness Fellowship". ;- Conscious TV Interview - Igor Kufayev - The Impact Of Awakening (1st interview) ;- ... Igor Kufayev's Official Website Igor Kufayev's YouTube Channel The Online Journal of Igor Kufayev and the Flowing Wakefulness ... Conscious TV Interview - Igor Kufayev - Flowing Wakefulness (2nd interview) Igor Kufayev Education: KUNDALINI: The Source of ...
Kleitman, Nathaniel (1939). Sleep and Wakefulness. Revised and enlarged edition 1963, Reprint edition 1987. The University of ...
The Jivas or individual souls are characterised by four different states of existence which are: 1. Jagrat (Wakefulness), 2. ...
Kleitman N (1963) [1939]. Sleep and Wakefulness. The University of Chicago Press. Öquist O (1970). Kartläggning av individuella ... Physiology professor Nathaniel Kleitman's 1939 book Sleep and Wakefulness, revised 1963, summarized the existing knowledge of ...
Kleitman, Nathaniel (1987). Sleep and Wakefulness. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-44073-7. Page 125 "Hypnopaedia - ...
Narcolepsy, hypnogogic hallucination, wakefulness and somnolence were mentioned by other authors of the nineteenth century. ... Kleitman, N. (1939). Sleep and Wakefulness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 280-9. Broughton, R. J. (1968-03-08). " ... Transient disorder of initiating or maintaining wakefulness 307.44 Persistent disorder of initiating or maintaining wakefulness ...
The Jivas or individual souls are characterised by different states of existence which are: 1. Jagrat (Wakefulness), 2. Swapna ...
Fosse was awarded the 2015 Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the trilogy Andvake (Wakefulness), Olavs draumar (Olav's ... May-Brit Akerholt (Dalkey Archive, 2016). Compiles three novellas: Wakefulness, Olav's Dreams and Weariness. Det andre namnet ... Damion Searls (Dalkey Archive, 2010). Andvake (2007). Wakefulness Kortare prosa (2011). Shorter Prose Olavs draumar (2012). ...
"Maintenance of Wakefulness Test". Hypersomnia Foundation. Dauvilliers, Yves; et al. (2006-04-01). "Differential Diagnosis in ... "Mice with systemic carnitine deficiency exhibit a higher frequency of fragmented wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep ... List of investigational sleep drugs Altered level of consciousness Wakefulness Sleep study Sleep medicine Sleep hygiene Sleep ... Atomoxetine (or reboxetine in Europe) is an adrenergic reuptake inhibitor which increases wakefulness (generally less strongly ...
Llinás RR, Paré D (1991). "Of dreaming and wakefulness". Neuroscience. 44 (3): 521-35. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(91)90075-y. PMID ...
In adults, wakefulness increases, especially in later cycles. One study found 3% awake time in the first ninety-minute sleep ... It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but more reactive than a coma or disorders of ... During wakefulness, theta oscillations have been often related to successful performance in memory tasks, and cued memory ... Derk-Jan D, Edgar DM (1999). "Circadian and Homeostatic Control of Wakefulness and Sleep". In Zee PC, Turek FW (eds.). ...
Ekkehard Othmer, Mary P. Hayden, and Robert Segelbaum, "Encephalic Cycles during Sleep and Wakefulness in Humans: a 24-Hour ... Kleitman, N. (1963). Sleep and Wakefulness Chicago, Univ. Chicago Jfress Berry, R. B., & Wagner, M. H. (2014). Sleep Medicine ... to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness. In humans, this cycle takes 70 to 110 minutes ( ...
It runs at a baseline level during wakefulness, but increases temporarily when a person is presented with any sort of stimulus ... Norepinephrine release is lowest during sleep, rises during wakefulness, and reaches much higher levels during situations of ... Berridge CW, Schmeichel BE, España RA (2012). "Noradrenergic modulation of wakefulness/arousal". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 16 (2 ...
As adenosine accumulates during wakefulness it is likely that type 2 cells play a role in sleep induction. The remaining third ... The role of the VLPO in sleep and wakefulness, and its association with sleep disorders - particularly insomnia and narcolepsy ... Schwartz MD, Kilduff TS (December 2015). "The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America ... The VLPO is inhibited during wakefulness by the arousal-inducing neurotransmitters norepinephrine and acetylcholine. ...
... seems to promote wakefulness. Studies indicate that a major role of the orexin system is to integrate metabolic, ... Inutsuka A, Yamanaka A (2013). "The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and ... Ohno K, Sakurai T (January 2008). "Orexin neuronal circuitry: role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness". Frontiers in ... Narcolepsy results in excessive daytime sleepiness, inability to consolidate wakefulness in the day (and sleep at night), and ...
"Normal Sleep and Wakefulness" (PDF). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Lavie, P (May 1986). "Ultrashort ... They are the result of circadian rhythms cycling into a phase of wakefulness. For example, many people experience the effects ... The improvement as test subjects caught another wind was even more pronounced on the second day of extended wakefulness. A ... which helps maintain wakefulness. As late afternoon transitions into evening, changes in light levels can stimulate the ...
Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., & McCarley, R. W. (2012). CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS. ...
REM sleep is coined "paradoxical" because of its similarities to wakefulness. Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts as ... Whereas acetylcholine manifests in the cortex equally during wakefulness and REM, it appears in higher concentrations in the ... Steriade & McCarley (1990), "Brainstem Control of Wakefulness and Sleep", §8.1 (pp. 232-243). Lomas T, Ivtzan I, Fu CH (2015 ... Steriade & McCarley (1990), Brainstem Control of Wakefulness and Sleep, § (pp. 428-432). Jouvet (1999), The Paradox of ...
Boutrel B, Koob GF (September 2004). "What keeps us awake: the neuropharmacology of stimulants and wakefulness-promoting ... "Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2 (2): 117-28. doi:10.1016/s1087-0792(98)90004-1. PMID ... as these substances activate neurobiological systems that maintain wakefulness. Alcohol near bedtime is frequently discouraged ...
"Histamine in the regulation of wakefulness". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 15 (1): 65-74. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2010.06.004. PMC 3016451 ...
These include the questioning of space and time and their continuity; the confusion of dreaming and wakefulness; the ...
14-15 Trungpa, Chögyam (8 April 2013). The Tantric Path of Indestructible Wakefulness. Shambhala Publications. p. 27. ISBN ... The Tantric Path of Indestructible Wakefulness. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 9781590308042. ...invite the Indian teacher ...
This suppresses daytime melatonin, enabling wakefulness. Working in blue-free light (aka yellow light) for long periods of time ... is essential to wakefulness, because it stimulates melanopsin receptors in the eye. ...
Histamine plays a role in wakefulness in the brain. An allergic reaction over produces histamine, causing wakefulness and ... Thus, during wakefulness, the AB burden is greater because the metabolic activity and oxidative stress are higher, and there is ... Thakkar MM (February 2011). "Histamine in the regulation of wakefulness". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 15 (1): 65-74. doi:10.1016/j. ... Sleepwalking or somnambulism, engaging in activities normally associated with wakefulness (such as eating or dressing), which ...
Circadian Rhythms Promote Wakefulness. Figure 3 shows the rise and fall of circadian rhythms for wakefulness. ... The rise and fall of circadian rhythms, which promote wakefulness across the 24-hour day. ... Create a peak in wakefulness in the evening, a few hours before bedtime ...
... on patterns of sleep and wakefulness. The mechanism of sleep disruption in relation to circadian rhythms … ... Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness Occup Med (Lond). 2003 Mar;53(2):89-94. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqg046. ... on patterns of sleep and wakefulness. The mechanism of sleep disruption in relation to circadian rhythms and the specific ...
... wakefulness and arousal in man can be correlated with specific forms of the electroencephalogram1 has led to intensive studies ... of these states, mostly in mammals2-5. Today it is generally accepted that circadian sleep-wakefulness cycles occur in mammals ... for mammals makes it likely that the neuronal phenomena presented here are correlates of the bees circadian sleep-wakefulness ... Kaiser, W., Steiner-Kaiser, J. Neuronal correlates of sleep, wakefulness and arousal in a diurnal insect. Nature 301, 707-709 ( ...
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Maintenance of wakefulness tests are used to measure your alertness throughout the day and how you respond to sleep disorder ... Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) at UPMC in Central Pa.. The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) measures how alert you ...
2 The natural progression of the states of wakefulness and sleep. *3 Wakefulness and the desynchronized EEG *3.1 Wakefulness ... Wakefulness and the desynchronized EEG Wakefulness depends on forebrain activation Figure 4: The principal activating systems ... The EOG and EMG recordings also show high activity during wakefulness. In contrast to wakefulness, sleep is characterized by ... Defining sleep and wakefulness Figure 1: Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) signals can be used to define the ...
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Dive into the research topics of The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity. Together they form a unique ... title = "The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity",. abstract = "Myelin plasticity is gaining increasing ... The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity. / de Vivo, Luisa; Bellesi, Michele. ... The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity. In: Glia. 2019. ...
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On Roberto Echavarrens The Espresso Between Sleep and Wakefulness. November 30, 2017. in Reviews tagged B.C.A. Belcastro / ... Echavarren opens with the titular "Espresso Between Sleep and Wakefulness," posing what follows as something more than a dream ... passing from the realm of early wakefulness, of being "drunk on espresso coffee / [to] go out at express speed" to a definite ...
Wakefulness is more than just not being asleep. It is an alertness about yourself and the people and circumstances around you ...
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A new approach to the analysis of the human sleep/wakefulness continuum Share Share Share ... A new approach to the analysis of the human sleep/wakefulness continuum ...
Comparing objective wakefulness and vigilance tests to on-the-road driving performance in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia ... Comparing objective wakefulness and vigilance tests to on-the-road driving performance in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia ... Comparing objective wakefulness and vigilance tests to on-the-road driving performance in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia ... title = "Comparing objective wakefulness and vigilance tests to on-the-road driving performance in narcolepsy and idiopathic ...
Owlets showed ultradian rhythms in sleep-wakefulness, with a period length of 4.5 to 4.9 h. The period length of wakefulness ... This raises the possibility that individual spottiness could be associated with rhythmicity in sleep-wakefulness. ...
... recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) remains a challenge. Most previous prognostic studies have focused on the ... has been proposed for patients in subacute unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. The scales clinical application awaits ... Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a new name for the vegetative state or apallic syndrome. BMC Med 2010, 8: 68. 10.1186/1741- ... Bodart, O., Laureys, S. Predicting outcome from subacute unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or vegetative state. Crit Care 18, ...
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Promotion of wakefulness. Brain areas critical for wakefulness consist of several discrete neuronal groups centered around the ... Hypocretin neurons in the posterolateral hypothalamus are active during wakefulness and project to all of the wakefulness ... Sleep and wakefulness is a tightly regulated process. Reciprocal connections in the brain produce consolidated periods of ... The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends Neurosci. 2001 Dec. 24(12):726-31. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
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  • The rise and fall of circadian rhythms, which promote wakefulness across the 24-hour day. (cdc.gov)
  • In a wonderful Ted Ed lesson written by educator Hanan Qasim and animated by Adriatic Animation , the purposeful pharmacological effect of caffeine is explained, specifically how it works in the human body to promote wakefulness. (laughingsquid.com)
  • Avoid sunlight/bright lights 1.5 hours prior to sleep, as it can stimulate your circadian system to promote wakefulness. (cdc.gov)
  • It is extensively used to promote wakefulness in a person with excessive daytime sleepiness. (blogspot.com)
  • Each cannabinoid has a different effect on the body, some promote relaxation while others promote wakefulness. (cbdamericanshaman.com)
  • Predicting recovery of consciousness in patients who survive their coma but evolve to a vegetative state (recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) remains a challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel outcome scale (combining behavioural, aetiology, electroencephalographic, sleep electroencephalographic and somatosensory evoked potential data) has been proposed for patients in subacute unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By calling it 'unresponsive wakefulness syndrome' we describe what we clinically see but do not judge whether there is consciousness or not," said Dr. Moonen, a member of the European Task Force on Disorders of Consciousness. (medscape.com)
  • This Unabating Wakefulness" is a single 15-minute track that was included on the digital download card of "The Psalter MMXVII" - Five Year Commemorative Mizmor Discography, which is now sold out. (bigoutrecords.com)
  • The discovery that various states of sleep, rest, wakefulness and arousal in man can be correlated with specific forms of the electroencephalogram 1 has led to intensive studies of these states, mostly in mammals 2-5 . (nature.com)
  • Yet, at the same time, it also increases levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland that causes arousal - wakefulness. (globalbrandsmagazine.com)
  • Figure 3 shows the rise and fall of circadian rhythms for wakefulness. (cdc.gov)
  • This unit begins with a Course Overview video from Ralph Lydic, Ph.D., followed by the first portion of the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness lecture, delivered by Helen Baghdoyan, Ph.D. PLEASE NOTE: Only the Course Overview video, and the Getting Started and Syllabus readings are required for students who have chosen to engage in the Standard Track portion of the course content. (coursera.org)
  • Stage 1, a brief transitional phase after wakefulness, is followed by Stage 2 sleep when EEG frequencies slow further. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Which sleep stage is a transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep? (safe-sleep.eu)
  • Stage 1 sleepStage 1 sleep is a transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep, the period during which we drift off to sleep. (safe-sleep.eu)
  • We provide Modavigil 200mg tablets to help people improve wakefulness in people with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with the medical condition known as narcolepsy or Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAHS), or shift work sleep disorder (SWSD). (pharmaonline.store)
  • You see when you take a brand of generic Modalert such as Modafresh 200 it allows your brain to work on the neurotransmitters of the brain that control wakefulness and alertness . (pills4usa.com)
  • The course provides cellular-level understanding of how sleep deprivation, jet lag, and substances such as alcohol, ,caffeine, and nicotine alter sleep and wakefulness. (coursera.org)
  • Today it is generally accepted that circadian sleep-wakefulness cycles occur in mammals and birds 2,3,6 . (nature.com)
  • Our data show that bruxism can occur not only as a parasomnia but also as a seizure-related event during wakefulness. (elsevier.com)
  • they may also occur during wakefulness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The seizures can occur during wakefulness and sleep. (osmosis.org)
  • In fact, the EEG in humans during REM sleep is essentially identical to that recorded during wakefulness, but the EOG reveals rapid bursts of eye movements, hence the name of the state. (scholarpedia.org)
  • At sleep onset in humans, the low voltage, high frequency EEG pattern of wakefulness, often with alpha waves when the eyes are closed, gradually changes to Stage 1 sleep as the EEG frequencies slow. (scholarpedia.org)
  • As such, green light may be expected to increase wakefulness rather than increasing sleep in humans. (globalbrandsmagazine.com)
  • Although the studies are relatively small and focused on non-humans, there is a strong implication that not only is Quiet Wakefulness useful for sleep anxiety, it also has many exclusive benefits of its own. (danielriley.blog)
  • Sleep and wakefulness are brain states that depend on specific systems of neurons for their onset maintenance, and termination. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Is Suvorexant (Belsomra) Effective in Reducing Wakefulness after Sleep Onset in Healthy Patients Diagnosed with Insomnia? (pcom.edu)
  • The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine if Suvorexant (Belsomra) is effective in reducing wakefulness after sleep onset in healthy patients diagnosed with insomnia that are 18 years old or older. (pcom.edu)
  • The first study, Michelson et al proved that after one year, suvorexant showed greater reduction in wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) than placebo with a change in baseline -33.5 (-37.4 to -29.7) compared to placebo, -23.8 (-29.3 to -18.3). (pcom.edu)
  • According to the three double-blind randomized controlled trials, Suvorexant (Belsomra) is effective in reducing wakefulness after sleep onset in healthy patients with insomnia over the age of 18 years old. (pcom.edu)
  • The course of meditative progress suggests a nonlinear multiphasic trajectory, such that early phases that are more effortful may produce more fatigue and sleep propensity, while later stages produce greater wakefulness as a result of neuroplastic changes and more efficient processing. (virginia.edu)
  • But certainly, in its active stages, it can generate not only wakefulness in patients but also a general increase in cognitive abilities increase in memory, focus, concentration, logic, and alertness. (pills4usa.com)
  • In contrast, wakefulness is the absence of sleep and is marked by consciousness, awareness and activity. (scholarpedia.org)
  • wakefulness and awareness . (brainline.org)
  • The neurons and their circuits (connections) that support wakefulness are in one region of the brain, and the neurons and circuits that provide awareness are in other regions of the brain. (brainline.org)
  • Dr. Roberts first had to determine whether Matt's brain was capable of wakefulness, and then she would look for signs of awareness. (brainline.org)
  • The part of the brain responsible for wakefulness is the reticular activating system (RAS), a collection of neurons in the upper brainstem that sends widespread stimulatory projections to the areas of the brain responsible for awareness. (brainline.org)
  • They like to rest in the wakefulness or awareness. (jagjotsingh.com)
  • However, it was only in 1929 that the German psychiatrist, Hans Berger discovered that the electrical activity of the brain could be recorded as brain waves and that these waves changed as wakefulness gave way to sleep. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In contrast to wakefulness, sleep is characterized by higher voltages and slower waves, a pattern called synchronized EEG. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Which waves are to wakefulness and which waves are to deep sleep? (safe-sleep.eu)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram ( EMG ) signals can be used to define the states of wakefulness and sleep. (scholarpedia.org)
  • EEG data are combined with those from concurrent recording of eye movements from the electrooculogram (EOG), and muscle tone from the electromyogram (EMG) to define the states of sleep and wakefulness. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) at UPMC in Central Pa. (upmc.com)
  • The maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) measures how alert you are during the day and is used to determine how well you are responding to treatment for your sleep disorder. (upmc.com)
  • Here, we present recent progress and summarize our current understanding of the circuitry underlying the initiation, maintenance and coordination of wakefulness , rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). (bvsalud.org)
  • However, although wakefulness is necessary for consciousness, wakefulness alone is insufficient for consciousness. (brainline.org)
  • Which stage of sleep is a transition between wakefulness and sleep? (safe-sleep.eu)
  • Stage 1 non-REM sleep marks the transition from wakefulness to sleep. (safe-sleep.eu)
  • 14. Hypnagogia is the transitional stage between wakefulness and sleep. (factrepublic.com)
  • The duration of slow-wave sleep is determined by the previous duration of this stage as well as the duration of prior wakefulness. (alchetron.com)
  • However, as we have shown that there are different pathways in the brain, by which different colours of light have different effects on sleep or wakefulness, we need to understand how the overall colour balance of artificial light could affect people's alertness and sleep. (globalbrandsmagazine.com)
  • The major factor determining how much slow-wave sleep is observed in a given sleep period is the duration of preceding wakefulness, likely related to accumulation of sleep-promoting substances in the brain. (alchetron.com)
  • This review describes the main observed effects of the three principal shifts (night, morning and afternoon) on patterns of sleep and wakefulness. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the effects of sustained wakefulness over a normal "socially constrained" day (following 18 h of sustained wakefulness), following a night of normal sleep, on visual attention as a function of chronotype. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion - Sustained wakefulness produced differential effects on visual attention as a function of chronotype. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • In an attempt to counterbalance the plethora of data demonstrating the relaxing and hypoarousing effects of Buddhist meditation, this interdisciplinary review aims to provide evidence of meditation's arousing or wake-promoting effects by drawing both from Buddhist textual sources and from scientific studies, including subjective, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies during wakefulness, meditation, and sleep. (virginia.edu)
  • Some technologies can monitor vehicle operators for indicators of wakefulness, such as percent eyelid closure (PERCLOS) and head orientation, while alertness can be monitored at the neurological level using hard hats lined with electroencephalogram (EEG) activity tracking. (cdc.gov)
  • But many of us aren't very good at maintaining high levels of energy and wakefulness throughout the day. (essentialoilsanctuary.com)
  • So how do we keep consistent levels of wakefulness and energy, without the crash? (essentialoilsanctuary.com)
  • We'll conclude with some additional non-essential oil based natural remedies for increasing energy and wakefulness. (essentialoilsanctuary.com)
  • Wakefulness is linked to stress on your mitochondria - or your cells' energy factories. (mercolamarket.com)
  • This creates feelings of wakefulness and motivation and a feeling of refreshment with renewed energy. (pills4usa.com)
  • The EOG and EMG recordings also show high activity during wakefulness. (scholarpedia.org)
  • It has made me more alert and wakefulness thought out the day. (buyinghemp.net)
  • The download Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness again shortly turns the line and is him some similarity. (hallwachs-it.de)
  • 2 thoughts on "Nathaniel Kleitman, "Sleep and Wakefulness", 1963. (holidayrecipestocook.com)
  • There are three types of dreams: The reflection of one's thoughts and experiences one has during wakefulness, what is suggested by Satan to frighten the dreamer, or glad tidings from Allah. (azharacademy.com)
  • An estimated 50-70 million people in the United States experience chronic sleep or wakefulness conditions, which are more common in females and older individuals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Wakefulness, as shown in Figure 1 , is defined by a low voltage fast frequency EEG pattern, called desynchronized or activated EEG, that consists primarily of frequencies in the beta and gamma ranges. (scholarpedia.org)
  • An EEG shows a slow spike-and-wave pattern during wakefulness and generalized paroxysmal fast activity during sleep. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While Quiet Wakefulness certainly isn't a replacement for good old sleep, it can serve as a fantastic supplement. (danielriley.blog)
  • In a nutshell, Quiet Wakefulness is simply the act of resting with your eyes closed . (danielriley.blog)
  • Many of you may have already experienced some form of Quiet Wakefulness before but may have just lacked the specific word for your experience. (danielriley.blog)
  • One study on rats found that during their form of quiet wakefulness (lying in one place, grooming themselves etc), they replayed and contextualised past events in order to inform future choices. (danielriley.blog)
  • Wakefulness points are calculated in the reverse order that they're drawn, starting with the last card placed on the table. (nerdist.com)
  • There are a number of reasons why Quiet Wakefulness might work for sleep anxiety. (danielriley.blog)
  • de Vivo, L & Bellesi, M 2019, ' The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity ', Glia . (bris.ac.uk)