A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide
A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Persistent Vegetative State
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Hypothalamic Area, Lateral
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Central Nervous System Stimulants
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
Sleep Apnea, Central
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Automobile Driver Examination
Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Analysis of Variance
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (1/2490)Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3). (+info)
Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (2/2490)Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking. (+info)
Patterns of spontaneous purkinje cell complex spike activity in the awake rat. (3/2490)The olivocerebellar system is known to generate periodic synchronous discharges that result in synchronous (to within 1 msec) climbing fiber activation of Purkinje cells (complex spikes) organized in parasagittally oriented strips. These results have been obtained primarily in anesthetized animals, and so the question remains whether the olivocerebellar system generates such patterns in the awake animal. To this end, multiple electrode recordings of crus 2a complex spike activity were obtained in awake rats conditioned to execute tongue movements in response to a tone. After removal of all movement- and tone-related activity, the remaining data were examined to characterize spontaneous complex spike activity in the alert animal. Spontaneous complex spikes occurred at an average firing rate of 1 Hz and a clear approximately 10 Hz rhythmicity. Analysis of the autocorrelograms using a rhythm index indicated that the large majority of Purkinje cells displayed rhythmicity, similar to that in the anesthetized preparation. In addition, the patterns of synchronous complex spike activity were also similar to those observed in the anesthetized preparation (i.e., simultaneous activity was found predominantly among Purkinje cells located within the same parasagittally oriented strip of cortex). The results provide unequivocal evidence that the olivocerebellar system is capable of generating periodic patterns of synchronous activity in the awake animal. These findings support the extrapolation of previous results obtained in the anesthetized preparation to the waking state and are consistent with the timing hypothesis concerning the role of the olivocerebellar system in motor coordination. (+info)
Ageing and the circadian and homeostatic regulation of human sleep during forced desynchrony of rest, melatonin and temperature rhythms. (4/2490)1. The circadian timing system has been implicated in age-related changes in sleep structure, timing and consolidation in humans. 2. We investigated the circadian regulation of sleep in 13 older men and women and 11 young men by forced desynchrony of polysomnographically recorded sleep episodes (total, 482; 9 h 20 min each) and the circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and core body temperature. 3. Stage 4 sleep was reduced in older people. Overall levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were not significantly affected by age. The latencies to REM sleep were shorter in older people when sleep coincided with the melatonin rhythm. REM sleep was increased in the first quarter of the sleep episode and the increase of REM sleep in the course of sleep was diminished in older people. 4. Sleep propensity co-varied with the circadian rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin in both age groups. Sleep latencies were longest just before the onset of melatonin secretion and short sleep latencies were observed close to the temperature nadir. In older people sleep latencies were longer close to the crest of the melatonin rhythm. 5. In older people sleep duration was reduced at all circadian phases and sleep consolidation deteriorated more rapidly during the course of sleep, especially when the second half of the sleep episode occurred after the crest of the melatonin rhythm. 6. The data demonstrate age-related decrements in sleep consolidation and increased susceptibility to circadian phase misalignment in older people. These changes, and the associated internal phase advance of the propensity to awaken from sleep, appear to be related to the interaction between a reduction in the homeostatic drive for sleep and a reduced strength of the circadian signal promoting sleep in the early morning. (+info)
Influence of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure on central apnea in heart failure. (5/2490)BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that acute pulmonary congestion induces hyperventilation and that hyperventilation-related hypocapnia leads to ventilatory control instability and central sleep apnea. Whether chronic pulmonary congestion due to congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with central apnea is unknown. We hypothesized that CHF patients with central apnea would have greater pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) than patients without central apnea and that PCWP would correlate with central apnea severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five stable CHF patients underwent right heart catheterization and, on the basis of overnight sleep studies, were divided into central apnea (n=33), obstructive apnea (n=20), or nonapnea groups (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] <5 events per hour). Mean PCWP was significantly greater in the central than in the obstructive and nonapnea groups (mean+/-SEM [range]: 22. 8+/-1.2 [11 to 38] versus 12.3+/-1.2 [4 to 21] versus 11.5+/-1.5 [3 to 28] mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001). Within the central apnea group, PCWP correlated with the frequency and severity of central apnea (AHI: r=0.47, P=0.006) and degree of hypocapnia (PaCO2: r=-0.42, P=0. 017). Intensive medical therapy in 7 patients with initially high PCWP and central apneas reduced both PCWP (29.0+/-2.6 [20 to 38] to 22.0+/-1.8 [17 to 27] mm Hg; P<0.001) and central apnea frequency (AHI) (38.5+/-7.7 [7 to 62] to 18.5+/-5.3 [1 to 31] events per hour; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: PCWP is elevated in CHF patients with central apneas compared with those with obstructive apnea or without apnea. Moreover, a highly significant relationship exists between PCWP, hypocapnia, and central apnea frequency and severity. (+info)
Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. (6/2490)As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques. (+info)
Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. (7/2490)Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings. (+info)
Eastward long distance flights, sleep and wake patterns in air crews in connection with a two-day layover. (8/2490)The present study describes the spontaneous sleep/wake pattern in connection with an eastward (Stockholm to Tokyo, +8 h) transmeridian flight and short (51 h) layovers. To describe all sleep episodes and the recovery process across 4 days, and to relate adjustment to individual differences, 49 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) air crew were monitored for 9 days with activity monitors and sleep/wake diary before-during-after flight. The outbound flight involved a period of wakefulness extended to 21 h, frequently (87% of air crew) terminated by a long nap in Tokyo which was calm but difficult to wake up from. Then followed two night oriented sleep periods of normal length but of reduced efficiency, containing many and long awakenings. Napping was common during the extended periods of wakefulness, particularly during flights. During the recovery days, ease of rising from sleep in the mornings was difficult throughout, and feelings of not being refreshed returned to baseline levels on the third recovery sleep. Elevated daytime sleepiness (24% of the day) was observed on the first recovery day. No individual differences related to gender, age or position (cabin/pilot) was found in sleep strategy. Poor adjusters, subjects with a perceived lowered capacity on recovery days, showed more premature awakenings abroad and less refreshing sleep during the last 12 months, suggesting a decreased ability to cope with air crew scheduling. Comparisons with a westbound flight showed the eastbound flight layover sleep to be more problematic and containing more napping. (+info)
Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. & Lennernäs, M. (2000). Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 14: 4, ss. 195-204.. Landström, U. , Knutsson, A. , Lennernäs, M. & Söderberg, L. (2000). Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness. Nutrition and Health, vol. 13: 4, ss. 213-225.. Bögglid, H. & Knutsson, A. (2000). Meta-analyse epidemiologischer literatur über schicharbeit und herzerkrankungen.. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft., vol. 54: 3/4, ss. 330-334.. Knutsson, A. (2000). The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, vol. 26: 5, ss. 455-455.. Peter, R. , Alfredsson, L. , Knutsson, A. , Siegrist, J. & Westerholm, P. (1999). Does a stressful psychosocial work environment mediate the effects of shift work on cardiovascular risk factors. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, vol. 25: 4, ss. 376-381.. Nilsson, E. , Pitkänen, P. & Knutsson, A. ...
Researchers discover brain chemicals affecting wakefulness 英文频道 长城网
Scientists already know the chemical histamine sends signals to the brain to make it awake. The new research suggests that the chemical GABA acts against histamine, like a chemical brake preventing wakefulness being too intense.. Researchers from the Imperial College London altered the levels of the GABA produced by the mices brains and measured what changes this had on their brain activity over the day and night.. They found that compared with normal mice, those without GABA ran twice as far and twice as fast, and maintained or even increased their overall activity over a 30 minute period.. The affected mice also stayed awake much longer in the day, and when they did sleep, the mice experienced just 65 per cent of normal sleep.. Wakefulness stimulated by histamine may be too much of a good thing, and so the brain has a built in brake on histamines wake-inducing actions, said Stephen Brickley, who participated in the study.. This discovery could help researchers to develop new drugs that ...
Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Koh Sasaki, Mika Suzuki, Michihiro Mieda, Natsuko Tsujino, Bryan Roth, Takeshi Sakurai].
Brain-mapping technique aids understanding of sleep, wakefulness ( The power of a new technique to map con...)
The power of a new technique to map connections among nerve cells in t...By tracking which nerve cells in the mouse brain stimulate others res...The findings available online and appearing in the April 21 issue of ... We all know subjectively and objectively that there is a very strong ...Dr. Yanagisawa and his colleagues focused on neurons in the brain that...,Brain-mapping,technique,aids,understanding,of,sleep,,wakefulness,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Wakefulness and Sleep
The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to behavioural neuroscience.
Brain regions can take short naps during wakefulness, leading to errors
If youve ever lost your keys or stuck the milk in the cupboard and the cereal in the refrigerator, you may have been the victim of a tired brain region that was taking a quick nap.
How do Blue Block Glasses Work?
1) Learn About Your Natural Sleep-Wake Cycle How familiar do the following sound? Why am I so tired all the time? If only I had 10 more minutes in bed this morning! Maybe I need another coffee? Why does it take me so long to fall asleep? Could I have insomnia?  Learning about your natural sleep-wake cycle, or you
Phase 3 Study Update of Tasimelteon for Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder - MPR
Vanda Pharmaceuticals announced that tasimelteon was shown in the Phase 3 RESET study to reset the body clock and to align it to a constant 24-hour day in patients suffering from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24-Hour Disorder).
Is Napping Right For You? | HubPages
Napping can help restore a sense of wakefulness during your work day, but is it right for you? Find out whether or not napping is the right tool to help you feel rested.
more than words can describe: May 2009
We have had Calvin for one month now. He hasnt learned too much yet besides how to efficiently eat, excrete, and make everyone melt because of his cuteness. He seems to be very close to smiling at people, but right now the only time he smiles is right after he eats, when he is tipsy with milk. He has had many visitors in the past month and is now lonely with just Tyler and me. We try to keep him busy with tummy time, swing time, wake time, etc. We hope you enjoy these pictures of highlights in the past month ...
The 11:11 Phenomenon - Shows
Whenever you see 11:11 it is really a positive thing, said Solara , a visionary author and lecturer who appeared on Tuesday nights show. She believes that seeing this number combination is a pre-encoded trigger that is meant to activate you when you reach a certain level of awakening. Its like a huge wake-up call, she said. That must have been good news to George Noory and the numerous listeners who have been seeing 11:11 with unusual frequency lately.
Spell of Awakening
So, I have searched the forum and I do not know of any FAQ sources, so I have no idea where anything aboit this may have been already written. That is why I pos
Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons | Journal of Neuroscience
Modern society enables a shortening of sleep times, yet long-term consequences of extended wakefulness on the brain are largely unknown. Essential for optimal alertness, locus ceruleus neurons (LCns) are metabolically active neurons that fire at increased rates across sustained wakefulness. We hypothesized that wakefulness is a metabolic stressor to LCns and that, with extended wakefulness, adaptive mitochondrial metabolic responses fail and injury ensues. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin type 3 (SirT3) coordinates mitochondrial energy production and redox homeostasis. We find that brief wakefulness upregulates SirT3 and antioxidants in LCns, protecting metabolic homeostasis. Strikingly, mice lacking SirT3 lose the adaptive antioxidant response and incur oxidative injury in LCns across brief wakefulness. When wakefulness is extended for longer durations in wild-type mice, SirT3 protein declines in LCns, while oxidative stress and acetylation of mitochondrial ...
Frontiers | Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist, compound 1 m, on sleep/wakefulness...
Orexins (also known as hypocretins), which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin 1 (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R). In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA) and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA), and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m), and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light
Effect of sleep/wake state on arterial blood pressure in genetically identical mice<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sleep/wake state on arterial blood pressure in genetically identical mice. AU - Schaub, C. D.. AU - Tankersley, C.. AU - Schwartz, A. R.. AU - Smith, P. L.. AU - Robotham, J. L.. AU - ODonnell, C. P.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Genetic determinants may contribute to the large variability in arterial blood pressure responses to changes in sleep/wake state in humans. In this study, we developed techniques to examine the relationship between sleep/wake state and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in unrestrained, genetically identical mice (C57BL/6J; n = 9). The left common carotid artery was catheterized, and arterial blood gases were analyzed 24-48 h postsurgery to verify normal respiratory and metabolic function. The animals were then allowed to cycle naturally through sleep/wake states over a 3- to 4-h period while continuous polysomnography and arterial pressure measurements were made. The MAP decreased from quiet wakefulness to non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (9.8 ± 1.3 ...
Sleep and breathing - Wikipedia
Irregular breathing with sudden changes in both amplitude and frequency at times interrupted by central apneas lasting 10-30 seconds are noted in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. (These are physiologic changes and are different from abnormal breathing patterns noted in sleep disordered breathing). These breathing irregularities are not random, but correspond to bursts of eye movements. This breathing pattern is not controlled by the chemoreceptors, but is due to the activation of behavioral respiratory control system by REM sleep processes. Quantitative measure of airflow is quite variable in this sleep stage and has been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged. Tidal volume has also been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged by quantitative measures in REM sleep. So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was 6.46 +/- 0.29(SEM) liters/minute compared to 7.66 +/- 0.34 liters/minute when awake. ...
Sustained mental workload does not affect subsequent sleep intensity - De Bruin - 2002 - Journal of Sleep Research - Wiley...
Our experiments aimed to investigate whether different degrees of mental activity have a distinct effect on recovery processes during subsequent sleep. Sleep EEGs of 13 subjects, experiencing different degrees of mental activity, were scored visually. Also, the amount of SWA in the sleep EEG was calculated. The results indicate that light and heavy mental activity do not differentially affect sleep stages except for wakefulness after sleep onset. Subjects were less often awake shortly after sleep onset following heavy workload than after light mental activity. However, SWA, an indicator of sleep depth, did not reveal any difference between the light (A) and heavy condition (B). Neither the total amount of SWA expressed during the night, nor the amount of SWA in the first 120 min of NREM sleep, when recovery processes supposedly peak, showed a difference between the conditions. Even when the time course of SWA during sleep was studied in detail, the nights following light and heavy mental ...
The effect of nocturnal blue light exposure from light-emitting diodes on wakefulness and energy metabolism the following...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
Sleep-wake patterns observed by a circadian rhythm disr | Open-i
Sleep-wake patterns observed by a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. White bar: light cycle, Black bar: dark cycle, Gray bar: dark cycle during disruption ph
02.07: Wake & REM: Orexin - Unit 02 - Neurobiology Section: Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness (Part Two) - (Honors Track) |...
Video created by Universidad de Míchigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. Unit 2 continues the lecture from Helen Baghdoyan, Ph.D. on the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness. PLEASE NOTE: This content is only ...
02.04 - Wake & REM: Monoamines - Unit 01 - Neurobiology Section: Course Introduction & Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness ...
Video created by University of Michigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. This unit begins with a Course Overview video from Ralph Lydic, Ph.D., followed by the first portion of the Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness ...
Sleep Wake Cycle - Page 5 - Association for Psychological Science - APS
Recent Articles | Sleep/wake Cycle And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 2
Advances in single-cell technologies have revealed vast differences between cells once thought to be in the same category, calling into question how we define cell type in the first place ...
Recent Articles | Sleep/wake Cycle, Culture And Neuroscience | The Scientist Magazine®
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00190560 - Effect of sleep-wake cycle reversal on luteinizing hormone secretory pattern in...
An investigation of the effects of an acute 180 degree reversal of the sleep/wake cycle on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was studied in three pubertal boys and the data collected was combined with that from the study of a fourth boy. Two 24 hour periods of blood sampling every 20 minutes were carried out in each of the boys, aged 14 to 15 years. The first study was conducted during a normal s
PLOS Biology: Long-Lasting Novelty-Induced Neuronal Reverberation during Slow-Wave Sleep in Multiple Forebrain Areas
Rats exposed to novel objects during periods of wakefulness generate neural activity that is correlated with patterns observed in subsequent sleep episodes.
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The Mathematical Structure of the Human Sleep-Wake Cycle : Steven Strogatz : 9780387171760
The Mathematical Structure of the Human Sleep-Wake Cycle by Steven Strogatz, 9780387171760, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
How To Stay Awake Tips for Day and Night | Healthhype.com
The sleep-wake cycle encompasses approximately 8 hours of sleep and 16 hours of wakefulness. It is important to understand that ideally the sleep period would be at night while the waking hours would be during the day. The darkness and sunlight are conducive to aiding with each state but this is not always practical, like in shift workers who may need to be awake at night and sleep during the day.. It is important to understand the factors that influence the sleep-wake cycle as it provides key ways to stay awake.. ...
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AKA: (RS)-2- benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid. This powerful supplement is perfect for staying alert during sleep deprivation. Adrafinil is a prodrug to modafinil. Modafinil is a drug prescribed to people who work swing shifts as well as people suffering from narcolepsy.  Adrafinil and Modafinil have nearly identical pharmacological effects.  Mental clarity and general wakefulness can become apparent within 45-60 minutes of consumption.  The half-life of Modafinil is 15 hours.  Effects tend to become more pronounced after taking Adrafinil for several days due to its long half-life.. Adrafinil can cause wakefulness and alertness without the jitters.  Adrafinil works by increasing overall brain activity.  The overall increase in brain activity is likely the result of Adrafinil augmenting Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, suppressing GABA (an anxiolytic neurotransmitter), and increasing dopamine and glutamate (stimulatory neurotransmitters). . Adrafinil can have cognitive ...
What are the effects of computer learning on sleep patterns? | Reference.com
THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM
Some years later, in 1949, brain researchers Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun successfully triggered comas in cats by using coagulation to destroy the central part of the brainstem, known as the reticular formation. From this result they concluded that these comas were due to an absence of wakefulness.. In other experiments, Moruzzi and Magoun found that by stimulating the reticular formation, they could awaken animals from normal sleep. The two researchers also knew that the reticular formation receives many incoming messages, in particular via the sensory pathways. From these two facts, Moruzzi and Magoun developed the concept of the ascending activating reticular system. The reticular formation in the brainstem then became the prime contender for the title of wakefulness centre. But some of the conclusions drawn from these earlier, cruder, surgical interventions have since been invalidated by more selective experiments. In these experiments, neurotoxic substances were used to destroy ...
Sleep Quality and Human Amyloid-Beta Kinetics - St. Louis, MO
Participation in this study will require outpatient screening in addition to a 3 day/2 night stay at the clinical research unit. Participants will be randomized to either take placebo or a sleep aid at bedtime on both nights. A lumbar catheter (similar to a spinal tap or an epidural given at childbirth) will be in place for 36 hours and CSF will be drawn from the catheter every 2 hours. Wires will be applied to the scalp and face to monitor sleep/wake cycles.. ...
PSYCHOTROPIC EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE IN MAN. II. ALERTNESS, PSYCHOMOTOR COORDINATION, AND MOOD | Journal of Pharmacology and...
Experiments were conducted with 20 subjects on 9 evenings to study the effects of caffeine (150 mg and 300 mg) as compared with placebo upon objective tests of alertness and psychomotor coordination. Simultaneously, mood was assessed by means of a self-rating inventory. The same 20 subjects had also participated in an earlier study on the effects of caffeine upon sleep.. Caffeine had no demonstrable effect upon either objectively measured performance although at the same time it made the subjects feel more alert and physically active.. In some subjects caffeine caused a feeling of nervousness rather than of alertness.. There was a strong positive association between a subjects sensitivity to a mood-elevating effect of caffeine in this experiment and his sensitivity to the wakefulness caused by the drug in earlier experiments on sleep.. ...
Genetic analysis identifies proteins controlling sleep in mice
University of Tsukuba-led researchers identified roles for SIK3 and NALCN proteins in controlling sleep/wakefulness in mice, through a large-scale genetic screen.
Sleep and Wakefulness Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Your reasoning is correct. The two-processes model of sleep propensity does not explain why we best nap at mid-day. The two-processes model can be understood as the first iteration of the ultimate model of sleep and wakefulness. Borbely, Achermann and other researchers continue to enhance the model to better explain various phenomena without making the model overly complex. The optimum nap time is a concept that is best explained by mathematics. The optimum nap time is the time, somewhere in the middle of your waking day in free running sleep, that produces the maximum probability of falling asleep or the minimum average sleep latency. You can easily plot your optimum nap time with SleepChart. SleepChart collects your sleep block statistics and can accurately point to the time of day where your naps might be most beneficial. The only conditions you need to meet are: (1) you need to free run your sleep (SleepChart uses a technique of predicting your homeostatic and circadian sleepiness that ...
Medical Xpress - wakefulness :(... continued page 3)
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
Neuroscientists discover a gene that controls worms behavioral state
In a study of worms, MIT neuroscientists have discovered a gene that plays a critical role in controlling the switch between alternative behavioral states, which for humans include hunger and fullness, or sleep and wakefulness.. This gene, which the researchers dubbed vps-50, helps to regulate neuropeptides - tiny proteins that carry messages between neurons or from neurons to other cells. This kind of signaling is important for controlling physiology and behavior in animals, including humans. Deletions of the human counterpart of the vps-50 gene have been found in some people with autism.. Given what is reported in this paper about how the gene works, coupled with findings by others concerning the genetics of autism, we suggest that the disruption of the function of this gene could promote autism, says H. Robert Horvitz, the David H. Koch Professor of Biology and a member of MITs McGovern Institute for Brain Research.. Horvitz and Martha Constantine-Paton, an MIT professor of brain and ...
CDC study may link expression of two genes to CFS: Relate to learning/memory and sleep-wake cycle
Samples meeting the 1994 Fukuda criteria were used; will findings hold true for patients meeting Canadian or International ME/CFS criteria?
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Modafinil (Provigil) - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs
Doctors prescribe modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil, to improve wakefulness in adults who are experiencing excessive sleepiness.
Sleep-Wake Disorders: What Are They? | Child Mind Institute
Every parent knows first hand the importance of a good nights sleep for a childs behavior and wellbeing. While most kids experience the occasional night of tossing and turning, some are affected by disorders that routinely disturb their sleep and correspondinglytheir ability to function during the day. Sleep-wake disorders is an umbrella name for upwards of a dozen specific conditions that impair the quality or quantity of sleep a child gets enough to undermine her overall health and functioning. ...
Awakenings - Star Trek: Hawking
1 January 2383. …a spark…. …a single glimpse of something…. …realization, a reality lost in swirling darkness recognized for what it was for the first time only because, in that single moment, the spark had illuminated the shadow eternity in which he lay, suspended in time…. …consciousness, slowly forming like an undulating tide moving unseen beneath a dark sea, breaching on shores of light which flooded the walls of his reality. Sensation striking him for the first time, though he knew not what it was; only that it was excruciating. Every fiber of his being suddenly ripped from out of darkness and thrust into the light. It was pain. Total, complete agony. It was wakefulness…. …it was a birth…. Initiating independent respiratory response.. …sound, another sensation. Audible tones without meaning, soon replaced by a different sound; that of air being sucked in. Muscles tensing beneath the layers of flesh and exo-armor, the boy felt his jaw pop open as the lungs within him ...
How many naps for your 5/6 month old? And wake times? - BabyCenter
Just curious how many naps they take? My lo has taken 3 for the last 3 months or so and is now fighting his last one lately and so Im just curious if anyones baby is on 2 yet? Or do you get them to cat nap in the evening by holding them or what...also what are their wake times? Thx! My lo just turned 5 months and my first ds (dear son) took 3 naps for 7 months so diff babies are confusing me
The Ultimate Guide To Adrafinil
Adrafinil is a common nootropic used to increase your level of alertness and wakefulness. Its also the precursor to the pharmaceutical, Modafinil.
Light in the Brain
Mountain Refuge: October 2012
Though managing to keep himself from falling again into sleep, Einar spent a good while drifting in a hazy state somewhere between dream and wakefulness, brush bars before him, stars overhead and rock at his back, everything taking on strange and terrifying new meaning so that the task of keeping reality separated from dream-image soon became impossible, and all he wanted was to be out of the cramped confines of that little rock alcove. Wanted it awfully bad, and he struggled, fighting the screen of boughs before him and then when they seemed unwilling to yield turning his attention to the rock itself, bashing with knees, elbows, clawing with his fingers until they were raw and bloody but making no progress. He tried to climb then, wedging himself between the walls and seeking with counter-pressure of hands, feet, knees against opposing surfaces of rock to make some upward progress and at first he thought he might be getting somewhere but then he hit an impasse-of course, doggone cage has a ...
Functional brain imaging - Linköping University
Controlling Your Wake
Each operator is responsible for the vessels wake. When a boats wake causes damage, you could face very serious consequences. Excessive boat wake may be enforced as Negligent Operation with a fine of $343. The operator also may be held responsible for the damage caused by a boats wake and face a civil lawsuit ...
Echo of Time: Awakening [PG14] ~
Echo of Time: Awakening By: WarG-X Hello and welcome to Echo of Time: Awakening. This is a sequel to my previous RP and so the original cast was given the option to retain their slots, which most did. I did open up a couple more slots for those who are interested in playing, I assure we left off in a very good place to pick up for those newcomers that do decide this is something they are interested in. Please let me know if you have any questions as my goal is to make this a great and fun
The Awakening Essays | GradeSaver
The Awakening literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Awakening.
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Never a dull moment
How will he know to one day wake himself from these lows to treat himself?? The think that gets me about last nights situation, is that as usual, I slightly woke him and got him to drink milk, and with his slight lows and back to bed he goes, but this time, I wanted to wake him enough to see how conscious he was.. and with a bright smile (yes this is rare when I wake him from a dream.. ) when I asked him how he felt, he said great momma, I love you.. good nite I asked him did he feel low, he said no, he felt fine... hummm... so low and did not feel it.... yikes ...
So wake me up? when its all over.. | LustRage
Last day for this week of SLFW make sure you head over there and get the weekly exclusives! ^_^ hugies and kisses|3 I tried carrying the weight of the world But I only have two hands I hope I get the chance to travel the world And I dont have any plans I wish that…
Shadrew - Wake Up! [Bossfight Remix]
Big thanks to Soul-Farstrider, our latest supporter!. Were 14 people from our target today. Why dont you be one of them?. You can support NG too and get tons of perks for just $2.99.. ...
Testing Cyber-Attack Responses - BankInfoSecurity
Communication is key in the wake of a cyber-attack, says Dennis Simmons of SWACHA, who explains how simulated attack drills will help banks overcome their
Birendra Nath Mallick
By the time he secured a PhD for his thesis on Neurophysiology of Sleep-Wakefulness in 1986 from AIIMS, he had already worked ... Play media Mallick carried his doctoral research on sleep and wakefulness on to his later career and worked on the neural ... Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep-Wakefulness, Environment and Physiology and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: Regulation and Function; ... Birendra Nath Mallick (2001). Sleep-Wakefulness. National Book Trust. p. 108. ISBN 978-8123736235. Birendra N. Mallick; S. R. ...
... maintain wakefulness; be aware of merit; and, develop the bodhipakkhiya dhammas throughout the day. In the Khuddaka Nikāya, the ...
"Blazing with Wakefulness". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. Retrieved 3 December 2014. Joiner, Whitney (20 February 2008). "Dive- ...
Kleitman, N (1938). Sleep and Wakefulness. revised 1963, reprinted 1987. The University of Chicago Press, Midway Reprints ...
Classification of sleep disorders
Narcolepsy, hypnogogic hallucination, wakefulness and somnolence were mentioned by other authors of the nineteenth century. ... Kleitman, N. (1939). Sleep and Wakefulness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 280-9. Broughton, R. J. (1968-03-08). " ... Transient disorder of initiating or maintaining wakefulness 307.44 Persistent disorder of initiating or maintaining wakefulness ...
It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of ... Derk-Jan Dijk & Dale M. Edgar (1999), "Circadian and Homeostatic Control of Wakefulness and Sleep", in Turek & Zee (eds.), ... Adenosine levels increase in the cortex and basal forebrain during prolonged wakefulness and decrease during the sleep-recovery ... 1118-1119: "Compared with wakefulness, sleep reduces brain energy demands, as suggested by the 44% reduction in the cerebral ...
It runs at a baseline level during wakefulness, but increases temporarily when a person is presented with any sort of stimulus ... Norepinephrine release is lowest during sleep, rises during wakefulness, and reaches much higher levels during situations of ... Berridge CW, Schmeichel BE, España RA (2012). "Noradrenergic modulation of wakefulness/arousal". Sleep Med Rev. 16 (2): 187-97 ...
... seems to promote wakefulness. Recent studies indicate that a major role of the orexin system is to integrate metabolic, ... Ohno K, Sakurai T (Jan 2008). "Orexin neuronal circuitry: role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness". Frontiers in ... Narcolepsy results in excessive daytime sleepiness, inability to consolidate wakefulness in the day (and sleep at night), and ... Transitioning frequently and rapidly between sleep and wakefulness, these mice display many of the symptoms of narcolepsy. ...
Second wind (sleep)
The improvement as test subjects caught another wind was even more pronounced on the second day of extended wakefulness. The so ... They are the result of circadian rhythms cycling into a phase of wakefulness. For example, many people experience the effects ...
Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., & McCarley, R. W. (2012). CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS. ...
"Control of Sleep and Wakefulness". Physiological Reviews. 92 (3): 1087-1187. doi:10.1152/physrev.00032.2011. ISSN 0031-9333. ...
Rapid eye movement sleep
... in Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness ed. Monti et al. Steriade & McCarley (1990), Brainstem Control of Wakefulness and ... REM sleep is "paradoxical" because of its similarities to wakefulness. Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat ... Whereas acetylcholine manifests in the cortex equally during wakefulness and REM, it appears in higher concentrations in the ... Two other neurotransmitters, orexin and gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), seem to promote wakefulness, diminish during deep sleep ...
Boutrel B, Koob GF (September 2004). "What keeps us awake: the neuropharmacology of stimulants and wakefulness-promoting ... Åkerstedt T (1998). "Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2 (2): 117-28. doi:10.1016/s1087-0792 ... as these substances activate neurobiological systems that maintain wakefulness. Alcohol near bedtime is frequently discouraged ...
Wakefulness-promoting agent Nootropic Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive ... At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it generally improves reaction time, wakefulness, ... Knockout mouse studies have specifically implicated antagonism of the A2A receptor as responsible for the wakefulness-promoting ... Disinhibition of the tuberomammillary nucleus is the chief mechanism by which caffeine produces wakefulness-promoting effects. ...
These include the questioning of space and time and their continuity; the confusion of dreaming and wakefulness; the ...
Table 37.2 ... Psychomotor stimulants ... Drugs that cause wakefulness and euphoria ... Amphetamines, cocaine, methylphenidate ...
The Tantric Path of Indestructible Wakefulness. Shambhala Publications. p. 27. ISBN 9781590308042. The vajrayana is an ... The Tantric Path of Indestructible Wakefulness. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 9781590308042. ...invite the Indian teacher ...
Histamine plays a role in wakefulness in the brain. An allergic reaction over produces histamine causing wakefulness and ... Thakkar, Mahesh M. (2011-2). "HISTAMINE IN THE REGULATION OF WAKEFULNESS". Sleep medicine reviews. 15 (1): 65-74. doi:10.1016/j ... Sleepwalking or somnambulism, engaging in activities normally associated with wakefulness (such as eating or dressing), which ... which is caused by the brain's inability to control sleep and wakefulness. Idiopathic hypersomnia: a chronic neurological ...
1). ... It was found in a recent study in the rat that the state of wakefulness is mostly maintained by the ascending ... Magoun used this principle to demonstrate, on two separate areas of the brainstem of a cat, how to produce wakefulness from ... The physiological change from a state of deep sleep to wakefulness is reversible and mediated by the ARAS. Inhibitory influence ... It had been thought that wakefulness depended only on the direct reception of afferent (sensory) stimuli at the cerebral cortex ...
Hard problem of consciousness
... the difference between wakefulness and sleep. Other formulations of the "hard problem" include: "How is it ...
Schwartz MD, Kilduff TS (December 2015). "The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America ... 25 thereby promoting NREM sleep at the expense of wakefulness and REM sleep. ... Sleep is regulated by GABAergic populations in ... a component of the ascending reticular activating system that mediates wakefulness and arousal, via the release of the ...
List of designer drugs
Pompeiano M, Cirelli C, Arrighi P, Tononi G (1995). "c-Fos expression during wakefulness and sleep". Neurophysiol Clin. 25 (6 ...
Fates Worse Than Death
Hence I pray, Deliver me, O Cosmos, from everlasting wakefulness on that day of wrath, calamity and misery. Rest grant us, O ... Deliver me, O Cosmos, from everlasting wakefulness. On that dread day when the heavens and earth shall quake, when we shall ...
Eugeroics (armodafinil and modafinil) - wakefulness promoting agents; modafinil increases alertness, particularly in sleep ...
It can be roughly translated as "wakefulness". It is that part of consciousness when a person or being can sense this physical ...
Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice. | Sigma-Aldrich
Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice.. [Koh Sasaki, Mika Suzuki, Michihiro ... Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. These findings clearly show that changes ... Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although ... and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness ...
Researchers discover brain chemicals affecting wakefulness 英文频道 长城网
Wakefulness stimulated by histamine may be too much of a good thing, and so the brain has a built in brake on histamines wake- ... The new research suggests that the chemical GABA acts against histamine, like a chemical brake preventing wakefulness being ...
Brain-mapping technique aids understanding of sleep, wakefulness ( The power of a new technique to map con...)
... wakefulness,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... Brain-mapping technique aids understanding of sleep, wakefulness. The power of a new technique to map connections among nerve ... These cells are very active during wakefulness when an animal or human is aroused and attentive. Previous studies have shown ... "Neurons producing orexin keep you awake, and they also stabilize wakefulness," Dr. Yanagisawa said. "In order to fall sleep, ...
Brain regions can take short naps during wakefulness, leading to errors
"Even when some neurons went off line, the overall EEG measurements of the brain indicated wakefulness in the rats," Cirelli ... Brain regions can take short naps during wakefulness, leading to errors. by University of Wisconsin-Madison ... Citation: Brain regions can take short naps during wakefulness, leading to errors (2011, April 27) retrieved 22 September 2020 ...
Wakefulness and Sleep
The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to ... Wakefulness. In humans, there are two levels of arousal. Being awake and active indicates a Beta activity of 18 to 24 Hz. On ... The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to ... When this neural group is destroyed, the individual will experience decreased wakefulness and increased sleep. The locus ...
Wakefulness - Wikipedia
Sleep, dreams and wakefulness Wakefulness, Alertness, Sleep, and Dreams The Consequences of Excessive Wakefulness Its Wake-Up ... Several systems originating in this part of the brain control the shift from wakefulness into sleep and sleep into wakefulness ... Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in ... Another effect of wakefulness, is the reduction of glycogen held in the astrocytes, which supply energy to the neurons. Studies ...
Wakefulness (novella) - Wikipedia
Wakefulness (Norwegian: Andvake) is a 2007 novella by Norwegian writer Jon Fosse. The story is set a few hundred years ago. The ... In 2015, Fosse was awarded the Nordic Councils Literature Prize for the trilogy Wakefulness, Olavs Dreams and Weariness. ...
Circadian Rhythms Promote Wakefulness | NIOSH | CDC
Module 2. Afternoon Dip in Wakefulness | NIOSH | CDC
Afternoon Dip in Wakefulness. Figure 2.7 explains the underlying processes of why humans tend to feel sleepy and take a nap in ... Also note that in the evening, the circadian rhythms for wakefulness dominate over the buildup of sleep drive that has occurred ... At this time, circadian rhythms that promote wakefulness dip, and sleep drive builds up enough so that pressure to sleep ... This boost in wakefulness can make it difficult to fall asleep early. ...
Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness - Cambridge University Press
Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness. Edited by Jaime Monti. Universidad de la República, Uruguay. S. R. Pandi-Perumal. ... Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness is an exceptional, single source of information on the role of the major mammalian ... Orexins in sleep and wakefulness: rodent models of narcolepsy-cataplexy Christopher M. Sinton and Jon T. Willie; 16. The ... Part I. The Neurochemistry of the States of Sleep and Wakefulness: 1. Neurochemistry of the preoptic hypothalamic hypnogenic ...
Allegiance with Wakefulness by Cindy Mitchell on Prezi
Thay emerges into wakefulness | Plum Village
Otto Warmbier: What is unresponsive wakefulness? - CNN
What is unresponsive wakefulness?. Unresponsive wakefulness is a syndrome in which someone has no awareness of their ... During unresponsive wakefulness, the brain functions that control spontaneous breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure, urine ... At that time, Warmbier continued to suffer from "unresponsive wakefulness," also known as a persistent vegetative state, ...
wwltv.com | Otto Warmbier: What is Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome?
Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, or UWS, is a result of a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which causes the brain to halt the ... Otto Warmbier: What is Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome?. The 22-year-old returned home to Ohio this week in a coma after ... "His neurological condition can best be described as a state of unresponsive wakefulness," said Daniel Kanter, director of the ... they said the 22-year-old suffered from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome. Warmbier returned home to Ohio this week in a coma ...
Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness. - PubMed - NCBI
Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness.. Lazarus M1, Chen JF, Urade Y, Huang ZL. ... The LHA is also reciprocally connected to the flip-flop switch between non-rapid eye movement sleep and wakefulness (shown in ... Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness ... Wakefulness/physiology*. Grant support. *R01 NS041083/NS/NINDS ... but the debate has only recently started on how the BG maintain wakefulness and suppress sleep to achieve all these fundamental ...
Chronic sleep curtailment, even without extended (|16-h) wakefulness, degrades human vigilance performance | PNAS
13.33 h wakefulness) and CSR (4.67 h sleep, 15.33 h wakefulness) conditions while maintaining the ratios equivalent to 8 or 5.6 ... without extended wakefulness, which we define in the current study as wakefulness longer than 16 h, by randomizing healthy ... including extended wakefulness (18) or shorter wakefulness and sleep episodes than the current protocol (19), there are similar ... wake ratios but much longer durations of sleep and wakefulness (i.e., 42.85-h day with 10 h sleep, 32.85 h wakefulness) for 3 ...
Frontiers | The Cortical States of Wakefulness | Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
During wakefulness, cortical states alter constantly in relation to behavioral context, attentional level or general motor ... During wakefulness, cortical states alter constantly in relation to behavioral context, attentional level or general motor ... B) Example Vm recordings from layer 2/3 neurons in the barrel cortex of awake mice during transition from quiet wakefulness (QW ... Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., and McCarley, R. W. (2012). Control of sleep and wakefulness. ...
Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity | Thorax
Orem J, Lovering A T, Dunin-Barkowski W, et al. Tonic activity in the respiratory system in wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep. ... Thus, wakefulness has an important independent effect on upper airway dilator muscle activity that is unlikely to be mediated ... Horner R L, Shea S A, McIvor J, et al. Pharyngeal size and shape during wakefulness and sleep in patients with obstructive ... Compared with relaxed wakefulness (table 3), there were significant decreases in GGEMG and TPEMG during stable NREM sleep and ...
Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity | Thorax
How Modafinil Promotes Wakefulness
Modafinil or Provigil is a stimulant used to promote wakefulness in conditions like sleep apnea, narcolepsy, depression, and ... If you are still struggling to maintain wakefulness even when taking modafinil, talk to your doctor about your symptoms and ... Modafinil is used to treat problems with sleep, arousal, and wakefulness. Some conditions treated with modafinil include the ... Modafinil can be effective for promoting wakefulness when taken as prescribed. Follow your doctors instructions. Do not take ...
Extensive and divergent effects of sleep and wakefulness on brain gene expression. - PubMed - NCBI
Extensive and divergent effects of sleep and wakefulness on brain gene expression.. Cirelli C1, Gutierrez CM, Tononi G. ... Finally, we show that different functional categories of genes are selectively associated with sleep and wakefulness. The ... cortex change their expression between day and night and demonstrate that half of them are modulated by sleep and wakefulness ...
Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Family Contributions to Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness | Journal of Neuroscience
Modafinil does not induce wakefulness in mice lacking the DAT (Wisor et al., 2001). Qu et al. (2008) caution against the ... Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Family Contributions to Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 48 h, comparing baseline and experimental days. Polygraphic recordings were scored ... To address this confound, the authors investigated wakefulness effects of modafinil in D2 receptor KO mice. While low doses of ...
Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons | Journal of Neuroscience
We hypothesized that wakefulness is a metabolic stressor to LCns and that, with extended wakefulness, adaptive mitochondrial ... Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons. Jing Zhang, Yan Zhu, Guanxia Zhan, ... Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons. Jing Zhang, Yan Zhu, Guanxia Zhan, ... Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons. Jing Zhang, Yan Zhu, Guanxia Zhan, ...
Medicated Sleep and Wakefulness? A Social Scientific Investigation of Stakeholder Interests, Policies and Practices
strong,ESRC Funded -,/strong, Medicated Sleep and Wakefulness - A Social Scientific Investigation of Stakeholder Interests, ... and wakefulness promoting drugs such as Modafinil. These concerns, for example, include: (i) the efficacy of prescription ... debates over the merits of wakefulness promoting drugs not simply for the medical treatment of excessive sleepiness but for ...
Wakefulness - The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Several systems originating in this part of the brain control the shift from wakefulness into sleep and sleep into wakefulness ... Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Wakefulness" or another language ... Another effect of wakefulness (which may or may not be related to this) is that it lowers the small stores of glycogen held in ... Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavior ...
Popular Non-addictive Wakefulness Drug May be Addictive
Hypnotics and the Perception of Wakefulness | Psychiatric Times
of sleep and wakefulness in insomniacs. Ann Clin Psychiatry.. 1990;2:211-216. ...
Overview of Sleep and Wakefulness - Complex Brain Functions: Sleep, Emotion and Addiction | Coursera
Medical Xpress - wakefulness :(... continued page 3)
The quality of wakefulness affects how quickly a mammal falls asleep, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report in a ... Maintaining wakefulness: The role of orexin neuropeptides. (Medical Xpress)-One of Kanazawa Universitys leading professors has ...
Memory 'brainwaves' look the same in sleep and wakefulness
Identical brain mechanisms are responsible for triggering memory in both sleep and wakefulness, new research at the University ... Identical brain mechanisms are responsible for triggering memory in both sleep and wakefulness, new research at the University ... Home , News and events , News , Memory brainwaves look the same in sleep and wakefulness ... Memory brainwaves look the same in sleep and wakefulness Posted on 09 Oct 2018 ...
Functional imaging of the visual cortex during wakefulness a... : European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Functional imaging of the visual cortex during wakefulness and during intravenous anaesthesia: A-6. Rieck, A.; Dueck, M.; ... Home , May 2005 - Volume 22 - Issue , Functional imaging of the visual cortex during wakefulness a... ... Materials and Methods: We studied four volunteers during wakefulness and eight patients during deep surgical anaesthesia ... Binocular visual stimulation during wakefulness as well as during propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia produced a significant ...
Method of Assessment of Driving Ability in Patients Suffering From Wakefulness Pathologies - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Method of Assessment of Driving Ability in Patients Suffering From Wakefulness Pathologies (AUTOSOP). The safety and scientific ... Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Chaumet G, Guilleminault C, Coste O, Moore N, Bioulac B, Philip P. Maintenance of wakefulness test as a ... Maintenance of wakefulness test and multiple sleep latency test. Measurement of different abilities in patients with sleep ... Wakefulness-Promoting Agents. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme ...
uni.news: Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: System to help patients communicate
Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: System to help patients communicate. « On polygamous female... , Startseite , Mexican ... People fall into an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome when they have suffered severe brain damage arising from, for instance, ... "In order to establish contact with patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, we are working with acoustic stimuli, such ...
ERK signaling pathway regulates sleep duration through activity-induced gene expression during wakefulness | Science Signaling
Whole-body or cortical neuron-specific deletion of Erk1 or Erk2 significantly increased the duration of wakefulness in mice, ... Wakefulness is accompanied by experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and an increase in activity-regulated gene transcription ... We stimulated murine cortical cultures with the neuromodulatory signals that are known to control wakefulness in the brain and ... In mice, ERK phosphorylation in the cortex increased and decreased with wakefulness and sleep. ...
OrexinBrainAttentionStudyUnresponsive Wakefulness SyndromePromote wakefulnessNREMMaintenance of Wakefulness TestArousalActive during wakeNeuronsStimuliIncrease wakefulnessHypocretinCircadian rhythms for wakefulnessSupine positionModafinilObstructive sleepExperience-dependent synaptic plasticityAlertnessNeurochemistry of Sleep and WakefulnessLoss of wakefulnessActivity during wakeState of wakefulnessSubjects during wakeOtto WarmbierSyndromeAwakeNorepinephrineNeurotransmittersMaintain wakefulnessPromotes WakefulnessDurationsSynapticBehavioralRegulationAcetylcholineHypothalamicSleepinessInhibitionNarcolepsyHomeostasisPhysiologyMiceCortical activationMechanismsHistamineHypothalamusDopaminergicStagesTrachealNeuroscienceFunctionalRecordingsControlDurationPolysomnographyAffectsRespiratoryImprovesDrugs
- Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep times. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome12
- When doctors gave an update on Otto Warmbier's condition Thursday, they said the 22-year-old suffered from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome. (wwltv.com)
- But what exactly is Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome syndrome? (wwltv.com)
- Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, or UWS, is a result of a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which causes the brain to halt the ability to create thoughts, experience sensation, and remember past events. (wwltv.com)
- People fall into an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome when they have suffered severe brain damage arising from, for instance, an accident or a cerebral bleed. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- In order to establish contact with patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, we are working with acoustic stimuli, such as their favorite music," says Kissler's colleague Dr. Inga Steppacher, who is evaluating the new technology at Haus Elim. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- Using targeted brain signals, this training is intended to enable people with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to communicate with their surroundings. (cit-ec.de)
- Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome can arise as the result of very severe brain damage from, for instance, a cerebral hemorrhage or an accident. (cit-ec.de)
- In contrast to a coma, those suffering from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome breathe on their own and alternate between periods of wakefulness and sleep. (cit-ec.de)
- Predicting recovery of consciousness in patients who survive their coma but evolve to a vegetative state (recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) remains a challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
- A novel outcome scale (combining behavioural, aetiology, electroencephalographic, sleep electroencephalographic and somatosensory evoked potential data) has been proposed for patients in subacute unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
- We here offer physicians the possibility to refer to this condition as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or UWS. (biomedcentral.com)
- We here present a new name ( unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or UWS) for an over 35-year-old syndrome with an unintended albeit persistent negative connotation: the vegetative state. (biomedcentral.com)
- The rise and fall of circadian rhythms, which promote wakefulness across the 24-hour day. (cdc.gov)
- At this time, circadian rhythms that promote wakefulness dip, and sleep drive builds up enough so that pressure to sleep dominates. (cdc.gov)
- However, shift workers who take the drug to promote wakefulness take the drug before their shifts begin. (verywellmind.com)
- Hypocretin acts on neurons within the brainstem and causes them to release other neurotransmitters that promote wakefulness. (elifesciences.org)
- Thus, these experiments indicate that hypocretin does indeed promote wakefulness though norepinephrine. (elifesciences.org)
- Muscle activity during wakefulness, wake-sleep transitions, stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were evaluated in the supine position. (bmj.com)
- Polygraphic recordings were scored by 10 s epochs as wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) sleep according to published criteria. (jneurosci.org)
- EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep times. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Effect of hypercapnia on total pulmonary resistance during wakefulness and during NREM sleep. (biomedsearch.com)
- Conversely, chemogenetic inhibition opposed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep, even in the face of salient stimuli. (caltech.edu)
- There are three stages: wakefulness, non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Sleepwalking is characterized by vocalization and ambulation, features of wakefulness, while in NREM sleep. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The American Academy of Sleep Medicine categorizes sleep/wake states into wakefulness (stage W, defined above), 3 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages (N1, N2, N3), and REM sleep (R stage). (springer.com)
Maintenance of Wakefulness Test4
- Since the publication of a new law (arrêté du 28 décembre 2005 du journal officiel) regulating fitness to drive, the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) is now mandatory to evaluate driving skills of patients suffering of excessive daytime sleepiness. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- during the period of 2 nights and 2 successive days of hospitalization in order to realise a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test the first day and 2 driving sessions (one simulated driving during the morning and one real driving during the afternoon) of 2 hours each the day after, under treatment (Modafinil). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) is used to measure how alert you are during the day when inactive and if you can stay awake. (medibid.com)
- The maintenance of wakefulness test is used to assess a person's ability to stay awake during the day. (ucsd.edu)
- We demonstrate that chronic insufficient sleep, even without extended wakefulness, leads to neurobehavioral performance decrements at all times of the day, even when the circadian system is promoting arousal. (pnas.org)
- Modafinil is used to treat problems with sleep, arousal, and wakefulness. (verywellmind.com)
- Orexin ( / ɒ ˈ r ɛ k s ɪ n / ), also known as hypocretin , is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal , wakefulness , and appetite . (wikipedia.org)
- Yet, at the same time, it also increases levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland that causes arousal - wakefulness. (connectedoxford.com)
Active during wake3
- By tracking which nerve cells in the mouse brain stimulate others, researchers in Japan and at UT Southwestern found that a type of neuron responsible for keeping animals awake receives inhibitory signals from neurons active only during sleep, as well as reinforcing, positive signals from nerve cells that are very active during wakefulness. (bio-medicine.org)
- These cells are very active during wakefulness when an animal or human is aroused and attentive. (bio-medicine.org)
- Several findings are in line with the hypothesis of a homeostatic, sleep-mediated synaptic downregulation [ 8 , 9 ], while other studies support a "consolidation" model based on the reactivation, during sleep, of the same areas which were active during wakefulness [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Another effect of wakefulness, is the reduction of glycogen held in the astrocytes, which supply energy to the neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- Research suggests that orexin and histamine neurons play distinct, but complementary roles in controlling wakefulness with orexin being more involved with wakeful behavior and histamine with cognition and activation of cortical EEG. (wikipedia.org)
- However, it is unclear whether wakefulness alone influences pharyngeal muscle activity or whether its effect on muscle activation is mediated through brainstem respiratory neurons or other chemical/mechanical stimuli. (bmj.com)
- Essential for optimal alertness, locus ceruleus neurons (LCns) are metabolically active neurons that fire at increased rates across sustained wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
- Another effect of wakefulness (which may or may not be related to this) is that it lowers the small stores of glycogen held in the astrocytes that can supply energy to the brain's neurons-one of the functions of sleep it has been proposed is to create the opportunity for them to be replenished. (artandpopularculture.com)
- Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Genetic deletion of ERK in cortical neurons or intracranial injection of an ERK inhibitor reduced the amount of sleep and extended the duration of wakefulness in mice. (sciencemag.org)
- Neurons producing orexin keep you awake, and they also stabilize wakefulness," Dr. Yanagisawa said. (bio-medicine.org)
- The researchers also found that during wakefulness, orexin neurons activate cells in other parts of the brain that negatively feed back to the sleep-active neurons in the anterior hypothalamus, keeping them from becoming active. (bio-medicine.org)
- These findings suggest that orexin neurons sense the outer and inner environment of the body and maintain the proper wakefulness level of animals for survival. (frontiersin.org)
- Even when some neurons went off line, the overall EEG measurements of the brain indicated wakefulness in the rats," Cirelli says. (medicalxpress.com)
- Throughout the day, some hypothalamic neurons release a neuropeptide called hypocretin, which helps maintain wakefulness. (elifesciences.org)
- A model is proposed in which wake- and hypothalamic switching circuitry provides an effector sleep-promoting neurons inhibit each other, which results in stable mechanism by which many of these other systems wakefulness and sleep. (scribd.com)
- This study suggests that wakefulness per se, independent of respiratory/mechanical stimuli, can influence pharyngeal dilator muscle activity. (bmj.com)
- NeuroCommTrainer recognizes the phases of optimal wakefulness in the residents during which they best react to stimuli. (cit-ec.de)
- The locus coeruleus uses the neurotransmitter norepinephrine which causes wakefulness and increased environmental stimuli attention. (explorable.com)
- Sleep contrasts with wakefulness, in which state there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli. (britannica.com)
- Amphetamine-like stimulants are known to increase wakefulness by blocking dopamine reuptake, by stimulating dopamine release, or by both mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- Modafinil may increase wakefulness through activation of noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, possibly through interaction with the hypocretin/orexin system. (nih.gov)
- Drugs that enhance the effects of norepinephrine increase wakefulness, whereas those that block norepinephrine signaling promote sleep. (elifesciences.org)
- As such, green light may be expected to increase wakefulness rather than increasing sleep in humans. (connectedoxford.com)
- Untreated sleep apnea can lead to serious problems due to its effect on the state of wakefulness in these patients.Therefore there is a requirement for a drug which could increase wakefulness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (medicaldialogues.in)
- Understanding the exact role of the hypocretin/orexin and dopamine systems in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep-wake regulation may reveal new insights into current and future wakefulness-promoting drugs. (nih.gov)
- Peptide hypocretin (orexin) role in the maintenance of wakefulness was recently identified by experiments on narcoplepsy. (wordpress.com)
- Reporting in the latest online issue of Science Translational Medicine , researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine in California show how in genetically susceptible individuals, narcolepsy can be triggered because part of a wakefulness protein, called hypocretin, is very similar to part of a protein from the pandemic 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In 2009, Emmanuel Mignot, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford, who has been working on narcolepsy for over 20 years, led a study that gave the first genetic clue that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system attacks brain cells that make the "wakefulness" protein hypocretin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Circadian rhythms for wakefulness2
- The tracheal breath sound of the subjects was recorded in supine position, during wakefulness, and Hilbert Huang Analysis was performed. (alliedacademies.org)
- Modafinil is sometimes called a 'wakefulness-promoting agent. (verywellmind.com)
- Thus, the mechanism of modafinil-induced wakefulness requires further investigation. (jneurosci.org)
- combined pharmacological and genetic techniques to investigate the contribution of D 1 and D 2 receptors to modafinil-induced wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
- The authors used male D 2 receptor KO mice, as well as the D 1 - and D 2 -family antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively, to investigate possible dopaminergic mechanisms for modafinil-induced wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
- To address this confound, the authors investigated wakefulness effects of modafinil in D 2 receptor KO mice. (jneurosci.org)
- These data support the authors' conclusions from initial studies that the D 2 receptor contributes to modafinil-induced wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
- Concerns, at one and the same time, continue to be voiced about the 'appropriate' role of pharmaceutical treatments for sleep problems, including both sleep promoting drugs (i.e. prescription hypnotics) and wakefulness promoting drugs such as Modafinil. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Method of Assessment of Driving Ability in Patients Suffering From Wakefulness Pathologies, Impact of Modafinil Treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In already available amphetamine-related drugs addiction liability is a concern.Only other approved wake-promoting drug modafinil specifically for excessive sleepiness associated with OSA works on a different wakefulness pathway from solriamfetol. (medicaldialogues.in)
- Solriamfetol, also known as JZP-110, is a selective dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor whose neurotransmitter profile of solriamfetol is different than that of drugs currently on the market to treat excessive sleepiness, such as modafinil.The efficacy of JZP-110 for impaired wakefulness and excessive sleepiness was observed at 150-300 mg/day and as early as one week after initiating treatment. (medicaldialogues.in)
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity1
- Wakefulness is accompanied by experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and an increase in activity-regulated gene transcription. (sciencemag.org)
- We therefore examined changes in objective reaction time performance and subjective alertness in a 32-d inpatient protocol in which participants were scheduled to wakefulness durations below 16 h while on a 20-h "day," with randomization into standard sleep:wake ratio (1:2) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR) ratio (1:3.3) conditions. (pnas.org)
- We found that chronic short sleep duration, even without extended wakefulness, doubled neurobehavioral reaction time performance and increased lapses of attention fivefold, yet did not uniformly decrease self-reported alertness. (pnas.org)
- These findings reveal a fundamental aspect of human biology: Chronic insufficient sleep duration equivalent to 5.6 h of sleep opportunity per 24 h impairs neurobehavioral performance and self-assessment of alertness, even without extended wakefulness. (pnas.org)
- The quality of wakefulness affects how quickly a mammal falls asleep, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report in a study that identifies two proteins never before linked to alertness and sleep-wake balance. (medicalxpress.com)
- However, as we have shown that there are different pathways in the brain, by which different colours of light have different effects on sleep or wakefulness, we need to understand how the overall colour balance of artificial light could affect people's alertness and sleep. (connectedoxford.com)
- Vivarin alertness aid tablets with caffeine helps restore mental alertness or wakefulness when experiencing fatigue or drowsiness. (myotcstore.com)
- Here, we address how specific properties of light influence sleep and wakefulness in humans through acute effects, e.g., on alertness, and/or effects on the circadian timing system. (mdpi.com)
Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness1
Loss of wakefulness2
- Whether loss of wakefulness itself can influence pharyngeal dilator muscle activity and responsiveness is currently unknown. (bmj.com)
- Viennese neurologist, Baron Constantin von Economo, slightly more rostral transections at a midcollicular reported that this state of prolonged sleepiness was due level caused an acute loss of wakefulness. (scribd.com)
Activity during wake1
- We also observed broader fluctuations of DRNDA activity across sleep-wake cycles with highest activity during wakefulness. (caltech.edu)
State of wakefulness1
Subjects during wake1
- Otto Warmbier: What is unresponsive wakefulness? (cnn.com)
- Unresponsive wakefulness is a syndrome in which someone has no awareness of their surroundings, despite perhaps his eyes being open, blinking or looking around, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said. (cnn.com)
- Steppacher uses NeuroCommTrainer with residents suffering from unresponsible wakefulness syndrome at the Haus Elim nursing care facility at the v. Bodelschwingh Foundation Bethel. (cit-ec.de)
- As this neutral descriptive term indicates, it refers to patients showing a number of clinical signs (hence syndrome ) of unresponsiveness (that is, without response to commands) in the presence of wakefulness (that is, eye opening). (biomedcentral.com)
- It has been suggested the fetus is not awake, with wakefulness occurring in the newborn due to the stress of being born and the associated activation of the locus coeruleus. (wikipedia.org)
- At that time, Warmbier continued to suffer from "unresponsive wakefulness," also known as a persistent vegetative state, meaning he was awake at times but not aware of his surroundings or himself. (cnn.com)
- Another finding from the Neuron study may help explain why once you're awake and moving around, you tend to stay awake, a proce ss called activity induced consolidation of wakefulness. (bio-medicine.org)
- Defining wakefulness or sleep classically," Dr. Brochard, "necessitates detecting short-wave brain activity that typically characterizes sleep and a decrease in higher frequencies that characterize wakefulness and comparing these results to clinical behavior: does the patient look awake or asleep? (brightsurf.com)
- The researchers noted that sleep deprivation produces a brainwave pattern similar to pathological wakefulness and that despite being clinically "awake" patients are "obtunded," meaning they are not fully awake. (brightsurf.com)
- The accuracy of sleep/wakefulness detection was 82.3±8.66% with sensitivity of 87.6 ± 8.0 % (sleep), specificity of 68.4 ± 18.2% (awake), F1 of 88.2±7.9% and Cohen's kappa of 0.49. (iarc-ibbme.com)
- Cortisol also promotes wakefulness. (wordpress.com)
- It is unknown if these functional impairments are the result of that extended wakefulness or from the associated shortened sleep durations. (pnas.org)
- When wakefulness is extended for longer durations in wild-type mice, SirT3 protein declines in LCns, while oxidative stress and acetylation of mitochondrial proteins, including electron transport chain complex I proteins, increase. (jneurosci.org)
- Longer durations of full wakefulness as measured by ORP (>2.2) were highly correlated with a successful SBT and extubation. (brightsurf.com)
- Drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine, which enhance the release or synaptic concentrations of DA and NE, dramatically enhance and prolong wakefulness. (wordpress.com)
- In fact, a coherent pattern of empirical findings points to beneficial effect of sleep on learning and plastic processes, and changes in synaptic plasticity during wakefulness induce coherent modifications in EEG slow wave cortical topography during subsequent sleep. (hindawi.com)
- Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex. (wikipedia.org)
- Neurotoxic lesioning, pharmacological approaches, and the behavioral analyses of genetically modified animals revealed that the striatum and globus pallidus are important for the control of sleep and wakefulness. (nih.gov)
- Here, we discuss anatomical and molecular mechanisms for sleep-wake regulation in the BG and propose a plausible model in which the nucleus accumbens integrates behavioral processes with wakefulness through adenosine and dopamine receptors. (nih.gov)
- During wakefulness, cortical states alter constantly in relation to behavioral context, attentional level or general motor activity. (frontiersin.org)
- Behavioral Effects of Tyrosine During Sustained Wakefulness" by D. L. Wiegmann, D. F. Neri et al. (erau.edu)
- The following variables were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the treatment: pain (with the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and Neonatal Facial Coding System), sleep-wakefulness state (with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale), heart rate, breathing frequency, and peripheral S pO 2 . (rcjournal.com)
- Occasionally, one or more of those criteria may be absent during sleep (e.g., in sleepwalking ) or present during wakefulness (e.g., when sitting calmly), but even in such cases there usually is little difficulty in achieving agreement among observers in the discrimination between the two behavioral states. (britannica.com)
- Such signs as are now employed, however, are not invariably discriminating of the behavioral states of sleep and wakefulness. (britannica.com)
- These findings clearly show the importance of the orexin system in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. (frontiersin.org)
- Finally, we discuss the various physiological roles of the orexin system, focusing on the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. (frontiersin.org)
- Wakefulness is a necessary, active and periodic brain state, with a circadian and homeostatic regulation and precisely meshed with other states into the sleep-wakefulness cycle. (ugent.be)
- The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. (springer.com)
- Orexin neuronal circuitry: role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. (semanticscholar.org)
- iii) debates over the merits of wakefulness promoting drugs not simply for the medical treatment of excessive sleepiness but for social or recreational purposes in the 24/7 era (e.g. amongst shift workers, in safety critical occupations, in corporate contexts, in educational settings, as a 'lifestyle' drug etc. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Narcolepsy is a condition of excessive daytime sleepiness in which features of REM sleep, such as muscle paralysis, intrude into wakefulness. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- We find that brief wakefulness upregulates SirT3 and antioxidants in LCns, protecting metabolic homeostasis. (jneurosci.org)
- This work identifies mitochondrial stress in LCns upon wakefulness, highlights an essential role for SirT3 activation in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in LCns across wakefulness, and demonstrates that extended wakefulness results in reduced SirT3 activity and, ultimately, degeneration of LCns. (jneurosci.org)
- This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other systems that regulate emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
- The second part of the monograph provides an in-depth review of recent advances on the anatomy, physiology and neurochemistry of the neuronal groups known to drive the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unity" into their wakefulness mode, and to keep them in such mode. (ugent.be)
- Strikingly, mice lacking SirT3 lose the adaptive antioxidant response and incur oxidative injury in LCns across brief wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
- In mice, ERK phosphorylation in the cortex increased and decreased with wakefulness and sleep. (sciencemag.org)
- We imaged spontaneous voltage changes in the barrel field of the somatosensory cortex of head-restrained mice and analyzed their spatiotemporal correlations during anesthesia and wakefulness. (pnas.org)
- Wakefulness is produced by a complex interaction between multiple neurotransmitter systems arising in the brainstem and ascending through the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus and basal forebrain. (wikipedia.org)
- The posterior hypothalamus has significance in wakefulness. (wordpress.com)
- Other regions, including the brainstem, the posterior hypothalamus, and the basal telencephalon, also play a role in the generation of wakefulness. (springer.com)
- Dopaminergic role in stimulant-induced wakefulness. (nih.gov)
- In this paper, we present a set of tracheal breathing sounds characteristics with classification power for separating individuals with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 (OSA group) from those with AHI ≤ 5 (non-OSA group) during wakefulness. (springer.com)
- Hence, the goal of this study was to detect sleep/wakefulness by analyzing tracheal sounds and movements compared to the PSG-scores. (iarc-ibbme.com)
- 0.001) Conclusion: This study shows the extracted features from tracheal sound and movement are reliable to detect sleep/wakefulness status. (iarc-ibbme.com)
- His neurological condition can best be described as a state of unresponsive wakefulness," said Daniel Kanter, director of the neurocritical care program at the UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute. (wwltv.com)
- The study of sleep and wakefulness is essential in understanding several symptoms or conditions of disorders associated to behavioural neuroscience. (explorable.com)
- Finally, we show that different functional categories of genes are selectively associated with sleep and wakefulness. (nih.gov)
- Functional imaging of the visual cortex during wakefulness a. (lww.com)
- Functional Anatomy of the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: Wakefulness [electronic resource] / by Fernando Reinoso-Suárez, Isabel de Andrés, Miguel Garzón. (ugent.be)
- TY - BOOK UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/ebk01:2550000000020290 ID - ebk01:2550000000020290 LA - eng TI - Functional Anatomy of the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle: Wakefulness PY - 2011 SN - 9783642146268 AU - Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando. (ugent.be)
- Methods: Ten cats were implanted with electrodes for chronic polygraphic recordings of their sleep-wakefulness states and provided with an implanted guide cannula stereotaxically aimed at the NST region. (eurekamag.com)
- After microinjections, sleep-wakefulness recordings were obtained for 8 h. (eurekamag.com)
- Purpose: To assess distribution of temporal lobe spikes across different states of sleep and wakefulness in simultaneous scalp and foramen ovale (Fo) recordings. (elsevier.com)
- Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness. (nih.gov)
- The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sleep/wakefulness and energy metabolism until next noon. (springer.com)
- Differences in the central and/or peripheral chemoreflex control of breathing during wakefulness may reflect a similar difference during sleep that could contribute to the high male prevalence of SDB (12, 37). (scribd.com)
- Publications] Kazuhiko FUKUDA: 'Estimation of effects of genetic control on circadian sleep and wakefulness rhythm : a preliminary study. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Kazuhiko FUKUDA: 'Estimation of effects of genetic control on sleep and wakefulness rhythm with the method of twin study. (nii.ac.jp)
- read and read limited workers and policies born to the free Wakefulness 2014 of the Utopian control. (lsconsign.com)
- Whether these decrements are caused by short sleep duration or extended wakefulness is unknown. (pnas.org)
- This protocol allowed determination of the contribution of sleep deficiency independent of extended wakefulness, since individual episodes of wakefulness in the CSR condition were only 15.33 h in duration (less than the usual 16 h of wakefulness in a 24-h day) and sleep episodes were 4.67 h in duration each cycle. (pnas.org)
- The results of this study show a superior classification power of respiratory sound features compared to anthropometric features for a quick screening of OSA during wakefulness. (springer.com)
- March 1, 2019--Critically ill patients are more likely to be successfully weaned from a mechanical ventilator , or breathing machine, if they have higher levels of wakefulness and both their right and left brains experience the same depth of sleep, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . (brightsurf.com)
- Compared to wakefulness, sleep is associated with reduction in the activity of pharyngeal dilator muscles and ventilation resulting in lower respiratory drive and more regular breathing pattern. (iarc-ibbme.com)
- However, few studies have investigated the extent to which hammock positioning reduces pain and improves the sleep-wakefulness state compared with traditional positioning. (rcjournal.com)
- Sleep and wakefulness drugs and their indications]. (nih.gov)