The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Glucose in blood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The physical measurements of a body.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Abstaining from all food.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.

Persisting benefits 12-18 months after discontinuation of pubertal metformin therapy in low birthweight girls. (1/1519)

BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of metformin therapy, if started beyond menarche in adolescents or young women with hyperinsulinaemia following low birthweight, is rapidly followed by rebound deteriorations in body fat, insulin resistance and blood lipid profile. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that early commencement of metformin and its continuation throughout puberty might have more persisting benefits. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We followed up on a previously reported randomized study cohort at 12 months and 18 months after treatment discontinuation, including body composition by absorptiometry, fasting insulin, glucose and blood lipids. In that open-labelled, prospective study, 22 low birthweight girls with early normal puberty (Stage 2 breast development at age 8-9 years) were randomized to remain untreated (N = 12] or to receive metformin (850 mg/day; N = 10) for 36 months (between time -36 months to 0 month). RESULTS: The significant improvements previously reported at the end of the 36-month active treatment period in per cent body fat, abdominal fat mass, fasting insulin sensitivity, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels all persisted at follow-up 12 months after treatment discontinuation. Further anthropometry at 18 months off therapy confirmed the persistence of benefits in height, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the previously metformin-exposed girls. CONCLUSION: In low birth weight girls with early normal onset of puberty, metformin treatment for 3 years across puberty resulted in auxological, endocrine and metabolic benefits that persisted for at least 1 year after metformin withdrawal. Further follow-up and longer-term studies are needed to explore the possibility that insulin sensitization therapy during puberty might reprogramme predisposition to metabolic disease.  (+info)

Metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity. (2/1519)

OBJECTIVES: We determined the frequency of metabolic risk factors and the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in childhood obesity. SUBJECTS: 186 obese children (97 females and 89 males), aged 11.2 +/- 2.8 (6-16) years and 98 healthy children (46 females and 52 males), aged 10.9 +/- 3.2 (6-16) years were recruited for the study, as study and control groups, respectively. METHODS: Subjects were evaluated for anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolic syndrome was defined in presence of > or = 3 of the following: (i) fasting triglyceride > or = 100 mg/dL; (ii) high density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 50 mg/dL, except in boys aged 15 to 19 years, in whom the cut-off point was 45 mg/dL; (iii) fasting glucose > or = 110 mg/dL; (iv) waist circumference > 75th percentile for age and gender and (v) systolic BP > 90th percentile. RESULTS: We found that 144 (77.4%) children in the obese group had one, two or more cardiovascular risk factors. Using a pediatric definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.1%. In the control group, the clustering of one, two and three risk factors was very rare. CONCLUSION: Childhood obesity is associated with increased frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome.  (+info)

Metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, characteristics and predictors. (3/1519)

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as its characteristics and predictors. Seventh-three women, with body mass index of 30.4 +/- 7.8 kg/m2 and 25.0 +/- 6.0 years old, subdivided according to body mass index, were studied retrospectively. There was no significant mean age difference among body mass index groups (p = 0.228). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.4%, with a null prevalence for normal (n = 18), 23.8% for overweight (n = 17), 62.9% for obese (n = 28), and 85.5% for morbidly obese women (n = 7). Women with metabolic syndrome were older than women without metabolic syndrome (27.3 +/- 5.3 vs. 24.2 +/- 4.6 vs. years old; p = 0.031) and presented a higher body mass index (36.3 +/- 7.7 vs. 26.9 +/- 5.4; p < 0.001). There was no difference for degree of hirsutism and menstrual patterns between women with and without metabolic syndrome (p = 0.593 and p = 0.119, respectively). Regarding laboratory parameters, DHEAS was lower (1,646 +/- 1,007 vs. 2,594 +/- 1,563; p = 0.007) and HOMA-IR were higher (9.9 +/- 9.7 vs. 4.6 +/- 4.7; p = 0.004) in women with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.031 and p < 0.001, respectively). The best predictors of metabolic syndrome were waist circumference > 88 cm, HDL-cholesterol < 50 mg/dL and triglycerides >or= 150 mg/dL.  (+info)

Validity and reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat. (4/1519)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter and its validity as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat, as well as to identify the most appropriate cut-off points to identify the area of visceral fat that is known to represent a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Validation study. SUBJECTS: 92 healthy volunteers (57 women, 35 men), age: 20-83 y, body mass index: 19.3 to 35.9 kg/m2. MEASUREMENTS: Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), weight, height, circumferences (waist, hip, and thigh), sub-scapular skinfold thickness, abdominal diameter index, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). METHOD OF CHOICE: Computed tomography (CT). STATISTIC: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The reliability for SAD measurement was very high (Inter-class coefficient = 0.99). Visceral fat as measured by VAF through CT was highly correlated with SAD (women r = 0.80; men r = 0.64, p < 0.001), waist circumference (women r = 0.77; men r = 0.73, p < 0.001), and WHR (women r = 0.72; men r = 0.58, p < 0.001). The ROC curve indicated 19.3 cm and 20.5 cm as the threshold values for abdominal sagittal diameter in women and men (sensitivity 85% and 83%, specificity 77% and 82%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high correlation between SAD and VAF. The cut-off values identified for SAD presented a sensitivity and specificity that were considered adequate.  (+info)

Consumption of red or processed meat does not predict risk factors for coronary heart disease; results from a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999. (5/1519)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a high consumption of red or processed meat is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: The subjects were 517 men and 635 women, who were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Assessment of diet was carried out at two time points 1989 and 1999 with outcome measures collected in 1999. Food intake data were recorded in 5-day diaries. Meat consumption was estimated by adding individual meat portions to the meat fractions of composite dishes. RESULTS: There was no significant association between red or processed meat consumption in 1989 and 1999 and serum cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure measured in 1999. The combined intake of red and processed meat in 1999 had a significant positive association with blood pressure in men only. Red and processed meat intakes in 1989, separately and combined, had a significant positive association with waist circumference in 1999: a 10 g increase in red meat consumption accounted for a 0.3 cm increase in waist circumference; P=0.04 (men), 0.05 (women). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of red or processed meat assessed separately was not related to the major risk factors for CHD but contributed to increased waist circumference that has also been identified as a risk factor.  (+info)

Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. (6/1519)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the genetic and nongenetic correlates of circulating measures of vitamins K and D status in a community-based sample of men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1762 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (919 women; mean age 59 years). Vitamin K status was measured as plasma phylloquinone and serum percent undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), and vitamin D was measured using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Associations between vitamin K status and vitamin D status with biologically plausible nongenetic factors were assessed using stepwise regression. Heritability and linkage were determined using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). RESULTS: Nongenetic factors accounted for 20.1 and 12.3% of the variability in plasma phylloquinone in men and women respectively, with triglycerides and phylloquinone intake being the primary correlates. In men 12.2% and in women 14.6% of the variability in %ucOC was explained by nongenetic factors in our models. Heritability estimates for these vitamin K status biomarkers were nonsignificant. Season, vitamin D intake, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and waist circumference explained 24.7% (men) and 24.2% (women) of the variability in plasma 25(OH)D. Of the three vitamins examined, only 25(OH)D was significantly heritable (heritability estimate=28.8%, P<0.01), but linkage analysis of 25(OH)D did not achieve genome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in biomarkers of vitamin K status was attributed to nongenetic factors, whereas plasma 25(OH)D was found to be significantly heritable. Further studies are warranted to investigate genetic loci influencing vitamin D status.  (+info)

To treat or not to treat: comparison of different criteria used to determine whether weight loss is to be recommended. (7/1519)

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Association of body mass index and abdominal obesity with marital status in adults. (8/1519)

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Obesity is a health disorder characterized by an increase in body weight, measured by waist circumference. High waist circumference is linked to potential development of non-communicable diseases. A systematic review study was used to explore health risks of high waist circumference through Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, and Proquest. Findings show that high waist circumference increased the risks of developing hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, joint pain, low back pain, and hyperuricemia. It is recommended that government increase their role in raising public awareness to maintain healthy lifestyle.. ...
According to the National Institutes of Health, a high Waist Circumference (WC) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease when the BMI is between 25 and 34.9. (A BMI greater than 25 is considered overweight and a BMI greater than 30 is considered obese.) Waist Circumference can be useful for those people categorized as normal or overweight in terms of BMI. (For example, an athlete with increased muscle mass may have a BMI greater than 25 - making him or her overweight on the BMI scale - but a Waist Circumference measurement would most likely indicate that he or she is, in fact, not overweight). Changes in Waist Circumference over time can indicated an increase or decrease in abdominal fat. Increased abdominal fat is associated with an increased risk of heart disease.. To determine your Waist Circumference, locate the upper hip bone and place a measuring tape around the abdomen (ensuring that the tape measure is horizontal). ...
Background There is controversial evidence on the associations between anthropometric measures with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in pediatric ages. We aimed to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with clustered cardiometabolic risk factors and to determine whether these anthropometric variables can be used to discriminate individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR). Methods The study sample of 4255 (2191 girls and 2064 boys) participants (8-17 years) was derived from pooled cross-sectional data comprising five studies. Outcomes included a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor z-score [corresponding to the sum of z-scores for triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean arterial pressure), and HOMA-IR] and children with ≥1.0 SD in this score were defined as being
BACKGROUND: The association between waist circumference and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains poorly explored.. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort.. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study (n=30,239) with information for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; n=26,960).. PREDICTOR: Elevated waist circumference or BMI.. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Incident cases of ESRD were identified through linkage of REGARDS participants with the US Renal Data System.. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 64.8 years, 45.8% were men, and 40.3% were black. Overall, 297 (1.1%) individuals developed ESRD during a median of 6.3 years. After adjustment for all covariates including waist circumference, no significant association was noted between BMI categories and ESRD incidence compared to BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 (referent). Higher ...
Recently, the use of waist circumference (WC) has been substituting the BMI as a measure of obesity and health. Waist circumference has been found to strongly correlate with adverse cardio-vascular events or diseases such as diabetes. This correlation between waist circumference and bad health is stronger than that of BMI.. Waist circumference correlates with bad health stronger than BMI does. The logic behind this shift in health policy makers attitude lies in the fact that not all fat is the same. More and more scientific data is coming in, showing that fatty tissue is not just a storage for calories but rather a living, functioning organ that is capable of communicating with the rest of the body.. It turns out that there are two main fat distributions that can be identified in people: Abdominal fat (pot belly or apple shaped or male type) and Hip fat (pear fat or female type). These pictures might clear things up a bit more:. ...
Waist Circumference Tool In addition to Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference screening is an important element of predicting disease risk, especially for individuals who are categorized as normal or overweight on the BMI scale. This chart illustrates proper technique for measuring waist circumference and indicates disease risk by waist circumference and BMI, and is also available for PDF download. ...
OBJECTIVES:To compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) as indices of obesity and assess the respective associations with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. DESIGN AND SETTING:A national sample of 11 247 Australians aged > or =25 years was examined in 2000 in a cross-sectional survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The examination included a fasting blood sample, standard 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure measurements and questionnaires to assess treatment for dyslipidaemia and hypertension. BMI, waist circumference and WHR were measured to assess overweight and obesity. RESULTS:The prevalence of obesity amongst Australian adults defined by BMI, waist circumference and WHR was 20.8, 30.5 and 15.8% respectively. The unadjusted odds ratio for the fourth vs. first quartile of each obesity measurement showed that WHR had the strongest relationship with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia (women only) and hypertension. Following adjustment for ...
Abdominal obesity, often expressed as an increased waist circumference, is becoming a widely accepted anthropometric measurement when assessing overall cardiometabolic risk. Several studies have shown that abdominal obesity correlates well with obesity related CVD risk factors including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia [12, 13]. Associations between waist circumference and type 2 diabetes and CVD-associated morbidity have also been demonstrated [14, 15]. To our knowledge there is only one previous study focusing upon the association between waist circumference and future risk for type 2 diabetes/CVD assessing risk by applying a risk score equation [16]. From a public health point of view this is an important issue especially within primary care when aiming at early identification of high risk individuals. When estimating risk for CVD the CVD Risk Score compares well with SCORE relative risk chart [17]. The latter identified 87.6% of those with a CVD Risk Score ≥ 4.5 in ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Influence of waist circumference on the metabolic risk associated with impaired fasting glucose: effect of weight loss after gastric bypass
1 Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics. 1998;101:518-25. 2 Weiss R, Caprio S. The metabolic consequences of childhood obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;19:405-19. 3 Pouliot MC, Despres JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist Circumference and Abdominal Sagittal Diameter - Best Simple Anthropometric Indexes of Abdominal Visceral Adipose-Tissue Accumulation and Related Cardiovascular Risk in Men and Women. Am J Cardiol. 1994;73:460-8. 4 Lean ME, Han TS, Morrison CE. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ. 1995;311:158-61. 5 Goran MI, Gower BA. Relation between visceral fat and disease risk in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:149S-156S. 6 Cowin I, Emmett P. Cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, birthweight and central obesity in pre-school children. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:330-9. 7 ...
Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. ...
Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8 cm over approximately 4 years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with ...
The findings, which emerged from a large prospective study of more than 20,000 Dutch men and women aged 20-65 years begun in 1993, show that the associations of BMI and waist circumference with heart disease are equally strong, and explain one half of all fatal and one quarter of non-fatal CVD in those who are overweight and obese.. Studies which have so far established the association between BMI and waist circumference as risk factors for heart disease have, say the investigators, been based on self-reported data, and these measures frequently underestimate the true prevalence of obesity. For a true estimation of the association, accurate anthropometric measurements are necessary. And this is what the present study did. The Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands professionally measured between 1993 and 1997 both BMI and waist circumference (as well as other variables) in a cohort of ...
Rationale: A high waist circumference is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and CVD in patients with a BMI in a range between 25 and 34.9 kg/m2 (82). Monitoring changes in waist circumference over time may be helpful, in addition to measuring BMI, since it can provide an estimate of increased abdominal fat even in the absence of a change in BMI. Furthermore, in obese patients with metabolic complications, changes in waist circumference are useful predictors of changes in CVD risk factors (537). There are ethnic and age-related differences in body fat distribution that modify the predictive validity of waist circumference as a surrogate for abdominal fat (526). These variations may partly explain differences between ethnic or age groups in the power of waist circumference or waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio to predict disease risks (429, 543). In some populations, waist circumference is a better indicator of relative disease risk than is BMI: examples ...
An expanding waistline may be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to a recent study. News on NewsHub.org
The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is...
Objective: To assess the association of BMI and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic risk factors, and confirm the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and WC among Chinese adults. Methods: After excluding participants with missing or extreme measurement values, as well as individuals with self-reported histories of cancer, a total of 501 201 adults in baseline and 19 201 adults in the second re-survey from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included. The associations of BMI and WC with metabolic risk factors were estimated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the appropriate cut-off values of BMI and WC to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all presented ascending trends with the increasing levels of BMI or WC. Defined as the points on the ROC curve where Youdens index reached the highest, the appropriate overweight cut
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Comparison of waist circumference using the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health protocols. Table 4 Mean waist circumference based on World Health Organization (WHO) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) protocols, by age group, sex and body mass index (BMI) category, household population aged 3 to 79, Canada, 2009 to 2011
It sounds logical, to think that no body fat or high-influenced low metabolism on a person or even by special conditions such as hypothyroidism (under active gland tyroid). Nonetheless, increasing the size of waist circumference is caused by the imbalance of energy in the body (the incoming calories than the calories out). To minimize the waist circumference, you should eat low-calorie foods and increase the activity can burn the remaining calories your body ...
A new study from Kira Birditt, et al., Chronic Stress and Negative Marital Quality Among Older Couples: Associations With Waist Circumference, finds that, partner stress has direct associations with waist circumference among couples and this link is moderated by negative marital quality.. This study is being picked up by news sources, including:. ...
In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA) to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women) were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE) cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels) were defined using modified
Overweight and obesity are considered among the major health concerns worldwide. The body mass index is a frequently used measure for overweight and obesity and is associated with common non-communicable diseases such as diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. However, the body mass index does not account for the distribution of body fat and relative fat to muscle mass. 3D laser-based photonic full body scans provide detailed information on various body circumferences, surfaces, and volumes as well as body height and weight (using an integrated scale). In the literature, body scans showed good feasibility, reliability, and validity, while also demonstrating a good correlation with health parameters linked to the metabolic syndrome. However, systematic differences between body scan derived measurements and manual measurements remain an issue. This study aimed to assess these systematic differences for body height, waist circumference, and body mass index using cross-sectional data
BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE WERE ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - A DANISH FOLLOW-UP STUDY ...
The Development of Reference Values for Waist Circumference, Waist Hip and Waist Height Ratios in Egyptian Adolescents., Alaa Youssef Ahmed and Amany Mohammed Sayed
The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Members from a local Midwest adult fitness program (n = 5) who had been diagnosed T2DM participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 70 to 80 years with an average age of 74 years. Four of the participants were female and one participant was male. The questions included in this study were 1 .) in those with diagnosed T2DM, was a low overall HBM score correlated with a high WC? and 2.) was there a relationship between the overall HBM score and whether individuals with diagnosed T2DM met American College of Sports Medicines (ACSMs) guidelines for aerobic exercise? WC measurements were taken by the primary researcher and the type and amount of aerobic exercise participants completed was documented as part of the demographic survey. Participants perception
The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics (i.e. body height, body weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]) with motor performance ability [MPA], social environmental factors of the district (i.e. employment status/working life, education, social situation/heterogeneity and home environment), where the respective kindergarten was located, as well as other potential health determinants in a representative sample of kindergartners. We analyzed data of 434 children aged 3 to 6 years which were obtained from a community-based cross-sectional health study conducted in the city of Mainz, Germany. Body height and weight, BMI and WC standard deviation scores [SDS] were calculated relative to the international proposed cut-offs of the IOTF. MPA was collected with multiple test items to determine coordination, speed strength, muscular endurance and speed. The life situation index [LSI] was used to assess the social environment of the
Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip-Ratio in the Prediction of Obesity in Turkish Teenagers. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Did you know that your waist circumference (WC) can tell you a whole lot more about your body and any future risks than your body mass index (BMI) can? Researchers have known about this for a while, but it has never really been expanded on. BMI used to be the number one predictor of morbidity and mortality due to
In their ongoing search for controllable risk factors that may lead to type 2 diabetes, researchers from the University of Georgia have found that a larger waist circumference may increase an childs chances of developing the condition later in life.
Abstract Background Few prospective studies on association between waist circumference and hypertension have | Wenshu Luo, Zhirong Guo, Xiaoshu Hu, Zhengyuan Zho | International Journal of Cardiology |
It can be too easy to think (or worry) about your weight. But you know what? There is something else that may be more important when it comes to real health. That is your waist circumference. Ahh, just a minute! Its not just about the
A mans waist circumference may give some clues to his urinary and sexual health, according to researchers from NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/
A report in the New England Jornal of Mediceine reports that a large waist line may be a new indicator for pre-mature death, even though they would not normally be considered overweight.|p|Click here for more information on Weight Loss.|/p|
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases each year, and obesity is an important risk factor for CKD. The main anthropometric indicators currently reflecting obesity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), but the rationality and merits of various indicators vary. This article aims to find whether the WHtR is a more suitable physical measurement that can predict CKD. Pubmed, embase, the cochrane library, and web of science were systematically searched for articles published between 1998 and 2019 screening CKD through physical indicators. Two reviewers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and evaluated the quality of the methodology included in the study. Meta-analysis used the Stata 12.0 software. Nine studies were included, with a total of 202,283 subjects. Meta-analysis showed that according to the analysis of different genders in 6 studies,
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases each year, and obesity is an important risk factor for CKD. The main anthropometric indicators currently reflecting obesity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), but the rationality and merits of various indicators vary. This article aims to find whether the WHtR is a more suitable physical measurement that can predict CKD. Pubmed, embase, the cochrane library, and web of science were systematically searched for articles published between 1998 and 2019 screening CKD through physical indicators. Two reviewers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and evaluated the quality of the methodology included in the study. Meta-analysis used the Stata 12.0 software. Nine studies were included, with a total of 202,283 subjects. Meta-analysis showed that according to the analysis of different genders in 6 studies,
The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs.
Waist-to-height ratio may be a more accurate measure of cardiovascular health risk than the current standard, the body mass index, a St. Louis expert says.
LUZ, Tamires Conceição da et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian rural population. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2020, vol.25, n.10, pp.3921-3932. Epub Sep 28, 2020. ISSN 1678-4561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320202510.36022018.. Given the extensive costs due to cardiovascular diseases and the increased prevalence of these diseases in farmers, this study aims to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population and to evaluate their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 790 farmers from the municipality of Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brazil. Six out of ten evaluated farmers had at least one cardiovascular risk factor (CRF). High blood pressure was the most prevalent risk factor in 35.8% (95%CI 32-39, n = 283) followed by dyslipidemia (34.4%, 95%CI 31-38, n = 272). Those aged more than 50 years were 5.6 times (95%CI 2.03-15.43) more likely to evidence two or more CRFs. High waist circumference or tricipital skinfold ...
New study findings establish link between watching TV in the bedroom and childhood obesity, specifically high waist circumference.
Presence of central obesity and high-body weight (at least overweight) as assessed by waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and BMI are associated with asthma diagnosis. More studies are needed, especially in children and adolescents, to confirm these findings and better understand how body fa …
Want to gauge your risk for developing Type 2 diabetes? Dont just step on the scale - reach for a measuring tape too, a new study suggests.The circumference of your waist can tell you a
Methods To address the multicollinearity issue between BMI and WC, we used the residual model approach. The standard WC (Y-axis) was regressed on the BMI (X-axis) to obtain residual WC. Data from two adult population surveys (Nunavik Inuit and James Bay Cree) were analysed to evaluate relative effect of BMI and WC on four cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein levels.. ...
Individuals with a larger waist circumference--even with a normal body mass index--have a greater chance of dying than those with smaller circumferences, according to a study published in the Aug. 9/23 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.
Question - Suffering from pain or irritation on waist. Treated with trinerve. Am I okay?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
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Background: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aims of this study were 1) to establish a Colombian youth smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR and 2) to evaluate the utility of these parameters as predictors of overweight and obesity. Method: A cross-sectional study whose sample population comprised 7954 healthy Colombian schoolchildren [boys n=3460 and girls n=4494, mean (standard deviation) age 12.8 (2.3) years old]. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR and its percentiles were calculated. Appropriate cut-offs point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definitions, were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WC and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Results: Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC increased and WHtR decreased with age for both ...
Aims: Waist circumference is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue,it correlates closely with BMI and is strongly linked to obesity- related risk factors. The sex specific waist circumference currently proposed for European male is 94 centimetres and for females is 80 cm. Thus, there is a need to develop sex specific waist circumference cut-offs points appropriate for different population (W.H.O).. The aims are to determine the appropriate waist cut-offs for identifying people with body mass index (≥25 kg/m2) and those with B.M.I (≥30 kg/m2) among Tunisian adult population (north Africa country).. Materials and methods: We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey a cross-sectional health survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample which included 2927 adults over 20 years old who had measurements of height, body weight, wait circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Receiver operating ...
Results Subjects were 325 children consisting of 187 males and 138 females. Hypertension was diagnosed in 47 children (37 males and 10 females). Mean waist circumference and waist-hip circumference ratio were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group. The hypertensive group had a mean waist circumference of 72.6 (SD 12.8) cm, AUC 0.779 (95%CI 0.730 to 0.823; P,0.001), cut-off point ,65 cm, sensitivity 66.0%, specificity 76.3%, and prevalence ratio 4.55. This group had mean waist-hip ratio of 0.94 (SD 0.10), AUC 0.724 (95%CI 0.672 to 0.772; P,0.001), waist-hip ratio cut-off ,0.91, sensitivity 59.6%, specificity 77.0%, and prevalence ratio 3.73. ...
Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which participants with missing exposure data are typically excluded. We performed a simulation study to compare complete-case analysis with Multiple imputation (MI) for dealing with missing data in an analysis of the association of waist circumference, measured at two waves, and the risk of colorectal cancer (a completely observed outcome). We generated 1,000 datasets of 41,476 individuals with values of waist circumference at waves 1 and 2 and times to the events of colorectal cancer and death to resemble the distributions of the data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Three proportions of missing data (15, 30 and 50%) were imposed on waist circumference at wave 2 using three missing data mechanisms: Missing Completely at Random (MCAR), and a realistic and a more extreme covariate-dependent
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as CVD and has a strong familial component. We tested for association between SNPs on the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip and measures of adiposity in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: A total of 1341 Framingham Heart Study participants in 310 families genotyped with the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip had adiposity traits measured over 30 years of follow up. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), weight change, height, and radiographic measures of adiposity (subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, sagittal height) were measured at multiple examination cycles. Multivariable-adjusted residuals, adjusting for age, age-squared, sex, smoking, and menopausal status, were evaluated in association with the genotype data using additive Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and Family Based Association Test (FBAT) models. We prioritized mean BMI over offspring ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988-2008. AU - Albrecht, Sandra S.. AU - Diez Roux, Ana V.. AU - Aiello, Allison E.. AU - Schulz, Amy J.. AU - Abraido-Lanza, Ana. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods: Mexican-Americans aged 20-64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), and NHANES (1999-2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results: We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among ...
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964) were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR. The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13). Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women.. AU - Du, H.. AU - van der A, D.L.. AU - Boshuizen, H.C.. AU - Forouhi, N.G.. AU - Wareham, N.J.. AU - Halkjaer, J.. AU - Tjonneland, A.. AU - Overvad, K.. AU - Jakobsen, M.U.. AU - Boeing, H.. AU - Buijsse, B.. AU - Masala, G.. AU - Palli, D.. AU - Sorensen, T.I.. AU - Saris, W.H.. AU - Feskens, E.J.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 89,432 European participants, aged 20-78 y, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline and who were followed for an average of 6.5 ...
A recent concept is that obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI), is not always a sign of poor health. Thus, in order to use obesity metrics in clinical decision making, it is important to clarify the relationship between waist circumference (WC), a proxy for abdominal obesity, and mortality. Data were used from 8,796,759 subjects aged between 30 and 90 years, who had participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 and survived at least 1 year post screening. Data from a mean follow-up time of an additional 5.3 years (time at risk) were analyzed for the relationship between WC and mortality according to age, sex, and BMI category. An increased WC of more than 90 cm in men and 85 cm in women showed a definite negative influence on mortality. However, the detailed relationship between WC and mortality was J-shaped or U-shaped according to age, sex, and BMI category. In the normal BMI group, the optimal WC range with the lowest mortality was
Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. Early detection of abdominal obesity followed by appropriate interventions will prevent associated diseases. The objective was to determine optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off points predictive of at least one other component of metabolic syndrome in Benin adults. This longitudinal and observational study included at the baseline 541 apparently healthy subjects aged 25 - 60 years randomly selected in the largest city of Cotonou (n = 200), the smaller-size city of Ouidah (n = 171) and rural surroundings of Ouidah (n = 170) in Benin. Components of the metabolic syndrome considered along with abdominal obesity were high blood pressure, high fasting glycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides as defined by the Joint Interim Statement. After the baseline survey, the subjects were followed-up for four years. Complete data at baseline and four years later were available in
Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.: To determine optimal threshold values for body mass index (BMI) and waist
Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results: Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m(2) lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m(2)). The association between WC and education ...
Methods Material and methods: Prospective study on 88 (37 M/51 W) consecutive PsA fulfilled CASPAR criteria. All the patients were evaluated according to a predefined protocol that included:rheumatology and dermatology clinical evaluation and functional disability ( Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ, quality of life score- Short Form36, SF36), PASI and VAI based on Waist Circumference (WC), Body Mass Index (BMI), triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol (HDL) levels. BMI was calculeted in 4 standard categories according to WHO criteria and WC was calculeted according to WHO (cut points 94 cm for men and 80 cm for women).. ...
Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results: Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m(2) lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m(2)). The association between WC and education ...
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine whether habitual snoring was independently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults, and to assess the role that adiposity measures play in the snoring-diabetes association, as well as to evaluate the joint influence of snoring and adiposity measures on diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 512 715 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 regions in China during 2004 and 2008. Data from 482 413 participants without baseline diabetes were analyzed in the present study. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis was used to assess the longitudinal relationship between adiposity measures and habitual snoring. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between habitual snoring and diabetes risk. RESULTS: Both higher body mass index and waist circumference were associated with higher risks of subsequent habitual snoring, whereas no reverse association was detected. A total of 16 479
in BMC pediatrics (2015), 15. BACKGROUND: Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several ... [more ▼]. BACKGROUND: Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several studies suggest that only body mass index (BMI), a measure of relative weight, constitutes an accurate predictor, whereas others highlight the potential role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (Waist C), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of adding anthropometric measures of body fat distribution (Waist C Z Score, WHR Z Score and/or WHtR) to BMI Z Score to predict cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. We also examined the consistency of these associations with the total fat ...
Genes & nutrition, 2014; 9 (2) doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0385-7. Authors: Meidtner Karina, Fisher Eva, Angquist Lars, Holst Claus, Vimaleswaran Karani S Meidtner Karina, Fisher Eva, Angquist Lars, Holst Claus, Vimaleswaran Karani S, Boer Jolanda M A, Halkjær Jytte, Masala Giovanna, Ostergaard Jane N, Mortensen Lotte M, van der A Daphne L, Tjønneland Anne, Palli Domenico, Overvad Kim, Wareham Nicholas J, Loos Ruth J F, Sørensen Thorkild I A, Boeing Heiner et al.(13) Affiliation: German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany Sample size: 287 Abstract: We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 ...
Madero and colleagues analyzed data from CT scans of 2,489 participants of the Health ABC study. The mean age was 74 years, 49% were male, 39% were black, 59% were hypertensive, and 15% were diabetic. The mean eGFR was 88 mL/min/1.73m2. Eight percent had chronic kidney disease at baseline, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or less.. The CT scans measured subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and intramuscular fat. The investigators also took waist circumference and BMI measurements. All participants had at least two measurements of cystatin C, which was used to estimate eGFR. Worsening of kidney function was defined as a 30% decrease in eGFR during follow-up at either year 3 or 10. Incident kidney disease was defined as an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2. During the follow-up period, 17% of participants experienced worsening of kidney function and 17% developed incident kidney disease.. Our results demonstrated that CT measures of ...
In this study we consider data from two cross-sectional studies, both representative of Zaragoza (Spain). The first was conducted in 1995;3 for this analysis we have included 233 adolescents (aged 13-14 years; 128 boys and 105 girls). The second was conducted within the framework of the AVENA Study, from January 2000 to March 2002; for this analysis, we have included 162 adolescents (aged 13-14 years; 72 boys and 90 girls). The protocol of the AVENA Study was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain).. Weight and height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Waist circumference was measured with an inelastic tape: the subject was in a standing position, and the tape was applied horizontally midway between the lowest rib margin and the iliac crest, at the end of gentle expiration;4 technical error of measurement was 0.95 cm, and reliability 98.0%.4 The technical error of ...
For HOMA2-IR, there were no differences between higher and lower ratios. (b) Plasma triglyceride (TG) and HOMA2-IR for upper and lower halves of the intraperitoneal fat/abdominal subcutaneous fat ratios for all women. For TG, those with the high ratios had significantly higher triglyceride in each waist circumference category (a ...
PubMed journal article Waist circumference is the main determinant of elevated C-reactive protein in metabolic syndrom were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
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Almond is packed with monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and fibers, all of which can reduce the bad LDL cholesterol and increase the good one.. This is especially beneficial for your heart health. Almonds can be used with yogurt, cereals, or for topping salads. It is recommended to eat a handful of almonds on a daily basis.. Other nuts and seeds like flaxseeds and walnuts can also effectively reduce your blood cholesterol levels.. High cholesterol can affect all people, regardless of their age. There are some factors that can increase your risk of high cholesterol.. The most common ones include excessive smoking, obesity, poor diet, large waist circumference, lack of exercise, diabetes, and hypothyroidism.. ...
A total of 50.1% were men; age range 40-95 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome remained stable across the age groups. There was a stable or increased association between waist circumference and HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose. However, the association between waist circumference and ambulatory BP monitoring systolic BP (r2 decreased from 9.9% to 1.0%, p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; r2 decreased from 21% to 4.9%, p = 0.002), and triglyceride levels (r2 decreased from 17.5% to 1.9%, p < 0.001) decreased with age. Hs-CRP correlated with all metabolic syndrome components in all age groups (p < 0.001 for all). It became the strongest determinant of ambulatory BP monitoring systolic BP (p < 0.001) and HDL-C (p < 0.05) in patients >80 years old. In contrast, its association with waist circumference markedly decreased. ...
Any 3 of these 5 criteria qualify for a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. In some modifications, waist circumference has been made an essential criterion while in some waist circumference has been modified for different ethnic groups. In South Asians now the waist circumference has been reduced to 90 and 80 cms respectively for man and woman.. The factors associated with high risk for metabolic syndrome are. age, race, weight, postmenopausal status, smoking, lack of physical activity, alcohol intake, household income etc.. The syndrome gains importance as it has been found to. ...
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References. 1. Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism 2019; 92: 6-10. [ Links ] 2. Meadows R, Bower JK. Associations of anthropometric measures of obesity with physical limitations in older adults. Disabil Rehabil 2018; 1-6. [ Links ] 3. Vidal Martins M, Queiroz Ribeiro A, Oliveira Martinho K, Silva Franco F, Danésio de Souza J, Bacelar Duarte de Morais K, et al. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as predictors of cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Nutr Hosp 2015; 31 (6): 2583-9. [ Links ] 4. WHO. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. 2011 [Consulted on January 25, 2019]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44583/?sequence=1. [ Links ] 5. Castanheira M, Chor D, Braga JU, de Oliveira Cardoso L, Griep RH, Molina M, et al. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. Public Health Nutr 2018; ...
References. 1. Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism 2019; 92: 6-10. [ Links ] 2. Meadows R, Bower JK. Associations of anthropometric measures of obesity with physical limitations in older adults. Disabil Rehabil 2018; 1-6. [ Links ] 3. Vidal Martins M, Queiroz Ribeiro A, Oliveira Martinho K, Silva Franco F, Danésio de Souza J, Bacelar Duarte de Morais K, et al. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as predictors of cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Nutr Hosp 2015; 31 (6): 2583-9. [ Links ] 4. WHO. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. 2011 [Consulted on January 25, 2019]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44583/?sequence=1. [ Links ] 5. Castanheira M, Chor D, Braga JU, de Oliveira Cardoso L, Griep RH, Molina M, et al. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. Public Health Nutr 2018; ...
You may have already heard that sitting is the new smoking or even cancer. Spending a large chunk of your day sitting with not enough physical activity is the newest health concern that has had everyone worried. If you spend most of the day sitting, especially those who have desk jobs coupled with high levels of stress, you could be inviting the risk of several ailments - from obesity to diabetes and even heart disease.. A group of researchers have presented a new study at a meeting of the EuroPrevent 2017 in Spain in which they have found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors like smoking, hypertension and dyslipidaemia amongst the working population. The study was conducted on 1,74,329 healthy workers who were classified by their body mass index. 67% were men and 49% did manual work. All the participants were classified as metabolically unhealthy if they met three or more of the following criteria - high waist circumference, increased triglycerides or if they are receiving treatment ...
Visit 1 (week 0). Non-fasting visit. Interested participants discuss the study with a member of the study team who will explain each aspect of the study, following which informed consent will be then obtained. Subsequently, blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference will be measured, medical history and list of medication are recorded, and blood is taken to determine eligibility. A dietitian will explain about eating a normal diet and the foods we would like the participants to avoid during the study. Vegetarian patients may include too much soy in the diet and for this reason they will not be able to take part in the study. All participants will be non smokers.. Visit 2 (week 2)and Visit 4 (week 10). Fasting visits. Fasting blood is taken and the EndoPAT is performed. Weight, height and waist circumference measurement performed. The EndoPAT test takes between 20-30 minutes. The first box of study bars is dispensed during visit 2. Participants need to consume two bars daily. All ...
Health, ...Barcelona 28th January 2014. A study led by researchers from IMIM (Ho...Researchers analysed data from 1521 Spanish children and adolescents a... According to Helmut Schrder a researcher from the research group on ...According to Llus Serra-Majem a researcher from the Department of Cli...,Measuring,waist,circumference,would,improve,the,detection,of,children,and,adolescents,with,cardiometabolic,risk,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
2. How to measure your waist circumference. While standing, measure your waist just above your hipbones, straight after breathing out. Be sure to hold the tape measure snugly, but so that its not constricting, and check that its parallel to the floor.. For men, a circumference less than 94 cm is low, from 94-102cm is high, and more than 102cm is very high.. For women, a circumference less than 80 cm is low, from 80-88 cm is high and more than 88 cm is very high.. Health wise, your waist circumference should be viewed in the context of your BMI as follows:. ...
The major findings in this study were the estimated WC values which were equivalent to BMI values from 20 to 35 kg/m2 for predicting the absolute risks of type 2 diabetes for Aboriginal people. Also of importance is that the absolute type 2 diabetes risk increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. WC of 91.5 and 90.9 cm for males and females, respectively, corresponded with BMI of 25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), while WC of 105.7 cm in males and 102.3 cm in females corresponded with obesity threshold (BMI=30 kg/m2). Although, on average, females had higher WC compared with males (approximately 3.1 cm mean difference) and the absolute risks tend to be higher in females for each derived WC than in males, the association between WC and type 2 diabetes was not dependent on gender. While there appeared to be widening difference between gender-derived WC at BMI ,30 kg/m2, with greater increase ...
Copyright © 2020 Frontline Medical Communications Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USA. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The information provided is for educational purposes only. Use of this Web site is subject to the medical disclaimer.. ...
This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baseline data from 3987 non-diabetic subjects in the Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) Study. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th ox-LDL quartiles versus the 1st, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MS were 0.84 (0.52, 1.36), 1.47 (0.95, 2.32), and 2.57 (1.66, 4.04) (p,0.001 for trend) once adjusted for age, sex, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR. Results showing the same trend were found for all MS components except glucose concentration. Ox-LDL mediated 13.9 % of the association of waist circumference with triglycerides and only 1-3% of the association with HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and insulin concentration. HOMA-IR did not mediate the ...
Background: Egypt represents one of highest prevalence African countries regarding obesity among school students. Objective: The development of accur..
INSR (insulin-resistance syndrome) affects 25% of the Australian population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we postulated that early cardiovascular changes in these individuals may be associated with an activated RAS (renin-angiotensin system). We studied 26 subjects: 13 with INSR [waist circumference, 99± 6 cm; HOMA (homoeostasis model assessment) score, 2.5± 0.3] and 13 NCs (normals controls; waist circumference, 77± 2 cm; HOMA score, 1.4± 0.2). All received intravenous GTN (glyceryl trinitrate; 10, 20 and 40 μg/min), L-NMMA (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine; 3 mg/kg of body weight), AngII (angiotensin II; 8 and 16 ng/ min), the selective AT2R (AngII type 2 receptor) inhibitor PD123319 (10 and 20 μg/min) and AngII (16 ng/min)+PD123319 (20 μg/min). At the end of each infusion, arterial stiffness indices [SI (stiffness index) and RI (reflection index)] and haemodynamic parameters were measured. There was a significantly higher RI response to AngII (P=0.0004 for
RESULTS Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference were independently associated with higher 2-h glycemia. Glycemic level was 0.11 and 0.13 mmol/l greater for each standard deviation increase in WHR (0.06) and waist circumference (8.0 cm), respectively (P , 0.02). Restricting analyses to the subset of women with uterine height ≤ 26 cm improved the association (0.13 and 0.19 mmol/l, respectively, P , 0.02); differences of 0.22 and 0.19 mmol/l were observed for 1 SD changes in the sum of skinfold thicknesses (24.7 mm) and in age (5.5 years), respectively.. ...
Results In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CVRFs levels tended to be higher in winter and lower in summer months. These patterns were observed for most studies. In the Northern Hemisphere, the estimated seasonal variations were 0.26 kg/m2 for BMI, 0.6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol.. ...
Results : Prevalences of MS (48% vs. 28%), an increased WC (58.5% vs. 54.5%), low HDL-C (35% vs. 11.2%), high triglyceride (52.2% vs. 29.6%) were significantly higher in Iran. Fasting glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L was higher in Australia (26% vs. 23%). Hypertension was no different (38%). Pearson correlations between WC and other MS components were stronger in Australians: FPG (0.32 vs. 0.2), HDL (0.47 vs. 0.16), TG (0.38 vs. 0.30) and SBP (0.38 vs. 0.36). Among women, area under ROC curve for WC as a predictor for diabetes was significantly higher for Australians (0.76 vs. 0.68, p , 0.001) with no difference among men (0.69 vs. 0.71, p = 0.4 ...
In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.
A collaborative re-analysis of data from the InterAct case-control study conducted by Claudia Langenberg and colleagues has established that waist...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Waist circumference correlates significantly with systemic inflammatory response. A predominant factor in this correlation is ... Rogowski, O; Shapira, I; Bassat, O. K.; Chundadze, T; Finn, T; Berliner, S; Steinvil, A (2010). "Waist circumference as the ...
Waist-to-hip circumference ratio has also been used, but has been found to be no better than waist circumference alone, but ... vertical trunk circumference, waist circumference and height. Data on 11,808 subjects from the National Health and Human ... Waist circumference is a good indicator of visceral fat, which poses more health risks than fat elsewhere. According to the U.S ... Waist circumference can be a better indicator of obesity-related disease risk than BMI. For example, this is the case in ...
This is measured using Body Mass Index - BMI or waist circumference. Depending on the BMI, a body may be referred to as slim, ... Classifications of female body sizes are mainly based on the circumference of the bust-waist-hip (BWH), as in 36-24-36 (inches ... The body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and especially waist-to-chest ratio in men have been shown in studies to rank as ... Hourglass shape: The female body is significantly narrower in the waist both in front view and profile view. The waist is ...
Waist-hip ratio is the ratio of the circumference of the waist, to the circumference of the hips. It is calculated by dividing ... the waist circumference by the hip circumference. A woman's waist-hip ratio is an indicator of her age, health and fertility, ... Higher waist-hip ratio has been linked with both mobility disability and also cardiovascular disease. Also, within parasite- ... All of the above are related to mate choice: a lower waist-hip ratio indicates a younger, healthier, more fertile and more ...
In the United States a waist circumference of >102 cm (~40") in men and >88 cm (~34.5") in women or the waist-hip ratio (the ... Other proposed but less common obesity measures include waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. These measure a common form of ... "Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist/Hip Ratio in Predicting Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis". R ... 2010). "Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk-a review of the ...
See Gynoid fat distribution Central obesity is measured as increase by waist circumference or waist-hip ratio. Increase in ... Waist to hip ratio is determined by an individual's proportions of android fat and gynoid fat. A small waist to hip ratio ... waist circumference > 102 cm (40 in.) in males and > 88 cm (35 in.) in females. However increase in abdominal circumference may ... A females waist being smaller than her hips by a ratio of 0.7 is considered most attractive as it indicated readiness to give ...
... named rs12970134 to be mostly associated with waist circumference. In this study more than two thousand individuals of Indian ... "Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance". Nature Genetics. 40 (6): 716 ...
"Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance". Nature Genetics. 40 (6): 716 ...
Differential associations of job control components with both waist circumference and body mass index. Social Science & ...
Okosun IS, Cooper RS, Rotimi CN, Osotimehin B, Forrester T (1998). "Association of waist circumference with risk of ... Tawfeek H (2002). "Relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure among the population in Baghdad, Iraq" (PDF). ...
Health-centred intervention studies measured BMI, weight, waist circumference as well as general health. However, only one of ...
... waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome. Evidence does not support the commonly expressed view ...
Also, the IDF uses geography-specific cut points for waist circumference, while NCEP uses only one set of cut points for waist ... and waist circumference does not need to be measured. However, this potentially excludes any subject without increased waist ... If BMI is >30 kg/m², central obesity can be assumed and waist circumference does not need to be measured The World Health ... Elevated waist circumference: Men - greater than 40 inches (102 cm) Women - greater than 35 inches (88 cm) Elevated ...
Waist-hip ratio (the circumference of the waist divided by that of the hips of >0.9 for men and >0.85 for women) Waist-to- ... The absolute waist circumference 102 centimetres (40 in) in men and 88 centimetres (35 in) in women) and the waist-hip ratio (> ... Even with the differences, at any given level of central obesity measured as waist circumference or waist to hip ratio, ... between waist circumferences and costs among 31,840 subjects aged 50-64 years of age with different waist circumferences. Their ...
For example, men's pants are traditionally marked with two numbers, "waist" (waist circumference) and "inseam" (distance from ... In that study, worst offenders understated waist circumferences by 1.5 to 2 inches. London-based market analyst Mintel say that ... the nominal waist may be quite a bit smaller than the actual waist, in U.S. sizes. In 2010, Abram Sauer of Esquire measured ... several pairs of dress pants with a nominal waist size of 36 at different U.S. retailers and found that actual measurements ...
For example, the U.S. Navy circumference method compares abdomen or waist and hips measurements to neck measurement and height ... For males, they measure the neck and waist just above the navel. Females are measured around the hips, waist, and neck. These ... Description of circumference sites and their anatomical landmarks and technique "Gastric Banding Surgery". UC San Diego. BMI to ... Methods using circumference have little acceptance outside the Department of Defense due to their negative reputation in ...
... waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, selenoprotein P serum levels, and hemoglobin A1c blood levels. Levels of ALECT2 ...
"He was more than six feet tall, the circumference of his waist seven feet and four inches. He had an extraordinary face, his ...
"NRXN3 Is a Novel Locus for Waist Circumference: A Genome-Wide Association Study from the CHARGE Consortium". PLoS Genetics. 5 ( ...
It gradually widens in circumference towards the feet. It is straight from the waist down at the front, but the train widens ...
Abdomen There are three circumference sites for female Soldiers: 1. Neck 2. Waist 3. Hip Army Regulation 600-9 The Army Body ... Thus, the neck circumference above is rounded up to 17.5 There are two circumference sites for male Soldiers: 1. Neck 2. ... Due to the anatomy of the human body, the circumference sites, or the areas where measurements are taken, are not the same for ... 2. Measurement sets: For each circumference site, a total of three measurements are taken. A method is provided to round ...
In cut, it is a rectangle, longer than the wearer is tall, and wider than the wearer's waist circumference. The bottom edge is ... The plaid may also be worn unbelted; and it seems it was also later worn at waist-width (see images below). Near the end of the ... The width may be pleated until it will wrap around the waist, and the pleats held under a belt. In this case, the cloth below ... it reaches to the Waist behind; one corner falls as low as the Ankle on one side; and the other Part, in Folds, hangs down from ...
"Modest weight loss and reduction in waist circumference after medical treatment are associated with favorable changes in serum ...
"Concentrations of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Increased Waist Circumference and Insulin Resistance in ...
... waist, hip, and calf circumference, knee length, and timed one-leg stands for a random subsample (20%) of respondents. ...
"Relationship between waist circumference and supine abdominal height measured at different anatomical sites and cardiometabolic ... Central obesity Waist-hip ratio Body mass index (BMI) Body volume index Body fat percentage Index of Central Obesity Iribarren ...
Self-affirmed participants had lost more weight, had lower body mass index, and smaller waist circumference than non-affirmed ...
The waist became unimportant and the waist-restricting corset lost its significance. Paul Poiret was a leader in this movement ... it having been formerly twenty-three inches in circumference. Every morning one of the maids used to come to assist us to dress ... that the formation of the waist is not begun early enough. The consequence of this is, that the waist has to be compressed into ... I quite admit that slender waists are beautiful - in fact, my own waist is much admired, and that I sometimes forget the pain I ...
... and waist circumference. However, there was insufficient evidence to show an effect on mortality or actual cardiovascular ...
... body mass index and waist circumference. However, there was insufficient evidence to show an effect on mortality or actual ...
Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio (PDF). World Health Organization. [2016-09-03]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2015-02-09).. ... 描繪三種人體體型輪廓(腰圍 waist circumference)的描繪圖,由左至右分別為正常、過重與肥胖體型。. ... Bei-Fan Z. Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese ... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference
in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued, till it reached ... Maidens usually wore a short wrapper with beads around their waist and other ornaments such as necklaces and beads.[166] Both ... men and women wore wrappers.[165][166] Men would wear loin cloths that wrapped round their waist and between their legs to be ...
Ma He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi.[a] tall, had a waist that was five chi in circumference, cheeks ...
... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Vol. 11 ... "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults: ...
The UK uses the inch-system, this means that the difference in chest circumference between the cup sizes is always one inch, or ... For best results, the breasts should be measured twice: once when standing upright, once bending over at the waist with the ... The cup labels begin with "AA" for an 11±1 cm difference between bust and underbust circumference, i.e. not between bust ... The cup labels begin with "AAA" for a 5±1.25 cm difference between bust and underbust circumference, i.e. similar bust ...
... she reduced her waist to 40 cm (16 inches) in circumference. Corsets of the time were split-busk types, fastening up the front ... 19 1/2 inches around the waist, which prompted the Prince of Hesse to describe her as "almost inhumanly slender".[14] She ... or cider-vinegar above her hips to preserve her slim waist; her neck was wrapped with cloths soaked in Kummerfeld-toned washing ...
Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults: ... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 11 Suppl 8 ...
... and predicts mortality more accurately than body mass index or waist circumference.[17] ... hips and thighs to the waist;[20] later fat is stored in the abdomen.[9] ...
... lower BMI and a smaller waist circumference. The T94A mutant has also been associated with metabolic syndrome conditions, ...
The results of the group that was taking Opuntia showed a reduction in BMI, body composition, and waist circumference when ...
... in terms of BMI and waist circumference) and for individuals with habitual high fat diet (,35% of energy intake), while ...
The circumference line of that circle is called the boundary line. The wrestling area is surrounded by a mat area or apron (or ... The offensive wrestler would then place both his hands on the opponent's back between the neck and the waist. When the referee ... Both wrestlers then usually slightly crouch with their arms in front of them at or above waist level. In this position, neither ... and one wrestler on the top with one hand around the opponent's waist for control and the other on the opponent's elbow. ...
BMI and waist circumference in subjects with a previous history of cardiovascular disease.[118] The fasting period is usually ...
This type of training also decreases waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio(WRH), and the sum of skin folds on the body.[12] ...
... or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. ... "Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio, Report of a WHO Expert Consultation" (PDF). World Health Organization. 8-11 December ... Practically, however, the waist is more conveniently measured simply at the smallest circumference of the natural waist, ... Dobbelsteyn CJ, Joffres MR, MacLean DR, Flowerdew G (May 2001). "A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ...
In multiple studies these new workstations resulted in decreased waist circumference and psychological well being, however a ...
The circumference of the normal adult human rib cage expands by 3 to 5 cm during inhalation.[13] ...
Bei-Fan Z (December 2002). "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related ... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 11 Suppl 8 ...
... which was associated with lower body mass index and waist circumference. The interventions used in the study included stand-up ...
... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 11 Suppl 8 ... "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults: ...
Tucked Up/Herring-Gutted/Wasp-Waisted Waist beneath the flanks is angular, narrow, and tucked up with a limited development of ... Insufficient Bone Measuring the circumference of the top of the cannon bone, just below the knee, gives an estimation of the ... Rather than parallel with cannon, tendons are narrower than the circumference measured just above the fetlock. Affects speed ...
"The 2nd-4th digit ratio (2D:4D) and neck circumference: implications for risk factors in coronary heart disease" ... Waist-hip ratio. ReferencesEdit. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw- ...
... and waist circumference. However, there was insufficient evidence to show an effect on mortality or actual cardiovascular ...
... and waist circumference for persons with a BMI greater than 27.[35] Another meta-analysis has shown that consumption of ...
Bei-Fan Z (December 2002). "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related ... Zhou BF (March 2002). "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related ... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 11 (Suppl ... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Biomedical and Environmental ...
The circumference line of that circle is called the boundary line. The wrestling area is surrounded by a safety mat area (or ... The offensive wrestler would then place both his hands on the opponent's back between the neck and the waist. When the referee ... Both wrestlers then usually slightly crouch with their arms in front of them at or above waist level. In this position, neither ... then kneels beside him with one arm wrapped around the bottom wrestler's waist (with the palm of his hand against the ...
Measuring the circumference of the top of the cannon bone, just below the knee, gives an estimation of the substance. Ideally a ... Waist beneath the flanks is angular, narrow, and tucked up with a limited development of abdominal muscles. Often associated ... Rather than parallel with cannon, tendons are narrower than the circumference measured just above the fetlock. ...
... study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11 Suppl 8 ... "Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults: ...
Waist Circumference Tool In addition to Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference screening is an important element of ... This chart illustrates proper technique for measuring waist circumference and indicates disease risk by waist circumference and ...
What is Waist Circumference?. According to the National Institutes of Health, a high Waist Circumference (WC) is associated ... but a Waist Circumference measurement would most likely indicate that he or she is, in fact, not overweight). Changes in Waist ... To determine your Waist Circumference, locate the upper hip bone and place a measuring tape around the abdomen (ensuring that ... A BMI greater than 25 is considered overweight and a BMI greater than 30 is considered obese.) Waist Circumference can be ...
BF by Waist Circumference. Post by jon630 » Fri Mar 20, 2009 2:44 pm ... BF by Waist Circumference. Discussion of peer refereed articles and clinical applications. ... c = Circumferences of Umbilicus Abdomen (cm) I am not getting correct answers when I plug in numbers. Is there a part of the ... My waist size is 35 and I weight 165 but my body percentage is 7%. I also verified this with a personal trainer. ...
... a new study suggests.The circumference of your waist can tell you a ... Measuring waist circumference can help predict Type 2 diabetes risk. June 05, 2012,By Karen Kaplan, Los Angeles Times/For the ... The circumference of your waist can tell you a lot about your chances of getting diabetes, according to a study published ... And thats where waist circumference comes in. The WC measurement is made either at the narrowest point of the torso or halfway ...
... have a greater chance of dying than those with smaller circumferences, according to a study published in the Aug. 9/23 issue of ... Individuals with a larger waist circumference--even with a normal body mass index-- ... waist circumference is an important risk factor for mortality.. "Future detailed analyses of the relationship between waist ... Individuals with a larger waist circumference--even with a normal body mass index--have a greater chance of dying than those ...
... researchers from the University of Georgia have found that a larger waist circumference may increase an childs chances of ... We were able to compare a wide range of body composition measures and found that waist circumference seems to be the best ... Waist circumference may predict children who are at risk for type 2 diabetes later in life ... indicate that children who are in the top quartile of waist circumference for their age are five to six times more likely to ...
Waist-to-height ratio may be a more accurate measure of cardiovascular health risk than the current standard, the body mass ... Waist circumference is competing with BMI for health risk measure, expert says. Monday. Jun 24, 2013 at 12:01 AM ... "Waist circumference isnt anything new; weve known that it is a better predictor than BMI for identifying people at risk for ... "The problem is that we need to establish what specific waist circumference values should be used to identify people who are at ...
... waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is... ... Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for the ... "Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for the ... "Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for the ...
Table 4 Mean waist circumference based on World Health Organization (WHO) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) protocols, by ... Comparison of waist circumference using the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health protocols. ... Mean waist circumference based on World Health Organization (WHO) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) protocols, by age ... This table displays the results of mean waist circumference based on world health organization (who) and national institutes of ...
Background Estimation of relative contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on health outcomes ...
BMI and waist circumference explain one half of all fatal and one quarter of all non-fatal cardiovascular disease in those ... Similarly, waist circumference measurements in men were defined as normal (,94 cm), overweight (94-101.9 cm) and abdominally ... Body mass index and waist circumference predict both 10-year non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular disease risk in 20,000 Dutch ... Studies which have so far established the association between BMI and waist circumference as risk factors for heart disease ...
Are age references for waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio in Dutch children useful in clinical practice ... Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio percentiles in a nationally representative sample of 6-13 year old children in ... Waist circumference (A), waist to height ratio (B) and body fat % (C) percentiles for boys and girls calculated by ... Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than ...
... for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each ... the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, ... Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian ... Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian ...
Influence of waist circumference on the metabolic risk associated with impaired fasting glucose: effect of weight loss after ... and higher waist circumference (P,0.05 for all). Significant correlations between waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol (r=- ... Influence of waist circumference on the metabolic risk associated with impaired fasting glucose: effect of weight loss after ... Influence of waist circumference on the metabolic risk associated with impaired fasting glucose: effect of weight loss after ...
... the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were suggested to be 90 cm ... Seo, J.A., Kim, B.G., Cho, H. et al. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at ... Bao Y, Lu J, Wang C, Yang M, Li H, Zhang X, Zhu J, Lu H, Jia W, Xiang K: Optimal waist circumference cutoffs for abdominal ... Lee SY, Park HS, Kim DJ, Han JH, Kim SM, Cho GJ, Kim DY, Kwon HS, Kim SR, Lee CB, et al: Appropriate waist circumference cutoff ...
Waist circumference was slightly smaller for manual measurements than for body scan derived values. This systematic difference ... This study aimed to assess these systematic differences for body height, waist circumference, and body mass index using cross- ... Overall, an excellent correlation was found between measurements of waist circumference and body mass index, and good ... as well as between waist circumference and visceral fat mass as assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Volunteers were ...
... and waist circumference [WC]) with motor performance ability [MPA], social environmental factors of the district (i.e. ... Savva SC, Tornaritis M, Savva ME, Kourides Y, Panagi A, Silikiotou N, Georgiou C, Kafatos A. Waist circumference and waist-to- ... Taylor RW, Jones IE, Williams SM, Goulding A. Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as ... The development of waist circumference percentiles in British children aged 5.0-16.9 y. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(10):902-7. ...
References for Waist Circumference:. 1. Klein S. et. al. Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a concensus statement ... People can be trained to measure their own waist circumference. People can be trained to measure their own waist circumference ... the use of waist circumference (WC) has been substituting the BMI as a measure of obesity and health. Waist circumference has ... A normal waist circumference depends on the race of the person that is being tested. The "normal WC" is the WC that allows for ...
How to measure waist circumference. * Remove clothing from the waist line.. * Stand with feet shoulder width apart (25 to 30 ... Waist circumference (WC) is an indicator of health risk associated with excess fat around the waist. ... A waist circumference of 102 centimetres (40 inches) or more in men, or 88 centimetres (35 inches) or more in women, is ... Ethnic-specific values for waist circumference. Country or ethnic group. Central obesity as defined by WC. ...
Among other anthropometric measures waist circumference assessment has become increasingly important as an... ... Are age references for waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio in Dutch children useful in clinical practice ... First percentile curves for Waist and hip circumference, waist-to height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio and skinfold thickness. ... non-invasive and inexpensive routine tool since waist circumference is a measure of central adiposity. The waist circumference ...
Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference.. Halkjaer J1, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Sørensen TI. ... For women, 5-year difference in waist circumference was inversely related to intake from red meat, vegetables, fruit, butter, ... For men, red meat and fruit intakes were inversely associated with 5-year difference in waist circumference, whereas snack ... with complete data on baseline and follow-up waist circumference, baseline diet (192 items food frequency questionnaire), body ...
Sleep Duration and Waist Circumference in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.. Sperry SD1, Scully ID2, Gramzow RH1, Jorgensen RS1. ... Waist circumference (WC), a measure of central adiposity, has been demonstrated to improve prediction of health risk. However, ... Forest plot of the associations between short duration of sleep and waist circumference. r and 95% confidence interval (CI) ... cross-sectional studies demonstrate a significant negative relation between sleep duration and waist circumference, indicating ...
Waist Circumference Reduction After Insulin Detemir Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Previously Treated With NPH Insulin. ... Mandosi E, Fallarino M, Rossetti M, Gatti A, Morano S. Waist circumference reduction after insulin detemir therapy in type 2 ...
For TG, those with the high ratios had significantly higher triglyceride in each waist circumference category (a. ). For HOMA2- ... For TG, those with the high ratios had significantly higher triglyceride in each waist circumference category (a. ). For HOMA2- ...
BF by Waist Circumference. Discussion of peer refereed articles and clinical applications. ...
... and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged... ... Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference. ... and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary ... Urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese school children. PloS One ...
For every 1-cm increase in waist circumference, the odds of having an ALT ,30 increased by 1.06 (P , 0.001), and the strength ... The objective of this study is to examine associations between CRF, waist circumference, and ALT in youth.. METHODS: Data were ...
... Sahar Dalvand,1 Jalil ... All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, ... Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with ... present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference ...
Excess fat present in the abdominal region can be signified by waist circumference, studies have indicated that excess ... A correlation between large waist size as well as a high degree of inflammation and low fitness levels has been identified by a ... A correlation between large waist size as well as a high degree of inflammation and low fitness levels has been identified by a ... Waist Circumference And Low Fitness Link Revealed. 11 months, 2 weeks ago ...
Ratio of waist circumference to height is better predictor of death than body mass index BMJ 1996; 313 :1487 ... EDITOR,-The ratio of waist circumference to height has been shown to be a stronger predictor of intra-abdominal fat than the ... Ratio of waist circumference to height is better predictor of death than body mass index ... Ratio of waist circumference to height is better predictor of death than body mass index ...
Men with a higher BMI and waist circumference had an increased risk of high grade prostate cancer, an aggressive form of the ... "Study finds that higher BMI and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer." Medical ... 2016, June 3). "Study finds that higher BMI and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate ... Study finds that higher BMI and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. ...
RESULTS Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference were independently associated with higher 2-h glycemia. Glycemic level ... Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio Are Related to Gestational Glucose Tolerance. ... Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio Are Related to Gestational Glucose Tolerance ... Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio Are Related to Gestational Glucose Tolerance ...
Waist action levels could be useful for health promotion to raise awareness of the need for weight management. ... People with large waist circumferences have excess burden of ill health. ... Interpretation: People with large waist circumferences have excess burden of ill health. Waist action levels could be useful ... Impairment of health and quality of life in people with large waist circumference Lancet. 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):853-6. doi: ...
In contrast, waist circumference measurements capture the amount of fat located centrally in the body, a location that prior ... "We were able to compare a wide range of body composition measures and found that waist circumference seems to be the best ... Waist circumference, not BMI, is best predictor of future cardiovascular risk in children. 15.10.2010 ... "This likely explains the stronger associations we observed between waist circumference and adult metabolic syndrome," added ...
... How to measure waist circumference Angiologist. *Is Waist Circumference used ... Where To Measure Waist Circumference Guidelines. Is Waist Circumference used for measuring thinness in Adults?. Waist ... A waist circumference of measure waist circumference.... Waist to hip ratio measure of the purpose of this test to determine ... Waist circumference; How do you measure your waist a waist circumference of 94 centimetres or more indicates an increased risk ...
... and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference ... Keywords: BMI; waist circumference; childhood obesity; China BMI; waist circumference; childhood obesity; China ... BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents. Peige Song 1,2. ... "BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public ...
To help determine a healthy waist circumference, researchers compared relative risk of dementia associated with waist ... The results of the study showed participants with a waist circumference of greater than or equal to 90cm for men and 85cm for ... Waist circumference is a more accurate indicator of abdominal visceral fat level than body mass index (BMI) in the elderly. ... Greater Waist Circumference, Greater Risk of Dementia. Permalink Read 3 Comments Add a Comment Posted by Reason ...
Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference BMJ 2003; 326 ... Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference. BMJ 2003; 326 ... Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference ... Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference ...
... waist circumference, and chronic disease risk factors in Australian adolescent were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime ... Waist circumference predicts cardiovascular risk in young Australian children.. *Waist circumference and body mass index in ... Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Australian Adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. ... Body mass index, waist circumference, and chronic disease risk factors in Australian adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. ...
LANDI MASQUIO, Deborah Cristina et al. Cut-off values of waist circumference to predict metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents ... Moreover, waist circumference was positively correlated with visceral fat and the number of metabolic syndrome parameters. ... Cut-off points of 111.5 cm for boys and 104.6 cm for girls of waist circumference were suggested to predict metabolic syndrome ... Waist circumference is considered an anthropometric measure predictor of metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents, being useful ...
Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 379-384. *PubMed , ... Koster A, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A et al. Waist circumference and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 1465-1475. *CrossRef , ... Bigaard J, Tjonneland A, Thomsen BL et al. Waist circumference, BMI, smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men and women. Obes ... Unlike BMI, waist circumference (WC) reflects body fat distribution and intra-abdominal adiposity (9,10,11). In the National ...
... and waist circumference are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. ... Men with a higher BMI and waist circumference had an increased risk of high grade prostate cancer, an aggressive form of the ... Study finds that higher BMI and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. European ... Study finds that higher BMI and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer ...
Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults. ... and waist circumference in healthy adults. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 1737-1746. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22021 ...
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, a high Waist Circumference (WC) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease when the BMI is between 25 and 34.9. (bmi-calculator.net)
  • 110 mg/dl and a high waist circumference should undergo an OGTT to exclude the presence of diabetes. (cun.es)
  • A high waist circumference is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and CVD in patients with a BMI in a range between 25 and 34.9 kg/m 2 ( 82 ). (nih.gov)
  • High waist circumference is linked to potential development of non-communicable diseases. (jphres.org)
  • A systematic review study was used to explore health risks of high waist circumference through Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, and Proquest. (jphres.org)
  • Findings show that high waist circumference increased the risks of developing hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, joint pain, low back pain, and hyperuricemia. (jphres.org)
  • This body weight to waist ratio doesn't prove your fat percentage. (exrx.net)
  • Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for. (srce.hr)
  • The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. (srce.hr)
  • The ratio of waist circumference to height (WHtR) is a further indicator for body shape. (smw.ch)
  • To overcome those difficulties, several authors suggest using the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for a more accurate estimation of fat distribution and body shape [15, 16]. (smw.ch)
  • These variations may partly explain differences between ethnic or age groups in the power of waist circumference or waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio to predict disease risks ( 429, 543 ). (nih.gov)
  • In view of the fact that Asians have higher abdominal fat at lower levels of body mass index (BMI), measures of abdominal adiposity such as waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were investigated as predictors of hyper-tension. (journalgazett.com)
  • OBJECTIVES:To compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) as indices of obesity and assess the respective associations with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. (edu.au)
  • When age-adjusted BMI and waist circumference measurements were correlated with hospital records and cause-of-death statistics, results showed that in those categorised as overweight and obese around one half (53%) of all fatal CVD and one quarter (25-30%) of all non-fatal CVD were ascribed to the fact that the individual was overweight or obese. (healthcanal.com)
  • Waist circumference (WC) measurements have been used to estimate intra-abdominal fat in adults [4], and the importance of intra-abdominal fat in childhood obesity has also been confirmed [5]. (smw.ch)
  • Overall, an excellent correlation was found between measurements of waist circumference and body mass index, and good correlation between body mass index and total fat mass, as well as between waist circumference and visceral fat mass as assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. (peerj.com)
  • Waist circumference was slightly smaller for manual measurements than for body scan derived values. (peerj.com)
  • Are your BMI and waist circumference measurements in the 'healthy' range, 'overweight' range or 'obese' range? (cleverguts.com)
  • Changes in Waist Circumference over time can indicated an increase or decrease in abdominal fat. (bmi-calculator.net)
  • Monitoring changes in waist circumference over time may be helpful, in addition to measuring BMI, since it can provide an estimate of increased abdominal fat even in the absence of a change in BMI. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, in obese patients with metabolic complications, changes in waist circumference are useful predictors of changes in CVD risk factors ( 537 ). (nih.gov)
  • A prospective study on association between 2 years change of waist circumference and incident hypertension in Han Chinese. (scinapse.io)
  • Abstract Background Few prospective studies on association between waist circumference and hypertension have taken account of the dynamic change of WC, which caused by lifestyle modification. (scinapse.io)
  • In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BMI 45.3 +/- 1.9 kg/m2) before and after weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), in order to analyze the influence of the reduction in waist circumference on the improvement of the metabolic risk factors. (cun.es)
  • Abstract Objective We investigated the link between a reduction in waist circumference and metabolic syndrome. (scinapse.io)
  • We were able to compare a wide range of body composition measures and found that waist circumference seems to be the best measure to predict subsequent risk. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Body mass index and waist circumference predict both 10-year non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular disease risk in 20,000 Dutch men and women aged 20-65. (healthcanal.com)
  • For example, an athlete with increased muscle mass may have a BMI greater than 25 - making him or her overweight on the BMI scale - but a Waist Circumference measurement would most likely indicate that he or she is, in fact, not overweight). (bmi-calculator.net)
  • I never said waist measurement was better, just that neither is perfect. (exrx.net)
  • I never claimed that you said that waist measurement was better, I was just asking. (exrx.net)
  • Waist circumference measurement is particularly useful in patients who are categorized as normal or overweight on the BMI scale. (nih.gov)
  • Waist measurement was also associated with ejaculatory function, as 65% of the largest waist group reported problems, compared to 40% of the middle group and 21% of the smallest waist group. (issm.info)
  • I'm not saying that's your case, I expect you have a larger waist due to genetic reasons. (exrx.net)
  • In their ongoing search for controllable risk factors that may lead to type 2 diabetes , researchers from the University of Georgia have found that a larger waist circumference may increase an child's chances of developing the condition later in life. (endocrineweb.com)
  • OBJECTIVES:Central obesity, measured as waist circumference (WC), is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes already in children. (smw.ch)
  • The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (eiu.edu)
  • Their findings, which were published in the journal Obesity , indicate that children who are in the top quartile of waist circumference for their age are five to six times more likely to develop metabolic syndrome as adults than children with smaller waists. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Sex-specific cutoffs for waist circumference can be used to identify increased risk associated with abdominal fat in adults with a BMI in the range of 25 to 34.9 kg/m 2 . (nih.gov)
  • This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. (edu.au)
  • The cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference for predicting metabolic risk factors in Chinese adults]. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Objective: To assess the association of BMI and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic risk factors, and confirm the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and WC among Chinese adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS:The prevalence of obesity amongst Australian adults defined by BMI, waist circumference and WHR was 20.8, 30.5 and 15.8% respectively. (edu.au)
  • The table below incorporates both BMI and waist circumference in the classification of overweight and obesity, and provides an indication of disease risk. (nih.gov)
  • BMI, waist circumference and WHR were measured to assess overweight and obesity. (edu.au)
  • However, the body mass index does not account for the distribution of body fat and relative fat to muscle mass. 3D laser-based photonic full body scans provide detailed information on various body circumferences, surfaces, and volumes as well as body height and weight (using an integrated scale). (peerj.com)
  • There are ethnic and age-related differences in body fat distribution that modify the predictive validity of waist circumference as a surrogate for abdominal fat ( 526 ). (nih.gov)
  • Studies which have so far established the association between BMI and waist circumference as risk factors for heart disease have, say the investigators, been based on self-reported data, and these measures frequently underestimate the true prevalence of obesity. (healthcanal.com)
  • The Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands professionally measured between 1993 and 1997 both BMI and waist circumference (as well as other variables) in a cohort of 20,500 men and women. (healthcanal.com)
  • Waist circumference is related to metabolic risk factors associated with increased levels of IFG. (cun.es)
  • CONCLUSIONS:Waist circumference, BMI and WHR identified different proportions of the population, as measured by both prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. (edu.au)
  • The findings, which emerged from a large prospective study of more than 20,000 Dutch men and women aged 20-65 years begun in 1993, show that the associations of BMI and waist circumference with heart disease are equally strong, and explain one half of all fatal and one quarter of non-fatal CVD in those who are overweight and obese. (healthcanal.com)
  • 35, waist circumference has little added predictive power of disease risk beyond that of BMI. (nih.gov)
  • The men with the largest waist circumferences also had higher odds risks of prostate volume and higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels when compared to the other two groups. (issm.info)
  • Waist circumference cutpoints can generally be applied to all adult ethnic or racial groups. (nih.gov)
  • For adult patients with a BMI of 25 to 34.9 kg/m 2 , sex-specific waist circumference cutoffs should be used in conjunction with BMI to identify increased disease risk. (nih.gov)
  • To determine your Waist Circumference, locate the upper hip bone and place a measuring tape around the abdomen (ensuring that the tape measure is horizontal). (bmi-calculator.net)
  • True, but isn't calipers more effective then body to waist fat percentage ratios? (exrx.net)
  • Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. (edu.au)
  • Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. (bmj.com)
  • An increase in waist circumference may also be associated with increased risk in persons of normal weight. (nih.gov)
  • Obesity is a health disorder characterized by an increase in body weight, measured by waist circumference. (jphres.org)
  • Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. (edu.au)
  • Participants living in distal areas (20 km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4 cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9 km or less, mean increase: 1.2 cm). (edu.au)
  • Although waist circumference and BMI are interrelated, waist circumference provides an independent prediction of risk over and above that of BMI. (nih.gov)