Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Stress-inducible members of the heat-shock proteins 70 family. HSP72 heat shock proteins function with other MOLECULAR CHAPERONES to mediate PROTEIN FOLDING and to stabilize pre-existent proteins against aggregation.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The lung volume at which the dependent lung zones cease to ventilate presumably as a result of airway closure.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Liquid components of living organisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The act of BREATHING in.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that are closely related to ALPHA B-CRYSTALLIN. Hsp20 heat-shock proteins can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIC GMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The heat pipe is one of the remarkable achievements of thermal physics and heat transfer engineering in this century because of ... The main applications of heat pipes deal with the problems of environmental protection and energy and fuel savings. The papers ... materials problems and heat pipe technology, and include commercial, scientific and space applications. 1213 pages, © 1993 ... These two volumes consist of more than 100 papers presented at the 7th International Heat Pipe Conference in Minsk. ...
One CME European Seasonal Strip Weather Heating Degree Day (HDD)Contract,/p>\r\n}]}] data-override-spec-alert=[]> ...
Climate Change and El Niño Increase Likelihood of Indonesian Heat and Drought ...
Internal oscillations again develop as a result of a mismatch between the atmospheric and oceanic heat transport. In a coupled ... Internal oscillations again develop as a result of a mismatch between the atmospheric and oceanic heat transport. In a coupled ... Parallel experiments are carried out to study the internal variability driven by a constant two-dimensional heat flux field ... Parallel experiments are carried out to study the internal variability driven by a constant two-dimensional heat flux field ...
Franconatvs, Vulgo Het Vrye (page 64-65 ...
... to 20 m³ volume The Mini heat pumps are the new models of heat pumps available in the pool market. These heat pumps are ... The Mini heat pumps are the new models of heat pumps available in the pool market. These heat pumps are installed very easily ... Designed to heat pool water with volumes of to 20 m³. *Effective and economic solution to lengthen our bathing season in our ... Above-ground pools Vacuum Filtration Water treatment heating system Covers Accessories About us Blog After-sales service Area ...
... from 3 K up to 200 K and volume of flowing heat transfer media in the temperature range between 3 °C and 90 °C for flow rates ... Chairmanship or membership in international and national expert committees (OIML, CEN, DIN) for heat meters and heat cost ... Workshop: Flow and Heat measurement at high temperatures On 23/24 March 2021, the department will hold a hybrid workshop ... Development and analysis of methods for the improvement of the measuring accuracy and measuring stability of heat meters. ...
Heat Up Your Screen, Volume Two * Ten Explicit Erotica Stories * By: Karla Sweet, Francine Forthright, Maggie Fremont, ... Group sex, married swingers, orgies... this collection is filled with a hell of a lot of heat! With rough sex and lots of first ... From teacher-student sex to sex in public, the scenarios are exciting and high heat. Its all just a click away. ... Here are 20 explicit erotica stories packed with heat. From FFM threesomes to sex with strangers, the scenarios are varied and ...
Topics: Flow (Dynamics) , Fluids , Heat exchangers , Heat transfer , Heat , Heat conduction , Modeling , Pressure drop , Two- ... Topics: Absorption , Carbon dioxide , Emissivity , Gases , Heat , Heat flux , Radiative heat transfer , Temperature , Water , ... Topics: Boiling , Flow (Dynamics) , Heat transfer , Heat flux , Forced convection , Bubbles , Heat transfer coefficients , ... Topics: Boiling , Bubbles , Heat flux , Heat transfer , Molecular dynamics , Simulation , Vapors , Water , Atoms , Dimensions ...
By the heat of the sun, things were made to split off from one another and, being projected on high, clashed with one another, ... Encyclopedia Volume. Free World Class Education. FREE Catholic Classes By this term is understood an account of how the ... Burst forth, one nature, from the fervent heat.. Then first came Love upon it, the new Spring. Of mind - yea, poets in their ... excessive heat, and bitter cold. From this enumeration of Ahrimans work one gathers that he and his good adversary were ...
... Published Date August 2, 2019 Author Melissa Ledesma ... The decline in mortgage rates this summer has turned up the heat for refinance application volume, and as long as rates remain ... Plummeting Interest Rates Ignite Explosion Of Refi Volume. Rates for all three of the major mortgage loan types have been ... By June, refinance loan volume was up 92% from June 2018. According to Freddie Macs June 2019 forecast report, in 2019, the ...
Bed Head Curling Iron Wand for Curls & Volume, Heat Glove Included, Curlipops. $10.49 ... Curling Iron Mat, Heat Resistant Mat with Heat Resistant Glove Mat Glove Blue. $11.99 ... Professional Heat Resistant Glove Hair Wand Styling Curling Iron Heat Blocking. $5.14 ... Professional Heat Resistant Glove for Hair Styling Curling Iron, Flat Iron, 2 X. $6.99 ...
Decreeten der Nationale Vergadering, representeerende het volk ..., Volume 10. Full view - 1796. ... Decreeten der Nationale Vergadering, representeerende het volk van ..., Part 7. Full view - 1796. ... Decreeten der Nationale Vergadering, representeerende het volk van ..., Part 12. Full view - 1797. ...
Freight Costs and Volumes Surge, Inflation Fears Heat Up by Wolf Richter • Mar 22, 2018. • 51 Comments February was off the ... 51 comments for "Freight Costs and Volumes Surge, Inflation Fears Heat Up" * Robert. says: ... The report by Cass also pointed out the consequences of this type of shipment volume growth:. Volume has continued to grow at ... The BNSF just reported to the regulators (STB) that in spite of record volume, they still have lots of spare capacity on both ...
Vanuit het boek. 87 paginas komen overeen met stopped in dit boek ... Blackwoods Magazine, Volume 291. Uitgever. W. Blackwood, 1962. Citatie exporteren. BiBTeX EndNote RefMan. ...
Volume 1. $160.00. Select options. * Modelling Heat and Mass Transfer in Freezing Porous Media. $220.00. Select options ... Volume 2. $160.00. Select options. * African Diaspora Mathematics Compendium. ...
Investigator and Expositor of Prophecy, Volume 3. Uitgever. Simpkin and Marshall. Oorspronkelijk uit. de University of Michigan ...
International Heat Transfer Conference Digital Library Login do cliente Carrinho de compras Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest ...
International Heat Transfer Conference Digital Library Connexion utilisateur Panier Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest ... Page daccueil Archives Thermal Letter Responsables Réunions à venir Assembly for International Heat Transfer Conferences Page ... Page daccueil Archives Thermal Letter Responsables Réunions à venir Assembly for International Heat Transfer Conferences ... The results are expected to be adaptable for practical heat transfer calculation of high-temperature quenching process for ...
Varga T. , Szepesi, G., Siménfalvi Z. Horizontal scraped surface heat exchanger - Experimental measurements and numerical ... A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. The protective cover is made ... Horizontal scraped surface heat exchanger - Experimental measurements and numerical analysis. , Pollack Periodica, Vol. 12. , ... The investigation aimed to improve the lifetime and the number of heat cycles of the protective cover by changing the geometry ...
... - Jun 04, 2012 - Saelig Company Inc ... Thermal & Heating Equipment. *Timers & Clocks. *Transportation Industry Products. *Vision Systems. *Waste Management & Waste ... Saelig Introduces Low-Cost EPIC Sensor for High-Volume Remote Sensing Consumer Applications. Pittsford, NY. Saelig Co. Inc. ... EPIC Sensor suits high-volume, remote sensing applications.. Saelig Company Inc Jun 04, 2012 ...
How to install solar-heating to minimise Legionellosis risks. Refers to HSE ACOP L8. ... How solar heating systems can be made safer regarding Legionella. ... DEDICATED SOLAR VOLUME. This element of the design of the solar heating systems comes up in many of the guidance documents, ... This problem will be exacerbated with the use of a pre-heat cylinder as the overall stored volume will be nearer to two days ...
Heat, Flow and Deformation in Rock Masses in Extreme Conditions. View this Special Issue. ... According to the curve of creep loading and considering the axial, lateral, and volume deformation characteristics of the rock ... Stress-strain isochronous curve cluster: (a) axial strain; (b) lateral strain; (c) volume strain. ... Volume. 2020. ,Article ID. 8885849. , https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8885849. Wenkai Ru, Shanchao Hu, Jianguo Ning, Jun Wang, ...
Relationship among blood volume, aerobic fitness, and thermotolerance during uncompensable heat stress ... Relationship among blood volume, aerobic fitness, and thermotolerance during uncompensable heat stress. Author. Search for: ... Relationship among blood volume, aerobic fitness, and thermotolerance during uncompensable heat stress. From National Research ... The present study examined the relationships among blood volume (BV), aerobic fitness and thermotolerance as indicated by the ...
A STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER IN VERTICAL CHANNELS FOR HIGH HEAT LOADS IN THE TRANSITION REGION Jurgis Vilemas, Povilas Poskas pages ... A NEW HEAT EDDY DIFFUSIVITY EQUATION FOR CALCULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER TO DRAG REDUCING TURBULENT PIPE FLOWS H. K. Yoon, Afshin ... International Heat Transfer Conference Digital Library Connexion utilisateur Panier Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest ... FREE MOLECULAR HEAT TRANSFER IN A RECTANGULAR CHANNEL AT HIGH SPEEDS A. Ansari, D. Widman pages 963-967 DOI: 10.1615/IHTC8.1920 ...
Special heat exchangers. Table des matières. RODbaffle HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN & APPLICATIONS C.C. Gentry pages 137-142 DOI: ... International Heat Transfer Conference Digital Library Connexion utilisateur Panier Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest ... Page daccueil Archives Thermal Letter Responsables Réunions à venir Assembly for International Heat Transfer Conferences Page ... HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HYDROGEN-ABSORBING ALLOY REFRIGERATION SYSTEM K. Nasako, N. Hiro, T. Nakamura, S. Fujitani, I. Yonezu, K. ...
The physical properties and transport behaviors of shale gas have a significant influence on shale reservoirs effective development. In this study, based on the real gas equation of state and dense gas theory, a new method with concise form and good generality was proposed to acquire the dynamic viscosity of the shale gas. On account of this method, a real gas model was developed to theoretically investigate the shale gas transport characteristics in nanopores, considering real gas effect, gas slippage and surface diffusion. In this model, the second-order slippage boundary condition coupled with surface diffusion was presented for the free gas, and the Langmuir adsorption theory was adopted for the adsorbed gas. The results show that the dynamic viscosity of the shale gas is a function of the pore pressure and temperature, and it increases with the pressure, while decreases with the increase of temperature. For free gas, the slippage effect is promoted dramatically through the surface ...
  • What is the expansion volume of the heat exchanger of the SPRING panel and the DualQuickFit hose? (dualsun.com)
  • At +20°C the heat exchanger of the SPRING® panel has a volume of 5 liters. (dualsun.com)
  • 2 However, the residual strength measurements and the statistics used to analyze the data are not specific to heat-treatable aluminum alloys and can be used for other specimen orientations and different types of materials. (astm.org)
  • Workshop: Flow and Heat measurement at high temperatures On 23/24 March 2021, the department will hold a hybrid workshop together with EMATEM e.V. on the industrial need for flow and temperature measurement at temperatures above 90°C. (ptb.de)
  • In this paper, the thermo-hydro dynamical analysis of incompressible flow in conjunction with cell-centered finite volume-lattice Boltzmann method (FV-LBM) was developed. (sid.ir)
  • There are, amongst others, standard measurement devices available for the quantities 'temperature difference' from 3 K up to 200 K and volume of flowing heat transfer media in the temperature range between 3 °C and 90 °C for flow rates between 6 l/h and 1000 m³/h. (ptb.de)
  • The corresponding mathematical description is given, and a semi-empirical heat transfer correlation thus derived is well verified by experimental data for subcooled deionized water flow under atmospheric pressure. (ihtcdigitallibrary.com)
  • 5.1 This standard practice is designed to specify the minimum training and testing required of HFE operators trainees before they obtain a Heat Fusion Equipment Operator Qualification card. (astm.org)
  • The main applications of heat pipes deal with the problems of environmental protection and energy and fuel savings. (begellhouse.com)
  • The papers published here cover basic processes and fundamentals, theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons, materials problems and heat pipe technology, and include commercial, scientific and space applications. (begellhouse.com)
  • 1.5 The HFE operator qualification shall be on specific heat fusion procedures or standards specified for PE and PA pipes. (astm.org)
  • and Luikov Heat & Mass Transfer Institute, Porous Media Laboratory, P. Brovka Str. (begellhouse.com)
  • The author describes a series of mechanistic experiments showing the generation of interdecadal variability in the Bryan-Cox ocean general circulation model driven by a constant two-dimensional freshwater or heat flux field alone. (ametsoc.org)
  • Parallel experiments are carried out to study the internal variability driven by a constant two-dimensional heat flux field alone. (ametsoc.org)
  • They are have been added to draw attention to the serious flaw in desgn in conventional twin coil solar water heating systems. (solartwin.com)
  • Microwave heating is internal as well as external as opposed to the conventional heating which is only external. (astm.org)
  • The heat pipe is one of the remarkable achievements of thermal physics and heat transfer engineering in this century because of its unique ability to transfer heat over large distances without considerable losses. (begellhouse.com)
  • Dissemination of the scale 'thermal energy' for the area regulated by law by means of pattern approval of measurement devices for thermal energy and calibration of selected measurement devices used for comparisons between officially recognized testing laboratories for heat. (ptb.de)
  • April 9, 2014 - Domestic Renewable Heat Incentive Released - Solar Thermal has got the great government funding through the Domestic RHI which it deserves! (solartwin.com)
  • Solartwin Solar Thermal panels have just become not only a cost cutting and very green option to heat your water but now you will receive additional. (solartwin.com)
  • July 12, 2013 - Renewable Heat Incentive Updated - Solar Thermal to have Heavy Support - The Government have today released the Renewable Heat Incentive: The first step to transforming the way we heat our homes. (solartwin.com)
  • May 27, 2013 - DECC announce they are doubling the RHPP grant for solar thermal from £300 to £600 - Solar Thermal Panels Receive Huge Renewable Heat Premium Payment - Solar Thermal has received a huge boost, it's a great time to buy a Solartwin Product. (solartwin.com)
  • Attend to learn how you can eliminate heat-related product and component failures in your systems at this unique and interactive thermal management conference. (electronics-cooling.com)
  • The results are expected to be adaptable for practical heat transfer calculation of high-temperature quenching process for rolled metals. (ihtcdigitallibrary.com)
  • These two volumes consist of more than 100 papers presented at the 7th International Heat Pipe Conference in Minsk. (begellhouse.com)
  • Legionella Control International Limited, referred to from hence forth as LCI, have been commissioned by Solar Twin Limited to establish the level of compliance of their direct solar heating system with the HSE guidance note "Legionnaires Disease, The control of legionella bacteria in water systems, Approved Code of Practice and Guidance" referred to from hence forth as L8. (solartwin.com)
  • By it we are led in a logical order, which is very beautiful, from the simple idea of temperature , through the registration of this temperature , and finally to the complex idea of the measure of heat . (wikisource.org)
  • If you heat a 5 L balloon from a temperature of 250 C to 500 C, its new volume will be? (pakgk.com)
  • Unlike purchase loans, which are affected by varying property prices, inventory and new construction, refinance volume is driven primarily by interest rates. (digitalmediasolutions.com)
  • In a coupled atmosphere-ocean system the atmospheric freshwater (or heat) transport needs not always match the oceanic freshwater (or heat) transport. (ametsoc.org)
  • Space heating is the main factor driving the energy consumption of households. (springer.com)
  • Home » Solartwin Features » Solar SAFETY » Solar video: Legionella safety and solar water heating storage - clean energy ideas. (solartwin.com)
  • Solar water heating systems = Solar panels + solar energy. (solartwin.com)
  • Microwave oven is acting as a source of intense energy to rapidly heat the sample. (astm.org)
  • It is believed that the electromagnetic radiation serves as a source of intense energy which rapidly heats the acid solution and the internal as well as the external portions of the individual particles in the slurry. (astm.org)
  • Because space heating causes a large fraction of energy consumed in households, occupancy-based heating systems have become more and more popular in recent years. (springer.com)
  • We apply our method to a dataset containing such data for several thousand households and show that when taking occupancy into account, a household can save over 9% heating energy on average, while certain groups, such as employed single-person households, can even save 14% on average. (springer.com)
  • Using our approach, households with high potential for energy savings can be quickly identified and their inhabitants could be more easily convinced to adopt an occupancy-based heating strategy. (springer.com)
  • Space heating in households thus bears great potential for energy savings, leading to both financial and environmental benefits. (springer.com)
  • One way to decrease the amount of heating energy is to use a heating strategy based on the occupancy of the dwelling: when a building is unoccupied, the heating is turned down. (springer.com)
  • It can be used to easily estimate the energy saving potential of occupancy-based smart heating for a given household. (springer.com)
  • In the following we discuss different categories of related work aiming at saving heating energy in households. (springer.com)
  • Solar water heating and Legionella and how solar hot water storage can be made safer. (solartwin.com)
  • Heated dielectric liquids (water/acid) in contact with the dielectric particles generate heat orders of magnitude above the surface of a particle. (astm.org)
  • Internal oscillations again develop as a result of a mismatch between the atmospheric and oceanic heat transport. (ametsoc.org)
  • Local internal heating taking place on individual particles can result in the rupture of the particles, thus exposing a fresh surface to the reagent contact. (astm.org)
  • This rapid and intense internal heating either facilitates the diffusion processes of the inorganic constituents in solution or ruptures the individual particles thereby exposing additional inorganic constituents to the reactive acid. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This practice describes criteria for the training, assessment and qualification of heat fusion equipment (HFE) operators in, but not limited to, a field environment in order to establish and maintain competency in the joining of Polyethylene (PE) and Polyamide (PA) piping systems. (astm.org)
  • Given the large variation - and thus the uncertainty - of achievable savings, home owners and tenants are understandably reluctant to install smart heating systems. (springer.com)
  • While substantial work has been done on occupancy detection, previous work does not address a combination with heating simulation in order to provide an easily applicable method to estimate this savings potential. (springer.com)
  • From teacher-student sex to sex in public, the scenarios are exciting and high heat. (audible.com)
  • And, ultimately, the Fed's decision to decrease the benchmark rate from 2.25% to 2.00%, should help mortgage interest rates remain low and refinance loan inquiry volume high. (digitalmediasolutions.com)
  • EPIC Sensor suits high-volume, remote sensing applications. (thomasnet.com)
  • Saelig Co. Inc. announces the PS25451, an ultra-low cost version of Plessey's award winning EPIC Sensor that provides remote sensing for high-volume consumer markets. (thomasnet.com)
  • This surge in shipment volume of 11.4% year-over-year "is yet another data point confirming that the strength in the US economy continues to accelerate," Cass said. (wolfstreet.com)
  • Please note that the underlining in the section called dedicated solar volume has been added by Solar Twin Ltd and are not part of the original document. (solartwin.com)
  • Save 20% with this PDF pack - containing a complete set of downloadable Fire Service Manuals for Volume 4: Fire Service Training. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. (akjournals.com)

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