The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Encyclopedias as Topic
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.
A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Patient Care Team
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (1/153)We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions. (+info)
Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. (2/153)Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet. (+info)
Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov., a novel dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. (3/153)A thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated strain SR4T, was isolated from sediment of newly formed hydrothermal vents in the area of the eruption of Karymsky volcano on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of strain SR4T were straight-to-curved, peritrichous rods, 0.4-0.6 micron in diameter and 3.5-9.0 microns in length, and exhibited a slight tumbling motility. Strain SR4T formed round, refractile, heat-resistant endospores in terminally swollen sporangia. The temperature range for growth was 39-78 degrees C, with an optimum at 69-71 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 4.8-8.2, with an optimum at 6.3-6.5. Strain SR4T grew anaerobically with peptone as carbon source. Amorphous iron(III) oxide present in the medium stimulated the growth of strain SR4T; cell numbers increased with the concomitant accumulation of Fe(II). In the presence of Fe(III), strain SR4T grew on H2/CO2 and utilized molecular hydrogen. Strain SR4T reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and MnO2. Strain SR4T did not reduce nitrate or sulfate and was not capable of growth with O2. The fermentation products from glucose were ethanol, lactate, H2 and CO2. The G + C content of DNA was 32 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Thermoanaerobacter. On the basis of physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain SR4T (= DSM 12299T) should be assigned to a new species, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov. (+info)
Relationship between ambient sulfur dioxide levels and neonatal mortality near the Mt. Sakurajima volcano in Japan. (4/153)We examined the association between neonatal mortality and ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, Yamashita public health district of Kagoshima City, during the period between 1978 and 1988. The analysis using Poisson regression models showed that the monthly average level of SO2 was positively associated with the neonatal mortality (P = 0.002). When the SO2 levels were categorized into four groups to estimate the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality using the lowest exposure category as a reference, the RR increased with elevated exposure levels (P for trend < 0.001) and was the highest in the group with the highest level of exposure (RR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval; 1.2-4.1). Other than SO2, we also examined the number of eruptions, the amount of ashfall, and the average level of suspended particulate matter. None of these factors was associated with neonatal mortality. Although the present study suggests that increase in SO2 levels has had an adverse effect on neonatal mortality in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, it is difficult to determine the source of the SO2. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of the excess neonatal mortality probably associated with the volcanic SO2 levels. (+info)
Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria. The Medinaut Shipboard Scientific Party. (5/153)Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in (13)C (delta(13)C values are as low as -95 per thousand). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of (13)C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, our results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings is the predominant microbiological process. (+info)
Galileo at Io: results from high-resolution imaging. (6/153)During late 1999/early 2000, the solid state imaging experiment on the Galileo spacecraft returned more than 100 high-resolution (5 to 500 meters per pixel) images of volcanically active Io. We observed an active lava lake, an active curtain of lava, active lava flows, calderas, mountains, plateaus, and plains. Several of the sulfur dioxide-rich plumes are erupting from distal flows, rather than from the source of silicate lava (caldera or fissure, often with red pyroclastic deposits). Most of the active flows in equatorial regions are being emplaced slowly beneath insulated crust, but rapidly emplaced channelized flows are also found at all latitudes. There is no evidence for high-viscosity lava, but some bright flows may consist of sulfur rather than mafic silicates. The mountains, plateaus, and calderas are strongly influenced by tectonics and gravitational collapse. Sapping channels and scarps suggest that many portions of the upper approximately 1 kilometer are rich in volatiles. (+info)
Io's thermal emission from the Galileo photopolarimeter-radiometer. (7/153)Galileo's photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument mapped Io's thermal emission during the I24, I25, and I27 flybys with a spatial resolution of 2.2 to 300 kilometers. Mapping of Loki in I24 shows uniform temperatures for most of Loki Patera and high temperatures in the southwest corner, probably resulting from an eruption that began 1 month before the observation. Most of Loki Patera was resurfaced before I27. Pele's caldera floor has a low temperature of 160 kelvin, whereas flows at Pillan and Zamama have temperatures of up to 200 kelvin. Global maps of nighttime temperatures provide a means for estimating global heat flow. (+info)
A close-up look at Io from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer. (8/153)Infrared spectral images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, acquired during the October and November 1999 and February 2000 flybys of the Galileo spacecraft, were used to study the thermal structure and sulfur dioxide distribution of active volcanoes. Loki Patera, the solar system's most powerful known volcano, exhibits large expanses of dark, cooling lava on its caldera floor. Prometheus, the site of long-lived plume activity, has two major areas of thermal emission, which support ideas of plume migration. Sulfur dioxide deposits were mapped at local scales and show a more complex relationship to surface colors than previously thought, indicating the presence of other sulfur compounds. (+info)
Volcano Watch: Can earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions? | Hawaii 24/7
Seismologists are often asked the question, Can large earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions? The short answer is yes, earthquakes and volcanic processes are closely linked, as suggested by the existence of the ring of fire of active volcanoes and earthquakes circling the Pacific Ocean.. A volcanic eruption occurs when the force of the magma plumbing system exceeds the force holding the rock together between the magma chamber and the surface. For earthquakes that are relatively close to an active volcano, the displacement of the earthquake itself can change the stresses around the magma chamber, possibly bringing the volcano closer to an eruption. Depending on the type of earthquake and the geometry of the fault, different areas around the earthquake source area may be subject to increased compression or relaxation. A nearby magma chamber that experiences relaxation of the crust above the chamber as a result of a large nearby earthquake would be more likely to erupt because less force would ...
List of large volcanic eruptions - Wikipedia
This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume. ...
30 Incredible Photos of Volcanic Eruptions | Droolboy
A supervolcano is a volcano capable of producing a volcanic eruption with ejecta greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers (240 cubic miles). This is thousands of times larger than most historic volcanic eruptions. Supervolcanoes can occur when magma in the Earth rises into the crust from a hotspot but is unable to break through the crust. Pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure. They can also form at convergent plate boundaries (for example, Toba) and continental hotspot locations (for example, Yellowstone ...
Catal Huyuk, Turkey, Level VII, wall painting, landscape with volcanic eruption(?), detail. :: Visual Resources Center Digital...
Detail of a watercolor copy of a wall painting. More remarkable still is a painting in one of the older rooms at Çatal Höyük that generally has been acclaimed as the worlds first landscape (a picture of a natural setting in its own right, without any narrative content). As such, it remained unique for thousands of years. According to radiocarbon dating, the painting was executed around 6150 BCE. In the foreground is a town, with rectangular houses neatly laid out side by side, probably representing Çatal Höyük itself. Behind the town appears a mountain with two peaks. Many archaeologists think that the dots and lines issuing from the higher of the two cones represent a volcanic eruption, and have suggested that the mountain is the 10,600-foot-high Hasan Da ?. It is located within view of Çatal Höyük and is the only twin-peaked volcano in central Anatolia. The conjectured volcanic eruption shown in the mural does not necessarily depict a specific historical event. If, however, the ...
Best VOLCANIC ERUPTION Wallpapers 4k Ultra HD | 4k Wallpaper
Download VOLCANIC ERUPTION wallpaper with Ultra HD 4k Resolution. This wallpaper exists in Landscape category. 4k Volcanic Eruption Dust Ash Outburst Hill wallpapers. ...
Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, showing a volcanic eruption on the rim, 1979. at Science and Society Picture Library
Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, showing a volcanic eruption on the rim, 1979. by . Museum quality art prints with a selection of frame and size options, canvases, postcards and mugs. SSPL Science and Society Picture Library
Space Images | Soufriere Hills Volcano
In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the islands original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcanos summit.. This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASAs Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched ...
volcan magma - Volcanoes Magma and Volcanic Eruptions EENS 2040 Natural Disasters Tulane University Prof Stephen A Nelson...
View Notes - volcan_magma from EENS 2040 at Tulane. Volcanoes, Magma, and Volcanic Eruptions EENS 2040 Natural Disasters Tulane University Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Volcanoes, Magma, and Volcanic
Volcanic Activity Triggered the End-Triassic Extinction
Now researchers at MIT, Columbia University and elsewhere have determined that these eruptions occurred precisely when the extinction began, providing strong evidence that volcanic activity did indeed trigger the end-Triassic extinction. Their results are published in the journal Science.. The team determined the age of basaltic lavas and other features found along the East Coast of the United States, as well as in Morocco - now-disparate regions that, 200 million years ago, were part of the supercontinent Pangaea. The rift that ultimately separated these landmasses was also the site of CAMPs volcanic activity. Today, the geology of both regions includes igneous rocks from the CAMP eruptions as well as sedimentary rocks that accumulated in an enormous lake; the researchers used a combination of techniques to date the rocks and to pinpoint CAMPs beginning and duration.. From its measurements, the team reconstructed the regions volcanic activity 201 million years ago, discovering that the ...
Revising the history of big, climate-altering volcanic eruptions
For all their destructive power, most volcanic eruptions are local events. Lava flows tend to reach only a few miles at most, while airborne ash and soot travel a little farther. But occasionally, larger eruptions can launch particles into the stratosphere, more than 6 miles above Earths surface. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines-the worlds largest eruption in the past 100 years-is a prime example of a stratospheric eruption.
False Pastor and Iceland Volcanic Eruption on 21 May 2011 | Shananarocks Again!
The Icelands Grimsvotn volcanic eruption and supposedly end of the world prediction on 21 May by the now infamous American Christian radio broadcaster pastor Harold Egbert Camping, 89 yrs, who used numerology to calculate the end of times, saw revelations in other things instead. Firstly that pastors in the USA was giving a bad name to…
Filipinos in Bali warned against volcanic eruption - The Manila Times Online
THE Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) advised Filipinos living in or travelling to Bali in Indonesia to exercise caution in the light of increased volcanic activity in Mount Agung.. The Philippine Embassy in Jakarta also reminded all Filipinos in the area who may need immediate consular assistance to contact the embassy directly.. Indonesian authorities raised the alert level for Mt. Agung in Bali to level 4, the highest alert level classification, signifying the possibility of volcanic eruption.. The Indonesian National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) also warned residents and tourists to avoid areas within the 12-kilometer radius of the crater. ...
Definition of a mobilizing volume of sediment in a valley interested by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco valley (Chile).
Volcanic explosive activity can strongly affect the riverine environments. Deposition of tephra, pyroclastic and hyperconcentrated ﬂows along both the valley bottom and hillslopes can radically change the environmental mor- phology. Accumulation and transport of pyroclastic material can increase hazards and risks for anthropic activities. The aims of this research are to evaluate and quantify the amount of erodible sediment that can be transported along a gravel bed river affected by a volcanic eruption. The Rio Blanco valley (Chile) was upset by the plinian- type eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The great amount of tephra released in the initial phase and the subse- quent pyroclastic ﬂows, accumulated up to 8 m of sediment over a great portion of the Rio Blanco valley. Using aerial photographs was possible to deﬁne the extension of vegetated zones affected by the eruption. The area was interested by a high mortality of vegetation, as conﬁrmed by ﬁeld surveys. Dendrometric ...
Dr. Mark Sircus - Several volcanic eruptions just this year | Where Conspiracy and Reality Collide
Trouble Reading This? - Read it on the IMVA site Unsubscribe from IMVA Medical News Commentaries list. Volcanic Eruptions Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic chain, about 575 miles south of the capital, Santiago Chile Several Latin American countries in the path of volcanic ash unleashed from a Chilean Andean crater are facing critical shortages of water, agricultural…
Title: Volcanic Islands Author: Darwin, Charles Language: English As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available. Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book. *** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book Volcanic Islands *** This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document. VOLCANIC ISLANDS BY CHARLES DARWIN EDITORIAL NOTE. Although in some respects more technical in their subjects and style than Darwins Journal, the books here reprinted will never lose their value and interest for the originality of the observations they contain. Many parts of them are admirably adapted for giving an insight into problems regarding the structure and changes of the earths surface, and in fact they form a charming introduction to physical geology and ...
Tips on How to Survive a Volcanic Eruption | HubPages
By: Cow Flipper Volcanic eruptions can be many times the destructive power of a any nuclear weapon known. They range in types from trickle lava flows to dynamic violent explosions of molten rock, ash, and poisonous gas that blow hundreds of feet...
Scientists see volcanic eruption trigger - UPI.com
British scientists say they have identified a repeating underground trigger for the largest explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth.
Extreme solution to combat global warming: pretend volcanic eruptions
On Mount Tambora, in present-day Indonesia, there was a volcanic eruption so intense in 1815 that it covered much of the Earth with ash, hampering part of the suns rays and producing a year without summer. That is to say, that a volcano cooled the Earth (and, in addition, inspired the Romanticism to the edges of the time). What if we produce the same effects of volcanoes on our planet to cool the world and avoid the global warming to which we are condemned?. See original (not translated) news ➥ See translated news ➥ ...
Case study - volcanic eruption in a developing country: Mt Nyiragongo - Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions - Edexcel - GCSE...
Learn about and revise different types of volcanoes and their characteristics and effects with GCSE Bitesize Geography (Edexcel).
List of large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province - Wikipedia
Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in California, Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming and Oregon, as well as those of the Long Valley Caldera geological province and the Yellowstone hotspot. Some of the volcanic fields of the Basin and Range Province are within: Northwestern Nevada, the Modoc Plateau, Central Nevada, the Great Basin, Southwestern Nevada, the Mojave Desert, and the Long Valley Caldera region. Named ones include: Coso Volcanic Field, Mono Lake Volcanic Field, Marysvale Volcanic Field, San Juan volcanic field, Indian Peak, Central Colorado volcanic field, Jemez volcanic lineament, Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, Santa Rosa-Calico, and Boot Heel volcanic field. Many geological features in Western United States have a Northeastern orientation, the North American craton motion has the same orientation as well. For example: the Trans-Challis fault zone, Idaho; the Snake River in Oregon; the Garlock ...
Auckland residents may have little warning before volcanic eruption
HAZARD: Lava vents are likely to appear in new places rather than existing volcanoes, the new study warns. August 23, 2012 - NEW ZEALAND - Aucklanders may get only a day or two warning of a volcanic eruption and will know just hours before where it will explode, a scientific paper says. The 1.4 million…
Volcanic Eruptions: Satellite Imagery and Effects on Climate
Picture courtesy of: NOAA. According to NOAAs Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL), Benjamin Franklin was the first person to suggest that major volcanic eruptions could emit enough ash and other particles into the atmosphere and that it could have a significant impact on short-term climate, even great distances from where the eruption occurred. How would this occur? Volcanic debris that is thrust into the troposphere and stratosphere can actually remain for months, up to a few years. This debris, like the sulfuric acid pictured above, turns into tiny droples of sulfuric acid in time. These sulfuric acid droplets are responsible for having an effect on climate because they can block incoming solar radiation from entering Earths lower atmoshpere, cooling the earth. Also, a warming component can exist as outgoing radiation from the earth is blocked by the acid particles. This warming component has a lesser effect on climate change than the cooling component and is a similar process to the ...
Volcanic Eruption Devastates War-Weary Congo City
Hundreds of thousands of victims of the volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are walking over cooling lava to get to their homes despite warnings from aid agencies that the area is still unsafe because of poisonous fumes and ash and the danger of further eruptions.
Climate Response to Volcanic Eruptions may be Undervalued by Tree Rings
Researchers have said that some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change.
Disasters: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and floods - Oxford Medicine
Natural disasters (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods) affect the lives of hundreds of millions of people every year, and their impact is increasing year on year because of continuing expansion of human populations into increasingly exposed areas, with environmental degradation making these settlements more vulnerable, especially in heavily urbanized areas. Future climate change may exacerbate matters, with many forecasts predicting an increase in hurricanes, severe wind storms, flooding and droughts....
Spatial Relationships in Frost-Damaged High-Elevation Pines and Links to Major Volcanic Eruptions | Laboratory of Tree-Ring...
Frost injury in the annual growth rings of pines growing at upper treeline is a consequence of sudden freezing temperatures during the growing season (LaMarche & Hirschboeck 1984). This updated and spatially extensive frost-ring study involves the systematic identification of frost rings in high-elevation pines located in 16 western USA tree-ring sites whose chronologies range from 1692 BC to AD 2000. Several notable frost events were identified, based on the criteria of frost damage occurring in greater than 25% of trees at a given site and in two or more sites. The spatial variations between frost events indicate regional variations based on differences in elevation, latitude, and the location of polar outbreaks and their associated upper-level atmosphere circulation patterns. The 17 notable frost events correspond to previous frost ring and light ring evidence, and 13 of them are associated with climatically effective volcanic eruptions.. ...
Volcanic eruptions found to durably impact climate through alterations to North Atlantic Ocean circulation | OceanGuy
Particles emitted during major volcanic eruptions cool the atmosphere due to a parasol effect that reflects sunlight. The direct impact of these particles in the atmosphere is fairly short, lasting two to three years. However, they alter for more than 20 years the North Atlantic Ocean circulation, which connects surface and deep currents and influences the climate in Europe.
Volcanic eruptions drove ancient global warming event | EurekAlert! Science News
A natural global warming event that took place 56 million years ago was triggered almost entirely by volcanic eruptions that occurred as Greenland separated from Europe during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, according to an international team of researchers that includes Andy Ridgwell, a University of California, Riverside professor of earth sciences.
6th June - Todays News: Big Volcanic Eruption in Chile
Yesterday and overnight lightning strikes and flash floods sweep through Britain as the UK is hit by freak electrical storms (the Daily Mail still thinks Britain means SE England .... but it does have the best pictures) - but there was as much rain, thunder and lightning in Evesham as there were volcanic eruptions ...... Still not heard a single rumble of thunder this year! And radar returns suggests parts of the Lizard may have had as much rain in an hour as we have had here all year as Coverack wakes up to devastation ...
Magic the Gathering Beta Single Volcanic Eruption - NEAR MINT (NM) | DA Card World
Shop DACardWorld.com for Magic the Gathering Beta Single Volcanic Eruption - NEAR MINT (NM) & see our entire selection of magic the gathering cards at low prices. Plus, free shipping on orders over $150!
1944-Volcanic Eruption / Destruction / Italy / 1944 ~ Video #77826190
Stock video footage 1944-Volcanic Eruption / Destruction / Italy / 1944. 00:00:04 . From $99. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Intense Volcanism May Have Played a Role in Dinosaurs Extinction
MIT scientists used precisely dated rocks from the Deccan Traps to reveal evidence that a major volcanic eruption began just before the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs, possibly playing a role in the extinction.. Sixty-six million years ago, an asteroid more than five miles wide smashed into the Earth at 70,000 miles per hour, instantly vaporizing upon impact. The strike obliterated most terrestrial life, including the dinosaurs, in a geological instant: Heavy dust blocked out the sun, setting off a cataclysmic chain of events from the bottom of the food chain to the top, killing off more than three-quarters of Earths species - or so the popular theory goes.. But now scientists at MIT and elsewhere have found evidence that a major volcanic eruption began just before the impact, possibly also playing a role in the extinction.. The team precisely dated rocks from the Deccan Traps - a region of west-central India that preserves remnants of one of the largest volcanic eruptions on ...
My aims are to investigate the factors affecting Lava Flows. - A-Level Geography - Marked by Teachers.com
Introduction. Geology Coursework Introduction/Background information There are two types of lava flows, free flowing mobile lava and slow moving viscous lava. Free flowing mobile (basaltic) lava creates a vent and spreads to produce large broad cones called shield volcanoes. The slow moving viscous (rhyolite) lava creates a narrow steep-sided cone due to a different chemical composition to basalt and this makes the lava flows more slowly down the cone side. My Aims My aims are to investigate the factors affecting Lava Flows. There are lots of factors affecting a lava flow, they are: 1. Slope angle 2. Viscosity of the lava 3. Temperature of the lava 4. Slope height 5. Volume of lava 6. Roughness/smoothness of slope. I have decided to investigate the viscosity of the lava flow. I have chosen this because I can produce a good range of results and this seems like it will produce the most safe, fair and accurate results. This is very important to me. What will the viscosity affect on the lava flow? * ...
Dinosaur extinction lines up closely with timing of volcanic eruptions - FunK MainStream Media News | Alternative Liberty News...
The discrepancy may be down to the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods. Schoenes offers greater precision, but instead of dating lava flows directly, it dates the formation of zircon crystals in the lava, which may occur in magma chambers before the eruption.. We still dont know what the relative contributions of the Deccan Traps and the asteroid impact were to the extinction, says Schoene. But having a more precise timeline helps us get closer. Before, we had no record with enough detail from the volcanic rock to compare to the climate records, he says.. Although her results suggest most of the lava erupted after the extinction, Sprain still thinks volcanism played an important role. Fossils and temperature records show that changes in the climate and signs of ecological stress coincided with the start of the volcanic activity, some 400,000 years before the impact and the extinction.. The Deccan Traps likely weakened late Cretaceous ecosystems to make them susceptible to the rapid ...
Regional variability in the frequency and magnitude of large explosive volcanic eruptions | Geology | GeoScienceWorld
Traditionally, completeness in the eruption record is analyzed at a group level (e.g., globally or regionally). Change points in data completeness are identified based on analyzing the rate of volcanic events (Coles and Sparks, 2006; Furlan, 2010; Mead and Magill, 2014; Rougier et al., 2016), which allows return periods for different eruption magnitudes to be estimated. In the Bayesian approach we adopt, the f-M behavior is quantified based on the proportion of each eruption magnitude from individual, but exchangeable, volcanic records. Thus, we attempt to statistically account for under-recording based on the proportion of each eruption magnitude in a period of time, rather than the number of events for each magnitude.. We search for an observation window (tstart - tpresent, where t is time; Fig. 1) in which the processes that control the preservation of volcanic deposits are consistent through time, so that the proportion of each eruption magnitude is constant. Essential to our approach is the ...
Volcanoes, Geoengineering, and the Post-Flood Ice Age | The Institute for Creation Research
However, the Bible gives us the clues we need to solve this mystery. The hardened volcanic rocks that are evidence of cataclysmic past volcanism are intermingled with water-deposited sedimentary rocks that formed as a result of the Genesis Flood. This means that these volcanic eruptions occurred during the year-long Genesis Flood (mostly toward the end) and continued afterward for many years as the Earth slowly recovered from the cataclysm. These volcanic eruptions, many of which were large and explosive, provided the needed cooling for an Ice Age.12 My ICR colleague, Dr. Tim Clarey, has found that volcanic deposits increase greatly late in the global rock record, peaking in the Cenozoic when the Flood was receding and just prior to the onset of the Ice Age.13 ...
Volcanic Ash Body Mask 80g
Volcanic Ash Body Mask Power of the volcano for beauty and suppleness of your body. The mask lifts and rejuvenates your skin, improving blood circulation in tissues. The volcanic ash helps remove toxins, absorb dirt and clean pores, helps activate the metabolism, improves skin elasticity and strengthens its structure. The combination of volcanic ash and the…
Flag Counter » Montserrat
English and Irish colonists from St. Kitts first settled on Montserrat in 1632; the first African slaves arrived three decades later. The British and French fought for possession of the island for most of the 18th century, but it finally was confirmed as a British possession in 1783. The islands sugar plantation economy was converted to small farm landholdings in the mid-19th century. Much of this island was devastated and two-thirds of the population fled abroad because of the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano that began on 18 July 1995. Montserrat has endured volcanic activity since, with the last eruption occurring in 2013 ...
Covered in ash: Chinstrap penguins threatened by volcanic eruption | 2012 The Awakening
Greg Uyeno Live Science Fri, 08 Jul 2016 © Pete Bucktrout, British Antarctic Survey Volcanic ash threatens an enormous colony of chinstrap penguins. The hatcheries of migratory penguins can be magical places, full of fluffy chicks and doting parents. But things are less picturesque when you add volcanic ash to the mix. A volcano on…
Synchrony between Early Jurassic extinction, oceanic anoxic event, and the Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synchrony between Early Jurassic extinction, oceanic anoxic event, and the Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism. AU - Pálfy, J.. AU - Smith, P. L.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - A well-known second-order mass extinction took place during the Pliensbachian and Toarcian Stages of the Early Jurassic. First recognized as a minor Pliensbachian peak in the global extinction rate, it has alternatively been interpreted as a regional response to the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event. Detailed studies established it as a global long-term event spanning five successive ammonoid zones. Here we present a revised time scale based on high-precision U-Pb ages resolved to the zone level, which suggests that elevated extinction rates were sustained for about 4 m.y. and peak extinction occurred at 183 Ma. Recent isotopic dating of flood basalts from the southern Gondwanan Karoo and Ferrar provinces documents a culmination in volcanic activity ca. 183 Ma. The onset of volcanism is recorded as ...
Synchrony between Early Jurassic extinction, oceanic anoxic event, and the Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synchrony between Early Jurassic extinction, oceanic anoxic event, and the Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism. AU - Pálfy, J.. AU - Smith, P. L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A well-known second-order mass extinction took place during the Pliensbachian and Toarcian Stages of the Early Jurassic. First recognized as a minor Pliensbachian peak in the global extinction rate, it has alternatively been interpreted as a regional response to the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event. Detailed studies established it as a global long-term event spanning five successive ammonoid zones. Here we present a revised time scale based on high-precision U-Pb ages resolved to the zone level, which suggests that elevated extinction rates were sustained for about 4 m.y. and peak extinction occurred at 183 Ma. Recent isotopic dating of flood basalts from the southern Gondwanan Karoo and Ferrar provinces documents a culmination in volcanic activity ca. 183 Ma. The onset of volcanism is recorded as an ...
Neolithic Mural: A Volcanic Eruption Of 6,900 BC? | Science 2.0
Volcanic rock textures and ages suggest that the painting of a mural by residents of Çatalhöyük was recording an explosive eruption of the Hasan Dagi volcano. Scientists analyzed rocks from the nearby Hasan Dagi volcano in order to determine whether it was the volcano depicted in the mural from ~6600 BC in the Catalhöyük Neolithic site in cen
LIGO eLab poster: Effect of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions on Frequency Data | Quarknet
This project is supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the Office of High Energy Physics, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation or Department.. ...
Effect of Chemical Pretreatment on X-ray Powder Diffraction Characteristics of Clay Minerals Derived from Volcanic Ash
Abstract: The effects of NaOAc removal of carbonates, H2O2 removal of organic materials, and sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (SCBD) removal of iron oxides upon the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) characteristics of clay minerals present within weathered volcanic ash deposits were examined. All pretreatments of samples derived from the Ae and Bhf horizons containing volcanic ash resulted in dramatic increases in XRD peak intensities, while the treatment of IIC-horizon samples resulted in subdued XRD peak intensities. Also, the chemical treatments produced an apparent increase in the amount of expandable clay minerals within the Ae horizon, due probably to the hydrolysis and removal of interlayer Al3+ when H2O2 and SCBD were used. Hence, poorly ordered and pedogenicaUy modified vermiculite or vermiculite/montmorillonite interstratifications became weathered by H+ attack and Al3+ removal in a manner similar to the natural processes which take place in the acid and eluvial A horizon. In ...
Dr FB Wadsworth - Durham University
7] Quantifying and communicating the risk of volcanic eruptions to the airline industry. Awarded by the Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University. 2020-2021. Principal Investigator..  From grains to rocks: The evolution of mechanical and hydraulic properties during diagenesis. University of Strasbourg doctorate grant. Awarded in 2017. Co-investigator (PI: Mike Heap).  Bubble growth and resorption in magma: A quantitative study. Diamond Light Source synchrotron beamtime grant at i12. Awarded in 2017. Co-investigator (PI: Ed Llewellin)..  Testing the Wedgwood pyrometer of 1786. [email protected] grant W18_F16. Awarded in 2017. Principal investigator..  Hysteresis processes in large volcanic eruptions: the evolution from pumice to obsidian. Swiss Light Source synchrotron beamtime grant at TOMCAT x02DA. Awarded in 2016. Co-investigator (PI: Mathieu Colombier)..  In situ viscous sintering of volcanic ash. Swiss Light Source synchrotron beamtime grant at TOMCAT x02DA. Awarded in ...
Expedition to NW Rota 2009: April 2009
Volcanic eruptions occur when magma rises from depth to the surface. On land, eruptions are explosive when magma rises fast enough for the dissolved gases to form bubbles within the magma, and then expand violently to erupt a mixture of gas (from the bubbles) and magma (which cools to form solid fragments). A common analogy for this process is the explosive opening of a pressurized bottle of champagne. In contrast, when magma rises slowly, the bubbles can escape freely and magma erupts passively to form lava flows and domes. Underwater, conditions that produce explosive eruptions are probably similar to those that operate in terrestrial environments, as evidenced by the presence of large, submarine, pumice-filled calderas, such as those south of Japan. However, when magma ascent is slow, as is the case at Brimstone Pit, the seawater alters volcanic activity in important ways, particularly because of the capacity of cold seawater to absorb heat. This has the dual effect of causing rapid ...
10 Most Incredible Volcanic Eruptions Seen from Space - Page 2 of 20
Heres a close-up of the thick plume of volcanic ash that traveled 6.2 miles (10 km) up into the air and drifted around the globe after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption, causing airports as far away as Buenos Aires and Melbourne to close. More devastating, however, were the consequences for the surrounding environment: the temperature of the nearby Nilahue River rose to 45 °C (113 °F), killing about 4.5 million fish; and, after five years of drought suffered by two provinces in Argentina, the remaining usable farmland was destroyed, endangering 750,000 sheep and 60,000 cattle.. ...
Twig - Pyroclastic flows
Fast-moving ground-level flows of hot gases and rock fragments, dust and ash from a volcanic eruption. They can reach speeds of several hundred kilometres per hour, with temperatures of up to 1000°C. It was pyroclastic flows, rather than falling ash, that engulfed and destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.. ...
Algorithms | Free Full-Text | Use of Logistic Regression for Forecasting Short-Term Volcanic Activity
An algorithm that forecasts volcanic activity using an event tree decision making framework and logistic regression has been developed, characterized, and validated. The suite of empirical models that drive the system were derived from a sparse and geographically diverse dataset comprised of source modeling results, volcano monitoring data, and historic information from analog volcanoes. Bootstrapping techniques were applied to the training dataset to allow for the estimation of robust logistic model coefficients. Probabilities generated from the logistic models increase with positive modeling results, escalating seismicity, and rising eruption frequency. Cross validation yielded a series of receiver operating characteristic curves with areas ranging between 0.78 and 0.81, indicating that the algorithm has good forecasting capabilities. Our results suggest that the logistic models are highly transportable and can compete with, and in some cases outperform, non-transportable empirical models trained with
Global Volcanism Program | Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network
Kadovar is a 365-m-high, 1.4 km-diameter volcanic island. A 1700 report of smoke seen briefly there was believed at the time to be a volcanic eruption. Since then no eruptions are known, and no traces of thermal activity remained in early 1976, although there was supposedly some such activity several generations ago. The island has the form of a steep-sided cone 250 m high, with a 600-m-wide crater breached to the SSE. The breach probably extended at least to sea level, but the crater and breach are now occupied by a high-standing, conical lava dome. The island is completely vegetated, and supported a village of more than 300 people built around the crater rim. Most of the village gardens are on the side of the dome.. In early August 1976, the first reports were received of activity there, the precise nature of which has not been clearly established. A summary of events to mid-November, and of investigations so far carried out, follows.. May-June 1976. The precise nature of the early events is ...
... or by volcanic eruptions such as the ancient eruption of Santorini. On March 11, 2011, a tsunami occurred near Fukushima, Japan ... Limnic eruptions. Main article: Limnic eruption. A limnic eruption occurs when a gas, usually CO2, suddenly erupts from ... Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic ... The main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a ...
... volcanic eruptions; Landslides are aggravated by human activities, such as: deforestation, cultivation and construction; ... The eruption of Mount St. Helens (May 18, 1980) caused an enormous landslide when the top 1300 feet of the volcano suddenly ... A pyroclastic flow is caused by a collapsing cloud of hot ash, gas and rocks from a volcanic explosion that moves rapidly down ... Landslides that occur undersea, or have impact into water e.g. significant rockfall or volcanic collapse into the sea, can ...
Geology of New Mexico
... or volcanic eruptions. The crust underlying the state formed between 1.7 and 1.8 billion years ago as island arcs. This is ... The vast Mogollon-Datil volcanic field was active during this time, as were the smaller Latir volcanic field and the Ortiz ... The Jemez volcanic field began to develop around 15 Mya, and the Valles Caldera (or Jemez Caldera) formed 1.25 Mya ago in the ... Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 18 (1): 27-53. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea. ...
Savaiʻi: population 43,142 (2006); largest landmass; westernmost in the group; most recent volcanic eruptions. Eruptions:Mt ... Samoa Islands Mt Matavanu volcanic eruption on Savai'i island, 1905 Afono village, Tutuila island, American Samoa. Aunu'u ... The volcanic Samoa island chain may have been formed by the activity of the Samoa hotspot at the eastern end of the Samoa ... Nuʻutele: uninhabited; volcanic tuff ring; conservation for native birds; can also be seen from the popular Lalomanu Beach. The ...
The 1982 eruption of El Chichón is the largest volcanic disaster in modern Mexican history. The powerful 1982 explosive ... Robock, A. (2000). Volcanic eruptions and climate. Reviews of Geophysics, 38(2), 191-219 Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004 ... List of volcanoes in Mexico Robock, Alan, 2001: Volcanic eruption, El Chichón. in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, ... The total volume of the eruption was much smaller than the famous eruption of Pinatubo in 1991; however El Chichón's impacts ...
George P. L. Walker
"Explosive volcanic eruptions - IV. The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behaviour". ... Walker, George P. L. (July 1973). "Explosive volcanic eruptions - a new classification scheme". Geologische Rundschau. 62 (2): ... He worked on the volcanic rocks of Iceland and on Mount Etna. He taught at Imperial College. In 1978, he was Captain James Cook ... Wilson, C. J. N.; Walker, G. P. L. (1985). "The Taupo Eruption, New Zealand I. General Aspects". Philosophical Transactions of ...
Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions. A Handbook on Risk Assessment. Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company. v t e. ...
Galileo observed the effects of a major eruption at Pillan Patera and confirmed that volcanic eruptions are composed of ... New Horizons also captured images of a volcano near Girru Patera in the early stages of an eruption, and several volcanic ... These features are often the site of volcanic eruptions, either from lava flows spreading across the floors of the paterae, as ... 1979). "Volcanic eruption plumes on Io". Nature. 280 (5725): 733-736. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..733S. doi:10.1038/280733a0. S2CID ...
Seismic site effects
Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions. S.R.C., 951p. Beresnev et al., 1998. Magnitude of Nonlinear Sediment Response in L.A. Basin ...
"Volcanic Eruptions on Oahu". www.soest.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2020-08-10. "KOKO HEAD HIKE: 1,048 RAILWAY STAIRS TO THE CRATER". ... Koko Crater, Hanauma Bay and other nearby tuff cones form the Koko Rift Zone, which marks the latest episode of volcanic ... Radiocarbon dating suggests that the latest eruption within the Koko Rift Zone occurred 7,000 years ago, although the validity ...
Exploration of Io
... the consequence of a volcanic eruption there. As a result of the discovery of active volcanic plumes by Voyager 1, a ten-hour " ... 1979). "Volcanic eruption plumes on Io". Nature. 280 (5725): 733-736. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..733S. doi:10.1038/280733a0. S2CID ... Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M. (1982). "Volcanic eruptions on Io". In Morrison, D. (ed.). Satellites of Jupiter. University of ... The temperatures observed at Pillan and other volcanoes confirmed that volcanic eruptions on Io consist of silicate lavas with ...
Melipeuco has devised a Volcanic Emergency Plan to deal with future eruptions of Llaima or Sollipulli. Lahars are volcanic ... both north of the Southern Volcanic Zone) and the Austral Volcanic Zone (south of the Southern Volcanic Zone). These volcanic ... and 118 additional volcanic systems show evidence of Holocene eruptions. There are 60 volcanoes in the Southern Volcanic Zone; ... The eruption reached a level of 5 on the volcanic explosivity index. Radiocarbon dating at Chufquén has yielded an age of 710 ...
Volcanic eruptions in Canada rarely cause fatalities because of their remoteness and low level of activity. The only known ... "Kinds Of Volcanic Eruptions". VolcanoWorld. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-15. Wood, Charles A ... While there is a likelihood of Canada being critically affected by local or close by volcanic eruptions argues that some kind ... Like other stratovolcanoes, it is composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash. Eruptions are explosive ...
"HIVE , Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions". community.dur.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-09-15. "Protecting Against Volcanic Ash ... She was appointed to the Government of the United Kingdom Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies for volcanic eruptions in ... She created the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions (HIVE) project to collect evidence on respiratory protection for ... She investigated the effectiveness of facemasks distributed by agencies during volcanic eruptions, looking to identify whether ...
Volcanic eruptions in the tropics lead to a stronger polar vortex during the winter for as long as two years afterwards. The ... ISBN 978-0-521-62430-5. Alan Robock (May 2000). "Volcanic Eruptions and Climate" (PDF). Reviews of Geophysics. 38 (2): 171. ...
Rhyolitic magma produces the most explosive volcanic eruptions, including the catastrophic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. It forms ... Dependent on which cation the hydroxyl is bound to, it significantly impacts the properties of a volcanic eruption, ... Nelson, Stephen (September 2015). "Volcanoes, Magma, and Volcanic Eruptions". Tulane University EENS 3050. Retrieved March 1, ... Connate water Nelson, Stephen (September 2015). "Volcanoes, Magma, and Volcanic Eruptions". Tulane University EENS 3050. ...
2013). "Eruption Types (Volcanic Eruptions)." Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards. Springer Netherlands, 2013. 290-293. Hickson, ... Furthermore, she formulated and implemented Canada's volcanic eruption response plan (Canada's Interagency Volcanic Event ... Hickson C., Spurgeon T., Tilling, R., and Adam P. (2013) Factors Influencing Volcanic Hazards and the Morphology of Volcanic ... She realized that it was unlikely to be a volcanic feature (crater or lava tube), but most likely to be a karst feature, ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Volcanic eruptions may emit PAHs. Certain PAHs such as perylene can also be generated in anaerobic sediments from existing ...
Ezekiel Stone Wiggins
Hence earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. If our little visible satellite were brought down and slid around the earth from east ...
Timeline of Chacoan history
1064, 1066 Sunset Crater volcanic eruptions; volcanic debris blankets Jemez Mountains and Bandelier area. 1080-1100 Great North ...
Thorvaldur Thordarson (2010). "Perception of Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland". In Martini, I. Peter; Chesworth, Ward (eds.). ...
It can also create volcanic eruptions. Air Gem (Brilyante ng Hangin) - The gem grants its owner the power to control the air, ...
They are vulverable to volcanic eruptions; Mount Soufriére has erupted twice since 1900. Both volcanic activity and ... Before a volcanic eruption in 1902, whistling warblers were usually found around 300 m above sea level, but after they are now ... This habitat loss is due to volcanic activity and deforestation. Whistling warblers have cup-shaped nests, and spotted eggs. ...
Timeline of volcanism on Earth
Other volcanic eruptions are also listed. Some eruptions cooled the global climate-inducing a volcanic winter-depending on the ... Qualitative scale for explosiveness of volcanic eruptions Volcanic winter - Temperature anomaly event caused by a volcanic ... It is aligned as a Crater Flat volcanic field, Réveille Range, Lunar Crater volcanic field, Zone (CFLC). The Marysvale Volcanic ... volcanic_eruption_in_the_early_1460s_and_its_putative_climatic_impact_a_globally_perceived_volcanic_disaster_in_the_Late_Middle ...
This atmosphere, sourced from gases ejected from lunar volcanic eruptions, was twice the thickness of that of present-day Mars ... Eric Hand (12 October 2014). "Recent volcanic eruptions on the moon". Science. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. ... Impact melts or volcanic eruptions?". Planetary and Space Science. 87: 37-45. Bibcode:2013P&SS...87...37S. doi:10.1016/j.pss. ... of volcanic origin collected during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. The inclusions were formed during explosive eruptions on the ...
The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth. Earth-Science Reviews, Volume: 102, Issue: 3-4, Pages: 207-229. Victoria M. Martin1, ... He obtained his doctorate in 1996 at the University of Liverpool based on his research into ways that textures in volcanic and ... In 2010 he reported extensively on the air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in live TV interviews on ... Understanding the offshore flood basalt sequence using onshore volcanic facies analogues: an example from the Faroe-Shetland ...
2007-2008 Nazko earthquakes
These stations can detect volcanic eruptions and the release of gas at volcanic vents, and can be used in combination with ... Other recent earthquakes in North America that have been attributed to magma but did not result in a volcanic eruption include ... During the earthquake swarm in 2007, a group of scientists investigated the possibility that a volcanic eruption would occur. ... Johnson, J.B.; Aster, R.C.; Kyle, P.R. (2004). "Volcanic eruptions observed with infrasound" (PDF). Geophysical Research ...
ISBN 978-0-521-33444-0. "Explosive Volcanic Eruptions on the Moon". Naeye, Robert (6 April 2008). "NASA Scientists Pioneer ... In addition, fire fountaining, whereby volcanic lava is lofted and cools into small glass beads before falling back to the ... Deposits of volcanic beads are also thought to be the origin of Dark Mantle Deposits (DMD) in other locations around the Moon. ... volcanic and impact spherules. The agglutinates form at the lunar surface by micrometeorite impacts that cause ...
Catherine Weitz (February 12, 1997). "Explosive Volcanic Eruptions on the Moon". Planetary Science Research Discoveries. Google ... formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. They were dubbed maria, Latin for "seas", by early astronomers who mistook them for ... it was once assumed that the impact event itself somehow caused the volcanic eruption. Note: current data in fact may not ... The few basaltic eruptions that occurred on the far side are old, whereas the youngest flows are found within Oceanus ...
Block and ash flow
... s are a type of pyroclastic flow and as such they form during volcanic eruptions. In contrast to other types ... Pyle, David M. (2015). "Chapter 13 - Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions". In Sigurdsson, Haraldur (ed.). Encyclopedia of Volcanoes ( ... A block and ash flow or block-and-ash flow is a flowing mixture of volcanic ash and large (>26 cm) angular blocks commonly ... "Generation of block and ash flows during the 1990-1995 eruption of Unzen Volcano, Japan". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal ...
Broken, fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions, both of lava and pyroclastic type ... Clastic igneous rocks include pyroclastic volcanic rocks such as tuff, agglomerate and intrusive breccias, as well as some ...
... volcanic eruption, snow, sleet, and weight of ice. The remainder had the HO-6 Unit-Owners policy, also known as a condominium ...
"Atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions as seen by famous artists and depicted in their paintings" (PDF), Atmospheric ... Some works of the artist J. M. W. Turner may owe their vivid red colours to the eruption of Mount Tambora in his lifetime. ... For years after large Plinian eruptions, the blue cast of the sky is notably brightened by the persistent sulfate load of the ...
... flew through a cloud of volcanic ash and dust from the eruption of Mount Galunggung. The ash and dust caused extensive damage ... The volcanic ash caused the cockpit window to be scratched to such an extent that it was difficult for the pilots to see out of ...
List of large volcanic eruptions
Andes, Central Volcanic Zone. 2300 BC. 0.004315. 6 Mount Vesuvius. Campanian volcanic arc. 2420 BC. 0.004435. Avellino eruption ... Taupo Volcanic Zone. 230 AD. 0.001786. Hatepe eruption 5 Mount Vesuvius. Campanian volcanic arc. 79 AD. 0.001937. Pompeii ... List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to ... For a list of the largest recorded eruptions, see List of largest volcanic eruptions. ...
... largely because of the rich volcanic soil surrounding Mt. Iriga which it spewed in its last eruption about six hundred years ... The eruption formed the cavernous gully on the side of Buhi leading to the steep gorge which was the crater of the "volcano".[6 ... That eruption brought much fear to the settlers but with their strong faith and belief a miracle happened and as witnessed by ...
Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group, from eruptions in eastern Oregon, flowed across large parts of the northern half of ... volcanic activity in the Cascades combined with a cool, moist climate to produce further heavy sedimentation across the basin; ...
... a volcanic depression resulting from collapse following a volcanic eruption.. *Pit crater: a volcanic depression smaller ...
... volcanic eruptions, and pollution. Dust in homes, offices, and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen ...
... the world was locked in a long cold volcanic winter caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815. Mary Shelley, aged 18 ...
Joya de Cerén
It was evacuated in AD 200 due to the eruption of the Ilopango volcano, and was repopulated no earlier than AD 400. It was, at ... featuring a pre-Columbian Maya farming village preserved remarkably intact under layers of volcanic ash. It is often referred ... Conyers, Lawrence B. (1996) "Archaeological evidence for dating the Loma Caldera eruption, Ceren, El Salvador", in ... The farmers had planted the manioc "just hours" before the eruption. ...
The 1815 eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano in Indonesia caused crop failures and famines worldwide and caused the worst ... "Volcanic suppression of Nile summer flooding triggers revolt and constrains interstate conflict in ancient Egypt". Nature ...
The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée), was often referred to as the "Paris of the Lesser ... Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, it was the most important city of Martinique ... The island is volcanic in origin, lying along the subduction fault where the South American Plate slides beneath the Caribbean ... Pierre, killing 30,000 people. Due to the eruption refugees from Martinique arrived in boats to the southern villages of ...
Snake River Plain
Island Park and Yellowstone Calderas formed as the result of enormous rhyolite ignimbrite eruptions, with single eruptions ... Three major volcanic buttes dot the plain east of Arco, the largest being Big Southern Butte. ... The western plain began to form around 11-12 Ma (million years ago) with the eruption of rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites. The ... Its morphology is similar to other volcanic plateaus such as the Chilcotin Group in south-central British Columbia, Canada. ...
Volcanic eruptions are considered an external forcing.. *Human changes of the composition of the atmosphere or land use.[27 ... However, volcanic eruptions also release carbon dioxide, which plants can convert to oxygen. The exact cause of the variation ... Volcanic ash is contained in some layers, and can be used to establish the time of the layer's formation. Each volcanic event ... volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.. ...
Radiocarbon dating considerations
Volcanic eruptions eject large amounts of carbon into the air. The carbon is of geological origin and has no detectable 14. C, ... These effects are hard to predict-the town of Akrotiri, on Santorini, was destroyed in a volcanic eruption thousands of years ... If the dates for Akrotiri are confirmed, it would indicate that the volcanic effect in this case was minimal. ...
The island formed by volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the Cenozoic era. The island consists ... About 100 thousand years ago, volcanic activity formed Halla Mountain.. *About 25 thousand years ago, lateral eruptions around ... Volcanic activity then stopped for approximately 100 thousand years.. *About 300 thousand years ago, volcanic activity ... Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes. References. *^ "Joshua Calder's World Island Info - Largest Islands of Selected ...
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
Smathers, G A; Mueller-Dombois D (1974). Invasion and Recovery of Vegetation after a Volcanic Eruption in Hawaii. Scientific ... Other causal or contributing factors to the extinction may have been the Deccan Traps and other volcanic eruptions, ... Courtillot, Vincent (1990). "A volcanic eruption". Scientific American. 263 (4): 85-92. Bibcode:1990SciAm.263d..85C. doi: ... This is reminiscent of areas blighted by modern volcanic eruptions, where the recovery is led by ferns, which are later ...
Grounds for divorce (United States)
Graff, E.J. Melting the earth : the evolution of ideas about volcanic eruptions. Boston, Mass.: OUP USA. p. 2. ISBN 0-8070-4114 ...
Ver Straeten, C.A. (2004). "K-bentonites, volcanic ash preservation, and implications for Early to Middle Devonian volcanism in ... Explosive eruptions associated with the Acadian orogeny originating near present-day central Virginia released the ash into ... relatively thin volcanic ash falls-is also included at the base of the Marcellus in eastern Pennsylvania. In 1843 it was ... The volcanic origin of the ash is evidenced by its distinctive mineralogy-the ash was deposited directly upon the water, so its ...
On 23 January 2001 the crew photographed a plume of volcanic ash from Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico. ... prior to its eruption the following month.[NASA 32] On 23 January 2001, the crew observed a unique perspective of a plume of ... volcanic ash coming from Popocatépetl, an active volcano 70 kilometres southeast of Mexico City.[NASA 33] ...
Volcanic relations. *Jökulhlaup. *Subglacial eruption. *Subglacial volcano. *Tuya. Landforms. Erosional. *Arête. *Cirque ...
Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to ... Each volcano and in some cases each volcanic eruption produces a distinguishable type of obsidian, making it possible for ... Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. ... Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. It can be found in Argentina, Armenia, ...
The magma then extruded outward from a dike to form a volcanic dome over the tuff. The dacite dome is 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) ... the Venus breccia formed when the ascending dacite magma reacted with groundwater to produce a phreatic eruption. The released ... The ore deposits reside in veins present in the dacite volcanic dome. The hill is "honeycombed" with underground workings, ...
AD 62 - Pompeii was severely damaged by a strong earthquake, which may have been a precursor to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius ... 1600 - The stratovolcano Huaynaputina, in present-day Peru, erupted in the largest recorded volcanic explosion in South America ... 1814 - More than 1,200 people died in the most destructive recorded eruption of Mayon (pictured) in the Philippines. ...
Western United States
A major volcanic eruption at Mount Mazama around 4860 BC formed Crater Lake. These mountain ranges see heavy precipitation, ... The Cascades are also volcanic. Mount Rainier, a volcano in Washington, is also over 14,000 feet (4,300 m). Mount St. Helens, a ... The Inter-mountain States and Pacific Northwest have huge expanses of volcanic rock from the Cenozoic era. Salt flats and salt ...
Volcanic eruptions eject large amounts of carbon into the air. The carbon is of geological origin and has no detectable 14. C, ...
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), ... volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in this way are ... volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the ... along with other volcanic ocean islands. This is because large masses of relatively unconsolidated volcanic material occurs on ...
... due in part by volcanic eruptions, asteroids, and rapid fluctuations in sea level. At this time, new species rose and others ...
Kevin lives in eastern Washington and is prepping his family for a volcanic eruption using multiple bug-out vehicles. We also ... Jeff Bushaw plans to fly his family to safety following the eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano; Allen and Franco have ...
Volcanic gases - Eruptions
Volcanic gases. Eruptions. Category archives for Volcanic gases. USGS/SI Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for May 12-18, 2010. ... Eruptions is moving!. Big news from Eruptions (and me.). Eruptions has always been an evolving space - it started as… ... New eruption at Sinabung in Indonesia. Sinabung on Sumatra erupting on August 29, 2010.. Eruptions readers were quick on the ... The eruption at Eyjafjallajökull-Fimmvörduháls continues on - the explosive spatter and bomb eruptions at the new central vent ...
List of large volcanic eruptions - Wikipedia
Andes, Central Volcanic Zone. 2300 BC. 0.004315. 6 Mount Vesuvius. Campanian volcanic arc. 2420 BC. 0.004435. Avellino eruption ... Taupo Volcanic Zone. 230 AD. 0.001786. Hatepe eruption 5 Mount Vesuvius. Campanian volcanic arc. 79 AD. 0.001937. Pompeii ... List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to ... For a list of the largest recorded eruptions, see List of largest volcanic eruptions. ...
Key Facts About Volcanic Eruptions|Volcanoes
Read these Key Facts About Volcanic Eruptions from from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to stay safe. ... You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. ... People have died from volcanic blasts. Volcanic eruptions can result in additional threats to health, such as floods, mudslides ... You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. The best way to ...
Category:Volcanic eruptions - Wikimedia Commons
Pages in category "Volcanic eruptions". The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. ... Media in category "Volcanic eruptions". The following 33 files are in this category, out of 33 total. ... A volcanic eruption in Herculaneum (?), showing the advance Wellcome V0025249.jpg 3,406 × 2,605; 2.53 MB. ... Mount Vesuvius in eruption at night, showing the Bay of Napl Wellcome V0025246.jpg 3,189 × 2,223; 2.5 MB. ...
volcanic eruptions Archives - Universe Today
Tag: volcanic eruptions. Posted on September 16, 2016. May 4, 2017. What is the Difference Between Active and Dormant Volcanoes ... In just five decades, four massive tropical volcanic eruptions managed to take Earths entire environment and put it on ice. ... "Our simulations showed that the volcanic eruptions may have had a profound cooling effect," says NCAR scientist Bette Otto- ... from volcanic eruptions-there appears to be a cumulative cooling effect." ...
Volcanoes, Magma, and Volcanic Eruptions
Types of Volcanic Eruptions. Volcanic eruptions, especially explosive ones, are very dynamic phenomena. That is the behavior of ... of the eruption. This makes it very difficult to classify volcanic eruptions. Nevertheless they can be classified according to ... Volcanic Eruptions. *. In general, magmas that are generated deep within the Earth begin to rise because they are less dense ... Since volcanic eruptions are caused by magma (a mixture of liquid rock, crystals, and dissolved gas) expelled onto the Earths ...
Preparing for a Volcanic Eruption|Volcanoes
You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. Read more on how to ... You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. The best way to ... Local authorities will give you information on how to prepare for a volcanic eruption, and if necessary, on how to evacuate ( ... Key Facts About Preparing for a Volcanic Eruption. ... Volcanic Ash Health Effectsexternal icon. *Volcanic Ash Facts ...
Types of volcanic eruptions - Wikipedia
The vast majority of volcanic eruptions are of VEIs between 0 and 2. Volcanic eruptions by VEI index Magmatic eruptions produce ... Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted ... or Vesuvian eruptions) are a type of volcanic eruption named for the historical eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD that buried ... bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii. Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption named ...
Volcanic Eruptions: Satellite Imagery and Effects on Climate
... Volcanic eruptions can offer a spectacular and very dangerous ... This sulphur dioxide (indicated by the yellow SO2 symbols) likely came from a volcanic eruption in the Kuril Islands south of ... These were the eruptions of Mount Tambora in Indonesia. These eruptions are theorized to have caused the Year Without A Summer ... Benjamin Franklin was the first person to suggest that major volcanic eruptions could emit enough ash and other particles into ...
PAHO/WHO Health Emergencies - Volcanic Eruptions
Preparedness Guide for Volcanic Eruptions The Health Preparedness Guide for Volcanic Eruptions provides support material for ... Volcanic eruption Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia The production relates the health effects of the disaster that buried the city of ... What is volcanic ash?. Volcanic ash is not ash at all. It is pulverized rock. A one-inch layer of dry ash weighs ten pounds per ... A volcanic eruption registers diverse forms of affectation like the one generated by the pyroclastic flows or burning clouds, ...
Volcanic eruptions drove ancient global warming event | EurekAlert! Science News
A natural global warming event that took place 56 million years ago was triggered almost entirely by volcanic eruptions that ... IMAGE: Layered volcanic rocks in Eastern Greenland that are up to 4 miles thick were formed during ancient volcanic eruptions ... Volcanic eruptions drove ancient global warming event. University of California - Riverside. Journal. Nature. Funder. UK Ocean ... Volcanic eruptions drove ancient global warming event Warming event that took place 56 million years ago led to significant ...
Before Dinosaurs' Era, Volcanic Eruptions Triggered Mass Extinction | NSF - National Science Foundation
Before Dinosaurs Era, Volcanic Eruptions Triggered Mass Extinction. Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, ... Over a relatively short time period, massive volcanic eruptions from a large region known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic ... From its measurements, they reconstructed the regions volcanic activity 201 million years ago, discovering that the eruption ... To determine how long the volcanic eruptions lasted, the group combined two dating techniques: astrochronology and ...
Volcanic Eruption Devastates War-Weary Congo City
... warnings from aid agencies that the area is still unsafe because of poisonous fumes and ash and the danger of further eruptions ... Hundreds of thousands of victims of the volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are walking over cooling lava ... Volcanic Eruption Devastates War-Weary Congo City. Danna Harman The Christian Science Monitor. ... About 40 people are believed to have died in Thursdays eruption, and another dozen from inhalation of the fumes, but reports ...
Surprise Underwater Volcanic Eruption Discovered | Live Science
Surprise Underwater Volcanic Eruption Discovered. By Andrea Mustain 2011-08-09T21:01:29Z. ... Data from the Axial Seamounts recent eruption will provide the first long-term picture of a subsea volcano from one eruption ... Eruption forecast. The Axial Volcano rises 3,000 feet (900 m) above the seafloor, the most active of a string of volcanoes ... Before the eruption: A spider crab atop a hydrophone, an instrument that detects earthquakes, at the Axial Seamount. (Image ...
Steam-driven volcanic eruptions difficult to predict, poorly understood - UPI.com
The hydrothermal eruption at White Island in New Zealand was short-lived but produced an ash plume that rose nearly two miles ... above the vent, and there is a high chance for more, smaller eruptions as it re-equilibrates. ... Steam-driven volcanic eruptions difficult to predict, poorly understood. The sudden hydrothermal eruption at White Island in ... Volcanic hazards. White Island is one of several volcanoes in New Zealand that can produce sudden explosive eruptions at any ...
Sensor Enables Airlines to Avoid Volcanic Ash After Eruptions | EE Times
Airbus and British easyJet airline just tested a sensor that wont let volcano eruptions disrupt a plane in the air. ... Pumping an artificial cloud of volcanic ash into the air over the Bay of Biscay, ... Pumping an artificial cloud of volcanic ash into the air over the Bay of Biscay, Airbus and British easyJet airline just tested ... Pumping an artificial cloud of volcanic ash into the air over the Bay of Biscay, Airbus and British easyJet airline just tested ...
The 11 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History: Page 2 | Live Science
... on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the second-highest rating in the index. The volcano, which is still active, is one of the ... The 11 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History. By Live Science Staff 23 February 2016. ... The eruption reached its peak in April 1815, when it exploded so loudly that it was heard on Sumatra Island, more than 1,200 ... The death toll from the eruption was estimated at 71,000 people, and clouds of heavy ash descended on many far-away islands. ...
List of large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province - Wikipedia
Named ones include: Coso Volcanic Field, Mono Lake Volcanic Field, Marysvale Volcanic Field, San Juan volcanic field, Indian ... Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in California, Idaho, ... Jemez volcanic lineament, Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, Santa Rosa-Calico, and Boot Heel volcanic field. Many geological ... 2004). Largest explosive eruptions: New results for the 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff and the La Garita caldera, San Juan volcanic ...
Climate Response of Volcanic Eruptions
Limited Climate Response of Very Large Volcanic Eruptions Extremely large volcanic eruptions have been linked to global climate ... Direct observations of volcanic aerosols have been existing for only a few decades and basically span two volcanic eruptions ... Extremely large volcanic eruptions emitting more than 1015 kg of material (~150 times the quantity of the Pinatubo eruption) ... are the Yellowstone Volcanic System and the Phlegraean Fields, situated west of Naples / Italy. Such volcanic super eruptions ...
Volcanic Soils in the Wet Tropics NewsBriefs: Volcanic Eruptions May Be Predicted Decades in Advance (BBC) Groundwater Flow ... Volcanic Hazards and Aviation Safety Eruption, Debris Flow, and Hydrogeomorphic Condition at Mount Unzen Automated, ... The Yucca Mountain Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis Project An Assessment of Future Volcanic Hazard at Yucca Mountain ... Results of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis Project Blasting Densifies Volcanic Debris (Available only in Focus on ...
Tree rings may underestimate climate response to volcanic eruptions | EurekAlert! Science News
Some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change ... Tree rings may underestimate climate response to volcanic eruptions. Penn State. Journal. Nature Geoscience. Funder. National ... Explosive volcanic eruptions place particulates called aerosols into the stratosphere, reflecting back some fraction of ... Some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change ...
NASA - Historic Volcanic Eruption Shrunk the Mighty Nile River
Volcanic eruptions in high-latitudes can greatly alter climate and distant river flows, including the Nile, according to a ... Image above: Following a volcanic eruption, large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrochloric acid (HCL) and ash are spewed ... The study provides new evidence that large volcanic eruptions north of the equator often have far different impacts on climate ... To see what effect major high-latitude volcanic eruptions have on rainfall and river levels, the researchers used records on ...
Time between world-changing volcanic super-eruptions less than previously thought | EurekAlert! Science News
... a team of scientists from the University of Bristol has discovered the average time between so-called volcanic super-eruptions ... "The global magnitude-frequency relationship for large explosive volcanic eruptions" by J. Rougier, S. Sparks, K. Cashman, and S ... The largest explosive eruptions are termed super-eruptions, and produce in excess of 1,000 gigatons of erupted mass, enough ... Time between world-changing volcanic super-eruptions less than previously thought. University of Bristol ...
Paralysis in European airspace after volcanic eruption in Iceland - France 24
Volcanic eruption of Bali's Mount Agung will temporarily cool Earth's temperature
... it is not unheard of for volcanic eruptions to cause disruptive changes to the planets climate. For example, the 1815 eruption ... If Mount Agungs most recent eruption offers any insight, the global temperature drop from the imminent volcanic activity ... Ever so slightly, global temperatures will drop in the wake of the eruption. While this may sound like good news, it will only ... The significant cooling that should follow Agungs eruption is the result of its spewing ash and sulfur dioxide into the air. ...
Caribbean island Saint Vincent covered in thick ash after volcanic eruption
... smaller eruption took place Friday afternoon, belching out a 4,000-meter-high ash cloud, the University of the West Indies ... and the stench of sulphur filled the air after a series of eruptions from a volcano that had been quiet for decades. The thick ... Barbadians have been urged to stay indoors as thick plumes of volcanic ash move through the atmosphere, the Caribbean Disaster ... to safeguard and rescue persons who are affected by the eruption, the agency said.These irresponsible calls divert much- ...
Space in Images - 2017 - 12 - Sentinel-5P captures Bali volcanic eruption
The Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite imaged sulphur dioxide from the Mount Agung volcanic eruption on Bali, Indonesia, on 27 ... ESA > Space in Images > 2017 > 12 > Sentinel-5P captures Bali volcanic eruption ... The Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite imaged sulphur dioxide from the Mount Agung volcanic eruption on Bali, Indonesia, on 27 ...
Space Images | NASA Satellite Captures New Russian Volcanic Eruption
Airport in Indonesia's second city reopens after volcanic eruption
The airport in Indonesias second-largest city has reopened after being closed because of a volcanic eruption on Java island, ... Airport in Indonesias second city reopens after volcanic eruption. Breaking News February 16, 2014 00:00 ... Jakarta - The airport in Indonesias second-largest city has reopened after being closed because of a volcanic eruption on Java ... The eruption forced the closure of seven airports on Java, resulting in the cancellation of hundreds of flights. Most have ...
VolcanoesMagma2017PlumesCalderaAerosolsExplosive volcanicVolcano eruptionExplosivity IndexIndonesia1815ClimateScientistsAerosolJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal ResearchLargest eruptionAverage time between super-eruptionsAncient volcanic eruptionsEarth'sSmaller eruptionsCloud1,000ExplosionsParticlesOccurSuper-eruptions occurredSulfurDated volcanic activityIcelandicFissureAtmosphericAtmosphereType of eruptionLakiHigh-latitudesGasesHazardEffects of volcanicIcelandLava flowsEtnaAnother eruptionVolcanologyMassive198075,000 years agoEarthquakes and volcanic activityLargeTypes of volcanicMajor eruptionsEruptiveEmissionsMagmatic eruptionsPlume2000Stratosphere1883 eruptionPhreatic
- Put simply, the most popular way for classifying volcanoes comes down to the frequency of their eruption. (universetoday.com)
- In the past few thousand years, many of Earth's volcanoes have erupted many times over, but currently show no signs of impending eruption. (universetoday.com)
- For instance, the volcanoes of Yellowstone, Toba, and Vesuvius were all thought to be extinct before their historic and devastating eruptions. (universetoday.com)
- Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. (wikipedia.org)
- Some volcanoes exhibit lateral and fissure eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
- Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption named after the Hawaiian volcanoes with which this eruptive type is hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
- Volcanic activities and eruption sequence of the large-scale eruption at Shikotsu, Toya, Nigorikawa and Daisen Volcanoes" (PDF) (in Japanese). (wikipedia.org)
- White Island is one of several volcanoes in New Zealand that can produce sudden explosive eruptions at any time. (upi.com)
- Since the first historical known link between a volcanic eruption (Etna volcano, 44 BC) and a subsequent change by(Plutarch ), the climate response of volcanoes have been object of manifold studies, reaching from atmospheric and geological measurements over the analysis of ice cores and proxy data to climate modeling. (mpg.de)
- In the last few years these two eruptions have helped us essentially improve our understanding of how volcanoes affect our climate. (mpg.de)
- Active volcanoes which would be capable of producing super eruptions these days, for example, are the Yellowstone Volcanic System and the Phlegraean Fields, situated west of Naples / Italy. (mpg.de)
- In the study, published last month, Swindles' team examined the geologic record of eruptions of Icelandic volcanoes 5,500 to 4,500 years ago - a period in Earth's history when the climate was cooler, but still not a full-blown ice age. (kuow.org)
- today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. (fluoridealert.org)
- The development signals that it might eventually be possible to forecast eruptions of undersea volcanoes. (voanews.com)
- Whether the seismic energy signal preceding the eruption is unique to Axial or may be replicated at other volcanoes isn't yet clear," said Dziak, "but it gives scientists an excellent base from which to begin. (voanews.com)
- But there's yet another - less obvious - concern when volcanoes erupt: what the ash and chemicals released by those eruptions can do to our water supply. (aquasana.com)
- Washington, March 26 (ANI): In a new research, scientists have determined that studying tornado-like rotation in volcanoes can help them to better predict the effects of volcanic eruptions. (thaindian.com)
- it is important that you store water for volcanic activity because much of the time volcanoes will contaminate all municipal and public water supplies. (hubpages.com)
- Seismic rate increases often precede eruptions at volcanoes worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
- Additionally, identifying seismic rate increases near volcanoes with high levels of background seismicity is non-trivial and many periods of elevated seismicity occur without ensuing eruptions, limiting their usefulness for forecasting in some cases. (frontiersin.org)
- Overall, our results confirm that seismic rate increases are common prior to larger eruptions at long dormant, "closed-system" volcanoes, but uncommon preceding smaller eruptions at more frequently active, "open-system" volcanoes with more mafic magmas. (frontiersin.org)
- Some of these non-eruptive anomalies can be explained by aftershocks of regional seismic events, magmatic activity that did not lead to eruption, or unrest at other nearby volcanoes. (frontiersin.org)
- Earthquake swarms are common occurrences at volcanoes worldwide and are often associated with periods of increased volcanic unrest. (frontiersin.org)
- and volcano-tectonic (VT) swarms have been recognized as the earliest precursor to eruptions at long-dormant volcanoes in many cases ( White and McCausland, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The short answer is yes, earthquakes and volcanic processes are closely linked, as suggested by the existence of the "ring of fire" of active volcanoes and earthquakes circling the Pacific Ocean. (hawaii247.com)
- It is now known that (mainly tropical) volcanoes injecting up to the high troposphere also contributed to the stratospheric aerosol burden, volcanic plumes finding a pathway toward the stratosphere. (europa.eu)
- As per the findings, the analysis had been conducted to explore the deformation of volcanoes that occurred prior to eruption in west Sunda Arc of Indonesia. (frenchtribune.com)
- 79 volcanoes were focused on between 2006 and 2009 in Indonesia and six volcanic centres showed inflation, of which three exploded later. (frenchtribune.com)
- Massive eruptions from volcanoes spewing greenhouse gases 252 million years ago may have triggered Earth's biggest mass extinction. (sciencebuddies.org)
- The Philippines braces for a potentially massive eruption from one of its most active volcanoes. (grist.org)
- Super-volcanoes like Yellowstone is constantly showing signs of potential eruption and recent evidence suggests it could be primed for an eruption in the near future. (cbc.bb)
- volcan_magma - Volcanoes Magma and Volcanic Eruptions EENS. (coursehero.com)
- The commonest eruption styles of basaltic volcanoes involve Hawaiian lava fountaining or intermittent Strombolian explosions. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Like many large volcanoes, Teide has seen its fair share of seismic evolution, with cycles of eruptions, collapse, and regrowth. (labroots.com)
- Quantifying how the f -M relationship varies between different groups of volcanoes provides an opportunity to understand how the tectonic setting influences f -M behavior, which is important to quantify long-term regional volcanic hazard. (geoscienceworld.org)
- We develop a method to account for under-recording biases, which permits the analysis and comparison of the eruption record for different groups of volcanoes and different volcanic regions on Earth. (geoscienceworld.org)
- Sheldrake, 2014 ), which implies that fundamental processes leading to large-magnitude explosive eruptions, associated with the accumulation of eruptible magma and triggering of an eruption, are shared by different volcanoes. (geoscienceworld.org)
- Since volcanic eruptions are caused by magma (a mixture of liquid rock, crystals, and dissolved gas) expelled onto the Earth's surface, we must first discuss the characteristics of magma and how magmas form in the Earth. (tulane.edu)
- The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. (wikipedia.org)
- Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Explosive eruptions are characterized by gas-driven explosions that propels magma and tephra. (wikipedia.org)
- However, Columbia University volcanologists found that the eruption of Costa Rica's Irazú Volcano in 1963 was likely triggered by magma that took a nonstop route from the mantle over just a few months. (wikipedia.org)
- The instruments kept track of the movement of the seafloor, which very gradually inflates and deflates like a giant, magma-filled balloon, Chadwick said, collapsing suddenly after an eruption, and rising, in this case, by about 6 inches (15 cm) per year in the lead up to an eruption. (livescience.com)
- It's possible that because the crust is thinner there, and magma is in ready supply, the mountains' slow inflations provide a good analogue for knowing when eruptions will occur. (livescience.com)
- From its measurements, they reconstructed the region's volcanic activity 201 million years ago, discovering that the eruption of magma--along with carbon dioxide, sulfur and methane--occurred in repeated bursts over a period of 40,000 years, a short span in geologic time. (nsf.gov)
- The eruption is not caused by magma, but by steam, and this is much harder to track in our current monitoring systems. (upi.com)
- The dome was erupted from the same vent that expelled about 15 cubic kilometers (9.3 cubic miles) of magma in an enormous explosive eruption in 1912. (nasa.gov)
- We find that the last time Yellowstone erupted after sitting dormant for a long time, the eruption was triggered within 10 months of new magma moving into the base of the volcano, while other times it erupted closer to the 10 year mark," says Till. (phys.org)
- Till and her colleagues were the first to use NanoSIMS ion probe measurements to document very sharp chemical concentration gradients in magma crystals, which allow a calculation of the timescale between reheating and eruption for the magma. (phys.org)
- If that happens, there will be some notice as Yellowstone is monitored by numerous instruments that can detect precursors to eruptions such as earthquake swarms caused by magma moving beneath the surface. (phys.org)
- Over thousands of years, the last little bit of this magma will crystallize unless it becomes reheated and reignites another eruption. (phys.org)
- Our results suggest an eruption at the beginning of Yellowstone's most recent volcanic cycle was triggered within 10 months after reheating of a mostly crystallized magma reservoir following a 220,000-year period of volcanic quiescence," says Till. (phys.org)
- A similarly energetic reheating of Yellowstone's current sub-surface magma bodies could end approximately 70,000 years of volcanic repose and lead to a future eruption over similar timescales. (phys.org)
- Using seismic analysis , the team was able see just how the magma rose within the volcano about two hours before the eruption. (voanews.com)
- Volcanic eruptions are caused by magma (molten rock), which has a lower density than the surrounding cool rock above it. (aquasana.com)
- That pressure causes the magma or (as we commonly call it) lava to break forth to the surface, and thus, you have a volcanic eruption . (aquasana.com)
- Submarine eruptions where the plates are splitting apart and allowing magma to reach the surface following partial melting within the mantle. (sciencechatforum.com)
- A volcanic eruption occurs when the force of the magma plumbing system exceeds the force holding the rock together between the magma chamber and the surface. (hawaii247.com)
- For earthquakes that are relatively close to an active volcano, the displacement of the earthquake itself can change the stresses around the magma chamber, possibly bringing the volcano closer to an eruption. (hawaii247.com)
- Much like shaking up a soda pop can, passing seismic waves can induce bubble formation, density and/or viscosity changes, increasing the pressure within the magma chamber and possibly increasing the likelihood of an eruption of a distant volcano. (hawaii247.com)
- Since the actual forces imparted on the magma chamber from distant earthquake waves are generally low with respect to the force imparted by the magma chamber itself, the magma chamber must already be poised for an eruption. (hawaii247.com)
- More commonly, large earthquakes simply goose the magma plumbing system, producing earthquake swarms or changing the behavior of the magma plumbing system, but not triggering an eruption. (hawaii247.com)
- Although the estimated volume of the oldest Toba eruption is not as large as the youngest Toba, they are both enormous eruptions involving discharges of tremendous amounts of magma. (innovations-report.com)
- Bachmann O, Dungan MA, Lipman PW (2002) The Fish Canyon magma body, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: Rejuvenation and eruption of an upper crustal batholith. (springer.com)
- Volcanic eruptions are all about pressure-as buoyant magma rises through the volcano's plumbing, the change in temperatures and pressures allows gasses to escape, putting pressure on the magma. (agu.org)
- On the other hand, an increase in sulfur dioxide generally means shallower magma-and a possibly more imminent eruption. (agu.org)
- We investigate the ways in which magma rise speed at depth, magma volatile content and magma viscosity control which of these eruption styles takes place. (lancs.ac.uk)
- According to Michigan Tech volcanologist Simon Carn , the clouds may have formed when the eruption condensed water vapor from the surrounding air, or when hot magma made contact with seawater. (mentalfloss.com)
- Barbadians have been urged to stay indoors as thick plumes of volcanic ash move through the atmosphere,' the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency said. (yahoo.com)
- Volcanic eruptions always seize the attention of climate scientists, because the sulfate aerosols formed in the volcanic plumes may stay months to years in the stratosphere--the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere--resulting in the increase of radiation reflection from the Sun back into space, and therefore cooling the Earth's lower atmosphere or troposphere in a long time period. (innovations-report.com)
- These results solve a long-standing mystery about the relationship between volcanic plumes and associated tornadoes, waterspouts and lightning, showing for the first time that rotation of a volcanic plume may be the primary cause of these effects," said Sonia Esperanca, program director in the National Science Foundation's (NSF) geosciences directorate. (thaindian.com)
- This conjunction of rotation, lightning and waterspouts is characteristic of a familiar meteorological phenomenon seemingly unrelated to volcanic plumes: a tornadic thunderstorm. (thaindian.com)
- What happens in tornadic thunderstorms is analogous to what happens in strong volcanic plumes," he said. (thaindian.com)
- Kim  also showed the prevention of HAB by control of growth parameters including the iron (Fe) in global aeolian dust and water as the key initiator for HAB while sulfur compounds (S) (S, SO 2 , SO 3 , H 2 S, H 2 SO 4 , sulfates) from SO 2 plumes during volcanic eruptions and volcanic ashes deplete Fe in the forms of iron sulfides (FeS/FeS 2 ). (scirp.org)
- Amid all the bright lava and towering ash plumes, it's easy to overlook that volcanic eruptions can dramatically affect air quality. (grist.org)
- The response of regulatory bodies during volcanic crises relies on the output of complex numerical models of atmospheric dispersal of ash plumes. (findaphd.com)
- these parameters include the amount of material injected into the atmosphere during eruptions, the time history of emissions, and the rise dynamics and maximum height reached by volcanic plumes. (findaphd.com)
- Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in California, Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming and Oregon, as well as those of the Long Valley Caldera geological province and the Yellowstone hotspot. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the volcanic fields of the Basin and Range Province are within: Northwestern Nevada, the Modoc Plateau, Central Nevada, the Great Basin, Southwestern Nevada, the Mojave Desert, and the Long Valley Caldera region. (wikipedia.org)
- Aerial view along the main volcanic chain from the caldera lake of Mount Katmai, Alaska, across the peaks of Trident Volcano, to snow-clad Mount Mageik, a distance of about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles). (nasa.gov)
- The Toba caldera was the site of a massive super-eruption 75,000 years ago. (eurekalert.org)
- Approximately 75,000 years ago, a massive explosive eruption from a volcano in western Indonesia (Toba caldera) coincided with the onset of the Earth's last Ice Age. (innovations-report.com)
- and Kuo-Yen Wei of National Taiwan University describe their investigation into the possibility that eruptions from the Toba caldera on the island of Sumatra caused a severe "volcanic winter" and the initiation of a glacial period. (innovations-report.com)
- The largest eruption of the last two million years ago was the eruption at Toba Caldera in Sumatra, Indonesia which spewed 671 cubic miles (2,800 cubic km) of volcanic ash into the atmosphere. (cbc.bb)
- Direct observations of volcanic aerosols have been existing for only a few decades and basically span two volcanic eruptions affecting our climate - the eruptions of El Chichòn in April 1982 and Pinatubo in June 1991. (mpg.de)
- Explosive volcanic eruptions place particulates called aerosols into the stratosphere, reflecting back some fraction of incoming sunlight and cooling the planet for several years following the eruption. (eurekalert.org)
- After a major eruption, volcanic aerosols strongly affect the thermal structure of the lower stratosphere by scattering solar radiation. (europa.eu)
- For all these reasons, the study of volcanic eruptions and the characterization of all aspects of stratospheric aerosols using the most recent knowledge and scientific results is a major issue of climate change. (europa.eu)
- After 2000, an increase of the stratospheric aerosol load was observed, and a debate arose on the respective role of natural (mainly volcanic) and anthropogenic aerosols in this evolution. (europa.eu)
- MIMOSA-5 addresses all these issues and aims at the characterization of stratospheric aerosols and a better understanding of the role of volcanic eruptions in the evolution of the atmosphere. (europa.eu)
- But thanks to sulfur dioxide, which reacts with water to form aerosols that reflect the sunlight back to space , the eruption ended up temporarily cooling global temperatures, which fell as much as 1 degrees F for about three years following the eruption. (grist.org)
- We also show in the paper that a lot of quite dramatic accounts in ancient records of weakened or discolored sunlight from ancient Babylon to China now match the dates of big eruptions, so that these historical records are really recording high-altitude volcanic sulfuric aerosols and dust," Ludlow said. (scitechdaily.com)
- A spectacular six-month Icelandic lava field eruption could provide the crucial key for scientists to unlock the role aerosols play in climate change, through their interactions with clouds. (mothernature.com)
- Dr Florent Malavelle, lead author of the study and from the Mathematics department at the University of Exeter said: "The huge volcanic eruption provided the perfect natural experiment in which to calculate the interaction between aerosols and clouds. (mothernature.com)
- The modeled deposition rate of sulfate aerosols from the Sarychev eruption is higher than the rate calculated for aerosols from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. (awi.de)
- The second, made by physician José Hipólito Unanue in Lima, Peru, describes sunset after-glows (akin to well-documented examples known to be caused by stratospheric volcanic aerosols) from mid-December 1808 to February 1809. (clim-past.net)
- The global magnitude-frequency relationship for large explosive volcanic eruptions" by J. Rougier, S. Sparks, K. Cashman, and S. Brown, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters . (eurekalert.org)
- The results revealed which years experienced explosive volcanic eruptions by the amount of ash debris in the varves. (naturalnews.com)
- The research team found out that years with explosive volcanic activity corresponded to thicker varve layers, after matching up the ice layers with varve layers from the same time periods. (naturalnews.com)
- Other theories have said that the explosive volcanic eruption may have triggered a chain of climatic events resulting in a cooling of temperatures, but this latest study finds no evidence of a significant dip in temperatures in East Africa at the time. (historynewsnetwork.org)
- Explosive volcanic eruptions-IX. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Volcano eruption at the Danakil depression, Ethiopia. (wikimedia.org)
- I want to personally thank the Nazarene family for the outpouring of prayers and support in the aftermath of the volcano eruption this week," he said. (nazarene.org)
- Many survivors of the New Zealand volcano eruption suffered severe burns requiring skin graft surgery, leaving doctors scrambling to find skin donations. (cbc.ca)
- An ambulance arrives at Whakatane Airport, as the recovery operation to return the victims of the Dec. 9 volcano eruption continues off the coast of Whakatane New Zealand, on Friday. (cbc.ca)
- It's the) first time I am witnessing a volcano eruption. (nwahomepage.com)
- Ash from the La Soufriere volcano eruption on St Vincent traveled across over 100 miles of ocean and coated parts of Barbados on Sunday, April 11. (yahoo.com)
- While everyone is aware that Bali and Vanuatu lie in the seismic zone, a priest in Indonesia has been blaming tourists for the impending volcano eruption. (ibtimes.co.in)
- Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. (wikipedia.org)
- An important measure of eruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), an order of magnitude scale ranging from 0 to 8 that often correlates to eruptive types. (wikipedia.org)
- The Volcanic Explosivity Index (commonly shortened to VEI) is a scale, from 0 to 8, for measuring the strength of eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
- The explosion of Mount Tambora is the largest ever recorded by humans , ranking a 7 (or "super-colossal") on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the second-highest rating in the index. (livescience.com)
- These were the eruptions of Mount Tambora in Indonesia. (noaa.gov)
- For example, the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia resulted in what has become known as the Year Without Summer, during which Europe and the Northeast United States suffered from major crop losses due to unseasonable frost and lack of sunlight sufficient for plants . (inhabitat.com)
- Parameters associated with blooms and fishery damage were sunspot number, El Niño/La Niña events, Kuroshio Current, and volcanic eruptions in the South China Sea including Indonesia and the Philippines. (scirp.org)
- Cochlonidium polykrikoides blooms could be predicted by the minimal sunspot number during La Niña event or weak volcanic eruptions in Indonesia and the Philippines. (scirp.org)
- HABs on the Korean coast were negligible when there were volcanic eruptions in either Indonesia or Philippines from May to August. (scirp.org)
- the maximal number of sunspots induced frequent volcanic eruption in Indonesia and the Philippines for retardation of HAB with less fishery damage in Korea while the minimal number of sunspots caused less volcanic eruptions for thereby enhancing HAB resulting in more fishery damage. (scirp.org)
- Perhaps the most notorious 'climate changing' eruption occurred April 5-15, of 1815. (noaa.gov)
- The eruption reached its peak in April 1815, when it exploded so loudly that it was heard on Sumatra Island, more than 1,200 miles (1,930 km) away. (livescience.com)
- the response to the three largest tropical eruptions -- AD 1258/1259, 1452/1453 and the 1809+1815 double pulse of eruptions -- is sharply reduced in the reconstruction. (eurekalert.org)
- Though not as disruptive as the "year without a summer" that followed the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815, Krakatoa's influence was seen and felt around the globe in vivid sunsets and stormy weather. (esa.org)
- In the summer following Indonesia's 1815 Tambora eruption frost wreck. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the summer following Indonesia's 1815 Tambora eruption, frost wrecked crops as far away as New England, and the 1991 blowout of the Philippines' Mount Pinatubo lowered average global temperatures by 0.7 degrees F--enough to mask the effects of greenhouse gases for a year or so. (bio-medicine.org)
- The Unknown eruption of 1808/1809 was the second most explosive SO 2 -rich volcanic eruption in the last two centuries, eclipsed only by the cataclysmic VEI 7 Tambora eruption in April 1815. (clim-past.net)
- According to NOAA's Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL), Benjamin Franklin was the first person to suggest that major volcanic eruptions could emit enough ash and other particles into the atmosphere and that it could have a significant impact on short-term climate, even great distances from where the eruption occurred. (noaa.gov)
- By combining this data with Ridgwell's global climate model, the team deduced the amount of carbon added to the ocean and atmosphere and concluded that volcanic activity during the opening of the North Atlantic was the dominant force behind the PETM. (eurekalert.org)
- Extremely large volcanic eruptions have been linked to global climate change, biotic turnover, and, for the Younger Toba Tuff eruption 74,000 years ago, near-extinction of modern humans. (mpg.de)
- Natural variability is evoked by the climate system's internal variations and by external factors such as the variability of solar radiation or large volcanic eruptions. (mpg.de)
- In order to answer these questions and - in particular - to understand the effects of very large volcanic eruptions on our climate and the Earth system, a large crosscutting project called "Super Volcano" was established at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) some years ago. (mpg.de)
- This project investigates the effects of very large volcanic eruptions by employing a complex climate model encompassing all relevant areas of our Earth system (Earth System Model). (mpg.de)
- Some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change because large enough temperature drops lead to greatly shortened or even absent growing seasons, according to climate researchers, who compared tree-ring temperature reconstructions with model simulations of past temperature changes. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers compared temperature reconstructions from actual tree-ring data with temperature estimates from climate models driven with past volcanic eruptions. (eurekalert.org)
- Following the 1258 eruption, the climate model simulations predict a drop of 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit, but the tree ring-based reconstruction shows only about a 1 degree Fahrenheit dip and the dip occurs several years too late. (eurekalert.org)
- Volcanic eruptions in high-latitudes can greatly alter climate and distant river flows, including the Nile, according to a recent study funded in part by NASA. (nasa.gov)
- The study provides new evidence that large volcanic eruptions north of the equator often have far different impacts on climate than those in the tropics. (nasa.gov)
- While considerable research has shown that eruptions in the tropics influence climate in the Northern Hemisphere winter, this study indicates that eruptions in high-latitudes produce changes in atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere summer," said lead author Luke Oman, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. (nasa.gov)
- These findings may help us improve our predictions of climate response following the next strong high-latitude eruption, specifically concerning changes in temperature and precipitation," said Oman. (nasa.gov)
- However, it is not unheard of for volcanic eruptions to cause disruptive changes to the planet's climate. (inhabitat.com)
- Volcanic climate perturbations that delivered disastrously cold and stormy weather to much of the Northern Hemisphere generated a combination of conditions in the Sonoran Desert that were just right for the delicate young cacti. (esa.org)
- Comparing the volcanic record with glacial coverage, the team found that the number of eruptions dropped significantly as the climate cooled and ice cover increased. (kuow.org)
- In reverse, the team found that as the climate warmed and glaciers melted, there were more and bigger eruptions. (kuow.org)
- There was also a lag between retreating glaciers and increased volcanic activity, but it was shorter, the team found - although the study cautions there could be other climate-related factors that contributed to the compressed lag time. (kuow.org)
- Researchers have said that some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change. (medindia.net)
- Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. (fluoridealert.org)
- It is traditionally believed that because of atmospheric circulation patterns, eruptions in the tropics could have an effect on the climate in both hemispheres while eruptions at mid or high latitudes only have impact over the hemisphere where they erupt. (innovations-report.com)
- So with the help of the ASM anticyclonic circulation, this high-latitude volcanic eruption will not only influence the climate in the northern hemisphere where the Sarychev located, but also have impact on the southern hemisphere, just as a tropical eruption does. (innovations-report.com)
- to be more specific is, do they have something to do with climate change or global warming, wherein as what i've read, volcanic eruptions cooled down the earth's temperature? (sciencechatforum.com)
- Tree-ring researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) showed that big eruptions tend to dry up much of Central Asia, but bring more rain to southeast Asian countries including Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Myanmar--the opposite of what many climate models predict. (bio-medicine.org)
- Until now, most climate models incorporating changes in the sun and the atmosphere have predicted that volcanic explosions would disrupt the monsoon by bringing less rain to southeast Asia--but the researchers found the opposite. (bio-medicine.org)
- Several times in Earth's history, volcanic eruptions have been blamed for massive climate disturbances. (earth.com)
- Volcanic eruptions have been known to cool the global climate, but the findings suggest that they can also speed up the melting of ice sheets . (naturalnews.com)
- The preliminary results suggest that the "modern ice sheets are potentially vulnerable to volcanic eruptions," according to Dr. Muschitiello, and that the study, "can give us hints about the mechanisms at play when you're expecting rapid climate change. (naturalnews.com)
- A newly published study resolves the inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings and shows that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. (scitechdaily.com)
- The new chronology of volcanic eruptions reveals that such eruptions had a significant and repeated impact on global climate. (scitechdaily.com)
- Previously, there seemed to be a big delay between the dating of eruptions and big dips in tree-ring growth, so that researchers were forced to infer that either the eruptions didn't actually impact climate, or that there must have been an error in the dating of tree-ring records," said co-author Francis Ludlow, a postdoctoral fellow at the Yale Climate & Energy Institute. (scitechdaily.com)
- Using new records we are able to show that large volcanic eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were the dominant drivers of climate variability, responsible for numerous and widespread summer cooling extremes over the past 2,500 years," said lead author Michael Sigl, assistant research professor at DRI and a postdoctoral fellow with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. (scitechdaily.com)
- http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/transportation/transportation_climate_cars_ships_aviation_rail.html which works out at about 1.5% of global CO2 emissions. (gardenplansireland.com)
- An international team of climate scientists, led by the University of Exeter, have meticulously studied the effects that the 2014-15 eruption at Holuhraun, in Iceland had on cloud formations in the surrounding region. (mothernature.com)
- The team suggest that it is this volcanic event, preventing the ocean flow, rather than a change in CO2 in the atmosphere (which causes today's climate change), that led to an extended ice age in a period more synonymous with very warm conditions. (jagran.com)
- We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct simulations of the 12-16 June 2009 eruption of Sarychev volcano (48.1°N, 153.2°E). The model simulates the formation and transport of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol cloud from the eruption and the resulting climate response. (awi.de)
- Scientists uncovered evidence of the early April eruption on a routine expedition in late July to the Axial Seamount, an underwater volcano that stands 250 miles (400 kilometers) off the Oregon coast. (livescience.com)
- These scientists have come close to confirming something we had only guessed at: that the mass extinction of this ancient time was indeed related to a series of volcanic eruptions,' says Lisa Boush, program director in NSF's Division of Earth Sciences. (nsf.gov)
- For several of these events, scientists have noted that large igneous provinces, which provide evidence of widespread volcanic activity, arose at about the same time. (nsf.gov)
- After analysing a database of geological records dated within the last 100,000 years, a team of scientists from the University of Bristol has discovered the average time between so-called volcanic super-eruptions is actually much less than previously thought. (eurekalert.org)
- Oregon scientists who correctly predicted the 2011 eruption of the Axial Seamount underwater volcano years before it occurred, now say another underwater volcano off the Oregon coast gave off signals just hours before it erupted. (voanews.com)
- The scientists noticed a cyclic pattern of ground deformation measurements - which measures the changes in ground shape which can occur before, during and after an eruption - that suggests the Axial Seamount could also erupt again, perhaps as soon as 2018. (voanews.com)
- To make their findings, the Oregon team had some other unique tools at their disposal, including a one-of-a-kind robotic submersible used to bounce sound waves off the seafloor, allowing scientists to map the topography of the Axial Seamount before and after the eruption. (voanews.com)
- Scientists involved in the research have shown that the spontaneous formation of a "volcanic mesocyclone" - a rotating, column-shaped vortex - causes the volcanic plume to rotate on its axis. (thaindian.com)
- Scientists have long known that large volcanic explosions can affect t. (bio-medicine.org)
- Scientists have long known that large volcanic explosions can affect the weather by spewing particles that block solar energy and cool the air. (bio-medicine.org)
- Now, in research funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences, scientists have discovered that eruptions also affect rainfall over the Asian monsoon region, where seasonal storms water crops for nearly half of Earth's population. (bio-medicine.org)
- For instance, the continuing eruption of Indonesia's Merapi this fall has killed dozens, but this latest episode is probably not big enough by itself to effect large-scale weather changes, scientists believe. (bio-medicine.org)
- Lee and the team of scientists present new data on the distribution of volcanic ash from the oldest Toba eruption in Ocean Drilling Program cores and piston cores in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean. (innovations-report.com)
- Comparing material from the oldest Toba eruption to that of the youngest, or last, Toba eruption, the scientists were able to draw surprising conclusions. (innovations-report.com)
- Scientists have long believed that the Scottish sector of the North Atlantic Volcanic province did not experience any large explosive eruptions at the time of the PETM. (earth.com)
- FARK.com: (7435267) Volcanic eruption may have wiped out the glowing cockroaches scientists discovered just a few years back. (fark.com)
- This prevented scientists from connecting volcanic eruptions with many major human events such as famine and plague. (scitechdaily.com)
- The scientists found that the cooling coincided with a large-scale volcanic event - called the North Sea Dome - which restricted the flow of ocean water and the associated heat that it carried from the equator towards the North Pole region. (jagran.com)
- Scientists monitor earthquakes at the volcano, the gas it expels, and possible deformation of its surface for signs of an impending eruption. (agu.org)
- After reports of the pumice rafts surfaced, scientists from Tahiti and New Zealand's GNS Science connected the eruption with a cluster of earthquakes in the Kermadec Islands on July 17 and 18. (eijournal.com)
- Scientists have long understood the correlation between volcanic eruptions that trigger landslides. (labroots.com)
- This has allowed scientists from the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) to look at deposits from previous submarine landslides, from which they determined that the beginning stages of landslides have happened underwater and - this is the key part - before the eruptions. (labroots.com)
- Looking at these deposits on a timescale continuum with the knowledge that it takes a certain amount of time for clay to settle out of the ocean, the scientists could approximate the amount of time between the first underwater landslide and following eruption. (labroots.com)
- Moreover, heterogenic chemical reactions take place at the surface of the volcanic aerosol particles leading to chlorine activation and thus to the depletion of the ozone layer. (mpg.de)
- They used the Lagrangian particle dispersion model -- MPTRAC, together with multi-source satellite observations to study the transport of the volcanic aerosol from the high-latitude volcanic eruption Sarychev (48°N, 153°E? (innovations-report.com)
- Based on their calculation, although there was only about 4% of the total SO2 from the Sarychev eruption (1.2±0.2 106 tons) transported to the tropical stratosphere, it would result in 6 ±1 104 tons sulfate aerosol, which is several times larger than the 1.5-2 104 tons per year required to explain the increase trend of the tropical stratospheric aerosol. (innovations-report.com)
- In the past decade, the Sarychev eruption in 2009 was not the only case that made advantage of the ASM circulation to transport sulfate aerosol to the tropical stratosphere, and "we may expect more in the future. (innovations-report.com)
- Science, 2016), but doesn't correspond to the expected impact from the aerosol budget taking into account all major eruptions since 2000 of which the volcanic cloud reached directly the stratosphere. (europa.eu)
- Hence, a crucial aspect is to make an inventory of volcanic eruptions including small and medium tropospheric eruptions (injecting at least 15 kt of sulfur species above 14 km) and to simulate the evolution of their emissions to assess the real volcanic contribution to the stratospheric aerosol load. (europa.eu)
- This collaboration with the Max-Planck Institute in Mainz, Germany, resulted in the elaboration of an inventory of the global aerosol load from small, medium and large volcanic eruptions to assess more precisely the volcanic aerosol load, and the corresponding radiative forcing. (europa.eu)
- They found that the 2014-15 Holuhraun fissure eruption, the largest since Laki which erupted for eight months in 1783-4, emitted sulphur dioxide at a higher rate than all 28 European countries added together causing a massive plume of sulphate aerosol particles over the North Atlantic. (mothernature.com)
- After accounting for expected sources of discrepancy between each of the data sources, the magnitudes and spatial distributions of aerosol optical depth due to the eruption largely agree. (awi.de)
- Observations of a stratospheric aerosol veil from a tropical volcanic eruption in December 1808: is this the Unknown ∼1809 eruption? (clim-past.net)
- Guevara-Murua, A., Williams, C. A., Hendy, E. J., Rust, A. C., and Cashman, K. V.: Observations of a stratospheric aerosol veil from a tropical volcanic eruption in December 1808: is this the Unknown ∼1809 eruption? (clim-past.net)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research1
- 2009). A multidisciplinary effort to assign realistic source parameters to models of volcanic ash-cloud transport and dispersion during eruptions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 186(s 1-2), 10-21, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.008. (findaphd.com)
- The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn fissure eruption at Holuhraun produced about 1.5 km3 of lava, making it the largest eruption in Iceland in more than 200 years. (org.in)
Average time between super-eruptions2
- Their analysis indicates that the average time between super-eruptions is only slightly longer than the age of our civilization -- dating from the Agricultural Revolution 12,000 years ago. (eurekalert.org)
- The technology and techniques used to determine the average time between super-eruptions can also be used to change the approach of seismologists looking at earthquakes. (cbc.bb)
Ancient volcanic eruptions2
- Layered volcanic rocks in Eastern Greenland that are up to 4 miles thick were formed during ancient volcanic eruptions that caused a global warming event called the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. (eurekalert.org)
- The study suggests that ancient volcanic eruptions caused immediate and significant melting of ancient ice sheets. (naturalnews.com)
- These super eruptions occur with an average frequency of 1.4 events in one million years, though there have been episodes in the Earth's history with a higher frequency. (mpg.de)
- Natural disasters constantly remake the earth's surface - one of the most violent disasters is volcanic eruption. (aquasana.com)
- But short term, eruptions destroy the earth's terrain and sometimes - as in Hawaii's case - communities. (aquasana.com)
- These cooler temperatures were caused by large amounts of volcanic sulfate particles injected into the upper atmosphere, shielding the Earth's surface from incoming solar radiation," Sigl said. (scitechdaily.com)
- Pumping an artificial cloud of volcanic ash into the air over the Bay of Biscay, Airbus and British easyJet airline just tested a sensor that won't let volcano eruptions disrupt a plane in the air. (eetimes.com)
- They flew into a cloud of volcanic ash and had all 4 engines fail. (eetimes.com)
- A second, smaller eruption took place Friday afternoon, belching out a 4,000-meter-high ash cloud, the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre said. (yahoo.com)
- I came across this while trying to find out the possible implications of the recent Icelandic eruptions on our crops should the ash cloud begin to fall on Ireland. (gardenplansireland.com)
- When Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in Iceland in 2010, the volcanic ash cloud prompted the closure of most of the European airspace for 6 days, resulting in the cancellation of thousands of flights across northern and western Europe. (globalrescue.com)
- The ash cloud also included hundreds of lightning bolts, common for a volcanic eruption and known as a "dirty thunderstorm," reports Matthew Cappucci for The Washington Post . (mentalfloss.com)
- But the 42,700-foot-high cloud reached the stratosphere, where it could pose a threat to planes that goes beyond potential visibility issues, since it contains rock and volcanic glass. (mentalfloss.com)
- NASA reports that after the eruption, a concentrated plume of sulfur dioxide detached itself from the rest of the cloud and made its way toward the North Pacific. (mentalfloss.com)
- The largest explosive eruptions are termed 'super-eruptions', and produce in excess of 1,000 gigatons of erupted mass, enough to blanket an entire continent with volcanic ash, and change global weather patterns for decades. (eurekalert.org)
- According to Dr Muschitiello: "Over a time span of 1,000 years, we found that volcanic eruptions generally correspond with enhanced ice sheet melting within a year or so. (naturalnews.com)
- The study found that 15 of the 16 coldest summers recorded between 500 B.C. and A.D. 1,000 followed large volcanic eruptions. (scitechdaily.com)
- By using statistical analysis they discovered that, while large eruptions of around 100 million metric tonnes are less frequent than previously thought, the very largest eruptions of 1,000 gigatonnes or more are much more frequent. (cbc.bb)
- The explosions and spewing of volcanic ash including the associated risks of lava flow and other related volcanic hazards based on the observation and monitoring of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazard Department (VMGD) showed it was too risky for the people of Ambae to continue to live on their island. (xinhuanet.com)
- There is ongoing risk of further volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and toxic explosions. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, we collected intensively the high-resolution data on the phreatic explosions that invited magmatic eruptions. (nii.ac.jp)
- Volcanic eruptions arise through three main mechanisms: Gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions Thermal contraction from chilling on contact with water causing phreatomagmatic eruptions Ejection of entrained particles during steam eruptions causing phreatic eruptions There are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
- The hazards expected from steam-driven eruptions are violent ejections of hot blocks and ash, and the formation of "hurricane-like" currents of wet ash and coarse particles that radiate from the explosion vent. (upi.com)
- Volcanic eruptions can inject great amounts of gases and solid particles (ash) into the upper atmosphere. (mpg.de)
- Large explosive eruptions send up sulfur compounds that turn into tiny sulfate particles high in the atmosphere, where they deflect solar radiation. (bio-medicine.org)
- Here, a sample containing airborne particles of volcanic material was analyzed for sizedifferentiated particle number (n) on the evaluation area per unit time (number settling rate). (upenn.edu)
- During Mount Pinatubo's 1991 eruption, for instance, 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide and ash particles were released into the air, blowing all the way into the stratosphere. (grist.org)
- Ground vehicle transportation may be affected too - if driving, maintain a low speed to minimize engine damage due to volcanic ash particles. (globalrescue.com)
- Eruptions are not centralized at the main summit as with other volcanic types, and often occur at vents around the summit and from fissure vents radiating out of the center. (wikipedia.org)
- Super eruptions mainly occur in areas of subduction zones and continental hot spots. (mpg.de)
- The eruptions that did occur also tended to be smaller in magnitude. (kuow.org)
- Geologic evidence suggests that Yellowstone has produced three enormous eruptions within the past 2.1 million years, but these are not the only type of eruptions that can occur. (phys.org)
- However, many eruptions occur without such precursors. (frontiersin.org)
- Experts have previously predicted that the massive eruptions are likely to occur roughly once every 45,000 to 714,000 years. (prisonplanet.com)
- And even with a record of past eruptions, there's no guarantee that each eruption will occur with the same warning signs, Krippner noted on Twitter. (agu.org)
- Jonathan Rougier, Professor of Statistical Science, said: "The previous estimate, made in 2004, was that super-eruptions occurred on average every 45 - 714 thousand years, comfortably longer than our civilization. (eurekalert.org)
- Geological records studied by researchers from the University of Bristol shows that the most recent volcanic super-eruptions occurred on Earth between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago. (prisonplanet.com)
- The most common volcanic gas is water vapor, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. (cdc.gov)
- Over a relatively short time period, massive volcanic eruptions from a large region known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) spewed forth huge amounts of lava and gas, including carbon dioxide, sulfur and methane. (nsf.gov)
- The significant cooling that should follow Agung's eruption is the result of its spewing ash and sulfur dioxide into the air. (inhabitat.com)
- The eruption violently disgorged tons of ash and sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere. (esa.org)
- HAB development was halted in seawater due to the sulfur compounds (H 2 S, SO 2 , sulfates) from volcanic eruptions inducing the deficiency of the dissolved iron (Fe) in the seawater. (scirp.org)
- Over the course of the eruption, daily volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeded daily SO2 emissions from all anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2010 by at least a factor of 3. (org.in)
Dated volcanic activity1
- For the time of the end-Triassic, Bowring says that researchers have dated volcanic activity to right around the time fossils disappear from the geologic record, providing evidence that CAMP may have triggered the extinction. (nsf.gov)
- The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull has ejected large quantities of ash and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere during its eruptions on 21 March and 15 April. (dlr.de)
- It is still too early for an accurate assessment of the consequences of the Icelandic eruption. (dlr.de)
- In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. (mdpi.com)
- The eruption at Eyjafjallajökull-Fimmvörduháls continues on - the explosive spatter and bomb eruptions at the new central vent (on the second fissure) were impressive all night, making the hikers/cars/aircraft look like mites in comparison. (scienceblogs.com)
- Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure-have been distinguished by volcanologists. (wikipedia.org)
- Hawaiian eruptions often begin as a line of vent eruptions along a fissure vent, a so-called "curtain of fire. (wikipedia.org)
- Lava flowed about 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) from the fissure, and several huge volcanic rocks rolled down the mountainside. (wkbn.com)
- Researchers found that Iceland's Laki volcanic event, a series of about ten eruptions from June 1783 through February 1784, significantly changed atmospheric circulations across much of the Northern Hemisphere. (nasa.gov)
- if atmospheric dynamics and volcanic eruptions come together with the right timing, they could reinforce one another--with drastic results. (bio-medicine.org)
- The outcomes of this work will potentially influence the implementation and validation of operational models of atmospheric ash transport by improving current capabilities to process ground-based, remote sensing, data, and to retrieve metrics that characterize the interactions between volcanic emissions and the atmosphere. (findaphd.com)
- Here we report on two meteorological observations dating from the end of 1808 that describe phenomena we attribute to volcanic-induced atmospheric effects caused by the Unknown eruption. (clim-past.net)
- Volcanic eruptions can offer a spectacular and very dangerous scene as they spew millions of tons of ash into the atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
- It is not uncommon for volcanic ash to travel thousands of miles after it suspended in the atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
- Ample amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere have been responsible for creating some magnificent sunsets. (noaa.gov)
- The experiment was conducted at an Airbus test center in Toulouse and proved that the Airborne volcanic object imaging detector (aptly named Avoid) could both identify and measure particulates in the atmosphere. (eetimes.com)
- Due to its size and mass, the volcanic ash rapidly falls out of the atmosphere again. (mpg.de)
- DLR) are evaluating satellite images to investigate the effects of the eruptions on the atmosphere. (dlr.de)
- Volcanic eruptions have not only regional, but also continental or even global effects on the atmosphere. (dlr.de)
- For the investigation of volcanic ash in the atmosphere, different instruments are installed on board - for example LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) - as for flights for ice investigation over Spitzbergen. (dlr.de)
- Volcanic eruptions spew massive clouds of ash that can travel long distances in the atmosphere. (naturalnews.com)
- During eruptions, volcanic ash is injected from volcanic vents into the atmosphere at high speed, driven by hot gases. (findaphd.com)
Type of eruption2
- Local authorities and responsible civil and technical protection entities are fundamental partners in providing advice on the type of eruption that is expected, which allows preparing for an appropriate response and preventing damage and losses. (paho.org)
- Learn what type of eruption the volcano is likely to have. (hubpages.com)
- Using a sophisticated computer model developed by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, the researchers linked the Laki eruptions to a cascade of effects that rippled across much of the Northern Hemisphere, altering surface temperatures that ultimately resulted in much below normal rainfall over the Sahel of Africa and record low water levels on the Nile River for up to a year. (nasa.gov)
- Before the new chronology, there were no eruptions that could have convincingly caused such a prolonged period of climatic and social disturbance," Ludlow said, "but with the new dating we can now identify a major eruption in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in 536, followed by another huge eruption in the tropics around c. 540. (scitechdaily.com)
- Model results of optical depth due to the eruption show a peak too late in high latitudes and too early in low latitudes, suggesting a problem with stratospheric circulation in the model. (awi.de)
- Other volcanic gases include hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride. (cdc.gov)
- Amounts of these gases vary widely from one volcanic eruption to the next. (cdc.gov)
- Although gases are usually too diluted to constitute danger to a normal person, the combination of acidic gas and ash which may be present within a few miles of the eruption could cause lung damage to small infants, elderly and susceptible, or those already suffering from severe respiratory illnesses. (paho.org)
- A clear example was the explosion which occurred on July 28 spewing volcanic particulars over 12 km high and emitting over 300.000 tons of gases into the air, spreading across the Pacific including Fiji and Solomon Islands causing cancelation of international flights between these countries and Vanuatu. (xinhuanet.com)
- A strong volcanic plume consists of a vertical column of hot gases and dust topped with a horizontal "umbrella. (thaindian.com)
- Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured the eruption in a breathtaking photo that shows a narrow column of ash and gases billowing out into an " umbrella region ," where the plume's density and the air around it equalize, halting its ascent. (mentalfloss.com)
- Volcanologists at GeoNet , which operates a geological hazard monitoring system, described the eruption as impulsive and short-lived , with an ash plume that rose to more than 1.86 miles above the vent. (upi.com)
- In areas of well monitered volcanic activity you can get hazard zone maps from the local emergency management agency or the U.S. Geological Survey. (hubpages.com)
- Rapid response to alerts of impending or active volcanism is vital in the assessment of volcanic risk and hazard. (ipgp.fr)
- The direct threat to aircrafts from airborne volcanic ash is a well-known hazard, which causes disruption to flight operations and resultant loss of revenue. (findaphd.com)
- Quantifying the frequency at which volcanic eruptions of different size occurs is important for hazard assessment. (geoscienceworld.org)
Effects of volcanic1
- By taking into account the rotation, we can better predict the effects of volcanic eruptions," he added. (thaindian.com)
- There's a big change in the record in the mid- Holocene [epoch], where we see no volcanic ash in Europe and very little in Iceland," says Swindles. (kuow.org)
- Upper image: Eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull on Iceland on 17 April 2010. (dlr.de)
- Such studies would be of particular importance for European societies preparing for future large scale volcanic eruptions in Iceland. (mdpi.com)
- The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallaökull (Iceland) is one of many examples of an event that heavily disrupted air traffic, causing the closure of most of Northern Europe's airspace for nearly a week, and the cancellation of over 100000 flights. (findaphd.com)
- On the one extreme there are effusive Hawaiian eruptions, which are characterized by lava fountains and fluid lava flows, which are typically not very dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
- Magmatic eruptions create lava flows and forest fires. (paho.org)
- Having a before-and-after map allowed geologists to clearly distinguish the lava flows from the 2011 eruption from the flows of previous eruptions in the area. (voanews.com)
- At least 19 fissures have opened since the eruption, resulting in lava flows and dangerous toxic gas emissions. (globalrescue.com)
- Etna showing signs of new eruptions? (scienceblogs.com)
- Eruptions reader and member at Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Catania, Dr. Boris Behncke, has been keeping many of us appraised on the goings-on at Mt. Etna. (scienceblogs.com)
- He believes that the goats behave erratically, not just during one of Etna''s eruptions, but before one. (pbs.org)
- Thanks to a monitoring system they developed to measure the mountain's minute movements, the team forecast the volcano was due for another eruption sometime before 2014. (livescience.com)
- As of Friday, areas around the volcano still remain on Alert Level 4 , which means another eruption could be imminent. (grist.org)
- A report from the volcanology office in Bandung shows that the activities of Anak Krakatau has been on the rise over the past few days, reaching almost 90 eruptions per day. (sott.net)
- By accounting for these various effects in the tree growth model, the researchers were able to reproduce the reduced and smeared cooling seen in the actual tree-ring temperature reconstruction, including the near absence -- and delay -- of cooling following the massive 1258 eruption. (eurekalert.org)
- Though the eruption was more massive than usual, residents of the city of about 600,000 are used to hearing from their 1,117-meter (3,664-foot) neighbor. (wkbn.com)
- A lithograph of the massive 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. (nautil.us)
- A satellite image of Mount St. Helens and the ash plume advecting southeast, just after eruption in 1980. (noaa.gov)
- Do you remember when Washington's Mt. St. Helens went off on May 18, 1980 , spewing volcanic ash over more than 22,000 sq. miles? (eetimes.com)
- Mount St. Helens' more recent eruption in 1980 was devastating, to say the least. (aquasana.com)
- Dr. James Hunt, the lead author of the research, explained 'Crucially, this new research shows that after the initial submarine landslide there could be between ten hours to several weeks until the eruption is finally triggered -- very different from the near-instantaneous landslide triggering of the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. (labroots.com)
75,000 years ago3
- Fallout from the eruption was deposited from clouds that drifted over both the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, producing an extensive ash blanket that may have been comparable in size to that of the last Toba eruption 75,000 years ago. (innovations-report.com)
- The youngest Toba eruption (75,000 years ago) has been proposed as a triggering mechanism for the onset of large-scale glaciation, which brought the last interglacial stage to its end. (innovations-report.com)
- New research from Oxford University casts doubt on the theory that the Mount Toba super-eruption, which took place at the Indonesian island of Sumatra 75,000 years ago, could have plunged the Earth into a volcanic winter leading to the near extinction of early humans. (historynewsnetwork.org)
Earthquakes and volcanic activity2
- This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth , List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions , and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province . (wikipedia.org)
- On the other extreme, Plinian eruptions are large, violent, and highly dangerous explosive events. (wikipedia.org)
- The title of the paper is "Very Large Release of Mostly Volcanic Carbon during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. (eurekalert.org)
- Extremely large volcanic eruptions emitting more than 1015 kg of material (~150 times the quantity of the Pinatubo eruption) are defined as super eruptions . (mpg.de)
- But the problem appears to be in their response to the intense short-term cooling that occurs following a very large volcanic eruption. (eurekalert.org)
- The other large eruptions showed the same type of discrepancy. (eurekalert.org)
- But large eruptions, which are much more frequent, can still be devastating for communities and even countries, and careful planning is a crucial part of disaster risk reduction. (eurekalert.org)
- Many of the large exemplars of the famous cacti standing spiny and tall with arms akimbo in the Southwest today started their lives in the shadow of the 1883 eruption. (esa.org)
- In that paper, the sea captain reported his observations of a volcanic vent that emerged from the sea in the Azores archipelago and formed a large volcanic plume. (thaindian.com)
- The eruption Friday of La Soufrière - its first large one since 1979 - transformed the island's lush towns and villages into gloomy, gray versions of themselves. (nwahomepage.com)
- Seismologists are often asked the question, "Can large earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions? (hawaii247.com)
- When looking at whether eruptions are triggered by earthquakes, it seems clear that both large local earthquakes and large distant earthquakes can bring a volcano closer to eruption. (hawaii247.com)
- In the stratosphere, they mainly originate from large volcanic eruptions able to inject sulphuric gasses at high altitude and to form, after condensation, liquid droplets of a mixture of sulphuric acid and water. (europa.eu)
- The study provides the first evidence of a large-scale explosive eruption in modern-day Scotland. (earth.com)
- The geochemical data point to the Red Hills as the most likely vent area for this large eruption. (earth.com)
- A large-scale volcanic event caused the Ice age during the Jurassic period nearly 170 million years ago, say researchers. (jagran.com)
- These extra large eruptions posess devastating power, capable of releasing enough volcanic ash to cover a whole continent and have the potential to wreak havoc with the weather, as weather patterns would change for decades to come. (cbc.bb)
- This study of burns patients from two eruptions of Merapi volcano, Java, in 1994 and 2010, is the first detailed analysis to be reported of thermal injuries in a large series of hospitalised victims of pyroclastic surges, one of the most devastating phenomena in explosive eruptions. (earthobservatory.sg)
- Volcanic records can be used to estimate the recurrence rate of large-magnitude eruptions (magnitude ≥4), but recording biases that impact data completeness complicate analysis. (geoscienceworld.org)
- By accounting for systematic under-recording in the volcanic record, we also calculate the global recurrence rates for large-magnitude eruptions during the Holocene, which are similar to previous estimates. (geoscienceworld.org)
Types of volcanic2
- After reviewing the evidence from recent major eruptions and outlining the thermal hazards of surges, we relate the type and severity of the injuries of these patients to the temperatures and dynamics of the pyroclastic surges, as derived from the environmental impacts and associated eruption processes evaluated in our field surveys and interviews conducted by our multi-disciplinary team. (earthobservatory.sg)
- Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. (wikipedia.org)
- The volume of ejected material from Hawaiian eruptions is less than half of that found in other eruptive types. (wikipedia.org)
- This type of eruptive event causes floods and mud flows and volcanic ash. (paho.org)
- By using high-resolution litho-, magneto-, and oxygen isotope stratigraphic records, the geologists were able to clarify the correlation between distribution patterns in the cores, refine the age of the layers, and reestimate the eruptive volume of the early eruption of Toba. (innovations-report.com)
- You can even see Taal's volcanic emissions from space. (grist.org)
- Satellite imagery shows that strong winds pushed emissions from the eruption northward, leaving a trail of red, yellow, and blue. (grist.org)
- Recent Developments and Applications of Acoustic Infrasound to Monitor Volcanic Emissions. (findaphd.com)
- Volcanic eruptions by VEI index Magmatic eruptions produce juvenile clasts during explosive decompression from gas release. (wikipedia.org)
- News: A quick update on the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: The volcano has been producing an impressive ash plume over the last day (see image above). (scienceblogs.com)
- The ash plume from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. (scienceblogs.com)
- The sudden hydrothermal eruption at White Island in New Zealand was short-lived but produced an ash plume that rose nearly two miles above the vent. (upi.com)
- Rotation is an essential element of a strong volcanic plume," said Pinaki Chakraborty, a computational scientist and engineer at the University of Illinois and the research paper's lead author. (thaindian.com)
- In 2008, a photograph of the Mount Chaiten eruption in southern Chile showed what appeared to be a volcanic plume wrapped in a sheath of lightning. (thaindian.com)
- The same process that creates a mesocyclone in a tornadic thunderstorm also creates a volcanic mesocyclone in a strong volcanic plume, according to Chakraborty. (thaindian.com)
- A volcanic mesocyclone sets the entire plume rotating on its axis. (thaindian.com)
- The overarching goal of the project is to test a multi-disciplinary framework to produce accurate estimates of key eruption parameters, and to evaluate the relationships between these parameters and volcanic plume rise. (findaphd.com)
- and 2) investigate the influence of variable eruption rates on plume rise dynamics. (findaphd.com)
- The project focusses on the characterization of near-source properties and processes during eruptions, and the implementation of a workflow for near real-time assessment of eruption source parameters and volcanic plume rise. (findaphd.com)
- This proved fatal to livestock in New Zealand in 1995 when fluorine poisoning killed 2000 grazing livestock after the eruption of Ruapehu. (aquasana.com)
- The results of their analysis indicate that the glass shards from the first Toba eruption 788,000 years ago were dispersed more than 2000 miles from the source. (innovations-report.com)
- Volcanic debris that is thrust into the troposphere and stratosphere can actually remain for months, up to a few years. (noaa.gov)
- The 1883 eruption on Krakatoa may be the loudest noise the Earth has ever made. (nautil.us)
- The resulting steam-driven eruption, also called a hydrothermal or phreatic eruption , can happen suddenly and with little to no warning. (upi.com)
- Each bed of the phreatic explosion origin contains considerable amounts of juvenile materials with varying juvenile/non-juvenile ratios, showing commonly temporal transition from phreatic to magmatic eruption phases. (nii.ac.jp)