The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.

Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (1/153)

We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions.  (+info)

Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. (2/153)

Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet.  (+info)

Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov., a novel dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. (3/153)

A thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated strain SR4T, was isolated from sediment of newly formed hydrothermal vents in the area of the eruption of Karymsky volcano on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of strain SR4T were straight-to-curved, peritrichous rods, 0.4-0.6 micron in diameter and 3.5-9.0 microns in length, and exhibited a slight tumbling motility. Strain SR4T formed round, refractile, heat-resistant endospores in terminally swollen sporangia. The temperature range for growth was 39-78 degrees C, with an optimum at 69-71 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 4.8-8.2, with an optimum at 6.3-6.5. Strain SR4T grew anaerobically with peptone as carbon source. Amorphous iron(III) oxide present in the medium stimulated the growth of strain SR4T; cell numbers increased with the concomitant accumulation of Fe(II). In the presence of Fe(III), strain SR4T grew on H2/CO2 and utilized molecular hydrogen. Strain SR4T reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and MnO2. Strain SR4T did not reduce nitrate or sulfate and was not capable of growth with O2. The fermentation products from glucose were ethanol, lactate, H2 and CO2. The G + C content of DNA was 32 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Thermoanaerobacter. On the basis of physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain SR4T (= DSM 12299T) should be assigned to a new species, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov.  (+info)

Relationship between ambient sulfur dioxide levels and neonatal mortality near the Mt. Sakurajima volcano in Japan. (4/153)

We examined the association between neonatal mortality and ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, Yamashita public health district of Kagoshima City, during the period between 1978 and 1988. The analysis using Poisson regression models showed that the monthly average level of SO2 was positively associated with the neonatal mortality (P = 0.002). When the SO2 levels were categorized into four groups to estimate the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality using the lowest exposure category as a reference, the RR increased with elevated exposure levels (P for trend < 0.001) and was the highest in the group with the highest level of exposure (RR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval; 1.2-4.1). Other than SO2, we also examined the number of eruptions, the amount of ashfall, and the average level of suspended particulate matter. None of these factors was associated with neonatal mortality. Although the present study suggests that increase in SO2 levels has had an adverse effect on neonatal mortality in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, it is difficult to determine the source of the SO2. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of the excess neonatal mortality probably associated with the volcanic SO2 levels.  (+info)

Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria. The Medinaut Shipboard Scientific Party. (5/153)

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in (13)C (delta(13)C values are as low as -95 per thousand). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of (13)C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, our results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings is the predominant microbiological process.  (+info)

Galileo at Io: results from high-resolution imaging. (6/153)

During late 1999/early 2000, the solid state imaging experiment on the Galileo spacecraft returned more than 100 high-resolution (5 to 500 meters per pixel) images of volcanically active Io. We observed an active lava lake, an active curtain of lava, active lava flows, calderas, mountains, plateaus, and plains. Several of the sulfur dioxide-rich plumes are erupting from distal flows, rather than from the source of silicate lava (caldera or fissure, often with red pyroclastic deposits). Most of the active flows in equatorial regions are being emplaced slowly beneath insulated crust, but rapidly emplaced channelized flows are also found at all latitudes. There is no evidence for high-viscosity lava, but some bright flows may consist of sulfur rather than mafic silicates. The mountains, plateaus, and calderas are strongly influenced by tectonics and gravitational collapse. Sapping channels and scarps suggest that many portions of the upper approximately 1 kilometer are rich in volatiles.  (+info)

Io's thermal emission from the Galileo photopolarimeter-radiometer. (7/153)

Galileo's photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument mapped Io's thermal emission during the I24, I25, and I27 flybys with a spatial resolution of 2.2 to 300 kilometers. Mapping of Loki in I24 shows uniform temperatures for most of Loki Patera and high temperatures in the southwest corner, probably resulting from an eruption that began 1 month before the observation. Most of Loki Patera was resurfaced before I27. Pele's caldera floor has a low temperature of 160 kelvin, whereas flows at Pillan and Zamama have temperatures of up to 200 kelvin. Global maps of nighttime temperatures provide a means for estimating global heat flow.  (+info)

A close-up look at Io from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer. (8/153)

Infrared spectral images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, acquired during the October and November 1999 and February 2000 flybys of the Galileo spacecraft, were used to study the thermal structure and sulfur dioxide distribution of active volcanoes. Loki Patera, the solar system's most powerful known volcano, exhibits large expanses of dark, cooling lava on its caldera floor. Prometheus, the site of long-lived plume activity, has two major areas of thermal emission, which support ideas of plume migration. Sulfur dioxide deposits were mapped at local scales and show a more complex relationship to surface colors than previously thought, indicating the presence of other sulfur compounds.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volcanic Eruptions" are not a medical term or concept. Volcanic eruptions refer to the release of molten rock, ash, and gases from a volcano's opening, or vent, onto the Earth's surface. This is a geological event that occurs due to the movement of tectonic plates and the build-up of pressure within the Earth's crust.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please feel free to ask!

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters can be natural, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and wildfires, or they can be caused by human activities, such as technological accidents, intentional acts of violence, and complex emergencies.

The medical definition of a disaster focuses on the health impacts and consequences of the event, which can include injury, illness, disability, and death, as well as psychological distress and social disruption. The response to a disaster typically involves a coordinated effort by multiple agencies and organizations, including healthcare providers, emergency responders, public health officials, and government authorities, to address the immediate needs of affected individuals and communities and to restore basic services and infrastructure.

Disasters can have long-term effects on the health and well-being of individuals and populations, including increased vulnerability to future disasters, chronic illness and disability, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts are critical components of disaster management, with the goal of reducing the risks and impacts of disasters and improving the resilience of communities and societies to withstand and recover from them.

Tooth eruption is the process by which a tooth emerges from the gums and becomes visible in the oral cavity. It is a normal part of dental development that occurs in a predictable sequence and timeframe. Primary or deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, begin to erupt around 6 months of age and continue to emerge until approximately 2-3 years of age. Permanent or adult teeth start to erupt around 6 years of age and can continue to emerge until the early twenties.

The process of tooth eruption involves several stages, including the formation of the tooth within the jawbone, the movement of the tooth through the bone and surrounding tissues, and the final emergence of the tooth into the mouth. Proper tooth eruption is essential for normal oral function, including chewing, speaking, and smiling. Any abnormalities in the tooth eruption process, such as delayed or premature eruption, can indicate underlying dental or medical conditions that require further evaluation and treatment.

A "drug eruption" is a general term used to describe an adverse skin reaction that occurs as a result of taking a medication. These reactions can vary in severity and appearance, and may include symptoms such as rash, hives, itching, redness, blistering, or peeling of the skin. In some cases, drug eruptions can also cause systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or joint pain.

The exact mechanism by which drugs cause eruptions is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to the medication. There are many different types of drug eruptions, including morphilliform rashes, urticaria (hives), fixed drug eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), which is a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction.

If you suspect that you are experiencing a drug eruption, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider can help determine the cause of the reaction and recommend appropriate treatment. In some cases, it may be necessary to discontinue the medication causing the reaction and switch to an alternative therapy.

Volcanoes portal List of volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions Prediction of volcanic ... Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs, and volcanic blocks), and assorted ... The database also lists 1,113 uncertain eruptions and 168 discredited eruptions for the same time interval. Volcanic eruptions ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diagrams of volcanic eruptions. Category:Volcanic eruptions at Wikimedia Commons (Videos ...
... and last known volcanic eruption with a VEI of 8. The eruption of Lake Toba was the biggest volcanic eruption in the Quaternary ... "Volcanic activities and eruption sequence of the large-scale eruption at Shikotsu, Toya, Nigorikawa and Daisen Volcanoes" (PDF ... "Anatomy of the Xáltipan ignimbrite at Los Humeros Volcanic Complex; the largest eruption of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt". ... Supplementary Table I: "Supplementary Table to P.L. Ward, Thin Solid Films (2009) Major volcanic eruptions and provinces" (PDF ...
... volcanic belt and volcanic zone. Second: volcanic area, caldera cluster and caldera complex. Third: volcanic field, volcanic ... A volcanic group (aka a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms. Neutral: volcanic cluster ... This article is a list of volcanic eruptions of approximately magnitude 6 or more on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or ... The Latir-Questa volcanic locus and the Taos Plateau volcanic field seem to be in a similar area. The Southwest Nevada volcanic ...
In a volcanic eruption, lava, volcanic bombs and ash, and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent and fissure. While ... Extinction event List of flood basalt provinces List of large Holocene volcanic eruptions List of volcanic eruptions in Iceland ... Volcanic eruptions can generally be characterized as either explosive eruptions, sudden ejections of rock and ash, or effusive ... Massive explosive eruptions Types of volcanic eruptions Certain felsic provinces, such as the Chon Aike province in Argentina ...
Volcanic eruptions can have various impacts on maritime transportation. When a volcano erupts, large amounts of noxious gases, ... Water is the main component in volcanic eruptions; it is what makes them so explosive. Through chemical reactions, toxic gases ... The NOAA Ship Miller Freeman reported light accumulations of volcanic ash during the 2008 Okmok eruption in Dutch Harbor, ... In 1891 the Australian steam ship Catterthun reported steaming "for miles through masses of volcanic debris" after an eruption ...
Year Without a Summer Volcanic winter of 536 List of largest volcanic eruptions List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions Timeline ... Lists of volcanic eruptions, Volcanic events by period). ... At least three different volcanic eruptions contributed to the ... Sources give either ±5 or ±10 First definite record of a volcanic eruption written by Pliny the Younger in 79 AD. 70-80 DRE 61 ... Briffa, K. R.; Jones, P. D.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Osborn, T. J. (1998-06-04). "Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern ...
A small lava eruption. (Part of the North volcanic zone (NVZ)) 1922 - Askja. A small lava eruption. (Part of the North volcanic ... The last eruption in the Brennisteinsfjöll volcanic system was a VEI-2 eruption in 1341. (Part of the Reykjanes volcanic zone ( ... A small lava eruption. (Part of the North volcanic zone (NVZ)) 1923 - Grímsvötn. Small eruption. (Part of the East volcanic ... Possible eruption. (Part of the East volcanic zone (EVZ)) ? 1945 - Grímsvötn. Possible eruption. (Part of the East volcanic ...
List of volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of natural disasters by death toll List of volcanic eruptions by death toll ... This is a list of notable volcanic eruptions in the 16th to 20th centuries with a Volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or ... "Looking Back at the 1982 eruption of el Chichón in Mexico". Wired. Robock, Alan (2002), "Volcanic eruption, El Chichon" (PDF), ... 20th-century volcanic events, Lists of natural disasters, 20th century-related lists, Lists of volcanic eruptions). ...
This list documents volcanic eruptions by human death toll. Lists of disasters List of volcanic eruption deaths List of natural ... Deaths in volcanic eruptions, Lists by death toll, Lists of volcanic eruptions). ... Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive. Some volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of ... "Dieng Volcanic Complex". Oregon State University. "Arenal Volcano 1968 eruption". Retrieved 19 June 2015. Report on ...
List of volcanic eruptions 1500-1999 List of large Holocene volcanic eruptions List of largest volcanic eruptions List of ... This is a list of volcanic eruptions in the 21st century with a Volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or higher, and smaller ... As of 15 October 2023, the largest volcanic eruption of the 21st century is the 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai eruption and ... VEI glossary entry from a USGS website How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from The Guardian The size and frequency ...
... (Main Page), Retrieved Dec. 18, 2022. Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team, ... The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is a Russian national institution dedicated to provide information of any ... The majority of the volcanoes on the Kuril Islands are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), which ... Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team, About KVERT, Retrieved Dec. 18, 2022. Alaska Volcano Observatory, KVERT Information ...
Strombolian eruptions, VEI-3 eruptions, Volcanic eruptions in 2021, Volcanic eruptions in Spain, Volcanism of the Canary ... It was the first volcanic eruption on the island since the eruption of Teneguía in 1971. At 85 days, it is the longest known ... On the same day, the volcanic eruption ceased. On 25 December, the eruption was declared to have ended after three months. ... On 12 December, the volcanic eruption broke the local record, when it reached 85 days of continuous activity. The eruption is ...
Submarine eruptions, Surtseyan eruptions, 2009 in Tonga, Volcanic eruptions in Oceania, Volcanism of the Pacific Ocean, 2009 ... The 2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption began on 16 March 2009, near the island of Hunga Tonga, approximately 62 kilometres ( ... Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Footage of the eruption, BBC website "The Big Picture - Undersea eruptions near ... also suggested that the earthquake was likely to have a direct impact on the volcanic eruption, stating that the "strength of ...
This is a list of notable people who died as a result of injuries sustained during a volcanic eruption. List of volcanic ... eruptions by death toll Lists of people by cause of death Volcano David, Ariel (31 August 2017). "Pompeii Hero Pliny the Elder ...
Prehistoric volcanic events, VEI-8 eruptions, VEI-7 eruptions, Volcanic eruptions in the United States). ... Named ones include: Coso Volcanic Field, Mono Lake Volcanic Field, Marysvale Volcanic Field, San Juan volcanic field, Indian ... Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province include Basin and Range eruptions in Utah, California, Idaho, ... Lists of volcanic eruptions, Calderas of the United States, Volcanic fields of the western United States, Cenozoic volcanism, ...
A subaerial eruption is any sort of volcanic eruption that occurs on the Earth's surface, or in the open air "under the air", ... Peléan and Hawaiian eruptions. Subaerial eruptions contrast with subaqueous, submarine and subglacial eruptions which all ... which are commonly classified in different subaerial eruption types, including Plinian, ...
18th-century volcanic events, Earthquakes in Japan, Earthquakes of the Edo period, Volcanic tsunamis, Volcanic eruptions in ... "Significant Volcanic Eruption". NGDC NCEI. Retrieved 30 March 2021. Tatsumi, Y.; Suenaga, N.; Yoshioka, S. (14 September 2020 ... This would make it the second largest historical volcanic sector failure in history, alongside the 1888 eruption of Ritter ... Earth sciences portal Tsunamis portal Volcanoes portal Japan portal List of tsunamis List of deadly volcanic eruptions "Oshima- ...
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground. There are ... Eruptions of basaltic magma often transition between effusive and explosive eruption patterns. The behavior of these eruptions ... The 1912 Novarupta eruption and the 2003 Stromboli eruption both exhibited a transition between explosive and effusive eruption ... A volcanic eruption is effusive when the erupting magma is volatile poor (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen ...
Medieval volcanic events, Plinian eruptions, VEI-7 eruptions, Volcanic winters, Volcanism of Indonesia, Volcanic eruptions in ... a new river network developed on the volcanic deposits after the eruption. Volcanic rocks ejected by the eruption covered Bali ... The eruption had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7, making it one of the largest eruptions of the current Holocene epoch. ... Massive explosive eruptions The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a scale that measures the intensity of an explosive eruption; a ...
The main hazards posed to Canada from volcanic eruptions is from volcanic ash. Agencies and associations associated with the ... an eruption close to Canada's borders, or significant enough that a volcanic eruption will have an effect on Canada and its ... "What are the special hazards from volcanic ash?". "Volcanic eruptions". 21 December 2018. "Emergencies and safety". 8 February ... to outline the notification procedure of some of the main agencies that would be involved in response to a volcanic eruption in ...
... volcanic eruptions; changes in pore fluid composition; changes in temperature (seasonal or induced by climate change). ... The eruption of Mount St. Helens (18 May 1980) caused an enormous landslide when the top 1300 feet of the volcano suddenly gave ... A pyroclastic flow is caused by a collapsing cloud of hot ash, gas and rocks from a volcanic explosion that moves rapidly down ... Landslides that occur undersea, or have impact into water e.g. significant rockfall or volcanic collapse into the sea, can ...
VEI-6 eruptions, Volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Plinian eruptions, Volcanic tsunamis, Volcanic winters). ... which some mistook for a continued eruption. The eruption caused a volcanic winter. In the year following the eruption, average ... The eruption was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic events in recorded history. The explosion was heard 3,110 ... The reddish sky in the background is the artist's memory of the effects of the powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa, which ...
Plinian eruptions, VEI-7 eruptions, Volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Volcanic tsunamis, Volcanic winters, Volcanism of ... Volcanoes portal Dalton Minimum Volcanic winter of 536 List of large Holocene volcanic eruptions List of volcanic eruptions by ... and its 1815 eruption was the most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded human history. This volcanic explosivity index (VEI) ... and other locations died from the direct and indirect effects of the eruption. The eruption caused a volcanic winter. During ...
... or volcanic eruptions. New Mexico is entirely landbound, with just 0.2% of the state covered with water, and most of the state ... The Jemez volcanic field began to develop around 15 Mya, and volcanic activity subsequently spread southwest and northeast ... The vast Mogollon-Datil volcanic field was active during this time, as were the smaller Latir volcanic field and the Ortiz ... or volcanic eruptions. Flooding is one of the more common geologic hazards in New Mexico. Historically significant flooding ...
1257 Samalas eruption, previously a mystery eruption 1458 mystery eruption 1452/1453 mystery eruption List of large volcanic ... The 1808 mystery eruption refers to one or potentially multiple unidentified volcanic eruptions that resulted in a significant ... 19th-century volcanic events, 1808, Events that forced the climate, Plinian eruptions, Unexplained phenomena, VEI-6 eruptions) ... "Mysterious Volcanic Eruption of 1808 Described". Science Daily. University of Bristol. Retrieved 26 September 2015. Guevara- ...
"Iceland's volcanic eruption's impacts on travel in Finland". ISRIA. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 20 ... To minimise the level of further disruption that this and other volcanic eruptions could cause, the UK CAA announced the ... "Disruption in air traffic due to volcanic eruption in Iceland". Finavia. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. "Finnish ... Bye, Bente Lilja (27 May 2011). "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management". Science 2.0. Archived from the original on ...
Bye, Bente Lilja (27 May 2011). "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management". Science 2.0. Retrieved 28 May 2011. Kanter, ... airspace closed by volcanic ash at Wikinews Ash from Iceland volcano could affect UK flights at Wikinews Volcanic eruption ... Retrieved 17 April 2010 Volcanic eruption clouds Danish queen's birthday E-Taiwan News, 15 April 2010 "Vulkaan verstoort ... Iceland at Wikinews Icelandic volcanic eruption prompts evacuation, flight diversions at Wikinews (Pages with non-numeric ...
Volcanic eruptions in Italy, Prehistoric Italy, VEI-5 eruptions, VEI-6 eruptions, 7th millennium BC, Plinian eruptions, All ... List of large volcanic eruptions "Vesuvius". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2019-01-13. Elena ... The Mercato eruption (Pomici di Mercato) of Mount Vesuvius was a Plinian eruption that occurred around 8,010 ± 40 14C yr BP ( ... 8,890 ± 90 cal yr BP). The Global Volcanism Program claims that the eruption had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 5, while ...
Other notable volcanic eruptions include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 1991 of VEI 6. This eruption lasted eight days, from ... 21st-century volcanic events, Eyjafjallajökull, East Volcanic Zone of Iceland, Volcanic eruptions in Iceland, March 2010 events ... The volcanic events starting in March 2010 were considered to be a single eruption divided into phases. The first eruption ... which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. By 21 May 2010, the second eruption ...
Savaiʻi: population 43,819 (2016); largest landmass; westernmost in the group; most recent volcanic eruptions. Eruptions:Mt ... Samoa Islands Mt Matavanu volcanic eruption on Savai'i island, 1905 Afono village, Tutuila island, American Samoa. Aunu'u ... The volcanic Samoa island chain may have been formed by the activity of the Samoa hotspot at the eastern end of the Samoa ... Nuʻutele: uninhabited; volcanic tuff ring; conservation for native birds; can also be seen from the popular Lalomanu Beach. ...
Volcanoes portal List of volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions Prediction of volcanic ... Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs, and volcanic blocks), and assorted ... The database also lists 1,113 uncertain eruptions and 168 discredited eruptions for the same time interval. Volcanic eruptions ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diagrams of volcanic eruptions. Category:Volcanic eruptions at Wikimedia Commons (Videos ...
Read these Key Facts About Volcanic Eruptions from from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to stay safe. ... You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. ... People have died from volcanic blasts. Volcanic eruptions can result in additional threats to health, such as floods, mudslides ... You can do many things to protect yourself and your family from the dangers a volcanic eruption can cause. The best way to ...
Off to areas affected by volcanic eruptions in Guatemala. Dear Family,. Im leaving today from my home airport of Pittsburgh ... and heading to Guatemala City to meet survivors of this summers volcanic eruption that left 200 dead and thousands homeless. ...
Diatom blooms and associated vegetation shifts in a subarctic peatland : responses to distant volcanic eruptions?. *Mark ... acid deposition, diatoms, permafrost peatland, vegetation changes, volcanic impact. in Journal of Quaternary Science. volume. ... Both the eruptions are known to have been associated with significant acid deposition events and climatic anomalies, as ... Both the eruptions are known to have been associated with significant acid deposition events and climatic anomalies, as ...
You have been blocked from accessing this website.. ...
An interesting historical volcanic fact ... is that when then President, John F Kennedy visited Costa Rica in March, 1963, he ... that is subject to change if more eruptions occur. Click here for direct link to the airport page which will tell you whats up ... most of us here in the Southern Zone of Costa Rica are not being directed affected by the recent and perhaps ongoing eruptions ...
Icelands Blue Lagoon evacuated ahead of imminent volcanic eruption International Sunday 03rd March 2024 07:20 PM. REPORT ... These were the details of the news Icelands Blue Lagoon evacuated ahead of imminent volcanic eruption for this day. We hope ... volcanic eruption, the countrys public broadcaster RÚV reported Saturday.. Magma has begun flowing after "intense seismic ... Iceland is one of the most active volcanic areas on the planet. Rather than having a central volcano, the Reykjanes Peninsula ...
I was interested in fossils from an early age, spending much of my childhood collecting on the coasts of England. Having left school in the 1980s with little opportunity to go on to higher education, I worked for the family business, and travelled more widely in Europe and North Africa, before eventually emigrating to The Gambia to work in tourism in 1990. While working in West Africa I was recruited by a mineral exploration company, which gave me the opportunity to travel much more widely, as well as the confidence to go to university when I returned to the UK. I studied palaeobiology at the University of Portsmouth, geosciences at the Open University, and ecology at Christchurch University, before settling into a career in environmental chemistry. I have worked in commercial labs assessing water and soil quality, at schools and colleges, as well as the universities of Nottingham and Warwick, and am currently employed at the University of Northampton. I am still an enthusiastic naturalist and ...
UAF, NASA Develop Volcanic Eruption Prediction Technique … A University of Alaska Fairbanks scientist has led development of a ...
... Chernyshev I.V.; Arakelyants M ... K-AR GEOCHRONOLOGY OF NEW VOLCANIC CENTERS ERUPTIONS IN THE KAZBEK REGION OF THE GREAT CAUCASUS. ... and verified the succession of the recent volcanic eruptions in this region. We proved that some of the volcanoes might have ... We discovered and dated the period of the maximum igneous activity in the entire volcanic system of the Kazbek area (150-300 ...
Covid Madness: People Fleeing a Volcanic Eruption Cant Board the Rescue Vessels Until Vaccinated. ... Cruise liners and Ferries are rushing to the scene to evacuate people caught by the eruption - but people are not allowed to ...
... indicating an increased likelihood of a volcanic eruption. ... High risk of volcanic eruption in Iceland prompts evacuation ... of a volcanic eruption in the coming days. Continuous coverage of the potential volcanic eruption and earthquakes in Iceland ... The likelihood of a volcanic eruption is high, and that an eruption could be possible on a timescale of just days, the IMO ... The access road to Blue Lagoon has been closed to avoid incidents in the area in the event of a possible volcanic eruption. ...
How Volcanic Eruptions, Food Shortages & Digital Rationing Cards Could Impact on Our World. Bitchute 2024-04-03, 03:41 ...
It turns out that we cannot explain a broad range of phenomena-from climatic response to volcanic eruptions to temperature ... Assuming no large volcanic eruptions). Personally, I would be concerned if the trend remained flat until 2020 (Of course I ... volcanic aerosols from the surface temperature record. The sloshing heat of ENSO is by far the biggest cause of temperature ...
Eruption at 2021-05-19 01:21 UTC eruption ongoing. JRC. 30 21 May 2021 00:00 Eruption at 2021-05-21 00:58 UTC lava fountain is ... Eruption at 2021-06-17 22:40 UTC eruption over. TOULOUSE. 36 22 Jun 2021 00:00 Eruption at 2021-06-22 03:05 UTC , still ongoing ... Eruption at 2020-12-21 09:09 UTC ongoing eruption. TOULOUSE. 8 22 Dec 2020 00:00 Eruption at 2020-12-22 02:00 UTC strong ... Eruption at 2021-12-14 11:15 UTC ongoing eruption. TOULOUSE. 48 10 Feb 2022 19:17 Eruption at 2022-02-10 18:40 UTC weakening ...
U Mobile customers on three postpaid and two prepaid plans will be able to utilize 5G services starting from this coming November.
Choose from many different and devastating endgame modes: for example Genesis flood and Volcanic eruption. ... Starting in the lush forest, you can travel in any direction be it towards frozen glaziers, arid deserts or volcanic landscapes ...
It was the largest eruption of the 20th century, but youve probably never heard of it. ... Wired Science: Eruptions Blog.. Accessed June 6, 2012.. *Schaaf, J. (n.d.) Witness: Firsthand Accounts of the Largest Volcanic ... An explosive volcanic eruption in Indonesia has proved a hazard to air travelers. ... Now that is an eruption!". The eruption of Novarupta volcano in Alaska from June 6-8, 1912, was the largest of the 20th century ...
Roman paintings found in Pompeii 2,000 years after the volcanic eruption Live - War in Ukraine: Situation on Eastern Front has ...
Looking back: A housing boom, then a volcanic eruption. by Kelii Akina, Ph.D. , May 3, 2019 , Op-Eds, Regulation ...
In summary, it says that a volcanic eruption in the Andes always precedes an El Nino. CO2 is released when a volcano erupts as ... We can observe El Ninos, La Ninas, volcanic eruptions and so on, and understand how they influence the temperature evolution ... volcanic eruptions (cant be done), ocean current fluctuations (PDO, AMO, SOI et al) (no real basis for prediction there either ... solar activity and potential volcanic eruptions... There is some precedent from other research fields for the sort of regular ...
The Ring of Fire is ground zero for some of the deadliest earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in human history, recorded in ... we will gain an understanding of the geologic processes responsible for these volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, and the ... Can we predict the next great earthquake or volcanic eruption? How are some communities disproportionately vulnerable to these ... the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and subsequent tsunami that killed over 200,000 people in 14 countries and the eruption of ...
"A volcanic eruption."; $ss[168]="Two girls playing with a ouija board."; $ss[169]="A swimming race."; $ss[17]="Two prim ...
models predict sharp and short lived cooling of a few tenths of a degree in the event of large volcanic eruptions and Mount ... 8. Adjust for random events (volcanic eruptions, fires, etc).. 9. Model all of the above on a planetary scale, getting each ... from the 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption and subsequent aerosol increase, to the mid-century cooling period, are all modelled ...
IN PICTURES Images from a large volcanic eruption in Iceland. * Alouettes vs. Blue Bombers in 110th Grey Cup ...
Basaltic lavas do not produce explosive eruptions because they have low viscosity. Eruptions consisting of bursts of volcanic ... The landscape within El Malpais National Monument is dominated by volcanic features produced during recent eruptions from the ... The lava flows were mostly produced during Hawaiian (effusive) eruptions (VEI 0). See, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). ... Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field in El Mapais NM. Click on the image above to open a larger file. Five young basaltic lava flows ...
Human Populations Survived a Volcanic Super-Eruption 74,000 Years Ago - 5,000 Times Larger Than Mount St. Helens ...
Indonesia: Over 2,100 evacuated as gigantic volcanic eruptions triggers tsunami alert *. US: Blue Whale Challenge behind ...
  • Do earthquakes large enough to collapse buildings and roads accompany volcanic eruptions? (
  • Earthquakes associated with eruptions rarely exceed magnitude 5, and these moderate earthquakes are not big enough to destroy buildings and roads. (
  • During the huge eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, dozens of light to moderate earthquakes (magnitude 3 to 5) were felt by several hundred thousand people. (
  • Can earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions? (
  • A few large regional earthquakes (greater than magnitude 6) are considered to be related to a subsequent eruption or to some type of unrest at a nearby volcano. (
  • However, not all eruptions are preceded by these types of earthquakes, and often these earthquakes occur with no identifiable eruptive activity," she added. (
  • Again, based on the pattern observed at past eruptions, an intense swarm of earthquakes lasting a few hours (one to ten hours) will signal that magma is moving towards the surface and that an eruption is imminent. (
  • In cases where the hidden subglacial lake drains and triggers the eruption, the earthquakes occur after the lake has drained and just before the eruption. (
  • And it's critical because you don't get a volcanic eruption without seismic activity, without earthquakes. (
  • Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by other natural hazards, including earthquakes , mudflows and flash floods , rock falls and landslides , acid rain, fire , and (under special conditions) tsunamis . (
  • They can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions. (
  • Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. (
  • An important measure of eruptive strength is the Volcanic Explosivity Index an order-of-magnitude scale, ranging from 0 to 8, that often correlates to eruptive types As of December 2022[update], the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program database of volcanic eruptions in the Holocene Epoch (the last 11,700 years) lists 9,901 confirmed eruptions from 859 volcanoes. (
  • Some volcanoes exhibit lateral and Fissure eruptions. (
  • Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption named after the Hawaiian volcanoes, such as Mauna Loa, with this eruptive type is hallmark. (
  • Two new studies into the "plumbing systems" that lie under volcanoes could bring scientists closer to understanding plate ruptures and predicting eruptions-both of which are important steps for protecting the public from earthquake and volcanic hazards. (
  • Our work in one of the hottest places on Earth is having a direct impact on our understanding of eruptions from the frozen volcanoes of Iceland. (
  • 17 May 2018 -Repeating seismic events-events that have the same frequency content and waveform shapes-may offer a glimpse at the movement of magma and volcanic gases underneath Turrialba and Poas, two well-known active volcanoes in Costa Rica. (
  • Scientists have found that carbon dioxide, rather than water, is a primary driver in causing volcanic eruptions, specifically in basaltic volcanoes, overturning previous theories. (
  • All volcanic models had been dominated by water as the main eruption driver, but water has little to do with these volcanoes. (
  • The external behaviour of volcanoes, including temperature levels and the release of volcanic ash, is now monitored. (
  • Geosciences professor Erik Klemetti notes, "With our modern ability to monitor volcanoes in many remote locations thanks to satellites, and the speed with which news travels around the globe today, an eruption that might have gone unnoticed 100 years ago is bound to make headlines in 2018. (
  • However, Columbia University volcanologists found that the eruption of Costa Rica's Irazú Volcano in 1963 was likely triggered by magma that took a nonstop route from the mantle over just a few months. (
  • All of the recent eruptions have been on the southwestern flank of the volcano: there must be stress built up in the volcano that causes the magma to be directed there. (
  • The Grimsvotn volcano continues to erupt at the same levels as it has since Saturday, the eruption is reportedly "much bigger and more intensive" than Eyjafjallajökull eruption last year and 10 times bigger than Grimvotn's eruption in 2004. (
  • The ice-covered Grímsvötn volcano on Iceland produced an unusually large and powerful eruption in 2011 , sending ash 20km into the atmosphere, causing the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. (
  • Understandably, any mention of another explosive eruption from an Icelandic volcano will raise concerns in the air travel industry, which is currently reeling from the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • Grímsvötn is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, and over the past 800 years some 65 eruptions are known with some certainty. (
  • A high frequency of eruptions at a volcano allows scientists to detect patterns that lead to eruptions (precursors). (
  • And if these are repeated each time a volcano erupts then it becomes possible for scientists to be more confident that an eruption is likely to happen in the near future. (
  • Icelandic scientists have been carefully monitoring Grímsvötn since its 2011 eruption, and have seen various signals that suggest the volcano is getting ready to erupt. (
  • Using these new tools, the scientists scrutinized volcanic deposits from the Fogo volcano in Cabo Verde, west of Senegal in the Atlantic Ocean. (
  • The researchers who have just returned from the underwater volcano eruption report that the volcano is still active and it has grown considerably in size in these past three years. (
  • As Indonesia's most active volcano, Merapi has exhibited more than 70 eruptions since 1548. (
  • That location matters because you can gauge the risk of an eruption by pinpointing the specific location of magma instead of other signals like a hydrothermal system of a volcano. (
  • The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. (
  • Thousands were saved in 2000 when an eruption of a volcano was predicted in Mexico. (
  • Geologists studying Europe's largest volcano, Mount Etna, currently use sophisticated GPS receivers to record changes in ground level of several centimetres - which could indicate the onset of an eruption. (
  • In the year 2000, this method of studying long period events allowed tens of thousands of people to be evacuated from the vicinity of Mexican volcano Popocatepetl, after scientists successfully predicted its eruption. (
  • Volcanic ash can affect people hundreds of miles away from the cone of a volcano. (
  • Stay away from areas downwind from the volcano to avoid volcanic ash. (
  • Johan Christian Dahl (1788-1857), Eruption of the Volcano Vesuvius , 1821. (
  • This month's cover image, Eruption of the Volcano Vesuvius, 1821, is the first in a series of paintings he created after that experience. (
  • Art historian Maia Heguiaphal writes, "The vast smoke coming out of the incandescent lava immediately attracts the viewer's eyes, but the background of the volcano intensifies the effect of destruction carried by the eruption. (
  • Several types of volcanic eruptions-during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs, and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure-have been distinguished by volcanologists. (
  • Other volcanic gases include hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride. (
  • Amounts of these gases vary widely from one volcanic eruption to the next. (
  • The researchers believe that volcanic gases from the eruption, near present day Siberia, depleted earth's protective ozone layer and acidified the land and sea. (
  • Scientists have found a way to use the ratio of atoms in specific gases created by volcanic fumaroles (gaps in the Earth's surface) to detect what's happening to magma deep below. (
  • Explosive volcanic eruptions frequently emit a combination of gases, including sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and volcanic ash, into the UTLS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) where the SO 2 oxidises, resulting in the formation of secondary sulfate aerosols. (
  • When pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too great, an eruption occurs. (
  • Their innovative research tools have provided a deeper understanding of the Earth's internal dynamics and have implications for volcanic-hazard preparedness. (
  • For a long time, geoscientists believed that water, combined with shallow magma in the Earth's crust, was the primary cause of volcanic eruptions. (
  • This implies that eruptions such as Fogo's volcanic flareups start and are fed from the mantle, effectively bypassing storage in the Earth's crust and driven by deep carbon dioxide, according to the paper. (
  • During a volcanic eruption , magma flows onto Earth's surface , erupting as lava. (
  • The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. (
  • Approximately 80 percent of Earth's surface was created by volcanic activity. (
  • The United States Geological Survey notes, "Gaseous emissions from volcanic vents over hundreds of millions of years formed the Earth's earliest oceans and atmosphere, which supplied the ingredients vital to evolve and sustain life. (
  • The Hawaii earthquake triggered a small eruption at the summit of Kilauea. (
  • Eight hours later, there was a small eruption at Turrialba. (
  • But will it be a small eruption? (
  • The scientists believe their findings confirms several studies over the years that have suggested volcanic activity as the cause of the Permian extinction. (
  • Effusive eruptions, meanwhile, are characterized by the outpouring of lava without significant explosive eruption. (
  • By analyzing images taken by the European Space Agency satellite Envisat, scientists were able to measure how the ground moved before, during, and after eruptions. (
  • The team of scientists discovered that the ground started "uplifting" (elevating) four months before the eruption, due to new magma increasing pressure in one of the underground chambers. (
  • A sequence of eruptions in Afar from 2005 to the present is part of an unusual period of volcanic unrest in Ethiopia, and is enabling scientists to learn more about magma plumbing systems at spreading centers. (
  • However, thanks to newly developed research tools at Cornell , scientists have learned that gaseous carbon dioxide can trigger explosive eruptions. (
  • Cornell University scientists suggest that by finding microscopic, carbon dioxide -rich fluids encased in cooled volcanic crystals, they can accurately determine where magma is located within one hundred meters. (
  • And volcanic activity continued on the moon until it halted a billion years ago - or so lunar scientists have long thought. (
  • Learn how scientists can predict volcanic activity using seismology to monitor lava patterns deep underground. (
  • Scientists use seismology to predict an eruption. (
  • Tsunamis, also known as seismic sea waves, are a series of enormous waves created by an underwater disturbance such as an earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, or meteorite. (
  • The time gaps between eruptions are variable - and, for example, prior to the larger 2011 eruption there were smaller eruptions in 2004, 1998 and 1983 with gaps of between four and 15 years. (
  • The World Health Organization estimates that during 1998−2017, volcanic activities and the wildfires they spawned affected 6.2 million people and caused nearly 2,400 deaths. (
  • Since 1998, internal conflicts and volcanic eruptions have caused three million deaths and displaced four million persons in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (
  • There are three different types of eruptions: Magmatic eruptions are the most well-observed type of eruption. (
  • Magma intrusion rates well correspond to the scale and type of eruption. (
  • This new technique is critical for near real-time precise estimations of magma storage, tested during the 2021 eruption in Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands by Gazel's group. (
  • The recent eruption of Mount Semeru in December 2021 on the Indonesian island of Java bears striking similarities to the 2010 Mount Merapi eruption. (
  • Deep magma storage during the 2021 La Palma eruption. (
  • Volcanic eruptions arise through three main mechanisms: Gas release under decompression, causing magmatic eruptions Ejection of entrained particles during steam eruptions, causing phreatic eruptions Thermal contraction from chilling on contact with water, causing phreatomagmatic eruptions There are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. (
  • Magmatic eruptions produce juvenile clasts during explosive decompression from gas release. (
  • A seven-year study reveals that variations in specific isotopes linked to magmatic 'foams' can be used to predict volcanic unrest. (
  • One of the most important challenges in modern volcanology studies is constraining the depth of magmatic reservoirs that supply and sustain eruptions. (
  • The most common volcanic gas is water vapor, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. (
  • The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. (
  • Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. (
  • the strongest eruptions are called Ultra-Plinian. (
  • On the other extreme, Plinian eruptions are large, violent, and highly dangerous explosive events. (
  • They range in intensity from the relatively small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km (19 mi) high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD that buried Pompeii. (
  • The volume of ejected material from Hawaiian eruptions is less than half of that found in other eruptive types. (
  • During the eruptive period of Minamidake summit crater, three types of eruption occurred: vulcanian eruption, strombolian/lava fountain and continuous emission of volcanic ash. (
  • Studies on history of volcanic eruption in Japan by correlation between old documents and eruptive deposits. (
  • Volcanic ridges (or "spreading centers") occur when tectonic plates "rift" or pull apart. (
  • TEMAT was activated for the first time in January 2022 to respond to medical and public health needs following the eruption and tsunami. (
  • TEMAT's deployment in response to the 2022 volcanic eruption and tsunami highlighted the importance of national emergency medical teams that are prepared to respond to a range of emergency events. (
  • Volcanic eruptions are dangerous and challenging to predict. (
  • Based on current 5-day weather forecasts, experts predict that volcanic ash could spread to the UK by Thursday (and, subsequently. (
  • On the one extreme there are effusive Hawaiian eruptions, which are characterized by lava fountains and fluid lava flows, which are typically not very dangerous. (
  • Two big snakes described in Nippon Sandai Jitsuroku were believed to be two active lava flows descending the flanks during the eruption. (
  • There's new evidence to support the idea that we found the skull of Pliny the Elder, the Roman admiral who led a rescue mission during the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD and lost his own life. (
  • The magma intrusion rate prior to vulcanian eruptions at Showa crater is smaller (approximately 10 4 m 3 /day) than for eruptions at Minamidake summit crater. (
  • This can trigger an eruption - it's like lifting the lid off a pressure cooker. (
  • The volcano's first eruption in 38 years began Sunday night after a period of increased seismic activity. (
  • We're trying to determine if there is a direct connection between the increase in the volcanic activity and that population increase. (
  • During the podcast Dr Kavanagh explains why she has been watching this volcanic activity very closely and how understanding the triggers for these eruptions is vital for forecasting efforts, hazard assessment and risk mitigation. (
  • It is hoped that these advances in predicting volcanic activity mean future eruptions shouldn't cause casualties. (
  • Almost 4,000 homes were damaged by volcanic material flows. (
  • Although communications have been hampered by the eruption's severing of Tongo's undersea communications cable, at least three people have been confirmed to have been killed in Tonga during the eruption, with two individuals in Peru having been killed when the tsunami reached South America. (
  • TEMAT deployed to the islands most affected by the volcanic eruption and tsunami within 24 hours of the event, providing emergency clinical, psychosocial and public health services across four islands. (
  • People have died from volcanic blasts. (
  • Sideways directed volcanic explosions, known as "lateral blasts," can shoot large pieces of rock at very high speeds for several miles. (
  • However, a new discovery by a group of geologists at Arizona State University's School of Earth and Space Exploration shows that the moon has seen small but widespread eruptions of basaltic lava during the last 50 million years, a geologically recent period. (
  • The natural samples - microscopic-sized carbon dioxide-rich bubbles trapped in crystals emanating from the volcanic eruption - are then measured via Raman and quantified by applying the newly developed densimeter. (
  • Explosive eruptions are characterized by gas-driven explosions that propels magma and tephra. (
  • When deposited as part of the fallout of the eruption, fragmented fine-grained material - called tephra - can be collected and evaluated. (
  • The research, which offers a clearer picture of our planet's deep internal dynamics and composition, with implications for improving volcanic-hazards planning, was recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (
  • As deep magma storage will not be detected by ground deformation until the melt is close to the surface," he said, "this has important repercussions to our understanding of volcanic hazards. (
  • Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of very fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content. (
  • Significantly, it could aid in the prediction of future volcanic eruptions. (
  • Notably, many Hawaiian eruptions start from rift zones. (
  • Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. (
  • In the case of magma intrusion under detection, the change of volcanic gas and increase in the heat discharge rate are available for the empirical event branch logic. (
  • Health concerns after a volcanic eruption include infectious disease, respiratory illness, burns, injuries from falls, and vehicle accidents related to the slippery, hazy conditions caused by ash. (
  • Infants, elderly people, and people with respiratory conditions such as asthma, emphysema, and other chronic lung diseases may have problems if they breathe in volcanic ash. (
  • My research considered if, and how, impacted communities have managed to build back better from the 2010 Merapi eruption, with implications for other volcanic eruptions such as Semeru. (
  • Eruptions are not centralized at the main summit as with other volcanic types, and often occur at vents around the summit and from fissure vents radiating out of the center. (
  • The abrupt extinction of marine life we can clearly see in the fossil record firmly links giant volcanic eruptions with global environmental catastrophe, a correlation that has often been controversial," says Wignall. (
  • Finding out where magma chambers lie and how they behave could help identify early warning signs of impending eruptions, according to the researchers. (
  • Fortunately, the researchers, publishing their findings in Science , were able to determine the exact time of the massive eruption in China, thereby linking it to the Permian extinction. (
  • Crucially, and with the next eruption in mind, Grímsvötn appears to have a pattern of infrequent larger eruptions that occur every 150-200 years (for example 2011, 1873, 1619), with smaller and more frequent eruptions occurring roughly once a decade in between. (
  • In nature, hydrogen sulfide can be found in caves, sulfur springs, underground deposits of natural gas, or as result of volcanic eruptions. (
  • Heavy ash from the eruption (made heavier by rain from a hurricane) accumulated on roofs and crushed them. (
  • For one, the volcanic ash is apparently heavier , which makes it fall to the ground faster (spread less). (
  • The database also lists 1,113 uncertain eruptions and 168 discredited eruptions for the same time interval. (
  • Also, Ebinger and Manahloh Belachew, also from the University of Rochester, operated an array of seismographs that provided the depth and detailed time control to gauge the fracturing of the earth and the flow of magma from multiple eruptions in Afar. (
  • In an extensive study of eruptions in Afar and Iceland-two vastly different environments-Ebinger and Belachew found remarkable similarities, with many events occurring within a short space of time. (
  • As background to these historical materials, the natural philosophy and ideology of East Asia are researched, and their relation with historical evaluations of the government of Koryo at the time of eruption is pointed out. (
  • But this method remains inaccurate for predicting the exact time of eruptions. (
  • The current observational network, including satellites, surface-based lidars, and high-altitude sun photometers means that smaller-scale eruptions such as Raikoke provide unprecedented detail of the evolution of volcanic plumes and processes, but there are significant differences in the evolution of the plume detected using the various satellite retrievals. (
  • This study highlights that, despite the problems in developing robust and consistent observational constraints, the balance of evidence suggests that including ash in the model emission scheme provides a more accurate simulation of the evolution of the volcanic plume within UKESM1. (
  • Therefore, the identification and an understanding of repeating seismicity may allow us some insight into which parts of the volcanic system at depth are active, and the frequency content of the repeating seismicity may be indicative of processes occurring at depth. (
  • If Grímsvötn's past pattern of occasional large eruptions with more numerous smaller eruptions occurring in between continues into the future, then the next eruption should be a small one (given there was a large one in 2011). (
  • Volcanic eruptions in the Aleutian Archipelago during the summer of 2008 deposited large quantities of iron‐laden ash to the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. (
  • Throughout history large explosive volcanic eruptions have resulted in periodic perturbations to the climate. (
  • Hoei AD 1707 is the only eruption among historical eruptions of Fuji in which abundant eyewitness records exist in the Tokai - Southern Kanto area. (
  • Ancient to modern eyewitness accounts document the devastation and spectacle associated with volcanic eruptions. (
  • And it is along the base of this ridge, under the ice, that most recent eruptions have occurred. (
  • the small island peeking out from the waves, formed by an eruption that occurred in late 2014, was obliterated in this recent eruption, an event that sent an ash cloud 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) into the atmosphere, and generating a boom that was heard as far away as Alaska. (
  • The volcanic explosivity index (commonly shortened to VEI) is a scale, from 0 to 8, for measuring the strength of eruptions. (
  • Comprehending magma storage helps best prepare society for future eruptions, said Gazel, who is also a faculty fellow at the Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability. (
  • They hope the ground movement will prove to be precursory signals that are fundamental to predicting eruptions. (
  • Fundamental document of these eruptions is History of Koryo, which has had information added when it was edited in the mid-fifteenth century. (
  • These young volcanic features are now prime targets for future exploration, both robotic and human. (