A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Stable mercury atoms that have the same atomic number as the element mercury, but differ in atomic weight. Hg-196, 198-201, and 204 are stable mercury isotopes.
An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A riot control agent which causes temporary irritation of the eyes and the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract. It is a more potent irritant than OMEGA-CHLOROACETOPHENONE, but less incapacitating.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.

Exposure of medical personnel to methylmethacrylate vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty. (1/834)

The occupational exposure to methylmethacrylate (MMA) vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty was determined. During five vertebroplasty procedures, air-sampling pumps were attached to medical personnel. MMA vapor levels in the samples were then quantified using gas chromatography. The samples collected yielded MMA vapor levels of less than five parts per million (ppm). The MMA vapor concentrations measured were well below the recommended maximum exposure of 100 ppm over the course of an 8-hour workday.  (+info)

Characterization of inhaled alpha-methylstyrene vapor toxicity for B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. (2/834)

alpha-Methylstyrene (AMS) is a chemical intermediate used in the synthesis of specialty polymers and copolymers. Inhalation studies of AMS were conducted because of the lack of toxicity data and the structural similarity of AMS to styrene, a toxic and potentially carcinogenic chemical. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 600, 800, or 1000 ppm AMS 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 12 days. After 1 exposure, 21% (5/24) of female mice were found dead in the 1000-ppm group, 56% (10/18) in the 800-ppm group, and 6% (1/18) in the 600-ppm concentration group. After 12 exposures, relative liver weights were significantly increased and relative spleen weights were significantly decreased in both male and female mice at all concentrations. No microscopic treatment-related lesions were observed. A decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH) was associated with AMS exposure for 1 and 5 days. Male and female F344 rats were exposed to 0, 600 or 1000 ppm AMS for 12 days. No mortality or sedation occurred in AMS-exposed rats. Relative liver weights were significantly increased in both males and females after 12 exposures to 600 or 1000 ppm. An increased hyaline droplet accumulation was detected in male rats in both concentration groups; no significant microscopic lesions were observed in other tissues examined. Exposure of male and female F344 rats and male NBR rats to 0, 125, 250 or 500 ppm AMS, 6 h/day for 9 days resulted in increased accumulation of hyaline droplets in the renal tubules of male F344 rats in the 250 and 500 ppm concentration groups. Although AMS and styrene are structurally very similar, AMS was considerably less toxic for mice and more toxic for male rats than styrene.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of styrene monomer in polystyrene and foods including some preliminary studies of the uptake and pharmacodynamics of the monomer in rats. (3/834)

A variety of food containers, drinking cups and cutlery, fabricated from polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene-related plastic, were analyzed for their styrene monomer content. Samples of yogurt, packaged in PS cups, were similarly analyzed and the leaching of styrene monomer from PS containers by some food simulants was also determined. Blood level studies with rats, dosed with styrene monomer by various routes, illustrated uptake phenomena that were dependent on the dose and route of administration and were also affected by the vehicle used to convey the styrene monomer.  (+info)

Dose-dependent fate of vinyl chloride and its possible relationship to oncogenicity in rats. (4/834)

Studies on the fate of 14C-labeled vinyl chloride (VC) following oral administration and inhalation exposure in rats demonstrated that the disposition of VC in the body is a function of the dose. More importantly, from the data available, it appears that a correlation exists between doses of VC which cause tumors and those that saturate metabolic or detoxifying pathways. Additional studies characterized the depression of liver non-protein sulfhydryl content (primarily GSH) with the duration and concentration of exposure to VC. The results of these investigations indicate that statistical projections utilizing data collected from rats exposed to high doses of VC are invalid for predicting the hazard of low level exposure, because such projections violate a priori assumption that the dynamics governing the fate of VC in the body are unaltered.  (+info)

Health aspects of the curing of synthetic rubbers. (5/834)

A commonly used tread rubber formulation was cured in the laboratory under conditions simulating vulcanization in the Bag-O-Matic press. Volatile emissions were collected on charcoal and analyzed by combined GC-mass spectrometry. The compounds identified were either contaminants present in the raw material or reaction products. Some of these compounds were also identified in charcoal tube samples collected in the atmosphere of the industrial operations. Estimates based on the loss of weight of rubber during curing were used to predict airborne concentrations and compared to the concentrations actually found. The literature of the toxicity of raw materials and effluents was reviewed, and no acute or chronic toxicological effects would be anticipated. Information concerning potential carcinogenicity was not available and could not be evaluated.  (+info)

Transurethral prostate vaporization using an oval electrode in 82 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (6/834)

OBJECTIVE: To present our initial experience in transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TVP) using an oval electrode for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: A total of 82 patients underwent TVP procedures with the oval electrode. The newly designed oval-shaped electrode can work with a High Frequency Electrosurgery Unit. Prostate gland tissue was vaporized through an Fr 24 percutaneous nephroscope transurethrally. The operation procedure was similar to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or transurethral laser prostatectomy (TULP). Power setting ranged from 240 W to 320 W. Local vaporization temperature reached 120 degrees C. RESULTS: Urination was recovered in all 82 patients after TVP. Mean post-treatment International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) reduced from 27.10 to 5.05; mean bladder residual urine volume dropped from 147.71 ml to 33.2 ml; and mean urine flow rate (MFR) increased from 4.45 ml/s to 14.57 ml/s (P < 0.01). The initial results of short-term follow-up were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: TVP with the oval electrode is easy to perform and causes less hemorrhage and few complications. It especially benefits elderly and/or critically-ill patients. We believe that TVP with our oval electrode is feasible with low risk.  (+info)

Estimation of the dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor in humans using breath sampling and physiologically based pharmacokinetic analysis. (7/834)

A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, containing a skin compartment, was derived and used to simulate experimentally determined exposure to m-xylene, using human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions. Biological monitoring was conducted by sampling, in exhaled alveolar air and blood, m-xylene and urinary methyl hippuric acid concentrations. The dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor was successfully and conveniently studied using a breath sampling technique, and the contribution to m-xylene body burden from the dermal route of exposure was estimated to be 1.8%. The model was used to investigate the protection afforded by an air-fed, half-face mask. By iteratively changing the dermal exposure concentration, it was possible to predict the ambient concentration that was required to deliver the observed urinary excretion of methylhippuric acid, during and following inhalation exposure to 50 ppm m-xylene vapor. This latter extrapolation demonstrates how physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling can be applied in a practical and occupationally relevant way, and permitted a further step not possible with biological monitoring alone. The ability of the model to extrapolate an ambient exposure concentration was dependent upon human metabolism data, thereby demonstrating the mechanistic toxicological basis of model output. The methyl hydroxylation of m-xylene is catalyzed by the hepatic mixed function oxidase enzyme, cytochrome P450 2E1 and is active in the occupationally relevant, (<100 ppm) exposure range of m-xylene. The use of a scaled-up in vitro maximum rate of metabolism (Vmaxc) in the model also demonstrates the increasingly valuable potential utility of biokinetic data determined using alternative, non-animal methods in human chemical-risk assessment.  (+info)

Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds among workers in Mexico City as assessed by personal monitors and blood concentrations. (8/834)

Benzene, an important component in gasoline, is a widely distributed environmental contaminant that has been linked to known health effects in animals and humans, including leukemia. In Mexico City, environmental benzene levels, which may be elevated because of the heavy traffic and the poor emission control devices of older vehicles, may pose a health risk to the population. To assess the potential risk, portable passive monitors and blood concentrations were used to survey three different occupational groups in Mexico City. Passive monitors measured the personal exposure of 45 workers to benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene and m-/p-xylene during a work shift. Blood concentrations of the above volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methyl tert-butyl ether, and styrene were measured at the beginning and the end of a work shift. Passive monitors showed significantly higher (p > 0.0001) benzene exposure levels among service station attendants (median = 330 microg/m3; range 130-770) as compared to street vendors (median = 62 microg/m3; range 49-180) and office workers (median = 44 microg/m3, range 32-67). Baseline blood benzene levels (BBLs) for these groups were higher than those reported for similar populations from Western countries (median = 0.63 microg/L, n = 24 for service station attendants; median = 0.30 microg/L, n = 6 for street vendors; and median = 0.17 microgr;g/L, n = 7 for office workers). Nonsmoking office workers who were nonoccupationally exposed to VOCs had BBLs that were more than five times higher than those observed in a nonsmoking U.S. population. BBLs of participants did not increase during the work shift, suggesting that because the participants were chronically exposed to benzene, complex pharmacokinetic mechanisms were involved. Our results highlight the need for more complete studies to assess the potential benefits of setting environmental standards for benzene and other VOCs in Mexico.  (+info)

Ammonia gas can be lost from the soil and return to the atmosphere. Visit our site to learn about Nitrogen in the Environment: Ammonia Volatilization.
1. Minchinton AI, Tannock IF. Drug penetration in solid tumours. Nature reviews Cancer. 2006;6:583-92 2. Iyer AK, Khaled G, Fang J, Maeda H. Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting. Drug discovery today. 2006;11:812-8 3. Li Y, Wang J, Wientjes MG, Au JL. Delivery of nanomedicines to extracellular and intracellular compartments of a solid tumor. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2012;64:29-39 4. Hobbs SK, Monsky WL, Yuan F, Roberts WG, Griffith L, Torchilin VP. et al. Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998;95:4607-12 5. Matsumura Y, Maeda H. A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6387-92 6. Meng H, Xue M, Xia T, Ji Z, Tarn DY, Zink JI. et al. Use of size and a copolymer design feature to ...
The fate and transport of nitrogen compounds in urea-fertilized soils has historically been a topic of great interest. At present, several models exists for simulating the various transformations involved. A major constraint in the application of these models is the assignment of numerical values to the coefficients that quantify these transformations. This study attempts to characterize the processes linked to the hydrolysis of urea, adsorption and volatilization of ammonia, and nitrification in agricultural soils. We followed the temporal sequence of volatilization of ammonia in two different soils fertilized with urea under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The amounts of nitrate and ammonia in soil were also measured at the end of each trial. Several modeling alternatives were analyzed in order to accurately reproduce the results. Among these alternatives, the most successful approaches included the kinetics of urea hydrolysis and ammonia adsorption and desorption processes. Urea ...
A study was set up to investigate the environmental effects of anaerobic digestion and separa-tion of slurry. Volatilisation of odour and ammonia from treated and untreated slurry were compared both during storage and following land application. It was found that ammonia volatilisation was higher from uncovered stores of anaerobically digested and separated slurry than from untreated slurry, however, when slurry stores were covered efficiently, the loss rate was low and equal for treated and untreated slurry. Ammonia volatilisation following land application was found to be lower from both anaerobically digested and separated slurry compared to untreated slurry. Treatment of slurry by anaerobic digestion and separation did not reduce odour nuisances during storage, however, odour nuisance from slurry stores was found to be efficiently reduced by an artificial crust cover of the slurry stores. During land application the odour nuisances were found to be lower for anaerobically digested and ...
Pashchenko L. L., Miroshnichenko E. A. Thermodynamics of vaporization of 3-isopropylbiphenyl. to an equation on temperature dependence of vaporization enthalpies // Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. - 2015. - Vol. 120, no. 2. - P. 1375-1381. Abstract Enthalpies of vaporization,ΔglH∘m,were determined for 3-isopropylbiphenyl in the temperature range from 323 to 373 K. Measurements were performed on an isothermal heat conducting Calvet microcalorimeter according to the standard procedure with an estimated accuracy of 0.7 per cent. The average values of the standard enthalpies of vaporization were adjusted to 298.15 K. The latter has been used to calculate the standard formation enthalpy for 3-isopropylbiphenyl in the gaseous state. A second-order group additivity method has been applied to predict the vaporization enthalpies of some cyclic compounds. The contributions of tert-butyl, methyl, and isopropyl group to the vaporization enthalpies of the aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives are ...
Contaminants in indoor air resulting from vapor intrusion are often estimated using the concentrations in a sub-slab sample multiplied by an attenuation factor (AF). An AF accounts for the reduction in concentration that occurs when vapors enter a building and mix with indoor air. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) is using a very protective AF of 0.1, (or 10% of the soil vapor found in the sub-slab will be in indoor air). The amount of soil vapor that enters a building is different for every building, but this AF overestimates indoor air concentrations in most homes.. EPA recently recommended an AF of 0.03 for screening sub-slab soil vapor at vapor intrusion sites throughout the U.S. (USEPA, 2015). EPA derived the AF of 0.03 after looking at data from numerous homes across the country. 95 percent of the homes studied had (basement) indoor air concentrations less than or equal to 0.03 times the sub-slab concentration, and 50 percent of the homes had (basement) indoor air ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solvent vapor annealing of block polymer thin films. AU - Sinturel, Christophe. AU - Vayer, Marylène. AU - Morris, Michael. AU - Hillmyer, Marc A.. PY - 2013/7/23. Y1 - 2013/7/23. N2 - This Perspective provides a critical analysis of the current knowledge concerning solvent vapor annealing (SVA) of block polymer thin films. Herein, we identify key challenges that will be important to overcome for future development of SVA as a practical, reliable, and universal technique for the valorization of block polymer thin films in a wide range of technologies. The Perspective includes a brief background on thin film block polymer self-assembly, a historical account of the SVA technique, an overview of the SVA fundamentals that are necessary to develop a more comprehensive picture of the overall process, and summaries of relevant and important contributions from the recent literature. We also offer our outlook on SVA and suggest important future directions.. AB - This Perspective provides ...
Device offers enhanced patient safety through less bleeding and increased procedural efficiencies through new design. CENTER VALLEY, Pa., (May 4, 2016) - Olympus, a global technology leader in designing and delivering innovative solutions for medical and surgical procedures, among other core businesses, announced today the launch of its FDA cleared Plasma-OvalButton for urologic procedures including minimally invasive surgery to reduce enlarged prostate as well as treatment of bladder cancer. The Plasma-OvalButton uses Olympus plasma technology in a revolutionary electrode shape designed to maximize O.R. efficiency and enhance clinical outcomes.. With a 25 percent increase in width and 31 percent increase in vaporization area from Olympus present vaporization device, the Plasma-OvalButton is designed to increase tissue removal rates for enhanced procedural efficiency. Lab testing has demonstrated a 21% increase in tissue vaporization from Olympus existing vaporization electrode. The ...
Ecosorb - 130 CFM - Vapor Phase Unit for Odor Neutralizers by OMI Industries (OMI). The OMI 130 CFM unit uses vapor phase dispersion to produce sub-micron ...
This paper starts by explaining how the vapour phase hydrogen peroxide rapid sporicidal process works and continues with a description of the present methods of cycle development. The paper continues with some suggestions as to how cycle development can be speeded up considerably and introduces enzyme indicators (EIs) as a recent development to add to chemical indicators (CIs) and possibly replace biological indicators (BIs). The paper offers practical solutions to both the problems mentioned above, based on long experience with the design, construction and validation of vapour phase hydrogen peroxide generators ...
An empirical equation of the volatilization of kraft black liquor droplets during burning. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Definition of vaporization in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vaporization? Meaning of vaporization as a legal term. What does vaporization mean in law?
Data set including sea level, temperature, salinity, and current from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) is used in this study to estimate the mean net annually and seasonally evaporation rates. Then wind data is used to examine its impact on the evaporation. This work calculated the seasonal and annual evaporation rates based on assumption of that there is no net mass transport (balanced). Hence, the difference in the transport supposed to be equal to the water that has evaporated. Therefore data of water in-flow and out-flow used to examine the net mass transport with the obtained evaporation rate. Results revealed that the net annual mean evap- oration was 1.24 m/yr and the net seasonal mean was 1.3 m/yr and the evaporation rate in winter months was permanently higher than summer and autumn with min- imum value in August. The annual wind impact is masked but, it is clearer for the monthly, particularly in June and October. The monthly water exchange through Bab al-Mandeb Strait accompanied ...
View Notes - LECT6 (ET) from AOE 4643 at University of Florida. AOM 4932 Evaporation and Transpiration Evaporation - change of water from its liquid to its vapor phase Potential Evaporation -
A process for the vapor phase graft copolymerization of a monomer vapor onto a polymeric substrate in the presence of a source of light at low energy levels and a photosensitive vapor (e.g. a diketone) activated by such low energy. The product of said process.
The advantage of ceria loading over V2O5-Al2O3 catalyst for vapor phase oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1R)-(-)-10-camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline∕R-camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-vis spectroscopy, four-point probe conductivity measurement, Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The poly aniline films grown by this method not only showed high electrochemical activity, supported by CV and Raman spectrum, but also exhibited optical activity corresponding to the polymer chains as observed by circular dichroism spectra.
A process for improved vapor phase silylation of photoresist is disclosed. The process uses silylation materials which either produce a strong base such as dimethylamine upon reaction with a resist film or which contain an improved chemical leaving group such as acetate. The process is effective at temperatures of 135 C. and below. Preferred silylation materials are N,N-dimethylaminotrimethylsilane and trimethylsilylacetate.
Find vapor phase hg monitor articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS. VOCs - can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.. May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes). Ozone ...
Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS. VOCs - can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.. May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes). Ozone ...
TEG Vaporization Losses In this Tip of The Month (TOTM), the effect of striping gas rate and triethylene glycol (TEG) circulation ratio on the TEG vaporization loss from the regenerator top and conta
Author(s): Kastl, C; Chen, CT; Kuykendall, T; Shevitski, B; Darlington, TP; Borys, NJ; Krayev, A; Schuck, PJ; Aloni, S; Schwartzberg, AM | Abstract: © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are commonly grown by chemical vapor deposition using transition metal oxides as solid precursors. Despite the widespread use of this technique, challenges in reproducibility, coverage, and material quality are pervasive, suggestive of unknown and uncontrolled process parameters. In this communication, we demonstrate the impact of water vapor on this growth process. Our results show a direct correlation between gas phase water content and the morphology of TMD films. In particular, we show that the presence of water enhances volatilization, and therefore the vapor transport of tungsten and molybdenum oxide. Surprisingly, we find that water not only plays an important role in volatilization but is also compatible with TMD growth. In fact, carefully controlled humidity can consistently
The core experiments in this work were conducted in an experimental microcosm, or flux chamber. The chamber was constructed of 1 in anodized aluminum blocks, 30 cm long by 9 cm wide to which a sediment chamber measuring 10 cm long, 3 cm wide and 2 cm deep is attached. An air gap of about 0.2 cm is used to pass air of varying relative humidities. The contaminants that may vaporize into this moving air phase arecollected on an adsorbent trap in the effluent. Inoculated or field-contaminated sediment may be placed in the flux chamber and the potential for volatilization of contaminants measured. The observed vaporization rates were compared to models of the process. The experiments were able to reproduce a wide range of conditions that may apply in the field, from air-side to sediment-side mass transfer resistance controlled, to moisture content controlled volatilization. To illustrate, the air emissions of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pyrene and phenanthrene) and one heterocyclic compound ...
Acute oral toxicity (acute toxic class method, method B1 of directive 2004/73/EC) and acute dermal toxicity (method B3 of directive 2004/73/EC) were determined in the rat. In both studies the test substance was administered neat at 2000 mg/kg bwt. Both studies were GLP-compliant, and the information is reliable and fully adequate for evaluation. There were no deaths, unusual clinical signs or necropsy findings in either study. The acute inhalation toxicity of a series on C9-C13 n-alkanes was investigated in male SD rats following a single 8-hr exposure to vapour. A calculated LC50 of 4467 ppm (equivalent to 23.4 mg/l) was determined for n-nonane. Given the extended duration of exposure used in these studies, the 4 -hr LC50 is likely to exceed this value. No mortality was recorded for C10 -C13 n-alkanes after exposure to the maximum achievable vapour concentration in air. The maximum saturated vapour concentration decreased in a predictable manner with increasing C-number. It is concluded, based ...
Pacholski, A., Cai, Gx., Fan, Xh., Ding, H., Chen, Dl., Nieder, R. and Roelcke, M. (2008): Comparison of different methods for the measurement of ammonia volatilization after urea application in Henan Province, China, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171(3):361-369. Article (pdf) ...
BASIC WOODEN DIFFUSERModel: L1The wooden diffusers are a genuine Italian design and fit well in an elegant setting such as offices, waiting rooms, shops and public spaces. They shares the same working process and efficacy as the basic diffusers.They selectively and entirely diffuse the volatile fraction of propolis.They take the very best organic Italian propolis and slowly release its components gradually and consistently into the air throughout the capsule duration.The diffusers warm up the propolis contained in the capsules, initially reaching wax fraction fusion and, subsequently, regulating the temperature in order to free the volatile fraction. The alternation between these two temperatures allows the release of all volatile substances within the propolis.Replacement capsules available on the page: replacement capsules
Our work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. Moreover, the number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanes to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an ...
Manufacturing of Niacinamide and use may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) is a precursor of the coenzymes NAD and NADP. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of 0.00045 Pa at 25 °C indicates nicotinamide will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the atmosphere. Particulate-phase nicotinamide will be removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition. If released to soil, nicotinamide is expected to have very high mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 15. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based upon an estimated Henrys Law constant of 2.9E-12 atm-cu m/mole. Nicotinamide was determined to be readily biodegradable in an aerobic screening test. If released into water, nicotinamide is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process ...
Herein, an approach for simulating phase diagrams of binary mixtures is presented, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapour phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarisation. Time-averaged density profiles for the pure compounds and mixtures at different mole fractions provide information about the spatial distribution in the bulk liquid and the amount of evaporated species in the adjacent vapour phase. The activities in the liquid phase are calculated from the mean vapour phase densities at a given composition, providing a good qualitative agreement compared to experimental data and the precision of the method follows a previously developed Poisson model of evaporation. With the Redlich-Kister approach for the activities in a binary mixture, the directly obtained activities are fitted providing corrected activity coefficients of the two species. This method is applied to ethanol water mixtures at different mole fractions. The obtained structural data are in good
A study was conducted to examine whether there are significant differences between organic vapor concentrations measured using charcoal tubes with three different configurations: uncovered sample holder (open tube), SKC, and Buck brand covered sample holders. A fractional factorial experimental design was used with the following factors and levels: vapor (n-hexane vs. m-xylene), pump type (pulsati
The high vapor densities of the halogenated solvents make it possible to maintain a definite vapor level in the degreaser, keeping solvent vapor concentrations in the operators breathing zone below the maximum recommended time-weighted average (TWA) concentration with both manual and automatic degreasers. Items to check to ensure a steady vapor line are the following ...
Two experiments using calves fed 176 days from November to May (WINTER) and yearlings fed 117 days from May to September (SUMMER) were conducted to compare conventional CP levels to phase-fed diets balanced for degradable intake protein and undegradable intake protein on performance and N volatilization. Phase fed diets were formulated to balance degradable intake protein and metabolizable protein. Phase feeding resulted in greater ADG and better F:G in WINTER and similar performance in SUMMER than traditional feeding methods. Nitrogen excretion was significantly reduced in both WINTER and SUMMER which translated into significantly less N volatilization without impacting N removed in manure.
Solvent extraction and evaporation is a widely used unit operation in the manufacturing of micro and nano-particles.. Due to the weak bond of the API to the protein, the product is highly sensitive to temperature, mechanical mixing and extraction/evaporation rate. A slow extraction/evaporation rate leads to changes of the particle size, which may result in blockage of the sterile filter and failure of the batch. In situations similar to this one, mathematical modeling is becoming a promising tool to improve the understanding and control of the CPPs and reduce the development time and cost.. The purpose of this work is to determine the sensitivity of different process parameters related to the solvent extraction/evaporation unit operation. A mathematical model was developed and applied to predict the duration required to accomplish the solvent extraction/evaporation process.. Turbulent Flow and Rotating Machinery physics interfaces in the CFD Module of COMSOL Multiphysics® were used to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrothermal vaporization coupled with inductively coupled plasma array-detector mass spectrometry for the multielement analysis of Al 2O3 ceramic powders. AU - Peschel, Birgit U.. AU - Andrade, Francisco. AU - Wetzel, William C.. AU - Schilling, Gregory D.. AU - Hieftje, Gary M.. AU - Broekaert, José A.C.. AU - Sperline, Roger. AU - Denton, M. Bonner. AU - Barinaga, Charles J.. AU - Koppenaal, David W.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - An electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system useful for the analysis of solutions and slurries has been coupled with a sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) equipped with an array detector. The ability of this instrument to record the transient signals produced for a number of analytes in ETV-ICP-MS is demonstrated. Detection limits for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga are in the range of 4-60 pg μL- 1 for aqueous solutions and in the low μg g- 1 range for the analysis of 10 mg mL- 1 slurries of Al2O3 powders. The ...
Downloadable! How to measure and model volatility is an important issue in finance. Recent research uses high-frequency intraday data to construct ex post measures of daily volatility. This paper uses a Bayesian model-averaging approach to forecast realized volatility. Candidate models include autoregressive and heterogeneous autoregressive specifications based on the logarithm of realized volatility, realized power variation, realized bipower variation, a jump and an asymmetric term. Applied to equity and exchange rate volatility over several forecast horizons, Bayesian model averaging provides very competitive density forecasts and modest improvements in point forecasts compared to benchmark models. We discuss the reasons for this, including the importance of using realized power variation as a predictor. Bayesian model averaging provides further improvements to density forecasts when we move away from linear models and average over specifications that allow for GARCH effects in the innovations to
Abstract: This study presents new analytic approximations of the stochastic-alpha-beta-rho (SABR) model. Unlike existing studies that focus on the equivalent Black-Scholes (BS) volatility, we instead derive the equivalent volatility under the constant-elasticity-of-variance (CEV) model, which is the limit of the SABR model when the volatility of volatility approaches 0. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the CEV volatility approximation for a wide range of parameters. Moreover, in our approach, arbitrage occurs at a lower strike price than in existing BS-based approximations ...
Abstract: This study presents new analytic approximations of the stochastic-alpha-beta-rho (SABR) model. Unlike existing studies that focus on the equivalent Black-Scholes (BS) volatility, we instead derive the equivalent constant-elasticity-of-variance (CEV) volatility. Our approach effectively reduces the approximation error in a way similar to the control variate method because the CEV model is the zero vol-of-vol limit of the SABR model. Moreover, the CEV volatility approximation yields a finite value at a zero strike and thus conveniently leads to a small-time asymptotics for the mass at zero. The numerical results compare favorably with the BS volatility approximations in terms of the approximation accuracy, small-strike volatility asymptotics, and no-arbitrage region ...
Decomposing volatilities into a common market-driven component and an idiosyncratic itemspecific one is an important issue in financial econometrics. This, however, requires the statistical analysis of large panels of time series, hence faces the usual challenges associated with highdimensional data. Factor model methods in such a context are an ideal tool, but they do not readily apply to the analysis of volatilities. Focusing on the reconstruction of the unobserved market shocks and the way they are loaded by the various items (stocks) in the panel, we propose an entirely non-parametric and model-free two-step general dynamic factor approach to the problem, which avoids the usual curse of dimensionality. Applied to the S&P100 asset return dataset, the method provides evidence that a non-negligible proportion of the market-driven volatility of returns originates in the volatilities of the idiosyncratic components of returns.. ...
In this paper, Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) is utilized to investigate the evaporation of low molecular weight alcohol. Evaporation rates as well as the diffusion rates of methanol are determined with a surfactant monolayer on the surface of the liquid; while nitrogen acts as carrier gas, at 313 K. The precision (,99.9) and accuracy of this investigation demonstrates the potential of current methodologies for environmental impact studies; this is further verified when the results are compared with the available literature. The varying evaporation rates of methanol in the presence of varying amounts of Triton X-100 reflects that application of surfactants do damper the evaporation rates of liquid pollutants; without interference with the formers diffusion coefficients. High amounts of Triton X-100 are required for retardation of evaporation rates, suggesting the formation of a densely packed surface monolayer or the formation of an insoluble monolayer.. ...
We, DIDAC INTERNATIONAL are manufacturer and supplier of Programmable Temperature Vaporization Injector based in New Delhi, India
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.Used directly from the bottle, Supelpak-2SV requires no costly in-house cleaning before use and is superior to other precleaned XAD-2 resins, even after additional cleaning.This results in savings in both lab time and hazardous solvent waste generation, disposal and associated costs. Characterisation by GC-MS has also shown Supelpak-2SV resin an excellent choice for semivolatile priority pollutants, PCBs, PAHs and dioxins/ furans. A study of extraction efficiencies using a wide range of semivolatile compounds demonstrated recoveries ,90% even for substituted phenols. Table 2 shows typical recoveries of substituted phenols from Supelpak-2SV compared to competitive products. Customers also appreciate other aspects of the product such as the availability of large single-lot batches of up to 10 kg. This significantly reduces ...
Droplet lasing spectroscopy has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and evaporation rate in a spray. A single droplet, doped with laser dye, was injected along the centerline of a liquid spray. Filters were used to block the strong elastic-scattering signal. The lasing emission from the doped droplet could be detected against the background with mass loadings of liquid in the spray as high as 20%. An analysis of the spectrum of droplet lasing was used to evaluate the droplet diameter. The evaporation rate of the droplet was obtained from consecutive lasing spectra that were obtained from the same droplet. An error analysis of the drop size and drop evaporation measurements was carried out and showed that accurate measurements of evaporation rates were feasible.. © 1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel.A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel. A pre-combustion of reactants filling the vessel ...
The present invention relates to a method of producing a microstructured device, as well as a method of processing a microstructured substrate to heal surface defects therein, a method of bonding substrates and healing surface defects in a substrate, and microstructured devices produced by these methods.
Downloadable ! Author(s): M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar S. Prasad & Marco E. Terrones. 2004 Abstract: The influential work of Ramey and Ramey (1995) highlighted an empirical relationship that has now come to be regarded as conventional wisdom-that output volatility and growth are negatively correlated. We reexamine this relationship in the context of globalization-a term typically used to describe the phenomenon of growing international trade and financial integration that has intensified since the mid-1980s. We employ various econometric techniques and a comprehensive new dataset to analyze the link between growth and volatility. Our findings suggest that, while the basic negative association between growth and volatility has been preserved during the 1990s, both trade and financial integration attenuate this negative relationship. Specifically, countries that are more open to trade appear to face a less severe tradeoff between growth and volatility. We find a similar, although slightly less robust, result for
Spectroscopic measurements have been made of the nitric oxide and water vapor concentrations in the stratosphere at an altitude of 28 kilometers. The measurements, carried out in situ with the use of a spin flip Raman laser, represent the first accurate determination of nitric oxide as a function of time (as the sun rose) from about 6: 30 to 14: 00 C. D. T. ...
Spikes in Volatility - Above we see a chart from 1990 to the present, mapping out the ratio of the average daily high-low range over the past five sessions in the S&P 500 Index ($SPX) to the average daily range over the past 200 days. Spikes in this measure of relative volatility have occurred in August, 1990; April, 1994; July, 1996; October, 1997; September/October, 1998; July, 2002; and August, 2007. On the whole, these were good times for intermediate-term stock purchase. We are currently seeing another such spike at present. Going back to 1990 (N = 4535 trading days), we have had 80 occasions in which the ratio of five-day volatility to 200-day volatility was above 2.0. Ten days later, the S&P 500 Index averaged a sizable gain of 1.95% (57 up, 23 down). That is much stronger than the average ten-day gain of .32% (2584 up, 1871 down) for the remainder of the sample ...
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research ...
Volatilization methods[edit]. Volatilization methods can be either direct or indirect. Water eliminated in a quantitative ... Types of volatilization methods[edit]. In volatilization methods, removal of the analyte involves separation by heating or ... The two most common gravimetric methods using volatilization are those for water and carbon dioxide.[2] An example of this ... Another direct volatilization method involves carbonates which generally decompose to release carbon dioxide when acids are ...
Incorporation and/or injection of urea and ammonium-containing fertilizers decreases ammonia volatilization because good soil ... and volatilization (or other gas exchanges). There can be potential interactions because of differences in nutrient pathways ... reducing volatilization losses when these fertilizers are surface applied; these losses can be meaningful in high-residue, ... ammonia volatilization; and denitrification. Nitrogen management aims to maximize the efficiency with which crops use applied N ...
Hulett, G. A.; Berger, H. W. (1904). "Volatilization of Platinum". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 26 (11): 1512-1515 ...
doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90118-2. Cameron, A.G.W. (1985). "The partial volatilization of Mercury". Icarus. 64 (2): 285-294. ...
He was interred at the cimetière du Père-Lachaise (44th division). The Volatilization of Polonium, 1928. Radon action on the ... La Volatilisation du polonium Paul Bonét-Maury ; Mme Curie, présidente du jury bibliotheques.mnhn.fr, accessed 19 August 2019 ...
A final idea is using less urea and ammonium based fertilizers which are prone to volatilization into ammonia. Nitrogen cycle ... One suggested change is keeping manure and fertilizer in large storage tanks to prevent runoff and volatilization into the air ... 2013). Ammonia Volatilization [PowerPoint presentation]. Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon. https:// ...
doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90118-2. Cameron, Alastair G. W. (1985). "The partial volatilization of Mercury". Icarus. 64 (2): 285- ...
Alexander CA (2005). "Volatilization of urania under strongly oxidizing conditions". Journal of Nuclear Materials. 346 (2-3): ...
R. James, Ryan; G. McDonald, Jeffrey; Symonik, Daniel; Swackhamer, Deborah; A. Hites, Ronald (2001-08-10). "Volatilization of ...
... laquelle volatilisation a été effectuée au moyen des acides" [Observation of a remarkable volatilization of part of a type of ... ISBN 978-0-935702-90-3. Marggraf, Andreas Sigismun (1770). "Observation concernant une volatilisation remarquable d'une partie ... stone to which one gives the name flosse, flüsse, flus-spaht, as well as that of hesperos; which volatilization was effected by ...
Gibon, Fénelon (10 November 1907). "Encore la volatilisation d'un milliard". Le Correspondant. Hillairet, Jacques (1963). ...
Ammonia volatilisation occurs when ammonium reacts chemically with an alkaline soil, converting NH4+ to NH3. The application of ... All kinds of nitrogen losses, whether by leaching or volatilization, are responsible for a large part of aquifer pollution and ... Rao, Desiraju L.N. & Batra, Lalit (1983). "Ammonia volatilization from applied nitrogen in alkali soils" (PDF). Plant and Soil ... ammonium fertiliser to such a field can result in volatilisation losses of as much as 30 percent. ...
"Renewable Hydrogen from Nonvolatile Fuels by Reactive Flash Volatilization". Science. 314 (5800): 801-804. Bibcode:2006Sci... ... known for mentoring over a hundred graduate students and his work on millisecond reactors and reactive flash volatilization. ...
One way is through volatilization from rivers and lakes. Henry's law estimates that the volatilization half life from a model ...
"Rhizosphere Bacteria Enhance Selenium Accumulation and Volatilization by Indian mustard". Plant Physiol. 119 (2): 565-574. doi: ...
Volatilization is the primary removal mechanism on most ERH sites. However, ERH can also be used to enhance other processes, ...
Heating of VCl3 decomposes with volatilization of VCl4, leaving VCl2. Upon heating under H2 at 675 °C (but less than 700 °C), ...
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide. The effect of a gaseous chemical is lost ... 2,4-D and dicamba are commonly used chemicals that are known to be subject to volatilisation, but there are many others. ... Herbicides vary in their susceptibility to volatilisation. Prompt incorporation of the herbicide into the soil may reduce or ... Wind, temperature, and humidity also affect the rate of volatilisation, with humidity reducing it. ...
Primary methods of endrin disappearance from soil are volatilization and photodecomposition. Under ultraviolet light, endrin ...
Pan, Baobao; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Deli (2016). "Ammonia Volatilization from Synthetic Fertilizers and ...
doi:10.1007/s00374-005-0004-2. Pan B, Lam SK, Mosier A, Luo Y, Chen D (2016). "Ammonia Volatilization from Synthetic ...
Pan, Baobao; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Deli (2016). "Ammonia Volatilization from Synthetic Fertilizers and ... Urease, pervasive in soil microorganisms, converts urea into ammonia, which is susceptible to volatilization if produced faster ...
"Pesticide News Story: Chlorpyrifos Preliminary Volatilization Assessment Suggests Bystander Risks of Concern; EPA Requests ... EPA requested comment on a preliminary evaluation of the potential risks to children and other bystanders from volatilization ...
Pan, Baobao; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Deli (2016). "Ammonia Volatilization from Synthetic Fertilizers and ...
Chlorides remaining after volatilization may also be separated by solubility in water. Chlorides of alkaline elements like ... Many of the fission products volatilized are the same ones volatilized in non-fluorinated, higher-temperature volatilization, ...
... and volatilization". Mycological Research. 103 (3): 299-305. doi:10.1017/S0953756298007102. Epichem (Commercial supplier ...
... multi-stage zinc volatilisation furnace). Clay & Schoonraad 1976, p. 11. Harris 1936. Stewart, Daley & Stephens 2000, Recovery ...
2015). "Bismuth(III) Volatilization and Immobilization by Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus clavatus During Aerobic Incubation". ...
Nelson, R.; Rainbow, M.; Lohr, D.; Williams, P (1989-12-22). "Volatilization of high molecular weight DNA by pulsed laser ...
"Reactive Flash Volatilization of Fluid Fuels" "Flash volatilization: a new biomass-to-liquids process". Biopact. 2006-11-04. ... Reactive flash volatilization (RFV) is a chemical process that rapidly converts nonvolatile solids and liquids to volatile ... A publication in the scientific journal Green Chemistry demonstrated that the process of reactive flash volatilization can be ... The first demonstration of reactive flash volatilization occurred by a series of experimental steps: The researchers start with ...
Generally speaking, volatilization will be lower when urea is applied during the wetter and cooler conditions that generally ... Ammonia volatilization reduces the economic efficiency of agricultural cropping systems. Either yield will be reduced or ... The soils pH also has a strong effect on the amount of volatilization. Specifically, highly alkaline soils (pH~8.2 or higher) ... More urease results in greater hydrolysis of urea and ammonia volatilization, particularly if urea fails to move into the soil ...
Learn more about practical measures to mitigate ammonia volatilisation at this link. ...
Visit our site to learn about Nitrogen in the Environment: Ammonia Volatilization. ... This is called ammonia volatilization. What causes ammonia volatilization?. The process of ammonia volatilization commonly ... Preventing ammonia volatilization. Volatilization can be greatly reduced if manure and urea fertilizers are applied when soil ... The process of ammonia volatilization does not directly impact water quality. Ammonia volatilization results in a net loss of ...
Sulfidization of Tin Oxide and Volatilization of Tin Sulfide by United States. Bureau of Mines.; 1 edition; First published in ... Sulfidization of Tin Oxide and Volatilization of Tin Sulfide. Published 1954 by s.n in S.l . Written in English. ... Are you sure you want to remove Sulfidization of Tin Oxide and Volatilization of Tin Sulfide from your list? ... Sulfidization of Tin Oxide and Volatilization of Tin Sulfide United States. Bureau of Mines ... ...
Volatilization Losses From Surface Applied Nitrogen. Concern over volatilization losses from surface applied nitrogen are ... Our high soil pH increases volatilization losses. As soil pH increases from 6.5 to 7.5 volatilization losses double from 10% to ... More Volatilization Facts. How much rain is required to incorporate surface applied urea?. Quoted values vary from 0.1 inch or ... A 3 year study at Penn State found average NH3 volatilization losses within 10 to 20 days of 40, 22 and 17 kg N/ha from ...
The volatilization potential of soils is varied; two factors of influence on NH3 volatilization from urea are the clay and sand ... Hygroscopicity and ammonia volatilization losses from nitrogen sources in coated urea1 ... The volatilization losses of NH3 from urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, urea, and elemental sulfur-coated urea ... NASCIMENTO, C.A.C.; VITTI, G.C.; FARIA, L.A.; LUZ, P.H.C. & MENDES, F.L. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms. R. Bras ...
Kissel DE, Brewer HL, Arkin GF (1977) Design and test of a field sampler for ammonia volatilisation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:1133- ... Giltrap D, Rodriguez J, Berben P, Palmada T, Saggar S (2015a) Modelling NH3 volatilisation from a urine patch and urea ... Sherlock RR, Goh KM (1985a) Dynamics of ammonia volatilization from simulated urine patches and aqueous urea applied to pasture ... Sherlock RR, Goh KM (1985b) Dynamics of ammonia volatilization from simulated urine patches and aqueous urea applied to pasture ...
A reasonable estimation of NH3 volatilisation is important in order to quantify the N loss to the environment and to pre- ... Hence, one of our objectives is to determine an appropriate model structure for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and ... Previously, a process-based model for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems and is of complexity ... volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems range from 2 % to 60 % of total N applied. ...
To do this, semi-open volatilization chambers are installed in the rice field (Photo 1). The volatilization chambers consist of ... Reducing nitrogen volatilization losses in rice production. Linda Benedict, Fluitt, Jacob, Regan, Ronald P., Leonards, James P ... This shortens the two- to three-day delay in volatilization shown in Figure 1 (or the four-day delay in Figure 2), and the ... The NZONE-treated urea was not as effective in reducing ammonia volatilization and may not be the best urea treatment when the ...
Liquid-film coefficients for the volatilization of benzene and eight alkyl-substituted benzene compounds (toluene through n- ... The reference-substance concept, involving laboratory-determined ratios of the liquid-film coefficients for volatilization of ... The ratios of the liquid-film coefficients for volatilization to the liquid-film coefficient... ... Predicting the fate of organic compounds in streams and rivers often requires knowledge of the volatilization characteristics ...
Fan XH, Song YS, Lin DX, Yang LZ, Zhou JM (2005) Ammonia volatilization losses from urea applied to wheat on a paddy soil in ... Ernst JW, Massey HF (1960) The effects of several factors on volatilization of ammonia formed from urea in the soil. Soil Sci ... Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers applied to cereals in two cropping areas of southern Australia. ... Black AS, Sherlock RR, Smith NP (1987) Effect of timing of simulated rainfall on ammonia volatilization from urea, applied to ...
Volatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Watervolatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Water has 1 ... Volatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Watervolatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Water by J L ... Volatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Watervolatilization Technologies for Removing Organics from Water. by J ... It was recognized that the OSC and their technical support staffs did not have a concise guide on the subject of volatilization ...
... but may have a simultaneous impact on its potential for N volatilization. We compared NH3 volatilization in the field following ... Ammonia volatilization following surface application of raw and treated liquid swine manure. Chantigny, M.H., MacDonald, J.D., ... As a consequence, when the volatilization period was short (e.g., dry soil conditions), the proportion of applied N lost from ... In contrast, when the volatilization period was long, the digested and digested + flocculated LSMs emitted less NH3 than the ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil N losses by volatilization after the addition of N doses in the form of ... SILVA, Deivisson Ferreira da et al. Ammonia volatilization of soil after doses of urea with urease and nitrification inhibitors ... it decreased and delayed the periods of N-NH3 volatilization and also decreased the pH of the soil, probably due to the higher ... volatilization, decreasing the speed of urea hydrolysis and ammonium to nitrate conversion, respectively. ...
The radioactive iodine volatilization inhibition of cyclodextrin and the influence of radiation on this effect were evaluated ... Radioactive iodine Volatilization inhibition Cyclodextrin Radiation influence Radiation safety management This is a preview of ... The radioactive iodine volatilization inhibition of cyclodextrin and the influence of radiation on this effect were evaluated ... Cyclodextrin was thus found to be effective for inhibiting the volatilization of radioactive iodine. ...
In this study, we compared SCs and wind tunnels (WT) for the field measurement of NH3 volatilization during 22 d following ... Static chambers (SC) are a simple low-cost option for measuring NH3 volatilization from agricultural soils. However, it is ... We conclude that SCs yield biased absolute estimates of NH3 volatilization rates in most situations. Furthermore, their use for ... Static chamber measurements of ammonia volatilization from manured soils: Impact of deployment duration and manure ...
An analysis of variants within different models of diesel oil volatilization process was carried out in this study for various ... Three models were proposed to simulate the volatilization process. Three categories in modeling the volatilization process ... Ключевые слова: porous media, diesel volatilization, soil contamination. Articles with similar content:. VARIATION OF SEEPAGE ... The volatilization rate coefficient of diesel oil was found to increase with decreasing pore size of porous media and ...
The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system ... volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are ... The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system ... These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately ...
The inclusion of tea tree oil in nanocapsules showed higher protection against volatilization. The analysis of mean size and ... feasibility of preparing nanocapsules and nanoemulsions using tea tree oil as oily phase aiming to protect its volatilization. ... feasibility of preparing nanocapsules and nanoemulsions using tea tree oil as oily phase aiming to protect its volatilization. ...
On site, the mean ammonia volatilization rate was 15 g N/ha d, which corresponds to 3% of the total nitrogen removed (531 g N/ ... A net nitrogen mass balance showed that ammonia volatilization was not the most important mechanism involved in either total ... Under laboratory conditions (water temperature = 17.1 degrees C and pH = 10.1), the average ammonia volatilization rate was ... which were optimized under laboratory conditions prior to being used to assess ammonia volatilization rates in a pilot-scale ...
A standard volatilization system design is needed for reliable and comparable studies of ammonia volatilization from nitrogen ... 109-3 A Laboratory System to Measure Ammonia Volatilization From Soil and Fertilizer. Poster Number 998 See more from this ... Rapid, precise comparisons of NH3 volatilization losses from N fertilizers can be made with this system. ...
... monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in ... When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by ... When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by ... The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased ...
... accounting for ammonia volatilization) as a starting point to compute surface runoff, leaching from subsoil to groundwater, ... Global model with 0.5° by 0.5° resolution applied in this study, taking soil N budgets (accounting for ammonia volatilization) ... ammonia volatilization algal blooms submarine groundwater discharge groundwater fluxes N inputs soil N budgets riparian zones ... accounting for ammonia volatilization) as a starting point to compute surface runoff, leaching from subsoil to groundwater, ...
... during aerobic thermophilic composting treatment of livestock manure were discussed.The control of ammonia volatilization and ... influence of different factors on ammonia volatilization and its control methods ... NH_3 volatilization and the control methods during aerobic thermophilic composting treatment of livestock manure. ... In this review,influence of different factors on ammonia volatilization and its control methods during aerobic thermophilic ...
Ubiquitous Net Volatilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Soils and Parameters Influencing Their Soil−Air ... Ubiquitous Net Volatilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Soils and Parameters Influencing Their Soil−Air ...
Lewicki, J.P. and Todd, D. and Redon, P. and Liggat, J.J. and Gibson, L.T.; (2007) Thermal volatilisation analysis? the ... Thermal volatilisation analysis? the development of a novel technique for the analysis of conservation artifacts ... thermal volatilisation analysis, analysis, conservation, artifacts, Chemistry, Arts in general. Subjects:. Science , Chemistry ... Reported here is the development of a novel evolved gas analysis technique; Sub-Ambient Thermal Volatilization Analysis (SATVA ...
The thermal degradation behaviour of a series of siloxane copolymers - a study by thermal volatilisation analysis ... and thermal volatilisation analysis (TVA) and compared with a commercial sample of PDMS. The results demonstrated that the ... thermal volatilisation analysis, silicon, Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials. ... a study by thermal volatilisation analysis. Silicon, 8 (4). pp. 553-562. ISSN 1876-990X ...
... Nur Syamimi A. Rahman, Robiah Yunus, Che Fauziah ...
  • One effort for U.S. meat bird management is to reduce ammonia volatilization from litter to create a better growing environment for the birds, improve production efficiency, retain nitrogen in litter for fertilizer value, and negate detrimental environmental impacts of ammonia loss to the air. (usda.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to compare differences in ammonia volatilization between cake and litter (43% vs. 29% moisture) to assess the effects of management practices that break up the cake, leaving it in the house for the subsequent growout. (usda.gov)
  • Preliminary tests using litter from earlier flocks indicated excellent repeatability for ammonia volatilization in the laboratory acid trap system with (1) litter only and (2) comparing litter, 21% moisture, to pad samples (the built up compacted litter underneath the friable layer, 30% moisture). (usda.gov)
  • Ammonia volatilization from animal manure is considered a major pollution source in the environment. (ndsu.edu)
  • Therefore this study was carried out to determine the effect of mixing an acid soil (Typic Paleudults) with Clinoptilolite zeolite at different rates on ammonia volatilization from urea exchangeable ammonium available nitrate and other selected soil chemical properties. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Urea application in no-till is favorable for occurrence of high losses by volatilization of NH3. (usp.br)
  • Is it possible to get lower losses by volatilization of NH3, nutritional influence, quality and productivity with application of urea coated with zeolite or Cu and B, or urea mix with ammonium sulfate applied in surface for corn in no-tillage? (usp.br)
  • The trials were established to quantify ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization loss from surface applications of urea and determine under what conditions urea became susceptible to volatility. (topcropmanager.com)
  • A 20 per cent volatilization loss not only costs money - about $10/ac with urea around $554/t and a 90 lbs/ac fertilization rate - but it can also potentially affect yield and protein. (topcropmanager.com)
  • N-Protect is Ravensdown's coated urea product that slows down the conversion of nitrogen in urea to ammonia gas (ammonia volatilisation) which is lost to the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. (ravensdown.co.nz)
  • Our coated urea product, N-Protect provides the opportunity for urea to be applied in conditions where losses of N through volatilisation can be reduced economically. (ravensdown.co.nz)
  • South Dakota State University discusses the chances for nitrogen loss due to deficient or abundant precipitation, and one product that may help slow volatilization of urea. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Many experts once believed that volatilization was not a contributing factor to water contamination because atrazine and metolachlor had a low vapor pressure. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • A water-cooled U-shaped silica trap and a slotted silica tube trap were used, while organic solvent aspiration was employed for re-volatilization. (metu.edu.tr)
  • In direct testing of volatilization rate from water, the volatilization process followed first order kinetics. (europa.eu)
  • These criteria include Groundwater Protection Criteria, Surface Water Protection Criteria, and Volatilization Criteria. (ct.gov)
  • however, when soil-moisture levels increase, there's also a rise in herbicide losses through volatilization, meaning the chemicals evaporate. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • In fact, in one long-term field study, USDA scientists found that herbicide volatilization consistently resulted in herbicide losses that exceed losses from field runoff. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Most surprising was that throughout the study, herbicide volatilization losses were significantly larger than surface runoff. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • The nitrogen losses (leaching, denitrification, volatilization) are comparable to KW Conventional. (louisbolk.nl)
  • Rain usually is required in 48 hours after application to reduce N losses due to volatilization. (ndsu.edu)
  • The test was conducted under static conditions in Elendt M4 medium with sealed test vessels to limit volatilisation losses of the test substance and maintain exposure concentrations. (europa.eu)
  • When soils were dry and air temperatures increased, herbicide volatilization did not increase, but it increased significantly when temperatures rose and soil was wet. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Prueger and Gish observed that when air temperatures increased, soil-moisture levels had a tremendous impact on how readily atrazine and metolachlor volatilized into the air, a key factor that had not been included in previous models of herbicide volatilization. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • And every time we till, we destroy soil structure texture a little bit and we expose more soil organic matter to volatilization that turns it into CO2. (hayandforage.com)
  • To derive fundamental effects of temperature and moisture on litter NH3 volatilization over the range of conditions found in commercial houses, experiments were conducted using commercial broiler litter that had moisture contents of approximately 20 - 55%, while controlling temperature from 18.3 - 40.6 °C. Litter samples (100 g) were placed in 1-L containers that received humidified air at approximately 113 mL/min. (usda.gov)
  • Its volatilisation temperature is 180ºC or 356ºF . (alchimiaweb.com)
  • Its volatilisation temperature is 185ºC or 365ºF . (alchimiaweb.com)
  • The difficulty lies in how to preserve the fluorine atoms, since the ultrahigh temperature causes the volatilization of all atoms other than carbon. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • In TG-FTIR, gases evolved by volatilization or thermal decomposition are qualitatively analyzed, which allows you to track changes in the generated amount along with the temperature change. (rigaku.com)
  • Results from some of these wells have identified a groundwater plume of vinyl chloride above site-specific volatilization to indoor air criteria. (michigan.gov)
  • precipitation, volatilization, electro deposition. (foodelphi.com)
  • Weather and field conditions this year have proved perfect for volatilization and drift from both soybean and corn fields. (panna.org)
  • The choline salt form of 2,4-D used in Enlist Duo, billed as less prone to drift and volatilization than other forms of 2,4-D, wasn't previously registered for any U.S. herbicide use. (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • ENGINEERED VEGETATED TREATMENT SYSTEMS -- The purpose of vegetated filter strips is to remove sediment and other pollutants from runoff and wastewater by filtration, deposition, infiltration, absorption, adsorption, decomposition, and volatilization, thereby reducing the amount of pollution entering adjacent waterbodies. (ehso.com)
  • Volatilization is the gaseous loss of a substance to the atmosphere. (healthfully.com)
  • Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. (upenn.edu)
  • Despite these restrictions this study does allow us to conclude that major effects on the growth of lettuce are not seen at the highest concentration tested although this is probably due to reduced exposure due to volatilisation or biodegradation. (europa.eu)
  • A study shows more herbicides are lost through volatilization than through runoff. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Deeper placement and lower treatment rates with MB can deliver effective nematode control while reducing somewhat the MB volatilization, but control of weed seeds will be lost. (avf.org)
  • Description: Features: 100% brand new and high quality Amber dropper bottles will effectively filter out harmful UV rays to protect your sensitive essential oils from quick volatilization. (shopzilla.com)
  • An average measurement of the two herbicides showed loss by volatilization to be about 25 times larger than loss from surface runoff. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • However, the monitoring of both herbicide volatilization and surface runoff at the field-scale over multiple years had never been done. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • The detailed experiments have shown that heating is not necessarily associated with re-volatilization: however, a direct contact between flame and active silica surface is required. (metu.edu.tr)
  • A fluorometric method to determine rainfastness, volatilization and photostability of glyphosate from glass slides, after application of Vision with two adjuvants. (gc.ca)
  • Some experiments were designed and performed in order to elucidate the mechanism of re-volatilization in silica traps using flame AAS. (metu.edu.tr)
  • 2. When user don't use the candle, the single candle holder can be put into the base to protect the candle from volatilization or staining. (adesignaward.com)
  • These involve either the recovery of lead, zinc and silver by volatilization in a common flue dust or the production of a silver containing lead bullion and a flue dust containing only lead and zinc. (europa.eu)