Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
The contamination of indoor air.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The act of BREATHING out.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A widely used industrial solvent.
'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A compulsion to set fires.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Living facilities for humans.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
'Paint' is not a medical term, it's a common noun used to describe a substance composed of pigment and liquid binder, used for decorative or protective coating of various surfaces, with no direct medical relevance or application in the context you've asked.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
'Ketones' are organic compounds with a specific structure, characterized by a carbonyl group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom) and two carbon atoms, formed as byproducts when the body breaks down fats for energy due to lack of glucose, often seen in diabetes and starvation states.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Halogenated hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol. (1/488)

BACKGROUND: Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z)-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.  (+info)

Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana. (2/488)

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Hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (GC-TMS) for detection of hazardous compounds. (3/488)

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Effect of charcoal-containing cigarette filters on gas phase volatile organic compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke. (4/488)

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Effect of acute exposure to a complex fragrance on lexical decision performance. (5/488)

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Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by Glomerella cingulata. (6/488)

The profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from Glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different fibers, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), was investigated. C4-C6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of VOCs isolated by CAR/PDMS fiber. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of VOCs isolated by PDMS fiber. During the growth phase, Ochracin was produced in the large majority of VOCs. 3-Methylbutanol and phenylethyl alcohol were found in the log phase of it. Alcohols were found in cultures of higher age, while sesquiterpenes were found to be characteristic of initial growth stage of G. cingulata.  (+info)

Breath analysis in non small cell lung cancer patients after surgical tumour resection. (7/488)

Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mainly aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, have been proposed as a diagnostic test for early lung cancer detection, but the effect of lung cancer surgical re-moval on exhaled VOCs pattern has never been specifically addressed. The aim of this study was to compare VOC levels measured in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients before surgery (T0), one month (T1) and 3 years (T2) after surgical removal of tumour. In order to better understand the pathophysiological meaning of exhaled aromatic hydrocarbons, the same exhaled biomarkers were also assessed in cancerous and macroscopically unaffected lung tissue samples collected during surgical operation. Exhaled breath was collected in a specially designed Teflon bulb trapping the last 150 ml of a single slow vital capacity. After solid phase micro-extraction, VOCs were analysed in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOC levels were unaffected by surgical removal, except for isoprene, whose concentration was significantly reduced. Three years after surgical operation, some VOCs significantly changed from baseline: in particular, we noted a decrease in isoprene and benzene concentrations, whereas the levels of pentane, toluene and ethylbenzene were increased in comparison with baseline values. Finally, lung tissue analysis showed that all aromatic hydrocarbons, except xylenes, were significantly higher in cancerous than in unaffected tissue. This study showed that surgical operation can influence the concentration of some exhaled VOCs opening a new scenario in the use of exhaled VOCs in lung cancer patients, not only for diagnostic but also for follow up purposes.  (+info)

SuperScent--a database of flavors and scents. (8/488)

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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an advanced technique used in analytical chemistry for the preparation and extraction of samples. It's not exclusively a medical term, but it does have applications in clinical and medical research. Here's a definition:

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free sample preparation technique that integrates sampling, extraction, concentration, and cleanup into a single step. It involves the use of a fused-silica fiber, which is coated with a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or polyacrylate. This fiber is exposed to the sample matrix, allowing the analytes (compounds of interest) to be adsorbed or absorbed onto the coating. After the extraction step, the fiber is then inserted into a gas chromatograph or high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. SPME is widely used in various fields, including environmental monitoring, food analysis, and biomedical research, due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. In the medical field, it can be applied for the analysis of drugs, metabolites, or other compounds in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissue.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pentanes" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a group of five-carbon alkane hydrocarbons, including n-pentane and iso-pentane. These substances can be used in medical settings as anesthetics or for medical research, but "Pentanes" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Xylariales is an order of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes, which are primarily wood-inhabiting species. This group includes both saprobic and pathogenic fungi, with some members known to cause various plant diseases. The order contains several families, including Xylariaceae, Amphisphaeriaceae, and Graphostromataceae, among others. Many species in Xylariales produce dark-colored, melanized structures called pycnidia or stromata, which contain the reproductive structures of the fungi. Some members of this order also have potential industrial applications, such as the production of enzymes and bioactive compounds.

Tetrachloroethylene, also known as perchloroethylene or "perc," is an organic compound with the formula C2Cl4. It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a sweet and somewhat unpleasant smell and taste. It is widely used for dry cleaning of clothing and textiles, and as a solvent in various industrial applications.

In a medical context, tetrachloroethylene is primarily known as a potential occupational hazard and environmental contaminant. Exposure to high levels of this chemical can cause a range of adverse health effects, including irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, dizziness, headaches, and respiratory problems. Long-term exposure has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, such as bladder, kidney, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

It is important for individuals who work with tetrachloroethylene or are exposed to it in their environment to take appropriate precautions to minimize their exposure and protect their health. This may include using proper ventilation, wearing protective equipment, and following established safety protocols.

Flame Ionization is not a medical term, but rather a scientific technique used in analytical chemistry to detect and measure the presence of certain organic compounds. It is based on the principle that when an organic compound is introduced into a flame, it breaks down into ions and electrons, creating an electrical current that can be measured. This technique is often used in gas chromatography to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in biological samples such as breath, blood, or urine. However, it is not typically used as a diagnostic tool in medicine.

"Recycling" is not a term used in medicine. It generally refers to the process of converting waste materials into reusable products, but it does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. They are major components of many essential oils found in plants, giving them their characteristic fragrances and flavors. Monoterpenes can be further classified into various subgroups based on their structural features, such as acyclic (e.g., myrcene), monocyclic (e.g., limonene), and bicyclic (e.g., pinene) compounds. In the medical field, monoterpenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiterpenes" is not a recognized term in medical or biochemistry terminology. The term "terpene" does refer to a large class of naturally occurring organic hydrocarbons, which are synthesized in various plants and animals. They are built from repeating units of isoprene (a five-carbon molecule), and can be further classified into monoterpenes (two isoprene units), sesquiterpenes (three isoprene units), diterpenes (four isoprene units), and so on.

However, the prefix "hemi-" means "half," which doesn't have a clear application in this context. It's possible there may be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. If you meant to ask about a specific type of compound or a concept related to terpenes, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate answer.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

An "Electronic Nose" is a device that analytically detects, identifies, and quantifies volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gaseous samples to identify specific odors or chemical compositions. It typically consists of an array of electronic gas sensors with partial specificity and pattern recognition software to analyze the response patterns of these sensors. The device mimics the functioning of a human nose, which can recognize a wide range of smells based on the unique pattern of activation of its olfactory receptors. Electronic noses have applications in various fields, including medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring, and security.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

In the context of medicine, "odors" refer to smells or scents that are produced by certain medical conditions, substances, or bodily functions. These odors can sometimes provide clues about underlying health issues. For example, sweet-smelling urine could indicate diabetes, while foul-smelling breath might suggest a dental problem or gastrointestinal issue. However, it's important to note that while odors can sometimes be indicative of certain medical conditions, they are not always reliable diagnostic tools and should be considered in conjunction with other symptoms and medical tests.

Bombacaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, and herbs. It was previously recognized as a distinct family, but recent classifications have merged it into the Malvaceae family. Plants in this group are characterized by their large, showy flowers and often contain a great deal of mucilage. Some well-known members of this group include the baobab tree, the kapok tree, and the silk-cotton tree.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as aromatic compounds or arenes, are a class of organic compounds characterized by a planar ring structure with delocalized electrons that give them unique chemical properties. The term "aromatic" was originally used to describe their distinctive odors, but it now refers to their characteristic molecular structure and stability.

Aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings, which are cyclic structures consisting of six carbon atoms arranged in a planar hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the benzene ring is bonded to two other carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, forming alternating double and single bonds between the carbon atoms. However, the delocalized electrons in the benzene ring are evenly distributed around the ring, leading to a unique electronic structure that imparts stability and distinctive chemical properties to aromatic hydrocarbons.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. These compounds have important uses in industry, but they can also pose health risks if not handled properly. Exposure to high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to various health effects, including cancer, neurological damage, and respiratory problems.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

Firesetting behavior is not a medical diagnosis itself, but it is a term used to describe the act of deliberately starting fires. It is often associated with certain mental health conditions, developmental disorders, or substance abuse problems. Firesetting behavior can range from minor incidents, such as lighting candles or matches, to more serious offenses, like arson.

Firesetting behavior can be a symptom of various psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and personality disorders. It can also be associated with substance abuse, cognitive impairments, and traumatic brain injuries. In some cases, firesetting behavior may indicate a cry for help or a maladaptive coping mechanism.

It is essential to assess the underlying causes of firesetting behavior to develop an appropriate treatment plan. This may involve individual therapy, family therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and/or medication management. In severe cases, hospitalization or residential treatment may be necessary. Additionally, fire safety education and community resources can help prevent future incidents.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Floors and Floorcoverings" is not a medical term. It refers to the physical structures and materials used to cover floors in buildings or homes. If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Endophytes are microorganisms, typically bacteria or fungi, that live inside the tissues of plants without causing any visible disease or harm to the plant. They can be found in almost all plant species and are known to exist in a mutualistic relationship with their host plants. Endophytes can provide various benefits to the plants such as growth promotion, increased resistance to pathogens, and protection against herbivores. Some endophytic fungi also produce bioactive compounds that have potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bonded oxygen atom, also known as a formyl or aldehyde group. The general chemical structure of an aldehyde is R-CHO, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain.

Aldehydes are important in biochemistry and medicine as they are involved in various metabolic processes and are found in many biological molecules. For example, glucose is converted to pyruvate through a series of reactions that involve aldehyde intermediates. Additionally, some aldehydes have been identified as toxicants or environmental pollutants, such as formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen and respiratory irritant.

Formaldehyde is also commonly used in medical and laboratory settings for its disinfectant properties and as a fixative for tissue samples. However, exposure to high levels of formaldehyde can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aldehydes in medical and laboratory settings.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), natural gas is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, natural gas is a fossil energy source that is primarily methane (CH4) but can also include small amounts of other gases such as ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes. It is formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals that have been buried for millions of years.

While natural gas is not a medical term, it is worth noting that exposure to natural gas or its components can have health effects in certain circumstances. For example, methane itself is not toxic, but it can cause asphyxiation if present in high concentrations in confined spaces, displacing the oxygen needed for breathing. Additionally, natural gas often contains small amounts of other gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which can be highly toxic even at low concentrations. Exposure to these components of natural gas can cause a range of symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, nausea, and respiratory problems.

It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential health effects of natural gas exposure in certain situations, particularly when treating patients who work in or live near natural gas extraction sites or who have been exposed to natural gas leaks.

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paint" is not a medical term. In a general sense, paint is a substance that is applied as a protective or decorative coating to various surfaces. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to clarify, please let me know!

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Styrene is an organic compound that is primarily used in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. In a medical context, styrene is not a term that is typically used to describe a specific disease or condition. However, exposure to high levels of styrene has been linked to potential health effects, including neurological damage, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and possible increased risk of cancer.

Styrene is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) based on evidence from animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with exposure to styrene in humans.

If you have further questions about styrene or its potential health effects, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or toxicologist who can provide more detailed and personalized advice based on your specific situation and concerns.

Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms and a central carbon atom bonded to two additional carbon groups through single bonds. In the context of human physiology, ketones are primarily produced as byproducts when the body breaks down fat for energy in a process called ketosis.

Specifically, under conditions of low carbohydrate availability or prolonged fasting, the liver converts fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can then be used as an alternative fuel source for the brain and other organs. The three main types of ketones produced in the human body are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.

Elevated levels of ketones in the blood, known as ketonemia, can occur in various medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets. While moderate levels of ketosis are generally considered safe, severe ketosis can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in people with diabetes.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Butadienes are a class of organic compounds that contain a chemical structure consisting of two carbon-carbon double bonds arranged in a conjugated system. The most common butadiene is 1,3-butadiene, which is an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and plastics.

1,3-Butadiene is a colorless gas that is highly flammable and has a mild sweet odor. It is produced as a byproduct of petroleum refining and is also released during the combustion of fossil fuels. Exposure to butadienes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.

Other forms of butadiene include 1,2-butadiene and 1,4-butadiene, which have different chemical properties and uses. Overall, butadienes are important industrial chemicals with a wide range of applications, but their potential health hazards require careful handling and regulation.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Ascomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi, also known as sac fungi. This group includes both unicellular and multicellular organisms, such as yeasts, mold species, and morel mushrooms. Ascomycetes are characterized by their reproductive structures called ascus, which contain typically eight haploid spores produced sexually through a process called ascogony. Some members of this phylum have significant ecological and economic importance, as they can be decomposers, mutualistic symbionts, or plant pathogens causing various diseases. Examples include the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea, and morel mushroom Morchella esculenta.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of highly reactive gases, primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas, or biomass, and are emitted from various sources, including power plants, industrial boilers, transportation vehicles, and residential heating systems. Exposure to NOx can have adverse health effects, particularly on the respiratory system, and contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants like ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Volatile oils, also known as essential oils, are a type of organic compound that are naturally produced in plants. They are called "volatile" because they evaporate quickly at room temperature due to their high vapor pressure. These oils are composed of complex mixtures of various compounds, including terpenes, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and alcohols. They are responsible for the characteristic aroma and flavor of many plants and are often used in perfumes, flavors, and aromatherapy. In a medical context, volatile oils may have therapeutic properties and be used in certain medications or treatments, but it's important to note that they can also cause adverse reactions if not used properly.

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is not a medical term, but a statistical technique that is used in various fields including bioinformatics and medicine. It is a method used to identify patterns in high-dimensional data by reducing the dimensionality of the data while retaining most of the variation in the dataset.

In medical or biological research, PCA may be used to analyze large datasets such as gene expression data or medical imaging data. By applying PCA, researchers can identify the principal components, which are linear combinations of the original variables that explain the maximum amount of variance in the data. These principal components can then be used for further analysis, visualization, and interpretation of the data.

PCA is a widely used technique in data analysis and has applications in various fields such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and medical imaging. It helps researchers to identify patterns and relationships in complex datasets, which can lead to new insights and discoveries in medical research.

Halogenated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and one or more halogens, such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). These compounds are formed when halogens replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule.

Halogenated hydrocarbons can be further categorized into two groups:

1. Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons: These include alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes with halogen atoms replacing hydrogen atoms. Examples include chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3), methylene chloride (dichloromethane, CH2Cl2), and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3).
2. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: These consist of aromatic rings, such as benzene, with halogen atoms attached. Examples include chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl), bromobenzene (C6H5Br), and polyhalogenated biphenyls like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Halogenated hydrocarbons have various industrial applications, including use as solvents, refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and intermediates in chemical synthesis. However, some of these compounds can be toxic, environmentally persistent, and bioaccumulative, posing potential health and environmental risks.

Chemical evolution is a term that refers to the set of processes thought to have given rise to life from simple inorganic compounds. It is a prebiotic process, meaning it occurred before the existence of life. The fundamental idea behind chemical evolution is that simple chemicals underwent a series of transformations, eventually leading to the formation of complex organic molecules necessary for life, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids. These building blocks then came together to form the first self-replicating entities, which are considered the precursors to modern cells.

The concept of chemical evolution is based on several key observations and experiments. For example, it has been shown that simple inorganic compounds can be transformed into more complex organic molecules under conditions believed to have existed on early Earth, such as those found near hydrothermal vents or in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Additionally, experiments using simulated prebiotic conditions have produced a variety of biologically relevant molecules, supporting the plausibility of chemical evolution.

It is important to note that chemical evolution does not necessarily imply that life emerged spontaneously or randomly; rather, it suggests that natural processes led to the formation of complex molecules that eventually gave rise to living organisms. The exact mechanisms and pathways by which this occurred are still subjects of ongoing research and debate in the scientific community.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

In medical terms, the sense of smell is referred to as olfaction. It is the ability to detect and identify different types of chemicals in the air through the use of the olfactory system. The olfactory system includes the nose, nasal passages, and the olfactory bulbs located in the brain.

When a person inhales air containing volatile substances, these substances bind to specialized receptor cells in the nasal passage called olfactory receptors. These receptors then transmit signals to the olfactory bulbs, which process the information and send it to the brain's limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as to the cortex. The brain interprets these signals and identifies the various scents or smells.

Impairment of the sense of smell can occur due to various reasons such as upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, nasal polyps, head trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Loss of smell can significantly impact a person's quality of life, including their ability to taste food, detect dangers such as smoke or gas leaks, and experience emotions associated with certain smells.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

... emissions Non-methane volatile organic compound Organic compound VOC contamination of groundwater Volatile Organic Compounds ... very volatile organic compounds); compounds appearing later are called SVOC (semi-volatile organic compounds). France, Germany ... "Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-04-04. "Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic compounds that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. High vapor ...
... known as the Volatile Organic Compounds Protocol or the VOC Protocol) is a protocol to the Convention on Long-Range ... Volatile organic compound abatement, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe treaties, Treaties of Austria, Treaties of ... Transboundary Air Pollution which aims to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of volatile organic compounds in ... the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds ...
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are a set of organic compounds that are typically photochemically reactive in ... 2007). Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470988657. ISBN 978- ... Essentially, NMVOCs are identical to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but with methane excluded. Methane is excluded in air- ... Guenther, A (2000). "Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from ...
Volatile organic compound • Ultrafine particles Light pollution Noise pollution Soil pollution - Alkali soil • Brownfield • ... Volatile organic compounds Waste - Electronic waste • Great Pacific garbage patch • Illegal dumping • Incineration • Litter • ... Organic farming • Habitat fragmentation • In-situ leach Fishing - Blast fishing • Bottom trawling • By-catch • Cetacean bycatch ... Persistent organic pollutant • PBBs • PBDEs • Toxic heavy metals • PCB • Dioxin • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • ...
Volatile Organic Compounds". Air emission sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 25 October 2013. "Volatile ... When oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, ground level ozone is ... Organic Compounds (VOCs)". Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. United States Geological Survey (USGS). 12 April 2013. EPA, OAR ... and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung ...
"Redirect - Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Emission Sources , US EPA". Archived from the original on 2010-05-14. Retrieved ... Emissions include particulate emissions from diesel engines, NOx, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and various other ...
Volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, are organic compounds that can easily become vapors or gases. These compounds are released ... "Tox Town - Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work". Toxtown ... "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". Toxtown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 25 September 2017. TendersInfo. ""United States: EPA ... The contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semiVOCs and heavy ...
... such as volatile organic compounds or VOCs, which evaporate in the air. VOC's are organic compounds that become a gas ... "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". Tox Town. Tox Town. Retrieved 28 September 2017. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease ... These chemicals included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Trichloroethene and Vinyl ... ESL disposed of liquid and solid waste including many chemicals such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Polychlorinated ...
Nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni(CO)4) and other metal carbonyls are often volatile liquids, like many organic compounds, yet they ... Inorganic compound - Chemical compound without any carbon-hydrogen bonds List of chemical compounds List of organic compounds ... organic compounds) or whether they did not (inorganic compounds). Vitalism taught that formation of these "organic" compounds ... The organic compound L-isoleucine molecule presents some features typical of organic compounds: carbon-carbon bonds, carbon- ...
"Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". Toxtown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 21 September 2017. "National Center for Biotechnology ...
... s are organic compounds that are exempt from restrictions placed on most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ... In the US, dimethyl carbonate was exempted under the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by the U.S. EPA in 2009. ... US EPA, OAR (2019-05-10). "Volatile Organic Compound Exemptions". US EPA. Archived from the original on 2021-02-08. Retrieved ... "Update: U.S. EPA Exempt Volatile Organic Compounds". American Coatings Association. 2018-01-30. Archived from the original on ...
Toluene Volatile organic compounds[which?] Water Composition of electronic cigarette aerosol List of heated tobacco products ... The exhaled aerosol is highly volatile because it is made up of liquid particles that evaporate quickly. The particle size of ... The main toxicants found in the emissions of cigarette smoke (i.e., tar, nicotine, carbonyl compounds, and nitrosamines) are ... 3-Butadiene Carbonyl compounds Carbon monoxide Cotinine Crotonaldehyde Ethylene oxide Flavorings Formaldehyde Glycerin Isoprene ...
Toxic metals, such as lead and mercury, especially their compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOC): VOCs are both indoor and ... Persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulates. Persistent organic pollutants are organic compounds that are ... Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. ... "Technical Overview of Volatile Organic Compounds". US Environmental Protection Agency. 14 March 2023. Retrieved 20 April 2023. ...
Icynene contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Icynene will not emit any harmful gases once cured. Icynene has a Global ...
In contrast to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), non-volatile organic compounds are those carbon compounds that do not ... The chemical cue obtained by an animal exhibiting the flehmen response is the presence of a non-volatile organic compound. ... Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Technical Overview. United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ ...
... is a volatile organic compound. The word "benzene" derives from "gum benzoin" (benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known ... Ashley, DL; Bonin, MA; Cardinali, FL; McCraw, JM; Wooten, JV (1994). "Blood concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms ... Atherton Seidell; William F. Linke (1952). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds: A Compilation of Solubility Data ...
The main applications are in sensors for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a variety of environments, including ... "Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for Volatile Organic Compounds". Analytical Chemistry. 78 (11): 3591-3600. doi:10.1021/ac052111s. ... solvatochromism since vapochromic systems are ones in which dyes change colour in response to the vapour of an organic compound ...
It releases no volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The automated roll forming system produces components to the exact length ...
VOCs (volatile organic compounds) - such as formaldehyde; can be found in drinking water and sewage systems. Dioxins are a ... Sublethal effects - toxins or compounds that do not induce significant mortality but make the organism sick or make it change ... class of chemical compounds that are formed as a result of combustion processes such as waste incineration and from burning ...
"The network of plants volatile organic compounds". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 11050. arXiv:1704.08062. Bibcode:2017NatSR... ... levels from rising too rapidly after eating them due to the presence of those large amounts of absorption-slowing compounds in ...
Human breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds consist of methanol, isoprene, acetone, ethanol and ...
Various volatile organic compounds are also created. Masks will be ineffective against gaseous compounds unless specialized ...
2000). "Calorimetric detection of volatile organic compounds". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 70 (1-3): 57-66. doi:10.1016/ ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic compounds, flavors, tobacco ... The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavors, ... volatile organic compounds; UPLC-MS, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; HPLC-DAD-MMI-MS, high ... Emissions of certain compounds increased over time during use as a result of increased residues of polymerization by-products ...
Plants communicate through a host of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be separated into four broad categories, each ... These findings show evidence that volatile organic compounds determine ecological interactions between plant species and show ... Kegge, Wouter; Pierik, Ronald (March 2010). "Biogenic volatile organic compounds and plant competition". Trends in Plant ... Dudareva, Natalia (April 2013). "Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds". New ...
Such materials release volatile organic compounds, via outgassing or off-gassing. These fumes are generally attributed to ... The total volatile organic compound levels can reach 7,500 micrograms per cubic meter. Concentrations decayed by approximately ... A 1995 analysis of the air from a new Lincoln Continental found over 50 volatile organic compounds, which were identified as ... Overton, Santford V.; Manura, John J. "Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in a New Automobile". Scientific Instrument ...
Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A (2015). "Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?". Toxins. Basel. 7 (9 ... The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919) and is derived from the word "toxic". Toxins can be small ... A toxin is a naturally occurring organic[dubious - discuss] poison produced by metabolic activities of living cells or ... Other understandings embrace synthetic analogs of naturally occurring organic poisons as toxins, and may or may not embrace ...
Crypton contains no volatile organic compounds nor formaldehyde. It was developed in 1993. Debbie Wiener (2008), Slob Proof!: ...
... are used to destroy volatile organic compounds. For example, capillary plasma electrode (CPE) discharge was used to ... effectively destroy volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethylene, heptane, octane, and ... For chemically similar compounds, the maximum destruction efficiency was found to be inversely related to the ionization energy ... Ozone (O3) has been shown to be a good disinfectant and water treatment that can cause breakdown of organic and inorganic ...
It has recently gained EPA volatile organic compound (VOC) exempt status. It is manufactured from acetic acid and isobutylene. ... 0074". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Update: U.S. EPA Exempt Volatile Organic Compounds". ...
... emissions Non-methane volatile organic compound Organic compound VOC contamination of groundwater Volatile Organic Compounds ... very volatile organic compounds); compounds appearing later are called SVOC (semi-volatile organic compounds). France, Germany ... "Volatile Organic Compounds Impact on Indoor Air Quality". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-04-04. "Volatile Organic Compounds Impact on ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic compounds that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. High vapor ...
Volatile organic compounds. VOCs are a class of chemicals that are volatile (evaporate easily) and are organic compounds ( ...
Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER. AND ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES. UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE, ... identified an error in the exposure classifications used in its epidemiological study entitled Volatile Organic Compounds in ... Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water. ... Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water ...
VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds. Requirements for vapor recovery systems for volatile organic compounds (VOC) were introduced ... Environmental protectionAir pollutionVOC - Volatile Organic Compounds ... in Sweden as a condition for loading and unloading volatile products to and from ships when MARPOL, Annex VI, entered into ...
Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Disclaimer - Methods ... Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water ...
by Somak Roy The City of Bethlehems water comes entirely from surface sources, namely the Wild Creek Reservoir and the Penn Forest Reservoir in a watershed that covers 17 square miles. This primary water supply is located 22 miles north of the City. The Tunkhannock Creek and Monroe County provide a supplemental supply of water to the Penn Forest Reservoir. The … [Read more...] about Lets talk about water ...
... of volatile organic compounds in a concentration range of approximately 2 mg/m3 to 10 mg/m3 for individual organic compounds ... of volatile organic compounds in a concentration range of approximately 0.3 mg/m3 to 300 mg/m3 for individual organic compounds ... Many volatile organic compounds have the potential to contribute to air quality problems in indoor environments and in some ... This practice is potentially effective for a wide range of volatile organic compounds found in air, over a wide range of ...
Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and ... Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and ... High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata- ... High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata- ...
Background concentrations of individual and total volatile organic compounds in residential indoor air of Schleswig-Holstein, ... volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, endotoxins and cat allergen].. *Volatile organic compounds concentrations in ... Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and ammonia in Finnish office buildings with suspected ... Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan. ...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Sources. VOCs comprise volatile hydrocarbons and other organic molecules released into the ... Not included in the above are emissions of methane, which although a volatile hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere from ... VOCs range from very reactive to almost inert in the atmosphere, with some of the biogenic compounds (terpenes and isoprene) ... The oxidation of complex organic molecules leads to fragmentation, production of a range of reactive free radicals, and more ...
Volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated sites can be categorized as higher risk for sewer/utility tunnel vapor intrusion ( ... Sewers and Utility Tunnels as Preferential Pathways for Volatile Organic Compound Migration into Buildings: Risk Factors and ... Sewers And Utility Tunnels As Preferential Pathways For Volatile Organic Compound Migration Into Buildings - Conceptual Model ... Sewers and Utility Tunnels as Preferential Pathways for Volatile Organic Compound Migration into Buildings - Investigation ...
During the whole period of investigation, the concentration of most of the compounds (except acetone and IPA) was found to be ... ABSTRACTThe results of spatial and temporal distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air surrounding the ... Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Volatile Organic Compounds around an Industrial Park of Taiwan Details 2005 - Volume 5 ... Hung, I.F., Deshpande, C.G., Tsai, C.J. and Huang, S.H. (2005). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Volatile Organic Compounds ...
Also, headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ... Effect of Rhizobacteria on Induction of Volatile Organic Compounds and Consequences for Corn Herbivores and Tritrophic ... Furthermore, volatile root extract was sampled from plants with similar treatments above and effects were evaluated using four- ... suggesting that other factors than volatile cues may have affected H. bacteriophora choice to bacillus-treated plants. These ...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic compounds that have high vapor pressures and easily evaporate into the atmosphere ... Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are chemicals known to vaporise to air and dissolve into groundwater. ... VOCs are emitted through combustion processes, manufacturing industries, and other industries using organic-based solvents.. ...
Fungi like many other microorganisms produce a large spectrum of volatile organic compounds MVOC which are released into the ... volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) as products of secondary metabolism. Several moulds produce volatile metabolites, which are ... although some also produce compounds that are genera- or species-specific. Microbial volatile organic compounds are often ... Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC). During growth on water damaged materials many moulds release low molecular weight ...
... enzyme activity tests and volatile organic compound (VOC) production. The Mediterranean lineage can unambiguously be delimited ... Volatile organic compounds. Fungi emit a large spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Recent studies have shown that ... The production of volatile organic compounds also emerges as a promising tool for fast and reliable species delimitation in the ... Elvira Sanchez-Fernandez R, Diaz D, Duarte G, Lappe-Oliveras P, Sanchez S et al (2016) Antifungal volatile organic compounds ...
Tags: VOC, Teledyne Tekmar, GRO, Gasoline Range Organics, Sample Preparation, Volatile Organic Compounds ... What are Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)?. Posted by Betsey Seibel on Wed, Apr 29, 2015 @ 05:22 PM ... Tags: VOC, Teledyne Tekmar, Volatile Organic Compounds, Analytical Instrumentation, Autosampler, Analyzer, Headspace, HT3, ... Tags: VOC, Teledyne Tekmar, Volatile Organic Compounds, P&T, Purge and Trap, Moisture Control ...
See definition for "volatile." Organic chemicals contain at least one carbon atom. Volatile organic compounds can evaporate ... Volatile organic compounds include at least one carbon atom and can evaporate rapidly whether in liquid form, dissolved in ... 1. There are 3 kinds of mercury: elemental, organic mercury compounds, and inorganic mercury compounds. 2. There are 3 kinds of ... There are 3 kinds of mercury: elemental, organic mercury compounds, and inorganic mercury compounds. ...
Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs), Mold and Depression, Mold and Dopamine Receptors, Mold and Genetics, Mold and ... Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs), Mold and Asthma, Mold and Depression, Mold and Dopamine Receptors, Mold and ... Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs), Mold and Asthma, Mold and Depression, Mold and Dopamine Receptors, Mold and ... Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs), Mold and Asthma, Mold and Depression, Mold and Dopamine Receptors, Mold and ...
... 71(9). LeBouf, Ryan F. et al. "Exposure to volatile organic ... Title : Exposure to volatile organic compounds in healthcare settings Personal Author(s) : LeBouf, Ryan F.;Virji, M. Abbas; ... "Exposure to volatile organic compounds in healthcare settings" vol. 71, no. 9, 2014. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... To identify and summarise volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure profiles of healthcare occupations. Methods Personal (n=143 ...
Cai, C. J., Geng, F. H., Tie, X. X., Yu, Q., Peng, L., and Zhou, G. Q.: Characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds ( ... Gilman, J. B., Lerner, B. M., Kuster, W. C., and De Gouw, J. A.: Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and ... Ho, K. F., Lee, S. C., Guo, H., and Tsai, W. Y.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ... Liu, Y., Shao, M., Lu, S., Chang, C.-C., Wang, J.-L., and Chen, G.: Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements in the Pearl ...
Newfoundland and Labrador VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Emissions ...
The term volatile organic compound (VOC) is poorly defined because volatility is subjective. There are numerous standardized ... Non-Volatile, Semi-Volatile, or Volatile: Redefining Volatile for VOCs by Uyen-Uyen T. Vo and Michael P. Morris (PDF, 407kb) - ... The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between non-volatile, semi-volatile and volatile compounds. Some ...
MEMS Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Gas Detection Sensor (Breakout, 1-500ppm) Compact and efficient, measuring only 13 x 13 x ... Fermion: MEMS Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Gas Sensor (Breakout, 1-500ppm) Save £0.00 ... The Fermion: MEMS Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Gas Detection Sensor (Breakout, 1-500ppm) utilizes cutting-edge ... Fermion: MEMS Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Gas Detection Sensor (Breakout, 1-500ppm) ...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Your machine is detecting gases released from a wide range of sources, such as aerosol ...
Abstract. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOCs; e.g. terpenes) are highly reactive compounds with very low amount ... Measurements of C10-C15 biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) with sorbent tubes Heidi Hellén, Toni Tykkä, Simon ... Even though online measurements of volatile organic compounds are becoming more and more common, the use of sorbent tubes is ... Hellen et al., in their paper "Measurements of C10-C15 biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) with sorbent tubes", ...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) -- Indoor Air Pollutants: Where to Find Them and What to Do. Formaldehyde ...
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic compounds that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health Canada classifies VOCs as organic compounds that have boiling points roughly in the range of 50 to 250 °C (122 to 482 °F). The emphasis is placed on commonly encountered VOCs that would have an effect on air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive was the main policy instrument for the reduction of industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • VOCs are a class of chemicals that are volatile (evaporate easily) and are organic compounds (contain carbon atoms). (cdc.gov)
  • 1.1 This practice is intended to assist in the selection of sorbents and procedures for the sampling and analysis of ambient ( 1 ), indoor ( 2 ) and workplace ( 3,4 ) atmospheres for a variety of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (astm.org)
  • During a monitoring campaign concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in indoor air of 79 dwellings where occupants had not complained about health problems or unpleasant odour. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A1 - Hippelein,Martin, Y1 - 2004/08/18/ PY - 2004/9/4/pubmed PY - 2004/12/23/medline PY - 2004/9/4/entrez SP - 745 EP - 52 JF - Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM JO - J Environ Monit VL - 6 IS - 9 N2 - During a monitoring campaign concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in indoor air of 79 dwellings where occupants had not complained about health problems or unpleasant odour. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VOCs comprise volatile hydrocarbons and other organic molecules released into the atmosphere. (apis.ac.uk)
  • Not included in the above are emissions of methane, which although a volatile hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere from natural sources at much larger concentrations than other VOCs. (apis.ac.uk)
  • VOCs range from very reactive to almost inert in the atmosphere, with some of the biogenic compounds (terpenes and isoprene) being oxidised within a few hours, and others with lifetimes of years. (apis.ac.uk)
  • The results of spatial and temporal distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air surrounding the Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park (SBIP), Taiwan during February 2001 to November 2001 are presented. (aaqr.org)
  • Also, headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ostrinia nubilalis laid significantly fewer eggs on bacilli-treated plants compared to untreated plants. (auburn.edu)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are chemicals known to vaporise to air and dissolve into groundwater. (norditech.com.au)
  • VOCs are emitted through combustion processes, manufacturing industries, and other industries using organic-based solvents. (norditech.com.au)
  • The site is now in the middle of a multi-million dollar cleanup to remove a number of harmful substances, including arsenic, mercury, lead, petroleum byproducts and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (teledynetekmar.com)
  • We evaluate vertical profiles of trace gas species including O 3 , nitrogen oxides ( NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and relate to rates of O 3 production. (copernicus.org)
  • HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis allowed to identify a complex volatile profile, showing 159 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (univpm.it)
  • Humans are constantly exposed to various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of their widespread sources and characteristic of easy evaporation . (bvsalud.org)
  • ISO 16000-6:2011 specifies a method for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air and in air sampled for the determination of the emission of VOCs from building products or materials and other products used in indoor environments using test chambers and test cells. (iso.org)
  • The article details the system for inventorying, calculating and reporting the range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by industry. (readabstracts.com)
  • The sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humic acid appears to be a natural process and that the slow process of sorption in natural soils is not caused mainly by the diffusion in the humic acid. (readabstracts.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Bacillus subtilis CF-3 on the growth and development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and evaluated the elicitation of active defense responses in harvested litchi fruits. (springeropen.com)
  • According to the latest science, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) coming from inside your home are worse for the environment than car fumes. (mamavation.com)
  • The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from common cleaning products in your home evaporate into the air. (mamavation.com)
  • Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) are formed by reaction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are released by plants and trees. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are playing a major role in all those processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Bakken oil contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (sightline.org)
  • Many companies have found themselves facing the predicament of what to do about volatile organic compounds (VOCs) . (socomore.com)
  • Here we focused on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following herbivory. (usda.gov)
  • It is likely that they recognize these diseases through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air. (medscape.com)
  • The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between non-volatile, semi-volatile and volatile compounds. (aqmd.gov)
  • Using the principles specified in this method, an annex describes how some very volatile compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds can also be analysed. (iso.org)
  • This method is applicable to determine volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds, and volatile aldehydes. (iso.org)
  • A low-temperature aerosol simulation chamber facility (LOTASC) has been constructed in order to investigate the aerosol-partitioning of semi-volatile compounds at low temperature (down to -25°C). This will allow simulating tropospheric photochemistry, including cirrus clouds. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Microbial volatile organic compounds are often similar to common industrial chemicals. (me.uk)
  • Because of this it is possible that under some circumstances microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC's) may be partially responsible for complaints ill health and degraded indoor air quality by building occupants. (me.uk)
  • Article 13 of The Paints Directive, approved in 2004, amended the original VOC Solvents Emissions Directive and limits the use of organic solvents in decorative paints and varnishes and in vehicle finishing products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this regulation is to limit the emissions of volatile organic compounds from consumer products. (ri.gov)
  • This document specifies a reference method for the determination of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions into indoor air from floor covering adhesives and products used for flooring installation. (iso.org)
  • Non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from Solvent and Other Product Use have been estimated for 2006-2012. (epa.ie)
  • The study indicated that higher asphalt fume emissions were noted at source locations with higher area air sample concentrations of total particulate, respirable particulate, benzene soluble particulate, total polycyclic aromatic compounds, benzothiazole (95169), and other sulfur containing compounds during the CRM asphalt paving period. (cdc.gov)
  • Berzelius also contended that compounds could be distinguished by whether they required any organisms in their synthesis (organic compounds) or whether they did not ( inorganic compounds ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Vitalism taught that formation of these "organic" compounds were fundamentally different from the "inorganic" compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulations in laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001 ). In addition to antioxidants and food additives, the main components of litchi antiseptic preservatives are chemical fungicides, including organic and inorganic compounds, such as prochloraz, sorbate, NiCl 2 , etc., which have different degrees of toxicity and residual after use (Qi et al. (springeropen.com)
  • However, other volatile inorganic compounds can be present and might need to be quantified by another suitable method and allowed for in the calculations. (iso.org)
  • Most synthetically-produced organic compounds are ultimately derived from petrochemicals consisting mainly of hydrocarbons , which are themselves formed from the high pressure and temperature degradation of organic matter underground over geological timescales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The background concentrations determined in this study can be used to discuss and interpret target values for individual and total volatile organic compounds in indoor air. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TVOC, total volatile organic compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • This practice is potentially effective for a wide range of volatile organic compounds found in air, over a wide range of volatilities and concentration levels. (astm.org)
  • Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature. (bvsalud.org)
  • The role of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in producing bacteria that colonize the dorsal surface of the tongue was recently understood as a primary cause of halitosis (bad breath). (medscape.com)
  • Blood-borne causes often are consequences of metabolic processes that emit odorous volatile sulfur compounds, which are taken by the bloodstream, transported to the lungs, and emitted during exhalation. (medscape.com)
  • He and coworkers established that oral malodor (bad breath) is associated with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds, primarily hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. (medscape.com)
  • B. These regulations hereby adopt and incorporate the California Air Resources Board's "Method 310: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Consumer Products (2005)," 17 California Code of Regulations, Section 93000 (2018) by reference, not including any further editions or amendments thereof, and only to the extent that the provisions therein are not inconsistent with these regulations. (ri.gov)
  • It specifies a method for the determination of the volatile organic compound (VOC) content of paints, varnishes and their raw materials. (iso.org)
  • During growth on water damaged materials many moulds release low molecular weight, volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) as products of secondary metabolism. (me.uk)
  • Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. (usgs.gov)
  • Family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (opisnet.com)
  • In chemistry , many authors consider an organic compound to be any chemical compound that contains carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon bonds , however, some authors consider an organic compound to be any chemical compound that contains carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of " organic " versus " inorganic ", and whether some other carbon-containing compounds are organic or inorganic vary from author to author, and are topics of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to carbon's ability to catenate (form chains with other carbon atoms ), millions of organic compounds are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • For historical reasons, a few classes of carbon-containing compounds (e.g., carbonate salts and cyanide salts ), along with a few other exceptions (e.g., carbon dioxide , and even hydrogen cyanide despite the fact it contains a carbon-hydrogen bond), are generally considered inorganic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than those just named, little consensus exists among chemists on precisely which carbon-containing compounds are excluded, making any rigorous definition of an organic compound elusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living things incorporate inorganic carbon compounds into organic compounds through a network of processes ( the carbon cycle ) that begins with the conversion of carbon dioxide and a hydrogen source like water into simple sugars and other organic molecules by autotrophic organisms using light ( photosynthesis ) or other sources of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different forms ( allotropes ) of pure carbon, such as diamond , graphite , fullerenes , and carbon nanotubes [4] are also excluded because they are simple substances composed of only a single element and therefore are not generally considered to be chemical compounds . (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, a variety of nanostructured MOFs have been investigated as precursors for the synthesis of various nanomaterials, ranging from carbon-based materials to metal-based compounds (such as oxides, carbides, phosphides, and chalcogenides) with regular porous architectures. (nanochemres.org)
  • The analytical procedure and quantification was done according to the recommendation of the ECA-IAQ Working Group 13 which gave a definition of the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Analyze residual solvents, volatile organic compounds, alcohols, and oxygenates using Thermo Scientific™ TraceGOLD™ TG-624 and TG-624SilMS GC Columns. (fishersci.com)
  • in their paper "Measurements of C10-C15 biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) with sorbent tubes", investigated the performance of different configurations of adsorbent tubes in sampling BVOCs with respect to several parameters, including adsorbent type, tubing material, temperature, storage and ozone filtration techniques. (copernicus.org)
  • The process optimization also resulted in a reduction in particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. (wconline.com)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) identified an error in the exposure classifications used in its epidemiological study entitled Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at the U.S. Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC . (cdc.gov)
  • Title : Exposure to volatile organic compounds in healthcare settings Personal Author(s) : LeBouf, Ryan F.;Virji, M. Abbas;Saito, Rena;Henneberger, Paul K.;Simcox, Nancy;Stefaniak, Aleksandr B. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole-body aging mediates the association between exposure to volatile organic compounds and osteoarthritis among U.S. middle-to-old-aged adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Following a public hearing in September 1995, California's ARB uses the term "reactive organic gases" (ROG) to measure organic gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have identified more than 200 of these chemical compounds but the list is ever expanding as the research continues. (me.uk)
  • e.g. terpenes) are highly reactive compounds with very low amount fractions in the air. (copernicus.org)
  • The oxidation of complex organic molecules leads to fragmentation, production of a range of reactive free radicals, and more stable smaller molecules such as aldehydes. (apis.ac.uk)
  • However, it is necessary to functionalize the surfaces of these resonators to enhance the adsorption and discrimination of volatile organic compounds. (researchgate.net)
  • Their chemical diversity, uniform pore sizes, and large internal surface areas make metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) highly suitable for volatile organic compound (VOC) adsorption. (awsensors.com)
  • An analysis conducted by the states Division of Air Quality found that the site was a "major emission source for hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds. (teledynetekmar.com)
  • The main research activities of the Atmospheric Chemistry Research Laboratory at Bayreuth are the characterisation of aerosols and the investigation of aerosol reactions (organic coatings of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and deliquescent sea-salt) in indoor photoreactors. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Vitalism was a widespread conception that substances found in organic nature are formed from the chemical elements by the action of a "vital force" or "life-force" ( vis vitalis ) that only living organisms possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D and oriented organizations of MOF materials are vital so that they may be utilized as the fiber coating for microextraction in solid-phase for volatile substances in the medicinal herbs. (nanochemres.org)
  • SPME was originally presented for analyzing volatile substances at trace levels. (nanochemres.org)
  • Thus, it is regarded as a sampling method appropriate for volatile substances. (nanochemres.org)
  • The study of the properties, reactions, and syntheses of organic compounds comprise the discipline known as organic chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Film bulk acoustic wave resonators have demonstrated great potential in the detection of volatile organic compounds owing to their high sensitivity, miniature size, low power consumption, capacity for integration, and other beneficial characteristics. (researchgate.net)
  • Here, we report a convenient and reliable method for functionalizing the surfaces of film bulk acoustic wave resonators with hydrophobins via self-assembly to enable highly sensitive and polarity sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds. (researchgate.net)
  • The Fermion: MEMS Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Gas Detection Sensor (Breakout, 1-500ppm) utilizes cutting-edge microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. (robotshop.com)
  • Bacteria and mould living on materials saturated with water bio degrade these substrate materials and in the process release small of volatile chemicals, fungal fragment and spores. (me.uk)
  • Some penicillia are able to produce geosmin, a volatile compound giving fungal or earthy odour to wine. (me.uk)
  • In the present study, bacterial and fungal diversity, as well as volatile profiles, of ready-to-eat Portuguese Painho de Porco Preto fermented sausages manufactured by two artisanal producers in the districts of Beja (producer A) and Evora (producer B) were studied. (univpm.it)
  • Results showed that plants release higher amounts of volatile molecules and produce more specific blends of odors when they are attacked by insects compared to when they are attacked by slugs. (usda.gov)
  • Toluene, for example, is ranked fourth of all volatile organic compounds in terms of overall contribution to ozone production in northern Europe, behind butane, ethane and ethanol, based on a recent trajectory model calculation by Derwent et al. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Experiments conducted using various concentrations of five volatile organic compounds possessing different polarities demonstrated that the hydrophobin coating enhanced the responsivity of the proposed sensor. (researchgate.net)
  • This hypothesis was tested based on phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS region, morphological characters of basidiomes and pure cultures, growth rates and optimum growth temperature experiments, mycelial confrontation tests, enzyme activity tests and volatile organic compound (VOC) production. (springer.com)
  • They are highly inert, providing excellent peak shape for a wide range of compounds. (fishersci.com)
  • During the whole period of investigation, the concentration of most of the compounds (except acetone and IPA) was found to be lower than the factory-surrounding air quality standard of Taiwan, but in some cases it was higher than the AALG (ambient air level goal). (aaqr.org)
  • Volatile organic compounds may also arise through indirect metabolic effects. (me.uk)
  • Self-assemblage between organic ligands and metal ion forms MOFs. (nanochemres.org)
  • Through this structure, MOFs are given open metal sites within the skeleton, organic functioning, great mechanical and thermal stability, and customizable options. (nanochemres.org)
  • The significant advantages of MOF-based compounds in component adjustment and structural enhancement are reflected in the development of MOFs derivatives [6-11]. (nanochemres.org)
  • Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. (usgs.gov)
  • Compounds found in every sample and with the highest concentrations were 2-propanol, alpha-pinene and toluene. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Volatile organic compounds that are classified as hazardous materials are regulated by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration while being transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term volatile organic compound (VOC) is poorly defined because volatility is subjective. (aqmd.gov)
  • Metal-organic frameworks as porous materials are highly advantageous over other porous carriers like mesoporous silica or zeolites. (nanochemres.org)
  • Metal-organic frameworks (MOF) possess appealing structures and usages including high surface area, homogenous structured nanoscale cavities, and excellent thermal stability. (nanochemres.org)
  • Such measurements in workplace air are of importance because of the known toxic effects of many such compounds. (astm.org)
  • The CARB revised the definition of "Volatile Organic Compounds" used in their consumer products regulations, based on the committee's findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superior inertness ensures excellent peak shape and sensitivity, especially for highly active or difficult-to-analyze compounds. (fishersci.com)
  • Molecular phylogenetic analysis, tests on growth characteristics, enzyme assays, and comparative analysis of volatile compounds, were carried out for this purpose. (springer.com)
  • Optimize volatile organics analysis with this low-bleed, midpolarity GC column with high thermal stability. (fishersci.com)
  • TraceGOLD TG-624SilMS GC Columns provide high thermal stability with maximum temperatures up to 320°C, which is ideal for volatile organics analysis. (fishersci.com)
  • It is based on the use of a test chamber and subsequent analysis of an air sample for organic compounds by GC-MS respectively HPLC. (iso.org)
  • This method assumes that the volatile matter is either water or organic. (iso.org)
  • The People's Republic of China defines a VOC as those compounds that have "originated from automobiles, industrial production and civilian use, burning of all types of fuels, storage and transportation of oils, fitment finish, coating for furniture and machines, cooking oil fume and fine particles (PM 2.5)", and similar sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les malformations congénitales seraient en augmentation dans les zones de production pétrolière au Nigéria, mais peu de données de référence sont disponibles. (who.int)
  • This may be due to compounds present in insect and slug saliva that react differently with plants, or to the specificities of insect and slug damage: insect fed more on small young leaves, making multitudes of small holes in the leaves while slugs preferred to feed on old leaves, making larger holes in the leaves. (usda.gov)
  • Requirements for vapor recovery systems for volatile organic compounds (VOC) were introduced in Sweden as a condition for loading and unloading volatile products to and from ships when MARPOL, Annex VI, entered into force (19 May 2005). (transportstyrelsen.se)
  • Tested compounds included 8 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 5 oxy BVOCs, which are generally either directly emitted (1,8-cineol, linalool, bornylacetate) or oxidation products (nopinone and 4-methylacetylcyclohexene). (copernicus.org)