Sounds used in animal communication.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
Sexual activities of animals.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.
Patients' guests and rules for visiting.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The ability to differentiate tones.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (1/1823)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (2/1823)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

The sexually dimorphic expression of androgen receptors in the song nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale of the zebra finch develops independently of gonadal steroids. (3/1823)

The development of sex differences in brain structure and brain chemistry ("brain sex") of vertebrates is frequently thought to depend entirely on gonadal steroids such as androgens and estrogens, which act on the brain at the genomic level by binding to intracellular transcription factors, the androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs). These hormone actions are thought to shift the brain from a monomorphic to a dimorphic phenotype. One prominent such example is the nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale (HVc) of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), a set of cells in the caudal forebrain involved in the control of singing. In contrast with previous studies using nonspecific cell staining techniques, the size and neuron number of the HVc measured by the distribution of AR mRNA is already sexually dimorphic on posthatching day (P)9. No ARs or ERs are expressed in the HVc before day 9. Slice cultures of the caudal forebrain of P5 animals show that the sexually dimorphic expression of AR mRNA in HVc is independent of the direct action of steroids on this nucleus or any of its immediate presynaptic or postsynaptic partners. Therefore, gonadal steroids do not appear to be directly involved in the initial sex difference in the expression pattern of AR mRNA, size, and neuron number of the HVc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the initial steroid-independent size and its subsequent steroid-independent growth by extension linearly with the extension of the forebrain explains 60-70% of the masculine development of the HVc. Thus, we suggest that epigenetic factors such as the gonadal steroids modify but cannot overwrite the sex difference in HVc volume determined autonomously in the brain.  (+info)

Multifunctional laryngeal motoneurons: an intracellular study in the cat. (4/1823)

We studied the patterns of membrane potential changes in laryngeal motoneurons (LMs) during vocalization, coughing, swallowing, sneezing, and the aspiration reflex in decerebrate paralyzed cats. LMs, identified by antidromic activation from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were expiratory (ELMs) or inspiratory (ILMs) cells that depolarized during their respective phases in eupnea. During vocalization, most ELMs depolarized and most ILMs hyperpolarized. Some ILMs depolarized slightly during vocalization. During coughing, ELMs depolarized abruptly at the transition from the inspiratory to the expiratory phase. In one-third of ELMs, this depolarization persisted throughout the abdominal burst. In the remainder ("type A"), it was interrupted by a transient repolarization. ILMs exhibited a membrane potential trajectory opposite to that of type A ELMs during coughing. During swallowing, the membrane potential of ELMs decreased transiently at the onset of the hypoglossal burst and then depolarized strongly during the burst. ILMs hyperpolarized sharply at the onset of the burst and depolarized as hypoglossal activity ceased. During sneezing, ELMs and ILMs exhibited membrane potential changes similar to those of type A ELMs and ILMs during coughing. During the aspiration reflex, ELMs and ILMs exhibited bell-shaped hyperpolarization and depolarization trajectories, respectively. We conclude that central drives to LMs, consisting of complex combinations of excitation and inhibition, vary during vocalization and upper airway defensive reflexes. This study provides data for analysis of the neuronal networks that produce these various behaviors and analysis of network reorganization caused by changes in dynamic connections between the respiratory and nonrespiratory neuronal networks.  (+info)

Seasonal neuroplasticity in the songbird telencephalon: a role for melatonin. (5/1823)

Neuroplasticity in the vocal control system of songbirds is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in circulating testosterone. These seasonally plastic telencephalic structures are implicated in the learning and production of song in songbirds. The role of the indoleamine melatonin in seasonal adaptations in birds has remained unclear. In this experiment, European starlings were castrated to remove the neuromodulating activity of gonadal steroids and were exposed to different photoperiods to induce reproductive states characteristic of different seasonal conditions. Long days increased the volume of the song-control nucleus high vocal center compared with its volume on short days. Exogenous melatonin attenuated the long-day-induced volumetric increase in high vocal center and also decreased the volume of another song-control nucleus, area X. This effect was observed regardless of reproductive state. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of a role for melatonin in functional plasticity within the central nervous system of vertebrates.  (+info)

Ultrasonic vocalizations elicit orienting and associative reactions in preweanling mice. (6/1823)

On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 13, 90 male Swiss CD-1 mice were tested for orientation to 3 intensities of recorded ultrasounds while climbing an inclined wire grid surface. Motor responses and vocalization to replayed ultrasounds (55-75 kHz) of 20-, 40-, and 60-dB SPL indicated an intensity dependence. In Experiment 2, 138 pups were exposed to either contingent or noncontingent pairings of recorded ultrasounds of 55-75 kHz, averaging 40 dB, and mild inescapable footshocks, or taped vocalizations or footshocks only on PND 12, 14, or 16. At PND 18, subjects were tested for passive avoidance following exposure to the taped ultrasounds only upon entry into the dark side of a black-white compartment. Results suggested only overall, nonspecific effects of pretreatment to elicit responses antagonistic to motor activity. In Experiment 3, 36 pups at PND 15 were tested for passive avoidance with the ultrasound recordings of 40- or 80-dB onset upon entry to the dark compartment; a third group had no ultrasound exposure. A significant intensity effect confirmed that the ultrasounds had prepotent properties.  (+info)

Song-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein in the songbird brain. (7/1823)

We have investigated the participation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the response of the songbird brain to a natural auditory stimulus, a conspecific song. The cells in the two song control nuclei, the higher vocal center (HVC) and area X of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), were intensely stained with an anti-CREB monoclonal antibody. Double-labeling studies showed that CREB immunoreactivity was detected only in area X-projecting neurons in the HVC. The cloned CREB cDNA from zebra finches (zCREB) is highly homologous to mammalian delta CREB. Phosphorylation of zCREB at Ser119 in area X-projecting HVC neurons was induced by hearing tape-recorded conspecific songs of zebra finches, but not by birdsongs of another species or white noise. These results raise the possibility that zCREB plays a crucial role in the sensory process of song learning.  (+info)

Gradual emergence of song selectivity in sensorimotor structures of the male zebra finch song system. (8/1823)

Birdsong is a model system for understanding how motor and sensory information interact to coordinate behavior. Neurons in one potential site of sensorimotor integration, the forebrain nucleus HVc, have premotor activity during singing and auditory activity during playback of the bird's own song. It is not known whether the high degree of selectivity for learned features of song observed during playback arises in HVc or also in structures afferent to HVc. We recorded in anesthetized adult zebra finches from two structures afferent to HVc: either the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) or the L1 subdivision of the field L complex, and simultaneously from a second electrode in HVc. Correlations in the bursting pattern of ongoing activity of HVc and NIf recordings were observed; these helped to localize the first electrode to NIf recording sites. Most NIf neurons exhibited song-selective responses, but as a population, they were less selective than were HVc neurons. Most L1 neurons were not song-selective. NIf neurons have also been reported to have premotor activity during singing; thus, NIf is another potential site of auditory-motor interactions in the song system. Evidence gathered to date suggests that those brain areas in the passerine forebrain that are recruited during song production also display the most selective learned auditory responses.  (+info)

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Sound spectrography, also known as voice spectrography, is a diagnostic procedure in which a person's speech sounds are analyzed and displayed as a visual pattern called a spectrogram. This test is used to evaluate voice disorders, speech disorders, and hearing problems. It can help identify patterns of sound production and reveal any abnormalities in the vocal tract or hearing mechanism.

During the test, a person is asked to produce specific sounds or sentences, which are then recorded and analyzed by a computer program. The program breaks down the sound waves into their individual frequencies and amplitudes, and displays them as a series of horizontal lines on a graph. The resulting spectrogram shows how the frequencies and amplitudes change over time, providing valuable information about the person's speech patterns and any underlying problems.

Sound spectrography is a useful tool for diagnosing and treating voice and speech disorders, as well as for researching the acoustic properties of human speech. It can also be used to evaluate hearing aids and other assistive listening devices, and to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for hearing loss and other auditory disorders.

Ultrasonics is a branch of physics and acoustics that deals with the study and application of sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper limit of human hearing, typically 20 kilohertz or above. In the field of medicine, ultrasonics is commonly used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications through the use of medical ultrasound.

Diagnostic medical ultrasound, also known as sonography, uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs, tissues, and bodily structures. A transducer probe emits and receives sound waves that bounce off body structures and reflect back to the probe, creating echoes that are then processed into an image. This technology is widely used in various medical specialties, such as obstetrics and gynecology, cardiology, radiology, and vascular medicine, to diagnose a range of conditions and monitor the health of organs and tissues.

Therapeutic ultrasound, on the other hand, uses lower-frequency sound waves to generate heat within body tissues, promoting healing, increasing local blood flow, and reducing pain and inflammation. This modality is often used in physical therapy and rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries, joint pain, and musculoskeletal disorders.

In summary, ultrasonics in medicine refers to the use of high-frequency sound waves for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, providing valuable information about internal body structures and facilitating healing processes.

Animal communication is the transmission of information from one animal to another. This can occur through a variety of means, including visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical signals. For example, animals may use body postures, facial expressions, vocalizations, touch, or the release of chemicals (such as pheromones) to convey messages to conspecifics.

Animal communication can serve a variety of functions, including coordinating group activities, warning others of danger, signaling reproductive status, and establishing social hierarchies. In some cases, animal communication may also involve the use of sophisticated cognitive abilities, such as the ability to understand and interpret complex signals or to learn and remember the meanings of different signals.

It is important to note that while animals are capable of communicating with one another, this does not necessarily mean that they have language in the same sense that humans do. Language typically involves a system of arbitrary symbols that are used to convey meaning, and it is not clear to what extent animals are able to use such symbolic systems. However, many animals are certainly able to communicate effectively using their own species-specific signals and behaviors.

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of sound, its production, transmission, and effects. In a medical context, acoustics may refer to the use of sound waves in medical procedures such as:

1. Diagnostic ultrasound: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues. It is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor fetal development, but it can also be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and musculoskeletal injuries.
2. Therapeutic ultrasound: This technique uses low-frequency sound waves to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is often used to treat soft tissue injuries, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
3. Otology: Acoustics also plays a crucial role in the field of otology, which deals with the study and treatment of hearing and balance disorders. The shape, size, and movement of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear all affect how sound waves are transmitted and perceived. Abnormalities in any of these structures can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, or balance problems.

In summary, acoustics is an important field of study in medicine that has applications in diagnosis, therapy, and the understanding of various medical conditions related to sound and hearing.

In medical terms, the term "voice" refers to the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing out from the lungs during speech, singing, or breathing. It is a complex process that involves coordination between respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems. Any damage or disorder in these systems can affect the quality, pitch, loudness, and flexibility of the voice.

The medical field dealing with voice disorders is called Phoniatrics or Voice Medicine. Voice disorders can present as hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, strain, weakness, or a complete loss of voice, which can significantly impact communication, social interaction, and quality of life.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Batrachoidiformes is an order of primarily marine ray-finned fish that includes the genera Batrachoides, Halophryne, Porichthys, and Thalassophryne. These fish are characterized by having a stout body, large head, and strong, bony mouthparts. They are often called "toadfish" due to their warty skin and toad-like appearance. Some species have the ability to produce sounds, which they use for communication and mating. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea.

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

Echolocation is a biological sonar system used by certain animals to navigate and locate objects in their environment. It is most commonly associated with bats and dolphins, although some other species such as shrews and cave-dwelling birds also use this method.

In echolocation, the animal emits a series of sounds, often in the form of clicks or chirps, which travel through the air or water until they hit an object. The sound then reflects off the object and returns to the animal, providing information about the distance, size, shape, and location of the object.

By analyzing the time delay between the emission of the sound and the reception of the echo, as well as the frequency changes in the echo caused by the movement of the object or the animal itself, the animal can create a mental image of its surroundings and navigate through it with great precision.

Auditory pathways refer to the series of structures and nerves in the body that are involved in processing sound and transmitting it to the brain for interpretation. The process begins when sound waves enter the ear and cause vibrations in the eardrum, which then move the bones in the middle ear. These movements stimulate hair cells in the cochlea, a spiral-shaped structure in the inner ear, causing them to release neurotransmitters that activate auditory nerve fibers.

The auditory nerve carries these signals to the brainstem, where they are relayed through several additional structures before reaching the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain. Here, the signals are processed and interpreted as sounds, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other environmental noises.

Damage or dysfunction at any point along the auditory pathway can lead to hearing loss or impairment.

In the context of medicine, particularly in the field of auscultation (the act of listening to the internal sounds of the body), "sound" refers to the noises produced by the functioning of the heart, lungs, and other organs. These sounds are typically categorized into two types:

1. **Bradyacoustic sounds**: These are low-pitched sounds that are heard when there is a turbulent flow of blood or when two body structures rub against each other. An example would be the heart sound known as "S1," which is produced by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of systole (contraction of the heart's ventricles).

2. **High-pitched sounds**: These are sharper, higher-frequency sounds that can provide valuable diagnostic information. An example would be lung sounds, which include breath sounds like those heard during inhalation and exhalation, as well as adventitious sounds like crackles, wheezes, and pleural friction rubs.

It's important to note that these medical "sounds" are not the same as the everyday definition of sound, which refers to the sensation produced by stimulation of the auditory system by vibrations.

The auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing and analyzing sounds, including speech. It is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, specifically within the Heschl's gyrus and the surrounding areas. The auditory cortex receives input from the auditory nerve, which carries sound information from the inner ear to the brain.

The auditory cortex is divided into several subregions that are responsible for different aspects of sound processing, such as pitch, volume, and location. These regions work together to help us recognize and interpret sounds in our environment, allowing us to communicate with others and respond appropriately to our surroundings. Damage to the auditory cortex can result in hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Songbirds" is a common name given to a group of birds known for their vocal abilities, rather than a term used in medical definitions. Songbirds, also known as passerines, are a diverse group of more than 5,000 species of small to medium-sized birds. They belong to the order Passeriformes and include familiar birds such as sparrows, finches, robins, and warblers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please let me know and I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "finches" generally refers to a group of small-sized songbirds that belong to the family Fringillidae. They are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition. Finches are commonly kept as pets and are known for their melodious songs and vibrant colors. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

While I'm an assistant and not a doctor, I can share that laughter is not typically defined in a medical context. However, it's often studied in the field of psychology and health. Laughter is a human behavior characterized by involuntary vocalizations and facial expressions, often associated with positive emotions and humor.

From a physiological perspective, when we laugh, our bodies respond with a series of reactions. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract, causing us to breathe in and out rapidly, which can lead to increased heart rate and blood pressure. At the same time, the brain releases endorphins, which are chemicals associated with feelings of happiness and well-being.

In a medical context, laughter is sometimes used as a therapeutic tool. Laughter therapy, for instance, is used to promote physical and emotional health through intentional laughter exercises. It's believed that laughter can help reduce stress, improve mood, boost the immune system, and alleviate pain.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound stimuli. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and neural processing in individuals, particularly those who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests.

There are several types of AEP tests, including:

1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) or Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the brainstem in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess the integrity of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory neuropathy and retrocochlear lesions.
2. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess higher-level auditory processing, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory processing disorders and central auditory dysfunction.
3. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a complex stimulus, such as speech. It is often used to assess language processing and cognitive function, and can help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities and dementia.

Overall, AEP tests are valuable tools for assessing hearing and neural function in individuals who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests or who have complex neurological conditions.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

Speech recognition software, also known as voice recognition software, is a type of technology that converts spoken language into written text. It utilizes sophisticated algorithms and artificial intelligence to identify and transcribe spoken words, enabling users to interact with computers and digital devices using their voice rather than typing or touching the screen. This technology has various applications in healthcare, including medical transcription, patient communication, and hands-free documentation, which can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and accessibility for patients and healthcare professionals alike.

Pitch perception is the ability to identify and discriminate different frequencies or musical notes. It is the way our auditory system interprets and organizes sounds based on their highness or lowness, which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. A higher pitch corresponds to a higher frequency, while a lower pitch corresponds to a lower frequency. Pitch perception is an important aspect of hearing and is crucial for understanding speech, enjoying music, and localizing sounds in our environment. It involves complex processing in the inner ear and auditory nervous system.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parrots" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that are known for their ability to mimic human speech. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

"High vocal center" is a term used in the field of speech-language pathology and vocal pedagogy to describe the position of the larynx (voice box) during phonation (voice production). A higher vocal center refers to a position of the larynx that is located more upward and forward in the throat. This position can result in a brighter, more focused sound quality and can be associated with certain vocal techniques used in singing and speaking.

It's important to note that having a high or low vocal center is not inherently good or bad, but rather it depends on the individual's vocal needs and goals. A speech-language pathologist or voice teacher can help assess and provide guidance on appropriate vocal techniques for an individual's specific needs.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Crying is not a medical term itself, but it can be a symptom or a response to various medical and emotional conditions. In a broader sense, crying refers to the production of tears and the audible sounds that accompany this action due to strong emotions such as sadness, happiness, frustration, or pain.

From a physiological standpoint, crying involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to the production of tears by the lacrimal glands and the contraction of various facial muscles responsible for the expression of emotion. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for the initiation of crying, leading to increased tear production and a decrease in heart rate.

There are several types of crying:

1. Emotional crying: This type of crying is a response to strong emotional states such as sadness, joy, frustration, or anger. It can be accompanied by sobbing, which involves deep, convulsive breaths and audible sounds.
2. Reflex crying: This occurs when the eyes are irritated due to foreign particles, bright lights, or other environmental factors. The reflex is designed to protect the eyes by producing tears to wash away the irritant.
3. Basal tearing: This type of tear production is continuous and helps keep the eyes lubricated and protected from drying out. It occurs at a low rate throughout the day and is not typically associated with crying as an emotional response.

In summary, while crying is not a medical term per se, it can be indicative of various emotional or physical states that may warrant medical attention. For instance, excessive or inappropriate crying might be a sign of underlying neurological or psychological conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it becomes a concern.

1. Mutism (also known as Selective Mutism) is a psychological disorder where a person becomes unable to speak in specific situations or around certain people, despite having normal language skills. It's most commonly diagnosed in children and can lead to significant distress and impairment in social communication and academic performance. The exact cause of mutism isn't well understood, but it's believed to be related to anxiety and social phobias.
2. In a medical context, Mutism may also refer to a symptom characterized by the loss of speech due to neurological or psychological conditions, such as after a stroke or head injury, or in response to severe emotional trauma. This is different from Selective Mutism, which is a specific anxiety disorder that occurs in certain situations and not others.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

Pattern recognition in the context of physiology refers to the ability to identify and interpret specific patterns or combinations of physiological variables or signals that are characteristic of certain physiological states, conditions, or functions. This process involves analyzing data from various sources such as vital signs, biomarkers, medical images, or electrophysiological recordings to detect meaningful patterns that can provide insights into the underlying physiology or pathophysiology of a given condition.

Physiological pattern recognition is an essential component of clinical decision-making and diagnosis, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify subtle changes in physiological function that may indicate the presence of a disease or disorder. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, as well as to guide the development of new therapies and medical technologies.

Pattern recognition algorithms and techniques are often used in physiological signal processing and analysis to automate the identification and interpretation of patterns in large datasets. These methods can help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of physiological pattern recognition, enabling more personalized and precise approaches to healthcare.

Social isolation, in the context of health and medicine, refers to the lack of social connections, interactions, or engagement with other people or communities. It is a state of being separated from others, lacking companionship or meaningful communication, which can lead to feelings of loneliness and disconnection. Social isolation can be self-imposed or imposed by external factors such as mobility issues, loss of loved ones, or discrimination. Prolonged social isolation has been linked to various negative health outcomes, including mental health disorders, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic conditions like heart disease and stroke.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, "generalization of response" refers to the phenomenon where an individual responds in a similar way to different but related stimuli, situations or conditions. This is a key concept in learning theories and behavioral psychology.

When a person learns a new response to a specific stimulus, they may eventually apply this same response to other similar stimuli. For example, if a person learns to associate a bell (stimulus) with food (unconditioned stimulus), they will salivate (response) to the sound of the bell alone. Over time, this conditioned response may generalize to other sounds that are similar to the bell.

Generalization of response is considered a natural and important part of learning and adaptation. However, in some cases, it can also lead to maladaptive behaviors or phobias, where an individual responds excessively or inappropriately to stimuli that are only remotely related to the original conditioned stimulus.

Vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are specialized bands of muscle, membrane, and connective tissue located within the larynx (voice box). They are essential for speech, singing, and other sounds produced by the human voice. The vocal cords vibrate when air from the lungs is passed through them, creating sound waves that vary in pitch and volume based on the tension, length, and mass of the vocal cords. These sound waves are then further modified by the resonance chambers of the throat, nose, and mouth to produce speech and other vocalizations.

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

Language development refers to the process by which children acquire the ability to understand and communicate through spoken, written, or signed language. This complex process involves various components including phonology (sound system), semantics (meaning of words and sentences), syntax (sentence structure), and pragmatics (social use of language). Language development begins in infancy with cooing and babbling and continues through early childhood and beyond, with most children developing basic conversational skills by the age of 4-5 years. However, language development can continue into adolescence and even adulthood as individuals learn new languages or acquire more advanced linguistic skills. Factors that can influence language development include genetics, environment, cognition, and social interactions.

Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations in the air or other mediums and translating them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. In medical terms, hearing is defined as the sense of sound perception, which is mediated by the ear and interpreted by the brain. It involves a complex series of processes, including the conduction of sound waves through the outer ear to the eardrum, the vibration of the middle ear bones, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear, which stimulates hair cells to send electrical signals to the auditory nerve and ultimately to the brain. Hearing allows us to communicate with others, appreciate music and sounds, and detect danger or important events in our environment.

To the best of my knowledge, there is no medical definition for "courtship" as it is a term that is more commonly used in social and cultural contexts rather than in the field of medicine. Courtship generally refers to the period of time during which two people engage in various social activities to get to know each other and determine whether they are compatible before deciding to start a romantic relationship or get married.

However, it's worth noting that some aspects of courtship, such as dating and forming intimate relationships, can have implications for mental and physical health. For example, having positive and satisfying relationships is associated with better mental and physical health outcomes, while being in abusive or unhealthy relationships can negatively impact one's well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parakeets" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to certain types of small to medium-sized parrots, particularly those with long tail feathers. The term is not associated with medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to animals or pets, I would be happy to try to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Lemur" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name that refers to primates belonging to the infraorder Lemuriformes. They are native to Madagascar and are divided into five families: Cheirogaleidae (dwarf lemurs), Daubentoniidae (aye-aye), Indriidae (indris, sifakas, and avahis), Lepilemuridae (sportive lemurs), and Lemuridae (true lemurs). If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Echolalia is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in neurology and psychology. It refers to the repetition of words or phrases spoken by another person, mimicking their speech in a near identical manner. This behavior is often observed in individuals with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Echolalia can be either immediate or delayed. Immediate echolalia occurs when an individual repeats the words or phrases immediately after they are spoken by someone else. Delayed echolalia, on the other hand, involves the repetition of words or phrases that were heard at an earlier time.

Echolalia is not necessarily a pathological symptom and can be a normal part of language development in young children who are learning to speak. However, when it persists beyond the age of 3-4 years or occurs in older individuals with developmental disorders, it may indicate difficulties with initiating spontaneous speech or forming original thoughts and ideas.

In some cases, echolalia can serve as a communication tool for individuals with ASD who have limited verbal abilities. By repeating words or phrases that they have heard before, they may be able to convey their needs or emotions in situations where they are unable to generate appropriate language on their own.

Maternal deprivation is a psychoanalytic term that refers to the lack of adequate emotional nurturing and care from a mother or primary caregiver during early childhood. It can also refer to the physical separation of a child from their mother shortly after birth, which can lead to attachment issues and developmental delays if not addressed promptly.

The concept of maternal deprivation was first introduced by British pediatrician and psychoanalyst John Bowlby in his 1951 book "Maternal Care and Mental Health." Bowlby argued that the early bond between a child and their mother is critical for healthy emotional and social development, and that prolonged separation or inadequate care can lead to serious psychological consequences.

It's important to note that maternal deprivation can also occur in cases where the mother is physically present but emotionally unavailable or neglectful, and that fathers, other family members, and caregivers can also play a critical role in providing emotional nurturing and support to children.

Speech acoustics is a subfield of acoustic phonetics that deals with the physical properties of speech sounds, such as frequency, amplitude, and duration. It involves the study of how these properties are produced by the vocal tract and perceived by the human ear. Speech acousticians use various techniques to analyze and measure the acoustic signals produced during speech, including spectral analysis, formant tracking, and pitch extraction. This information is used in a variety of applications, such as speech recognition, speaker identification, and hearing aid design.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

"Melopsittacus" is the genus name for the species of bird commonly known as the Budgerigar or Parakeet. It is the only species in its genus and belongs to the Psittacidae family, which includes parrots. The Melopsittacus undulatus is a small, long-tailed parrot native to Australia, known for its bright green, yellow, or blue feathers and sociable behavior. They are popular pets due to their ease of care, playful personalities, and ability to mimic human speech.

Sensory feedback refers to the information that our senses (such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) provide to our nervous system about our body's interaction with its environment. This information is used by our brain and muscles to make adjustments in movement, posture, and other functions to maintain balance, coordination, and stability.

For example, when we walk, our sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints provide feedback to our brain about the position and movement of our limbs. This information is used to adjust our muscle contractions and make small corrections in our gait to maintain balance and avoid falling. Similarly, when we touch a hot object, sensory receptors in our skin send signals to our brain that activate the withdrawal reflex, causing us to quickly pull away our hand.

In summary, sensory feedback is an essential component of our nervous system's ability to monitor and control our body's movements and responses to the environment.

I'm not a doctor, but I can tell you that singing is typically not considered a medical term. However, it does have relevance to various medical fields such as otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine) and speech-language pathology. In these contexts, singing can be described as the controlled production of vocal sound through the vibration of the vocal folds (vocal cords) in the larynx (voice box), combined with the manipulation of pitch, volume, and duration using the respiratory system, articulatory structures (tongue, lips, jaw, etc.), and phonatory control.

It's important to note that singing can also be used as a therapeutic tool in various medical settings, such as voice therapy for individuals with voice disorders or as a form of music therapy for patients with neurological conditions or mental health disorders.

"Papio ursinus" is the scientific name for the Chacma Baboon, which is a species of baboon that is native to southern Africa. They are Old World monkeys that are found in various habitats such as savannas, woodlands, and mountainous regions. Chacma Baboons are known for their social structure, intelligence, and adaptability. They have a distinctive dog-like face with a heavy build and a dog-like muzzle. Adult males can weigh between 33 to 90 kg (73 to 198 lb), while adult females are smaller and weigh between 15 to 27 kg (33 to 59 lb). Chacma Baboons primarily feed on plants, but they also eat insects, small vertebrates, and fruits. They are an important species in the ecosystem and play a significant role in seed dispersal and nutrient cycling.

'Infant behavior' is not a medical term per se, but it does fall under the purview of child development and pediatrics. It generally refers to the actions or reactions of an infant (a child between birth and 12 months) in response to internal states (e.g., hunger, discomfort, fatigue) and external stimuli (e.g., people, objects, events).

Infant behavior can encompass a wide range of aspects including:

1. Reflexes: Automatic responses to certain stimuli, such as the rooting reflex (turning head towards touch on cheek) or startle reflex (abrupt muscle contraction).
2. Motor skills: Control and coordination of movements, from simple ones like lifting the head to complex ones like crawling.
3. Social-emotional development: Responses to social interactions, forming attachments, expressing emotions.
4. Communication: Using cries, coos, gestures, and later, words to communicate needs and feelings.
5. Cognitive development: Problem-solving skills, memory, attention, and perception.

Understanding typical infant behavior is crucial for parental education, childcare, early intervention when there are concerns, and overall child development research.

In the context of medicine and biology, instinct is not typically used as a medical term. However, in general terms, instinct refers to a complex, adaptive behavior that is inherited and is not based on learning or reasoning. It's a genetically programmed response to certain stimuli that helps an organism survive and reproduce.

In psychology, instincts are often considered to be innate drives or motivations that underlie behavior. In this context, the term "instinct" may be used in a medical or clinical setting to describe certain behaviors or responses that are thought to have a strong biological basis and are not primarily learned or voluntary.

It's important to note that the concept of instinct is complex and can be interpreted differently across various fields of study, so any definition may depend on the context in which it is being used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Passeriformes" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order of birds that includes over half of all bird species. Passeriformes are often referred to as perching birds or songbirds because many of them have specialized feet for perching on branches and a wide variety of vocalization capabilities. Examples of Passeriformes include sparrows, finches, robins, and crows.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

The inferior colliculi are a pair of rounded eminences located in the midbrain, specifically in the tectum of the mesencephalon. They play a crucial role in auditory processing and integration. The inferior colliculi receive inputs from various sources, including the cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, and cortical areas. They then send their outputs to the medial geniculate body, which is a part of the thalamus that relays auditory information to the auditory cortex.

In summary, the inferior colliculi are important structures in the auditory pathway that help process and integrate auditory information before it reaches the cerebral cortex for further analysis and perception.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tape recording" is not a medical term. It refers to the process of recording sound or video onto magnetic tape using a device called a tape recorder. This technology was widely used in the past for audio and video recordings, but it has been largely replaced by digital recording methods in recent years. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be a misunderstanding. "Visitors to patients" is not a medical term or concept in and of itself. However, the practice of visiting patients in a healthcare setting is an important aspect of patient-centered care that can contribute to positive health outcomes.

In this context, we could define "visitors to patients" as individuals who come to see or accompany a patient during their hospitalization or visit to a medical facility. Visitors may include family members, friends, or other support persons who provide emotional and social support to the patient, which can contribute to improved mental health, reduced anxiety, and better coping mechanisms during treatment and recovery.

It's important to note that healthcare facilities often have specific policies regarding visitation hours and guidelines to ensure the safety and well-being of both patients and visitors. These policies may include restrictions on visiting hours, the number of visitors allowed at a time, and requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) during infectious disease outbreaks.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Chloroquinolinols are a class of chemical compounds that contain a quinoline ring substituted with a chlorine atom and a hydroxy or alkoxy group. These compounds have various medical applications, particularly in the treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria. Chloroquine is one of the most well-known chloroquinolinols, which has been widely used as an antimalarial drug for many years. Other examples of chloroquinolinols include hydroxychloroquine and chloroxynol. These compounds have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, making them useful in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. However, they can also have side effects and potential toxicity, so their use must be carefully monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Respiratory physiological processes refer to the functions and mechanisms involved in respiration, which is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment. This process includes several steps:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, driven by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. External Respiration: The exchange of gases between the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
3. Transport of Gases: The circulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells to the body's tissues, while carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate ions in plasma or dissolved in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: The exchange of gases between the blood and the body's tissues. Oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the blood.
5. Cellular Respiration: The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into water, carbon dioxide, and energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

These processes are essential for maintaining life and are regulated to meet the body's changing metabolic needs.

The term "Killer Whale" is used in medical literature to describe an unusual and very rare phenomenon where a live newborn calf becomes lodged in the birth canal of a female whale (usually a species of baleen whale), leading to potential serious complications such as infection, injury, or even death for the mother if not resolved. This condition is also known as "whale entrapment" or "cesarean delivery candidate." It is not to be confused with the common name of the species Orcinus orca, which are actually the largest species of dolphin and not whales, but are often called "killer whales" due to their size and predatory behavior.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a region in the midbrain, surrounding the cerebral aqueduct (a narrow channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles within the brain). It is a column of neurons that plays a crucial role in the modulation of pain perception, cardiorespiratory regulation, and defensive behaviors. The PAG is involved in the descending pain modulatory system, where it receives input from various emotional and cognitive areas and sends output to the rostral ventromedial medulla, which in turn regulates nociceptive processing at the spinal cord level. Additionally, the PAG is implicated in the regulation of fear, anxiety, and stress responses, as well as sexual behavior and reward processing.

Anti-anxiety agents, also known as anxiolytics, are a class of medications used to manage symptoms of anxiety disorders. These drugs work by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain and promoting relaxation and calmness. They include several types of medications such as benzodiazepines, azapirone, antihistamines, and beta-blockers.

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed anti-anxiety agents. They work by enhancing the inhibitory effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).

Azapirones are a newer class of anti-anxiety agents that act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Buspirone (Buspar) is an example of this type of medication, which has fewer side effects and less potential for abuse compared to benzodiazepines.

Antihistamines are medications that are primarily used to treat allergies but can also have anti-anxiety effects due to their sedative properties. Examples include hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Beta-blockers are mainly used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions but can also help manage symptoms of anxiety such as rapid heartbeat, tremors, and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is an example of a beta-blocker used for this purpose.

It's important to note that anti-anxiety agents should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and potential for dependence or addiction. Additionally, these medications are often used in combination with psychotherapy and lifestyle modifications to manage anxiety disorders effectively.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "videotape recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Videotape recording is a general technology term that refers to the process of capturing and storing visual and/or audio content on magnetic tape in the form of a videocassette.

In a medical context, videotape recordings might be used for various purposes, such as documenting medical procedures or patient consultations, creating educational materials, or conducting research. However, the use of videotape recording in these situations would not change the fundamental meaning of the term.

I believe you are looking for a medical or scientific term that is related to elephants, as there is no medical definition for the word "elephants" itself. Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. They are native to Africa and Asia and are known for their long trunks, large ears, and tusks.

One possible connection between elephants and medicine is the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment. In the past, elephant ivory was used to make a variety of medical instruments, such as dental tools and surgical instruments. However, due to concerns about animal welfare and the illegal trade in elephant ivory, the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment has become increasingly rare.

Another possible connection between elephants and medicine is the study of their social behavior and communication, which may provide insights into human social behavior and mental health. For example, research has shown that elephants have complex social structures and exhibit behaviors such as empathy, cooperation, and mourning, which are also important aspects of human social and emotional functioning.

Overall, while there is no specific medical definition for "elephants," these fascinating animals have contributed to our understanding of biology, medicine, and human behavior in various ways.

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

Psychoacoustics is a branch of psychophysics that deals with the study of the psychological and physiological responses to sound. It involves understanding how people perceive, interpret, and react to different sounds, including speech, music, and environmental noises. This field combines knowledge from various areas such as psychology, acoustics, physics, and engineering to investigate the relationship between physical sound characteristics and human perception. Research in psychoacoustics has applications in fields like hearing aid design, noise control, music perception, and communication systems.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

"Theropithecus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that includes the extinct species "Theropithecus oswaldi" and the currently existing species "Theropithecus gelada." These monkeys are native to Africa and are known for their distinctive long, pointed canines in males. The term "Theropithecus" comes from the Greek words "ther," meaning beast, and "pithekos," meaning ape.

It is important to note that "Theropithecus" species are not to be confused with "Theropoda," which is a group of dinosaurs that includes modern birds and their extinct relatives. The similarity in the names is purely coincidental.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Voice quality, in the context of medicine and particularly in otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine), refers to the characteristic sound of an individual's voice that can be influenced by various factors. These factors include the vocal fold vibration, respiratory support, articulation, and any underlying medical conditions.

A change in voice quality might indicate a problem with the vocal folds or surrounding structures, neurological issues affecting the nerves that control vocal fold movement, or other medical conditions. Examples of terms used to describe voice quality include breathy, hoarse, rough, strained, or tense. A detailed analysis of voice quality is often part of a speech-language pathologist's assessment and can help in diagnosing and managing various voice disorders.

Automatism is a medical and legal term that refers to unconscious or involuntary behavior or actions that are performed without conscious awareness or control. In medicine, automatisms can occur in various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy, sleepwalking, or certain mental disorders. During an automatism episode, a person may appear to be awake and functioning, but they are not fully aware of their actions and may not remember them later.

In the legal context, automatism is often used as a defense in criminal cases, where it is argued that the defendant was not mentally responsible for their actions due to an involuntary automatism episode. However, the definition and application of automatism as a legal defense can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific circumstances of the case.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Agonistic behavior is a term used in ethology, the study of animal behavior, to describe interactions between individuals that are often competitive or hostile, but stop short of direct physical contact. These behaviors can include threats, displays, and counter-threats, as well as ritualized fighting. The term comes from the Greek word "agon," which means "competition" or "contest."

In a medical context, agonistic behavior might be used to describe competitive or hostile interactions between people, particularly in the context of mental health or psychiatric disorders. For example, a person with a personality disorder might exhibit agonistic behavior towards others as part of their pattern of manipulative or controlling behaviors. However, this is less common than the use of the term in ethology.

Stereotypic Movement Disorder is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of repetitive, often rhythmic and seemingly driven movements that are apparently purposeless. These movements may include body rocking, head banging, hand wringing, or complex whole-body movements. The movements interfere with normal activities and development, and they are not better explained by a neurological condition or another mental disorder. Stereotypic Movement Disorder can occur in individuals of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents. The exact cause of the disorder is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors, brain abnormalities, or environmental influences.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2B receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). These receptors are located on the cell membrane of certain cells, including neurons and other cell types in various organs.

The 5-HT2B receptor is involved in a variety of physiological functions, such as regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and sensory perception. In the cardiovascular system, activation of 5-HT2B receptors can lead to the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and changes in the extracellular matrix, which may contribute to heart valve abnormalities.

In the central nervous system, 5-HT2B receptors have been implicated in several neurological conditions, including migraine, depression, and schizophrenia. However, their precise roles in these disorders are not yet fully understood.

Pharmacologically targeting 5-HT2B receptors has led to the development of drugs for various indications, such as antimigraine medications (e.g., telcagepant) and potential treatments for heart failure (e.g., mavacamten). However, some 5-HT2B receptor agonists have also been associated with serious side effects, such as valvular heart disease, which has limited their clinical use.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

"Cercopithecus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that are commonly known as guenons. These monkeys are native to Africa and are characterized by their colorful fur, long tails, and distinctive facial features. They are agile animals that live in a variety of habitats, including forests, savannas, and mountains.

The term "Cercopithecus" is derived from the Greek words "kerkos," meaning tail, and "pithekos," meaning ape or monkey. This name reflects the long tails that are characteristic of these monkeys.

There are several species of guenons within the genus "Cercopithecus," including the vervet monkey, the grivet, the tantalus monkey, and the de Brazza's monkey, among others. These monkeys are important members of their ecosystems and play a key role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. They are also popular subjects of research due to their complex social structures and behaviors.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Central nervous system (CNS) sensitization refers to a state in which the CNS, specifically the brain and spinal cord, becomes increasingly hypersensitive to stimuli. This heightened sensitivity results in an amplified response to painful or non-painful stimuli.

In CNS sensitization, there is an increased responsiveness of neurons in the CNS, leading to a lower threshold for activation and an enhanced transmission of nociceptive (pain) signals. This can occur due to various factors such as tissue injury, inflammation, or nerve damage, which trigger changes in the nervous system that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain conditions.

CNS sensitization is associated with functional and structural reorganization within the CNS, including alterations in neurotransmitter release, ion channel function, and synaptic plasticity. These changes can result in long-term modifications in the processing and perception of pain, making it more difficult to manage and treat chronic pain conditions.

A pair bond, in the context of human and animal behavior, refers to a long-term emotional and social attachment between two individuals, usually characterized by a strong affection, shared activities, and often sexual interaction. In humans, this concept is often discussed in the context of romantic relationships and marriage. From a medical or scientific perspective, pair bonding involves neurological and hormonal processes that help to create and maintain the attachment, such as the release of oxytocin and vasopressin during physical touch and sexual activity. The strength and duration of pair bonds can vary widely between different species and individuals.

In the context of medicine, particularly in audiology and otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat specialty), "noise" is defined as unwanted or disturbing sound in the environment that can interfere with communication, rest, sleep, or cognitive tasks. It can also refer to sounds that are harmful to hearing, such as loud machinery noises or music, which can cause noise-induced hearing loss if exposure is prolonged or at high enough levels.

In some medical contexts, "noise" may also refer to non-specific signals or interfering factors in diagnostic tests and measurements that can make it difficult to interpret results accurately.

"Animal Flight" is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is studied in the field of comparative physiology and biomechanics, which are disciplines related to medicine. Animal flight refers to the ability of certain animal species to move through the air by flapping their wings or other appendages. This mode of locomotion is most commonly associated with birds, bats, and insects, but some mammals such as flying squirrels and sugar gliders are also capable of gliding through the air.

The study of animal flight involves understanding the biomechanics of how animals generate lift and propulsion, as well as the physiological adaptations that allow them to sustain flight. For example, birds have lightweight skeletons and powerful chest muscles that enable them to flap their wings rapidly and generate lift. Bats, on the other hand, use a more complex system of membranes and joints to manipulate their wings and achieve maneuverability in flight.

Understanding animal flight has important implications for the design of aircraft and other engineering systems, as well as for our broader understanding of how animals have evolved to adapt to their environments.

'Nesting behavior' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it can be described as a type of behavior often observed in pregnant women, particularly close to their due date, where they have an intense desire to clean and organize their living space in preparation for the arrival of their baby. This behavior is considered a normal part of pregnancy and is not usually regarded as a medical condition.

In some cases, healthcare providers may use the term 'nesting' to describe a symptom of certain mental health disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Mania, where an individual may experience an intense urge to clean and organize their environment, but it is often accompanied by other symptoms that interfere with daily functioning.

Therefore, the definition of 'nesting behavior' can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Diazepam is a medication from the benzodiazepine class, which typically has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Its medical uses include the treatment of anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, end-of-life sedation, seizures, muscle spasms, and as a premedication for medical procedures. Diazepam is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, rectal gel, and injectable solutions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in the modulation of nerve impulses in the brain, producing a sedative effect.

It is important to note that diazepam can be habit-forming and has several potential side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to the prescribed dosage to minimize the risk of adverse effects and dependence.

Anomia is a language disorder that affects a person's ability to name objects, places, or people. It is often caused by damage to the brain, such as from a stroke, brain injury, or neurological condition. In anomia, a person has difficulty retrieving words from their memory, and may substitute similar-sounding words, describe the object instead of naming it, or be unable to come up with a name at all. Anomia can range from mild to severe and can significantly impact a person's ability to communicate effectively.

The prosencephalon is a term used in the field of neuroembryology, which refers to the developmental stage of the forebrain in the embryonic nervous system. It is one of the three primary vesicles that form during the initial stages of neurulation, along with the mesencephalon (midbrain) and rhombencephalon (hindbrain).

The prosencephalon further differentiates into two secondary vesicles: the telencephalon and diencephalon. The telencephalon gives rise to structures such as the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs, while the diencephalon develops into structures like the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

It is important to note that 'prosencephalon' itself is not used as a medical term in adult neuroanatomy, but it is crucial for understanding the development of the human brain during embryogenesis.

"Nonlinear dynamics is a branch of mathematics and physics that deals with the study of systems that exhibit nonlinear behavior, where the output is not directly proportional to the input. In the context of medicine, nonlinear dynamics can be used to model complex biological systems such as the human cardiovascular system or the brain, where the interactions between different components can lead to emergent properties and behaviors that are difficult to predict using traditional linear methods. Nonlinear dynamic models can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of these systems, make predictions about their behavior, and develop interventions to improve health outcomes."

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

In medical terms, imitative behavior is also known as "echopraxia." It refers to the involuntary or unconscious repetition of another person's movements or actions. This copying behavior is usually seen in individuals with certain neurological conditions, such as Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, or after suffering a brain injury. Echopraxia should not be confused with mimicry, which is a voluntary and intentional imitation of someone else's behaviors.

In a medical context, "gestures" are not typically defined as they are a part of communication and behavior rather than specific medical terminology. However, in the field of physical therapy or rehabilitation, gestures may refer to purposeful movements made with the hands, arms, or body to express ideas or commands.

In neurology or neuropsychology, abnormal gestures may be a symptom of certain conditions such as apraxia, where patients have difficulty performing learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability to do so. In this context, "gestures" would refer to specific motor behaviors that are impaired due to brain damage or dysfunction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spectrum analysis" is not a commonly used medical term. Spectrum analysis is a term that is more frequently used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering to describe the process of breaking down a signal or a wave into its different frequencies and amplitudes, creating a visual representation called a spectrum.

If you have any concerns about a medical issue, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior, especially in a natural or instinctive environment. It focuses on the observational research and analysis of animal behavior, including communication, social organization, mating, and development. Ethologists aim to understand the evolutionary basis for these behaviors and how they contribute to an animal's survival and reproduction. The field draws upon various disciplines, including psychology, biology, anthropology, and ecology.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Play" and "Playthings" are not medical terms. "Play" is a fundamental aspect of child development, encompassing all types of activities that children engage in for enjoyment and recreation. These activities can include physical play (such as running, climbing, or riding a bike), social play (interacting with others), creative play (drawing, building, or pretending), and quiet play (reading, puzzles, or listening to music).

"Playthings," on the other hand, refer to objects or toys used during play. These can range from traditional toys like dolls, cars, and balls to more open-ended items like blocks, art supplies, or natural materials.

While there is no medical definition for "play" or "playthings," it's important to note that play has a significant role in children's physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Play allows children to explore their environment, learn new skills, develop problem-solving abilities, build relationships, and express themselves creatively. Access to diverse playthings can support and enhance these developmental processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "territoriality" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of psychology, sociology, and animal behavior to refer to the tendency of an individual or group to defend a particular territory from intrusion by others.

In a medical context, the term "territory" may be used more broadly to refer to a specific area or region of the body that is associated with a particular medical condition or specialty. For example, a neurologist might refer to the "territory" of the brain that is affected by a stroke or other type of brain injury.

If you have any further questions about medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Transcription Factor Brn-3C, also known as POU4F3, is a protein involved in the regulation of gene expression. It belongs to the class IV POU domain transcription factor family and plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, and function of inner ear hair cells, which are essential for hearing. Mutations in the Brn-3C gene have been associated with deafness disorders in humans. The protein works by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and controlling their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is critical for various cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Animal Identification Systems refer to methods and technologies used for identifying individual animals, typically for the purposes of animal health monitoring, traceability in food production, and conservation efforts. These systems can include various forms of physical tags, electronic identification devices, and data management software. Common examples include ear tags, radio-frequency identification (RFID) transponders, and tattooing or branding. The goal of animal identification systems is to enable accurate tracking and monitoring of animals throughout their lifecycle, which can help prevent the spread of disease, ensure food safety, and support research and conservation efforts.

The glottis is a medical term that refers to the opening between the vocal cords (the ligaments in the larynx that produce sound when air passes through them during speech) in the human throat or larynx. It is an important structure for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds or speech. The glottis opens during inhalation to allow air into the lungs and closes during swallowing to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) and lungs.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Foxes" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. The common fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a species of small omnivorous mammals, and while there can be medical issues related to foxes or other animals in certain contexts, such as zoonotic diseases, "Foxes" itself does not have a medical connotation. If you have any specific medical query, I'd be happy to try and help with that.

"Paternal behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a male animal or human towards their offspring. In humans, paternal behavior can include providing financial support, emotional care, and protection for their children. It can also involve active involvement in child-rearing activities such as feeding, bathing, playing, teaching, and disciplining.

In some cases, "paternal behavior" may be used to describe a syndrome or set of behaviors exhibited by individuals who have a particular genetic mutation associated with increased paternal caregiving. However, this is not a widely recognized medical term or condition.

It's worth noting that the study of paternal behavior and its impact on child development has gained increasing attention in recent years, as researchers seek to better understand the complex interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors that shape parenting behaviors and outcomes for children.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2C (5-hydroxytryptamine 2C) receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including mood regulation, appetite control, sleep, and memory.

The 5-HT2C receptor is primarily located on postsynaptic neurons and can also be found on presynaptic terminals. When serotonin binds to the 5-HT2C receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately influences the electrical activity of the neuron. This receptor has been associated with several neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and eating disorders.

Pharmacological agents targeting the 5-HT2C receptor have been developed for the treatment of various diseases. For example, some antipsychotic drugs work as antagonists at this receptor to alleviate positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Additionally, agonists at the 5-HT2C receptor have shown potential in treating obesity due to their anorexigenic effects. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic and side effects of these compounds.

In a medical context, feedback refers to the information or data about the results of a process, procedure, or treatment that is used to evaluate and improve its effectiveness. This can include both quantitative data (such as vital signs or laboratory test results) and qualitative data (such as patient-reported symptoms or satisfaction). Feedback can come from various sources, including patients, healthcare providers, medical equipment, and electronic health records. It is an essential component of quality improvement efforts, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions about changes to care processes and treatments to improve patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "starlings" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a type of bird, specifically the species Sturnus vulgaris, also known as the European Starling. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Phonetics is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of human speech. It involves the study of how these sounds are produced, transmitted, and received, as well as how they are used to convey meaning in different languages. However, there can be some overlap between phonetics and certain areas of medical research, such as speech-language pathology or audiology, which may study the production, perception, and disorders of speech sounds for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Herpestidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic family that includes mongoose species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Efferent pathways refer to the neural connections that carry signals from the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, to the peripheral effectors such as muscles and glands. These pathways are responsible for the initiation and control of motor responses, as well as regulating various autonomic functions.

Efferent pathways can be divided into two main types:

1. Somatic efferent pathways: These pathways carry signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles, enabling voluntary movements and postural control. The final common pathway for somatic motor innervation is the alpha-motor neuron, which synapses directly onto skeletal muscle fibers.
2. Autonomic efferent pathways: These pathways regulate the function of internal organs, smooth muscles, and glands. They are further divided into two subtypes: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic system is responsible for the 'fight or flight' response, while the parasympathetic system promotes rest and digestion. Both systems use a two-neuron chain to transmit signals from the CNS to the effector organs. The preganglionic neuron has its cell body in the CNS and synapses with the postganglionic neuron in an autonomic ganglion located near the effector organ. The postganglionic neuron then innervates the target organ or tissue.

In summary, efferent pathways are the neural connections that carry signals from the CNS to peripheral effectors, enabling motor responses and regulating various autonomic functions. They can be divided into somatic and autonomic efferent pathways, with further subdivisions within the autonomic system.

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

Psychological feedback refers to the process of providing information about an individual's performance or behavior to help them understand and improve their skills, abilities, or actions. It is a critical component of learning, growth, and development in various settings, including education, therapy, coaching, and management.

In psychological feedback, the provider communicates their observations, assessments, or evaluations to the recipient in a constructive and supportive manner. The feedback may include both positive reinforcement for strengths and areas of success, as well as suggestions for improvement and strategies for overcoming challenges.

Effective psychological feedback is specific, objective, and focused on behaviors that can be changed or improved. It should also be timely, regular, and delivered in a way that promotes self-reflection, motivation, and goal-setting. The recipient should have an opportunity to ask questions, seek clarification, and engage in a dialogue about the feedback to ensure mutual understanding and agreement on next steps.

Overall, psychological feedback is a valuable tool for promoting personal and professional development, building self-awareness, and enhancing interpersonal relationships.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sparrows" is not a term used in medical definitions. Sparrows are small, common birds that belong to the family Passeridae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Deafness is a hearing loss that is so severe that it results in significant difficulty in understanding or comprehending speech, even when using hearing aids. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various causes such as disease, injury, infection, exposure to loud noises, or aging. Deafness can range from mild to profound and may affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). In some cases, deafness may be accompanied by tinnitus, which is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears.

Deaf individuals often use American Sign Language (ASL) or other forms of sign language to communicate. Some people with less severe hearing loss may benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices. Deafness can have significant social, educational, and vocational implications, and early intervention and appropriate support services are critical for optimal development and outcomes.

The mesencephalon, also known as the midbrain, is the middle portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) and the forebrain (prosencephalon). It plays a crucial role in several important functions including motor control, vision, hearing, and the regulation of consciousness and sleep-wake cycles. The mesencephalon contains several important structures such as the cerebral aqueduct, tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles, and several cranial nerve nuclei (III and IV).

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Sound localization is the ability of the auditory system to identify the location or origin of a sound source in the environment. It is a crucial aspect of hearing and enables us to navigate and interact with our surroundings effectively. The process involves several cues, including time differences in the arrival of sound to each ear (interaural time difference), differences in sound level at each ear (interaural level difference), and spectral information derived from the filtering effects of the head and external ears on incoming sounds. These cues are analyzed by the brain to determine the direction and distance of the sound source, allowing for accurate localization.

Pitch discrimination, in the context of audiology and neuroscience, refers to the ability to perceive and identify the difference in pitch between two or more sounds. It is the measure of how accurately an individual can distinguish between different frequencies or tones. This ability is crucial for various aspects of hearing, such as understanding speech, appreciating music, and localizing sound sources.

Pitch discrimination is typically measured using psychoacoustic tests, where a listener is presented with two sequential tones and asked to determine whether the second tone is higher or lower in pitch than the first one. The smallest detectable difference between the frequencies of these two tones is referred to as the "just noticeable difference" (JND) or the "difference limen." This value can be used to quantify an individual's pitch discrimination abilities and may vary depending on factors such as frequency, intensity, and age.

Deficits in pitch discrimination can have significant consequences for various aspects of daily life, including communication difficulties and reduced enjoyment of music. These deficits can result from damage to the auditory system due to factors like noise exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions, such as hearing loss or neurological disorders.

Quinpirole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic compound used in research and medicine. It's a selective agonist for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, which means it binds to and activates these receptors, mimicking the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes such as movement, motivation, reward, and cognition.

Quinpirole is used primarily in preclinical research to study the role of dopamine receptors in different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and others. It helps researchers understand how dopamine systems work and contributes to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

It is important to note that quinpirole is not used as a medication in humans or animals but rather as a research tool in laboratory settings.

In the context of human behavior, grooming typically refers to the act of cleaning or maintaining one's own or another person's appearance or hygiene. However, in the field of forensic psychology and child protection, "grooming" has a specific meaning. It refers to the process by which an abuser gradually gains the trust of a potential victim, or the victim's family or friends, with the intent to manipulate or coerce the victim into sexual activity.

This can involve various behaviors such as complimenting, giving gifts, attention, and affection, gradually increasing in intimacy and inappropriateness over time. The grooming process can take place in person, online, or a combination of both. It's important to note that grooming is a criminal behavior and is often used by abusers to exploit and victimize children and vulnerable adults.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

Habituation, psychophysiologic, refers to the decrease in autonomic nervous system response to repeated exposure to a stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus repeatedly over time, leading to a reduced reaction or no reaction at all. This process involves the decreased responsiveness of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

Examples of psychophysiologic habituation include the decreased heart rate and skin conductance response that occurs with repeated exposure to a startling stimulus, such as a loud noise. This form of habituation is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that allows individuals to respond appropriately to novel or important stimuli while reducing the response to non-significant or irrelevant stimuli.

It's worth noting that habituation can also occur in other systems and contexts, such as sensory habituation (decreased response to repeated sensory stimulation) or cognitive habituation (reduced attention or memory for repeated exposure to a stimulus). However, the term "psychophysiologic habituation" specifically refers to the decreased autonomic nervous system response that occurs with repeated exposure to a stimulus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

"Canaries" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is most commonly known as the name of a type of small songbird, and can also refer to people or things associated with the Canary Islands or the color yellow, which is associated with the bird due to its plumage. If you have any confusion regarding a particular medical context where the term "canaries" has been used, I would recommend seeking clarification from the source.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Social behavior disorders are a category of mental health conditions that are characterized by significant and persistent patterns of socially disruptive behavior. These behaviors may include aggression, impulsivity, defiance, and opposition to authority, which can interfere with an individual's ability to function in social, academic, or occupational settings.

Social behavior disorders can manifest in a variety of ways, depending on the age and developmental level of the individual. In children and adolescents, common examples include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). Adults with social behavior disorders may exhibit antisocial personality disorder or other related conditions.

It is important to note that social behavior disorders are not the result of poor parenting or a lack of discipline, but rather are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for social behavior disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and social skills training.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

The telencephalon is the most anterior (front) region of the embryonic brain, which eventually develops into the largest portion of the adult human brain, including the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs. It is derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain) during embryonic development and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, perception, and language. The telencephalon can be further divided into two hemispheres, each containing regions associated with different functions.

Time perception, in the context of medicine and neuroscience, refers to the subjective experience and cognitive representation of time intervals. It is a complex process that involves the integration of various sensory, attentional, and emotional factors.

Disorders or injuries to certain brain regions, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, can affect time perception, leading to symptoms such as time distortion, where time may seem to pass more slowly or quickly than usual. Additionally, some neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression, have been associated with altered time perception.

Assessment of time perception is often used in neuropsychological evaluations to help diagnose and monitor the progression of certain neurological disorders. Various tests exist to measure time perception, such as the temporal order judgment task, where individuals are asked to judge which of two stimuli occurred first, or the duration estimation task, where individuals are asked to estimate the duration of a given stimulus.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs or BAEPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the auditory pathway of the brain in response to sound stimulation. The test involves placing electrodes on the scalp and recording the tiny electrical signals generated by the nerve cells in the brainstem as they respond to clicks or tone bursts presented through earphones.

The resulting waveform is analyzed for latency (the time it takes for the signal to travel from the ear to the brain) and amplitude (the strength of the signal). Abnormalities in the waveform can indicate damage to the auditory nerve or brainstem, and are often used in the diagnosis of various neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, acoustic neuroma, and brainstem tumors.

The test is non-invasive, painless, and takes only a few minutes to perform. It provides valuable information about the functioning of the auditory pathway and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with hearing or balance disorders.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Fedorka, K.; Mousseau, T. (2001). "Material and genetic benefits of female multiple mating and polyandry". Animal Behaviour. 64 ... Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations, are produced by female primates, ... Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during copulation and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur ... has noted that female sexual vocalizations tend to become more intense as she approaches orgasm. At orgasm her vocalizations ...
Bird poems by Gerard Manley Hopkins include "Sea and Skylark" and "The Windhover". Animal communication Animal language Anti- ... Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds that are ... Studies on starling vocalizations have also suggested that they may have recursive structures. The term bird language may also ... Avian Vocalizations Center Michigan State University Bird Language: Exploring the Language of Nature with Jon Young A blog with ...
Environmentalists fear that such boat activity is putting undue stress on the animals as well as making it difficult to find a ... A humpback whale song Common humpback whale vocalizations on a windy day An orca's song An orca's song, at a distance ... Marine biologist Philip Clapham describes the song as "probably the most complex in the animal kingdom." Male humpback whales ... There is disagreement in the scientific community regarding the uniqueness of the whale's vocalization and whether it is a ...
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur at frequencies ranging from approximately 20-100 kHz. They are emitted by animals such as ... Adults emit the 22-kHz and 50-kHz vocalizations, while pups emit 40-kHz vocalizations. Ultrasonic vocalizations are not ... There are three classifications: 22-kHz vocalizations, 40-kHz vocalizations, and 50-kHz vocalizations. The 40-kHz calls are ... The 22-kHz vocalizations of adults and the 40-kHz vocalizations of pups are emitted in response to aversive situations or ...
As with other dolphins, orcas are very vocal animals. They produce a variety of clicks and whistles that are used for ... Whale vocalizations are the sounds made by whales to communicate. The word "song" is used in particular to describe the pattern ... Vocalizations of a killer whale Killer whale calls at a distance Killer whale calls Problems playing these files? See media ... The vocalization types vary with activity. While resting they are much quieter, merely emitting an occasional call that is ...
A roar is a type of animal vocalization that is loud, deep and resonating. Many mammals have evolved to produce roars and other ... Nonetheless, in other species both sexes can produce these vocalizations. In lions, where both sexes roar, the vocalization ... While roaring, animals may stretch out their necks and elevate their heads to increase the space for resonance. The definition ... Other researchers have mentioned similar "roar-like" vocalizations in which either the pitch or format is still higher than in ...
It must, however, be xylitol free, as xylitol is toxic substance for several animals. Behaviour modifying drugs are used when a ... The second theory proposes that the syndrome is a seizure disorder, and that episodes of vocalisation, wild running, jumping, ... ISBN 0-7020-2488-0. World Small Animal Veterinary Association - World Congress, Vancouver 2001. Dr. Jon (CS1 errors: periodical ... Clinical signs include aggression towards people; aggression towards animals; self-aggression; dilated pupils; salivation; ...
Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior research on animal vocalizations. Animal Sounds different animal sounds to listen and ... Animals portal Animal consciousness Anthrozoology (human-animal studies) Biocommunication Biosemiotics Body language Dear enemy ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Animal communication. Animal Communicator - Documentary Zoosemiotics: animal ... Not all animals use vocalization as a means of auditory communication. Many arthropods rub specialized body parts together to ...
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization. Academic Press. pp. 101-118. ISBN 978-0128151600. Riede, T.; Zhiheng, L.; ... The animal may push its body up and use this form immediately, or may take one or two strides of low walk before raising the ... A bulky animal, it warms up slowly, but at some time later in the day it moves into the water, still exposing its dorsal ... A small animal can be killed by whiplash as the predator shakes its head. Caimans use their tails and bodies to herd fish into ...
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization. Academic Press. pp. 101-118. ISBN 978-0-12-815160-0. Orenstein 2012, p. 38. ... The Wikibook Animal Care has a page on the topic of: Turtle Turtle Survival Alliance Turtle Conservancy Symposium on Turtle ... These vocalizations may serve to create group cohesion when migrating. The oblong turtle has a particularly large vocal range; ... Later, the turtle was one of the four sacred animals in Confucianism, while in the Han period, steles were mounted on top of ...
Excessive vocalisation; vocalising more frequently than expected. Excessive aggression; aggressive acts that are more frequent ... Herbivory in carnivorous animals; eating plant material by an animal that is considered to usually be meat-eating. Infanticide ... Tail biting; biting or chewing the tail of another animal. Tail chasing; an animal chasing its own tail in circles. Toe pecking ... Behavior Consultation Abnormal Behavior in Animals. (1968). Edited by M.W. Fox. W. B. Saunders Company, Toronto. "Animal ...
Instead, animal behaviour experts explain they are modifying the "meow" vocalisation to mimic certain human words. For example ... When an animal purrs, its vocal cords vibrate at a low frequency, which creates a distinctive rumbling sound. One hypothesis, ... Animal communication Cat pheromone Dog communication Turner, D. C.; Bateson, P. P. G; Bateson, P. (8 June 2000). The Domestic ... Miller classified vocalizations into five categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/ ...
A meow or miaow is a cat vocalization. Meows may have diverse tones in terms of their sound, and what's heard can vary from ... Workshop on Vocal interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots (PDF). pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-2-9562029-0-5. Miller, P. ( ... Brown, K.A.; Buchwald, J.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Mikolich, D.J. (1978). "Vocalization in the cat and kitten". Developmental ... Cats portal Cat communication Cross-linguistic onomatopoeias Devocalization Felinology List of animal sounds Miao ( ...
Animal language Bark (sound) Growling Roar (vocalization) Snarl Faragó, Tamás; Townsend, Simon; Range, Friederike (2014). "The ... P.N. Lehner (1978). "Coyote vocalizations: a lexicon and comparisons with other canids". Animal Behaviour. 26: 712-722. doi: ... Howling is generally used by animals that engage in this behavior to signal their positions to one another, to call the pack to ... In coyotes, "bark howls" may serve as both long-distance threat vocalizations and alarm calls. The sound known as 'wow-oo-wow' ...
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization. Academic Press. pp. 101-118. ISBN 978-0128151600. Christensen, Christian Bech ... animal. Retrieved March 16, 2010. "Reptile and amphibian defense systems". Animal behavior (resource). Teachervision.fen.com. ... ISBN 978-0-520-24406-1. "Ferocious Crocs". Animal Planet. Animal.discovery.com. 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010. Erickson ... the low basal metabolism makes body temperature drop rapidly when the animal is inactive. As in all animals, reptilian muscle ...
Distasteful animals use warning coloration (aposematism) to prevent attacks from potential predators. Many animals wish to ... ISBN 978-0-521-62996-6. Brudzynski, Stefan M. (8 December 2009). Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization: An Integrative ... Dorcas, Michael E.; Gibbons, Whit (2011). Frogs: The Animal Answer Guide. JHU Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8018-9935-5. "Animal ... edible animals more or less accurately mimic distasteful animals to reduce their own risk of being attacked by predators. ...
Some species are insectivorous burrowing animals, but others are adapted to moving through dense spinifex or other vegetation. ... Manley GA, Kraus JEM (2010). "Exceptional high-frequency hearing and matched vocalizations in Australian pygopod geckos" (PDF ... vocalization sounds like the common gecko "harsh squeak". skull anatomy inner ears anatomy communal nests. Some nests have been ...
This allows the animal to make dorsal turns and maintain a streamlined posture. When moving on land, the California sea lion is ... The only other vocalization made by territorial males is a "prolonged hoarse grunt sound" made when an individual is startled ... These animals exploit more human-made environments like docks for haul-out sites. Many docks are not designed to withstand the ... This vocalization is also made by groups of non-reproductive males. Female California sea lions are less vocal. Their barks, ...
Furthermore, bird vocalizations vary acoustically as a byproduct of adapting to the environment, according to the acoustic ... This is most frequently seen in birds, though it is also known to occur in many other animals such as the meerkat and some ... Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking ... A flock of birds might drive a powerful animal away from food. Costs of mobbing behavior include the risk of engaging with ...
Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "koww", usually ... As a result of this connection, studies have been conducted on the reaction of prey animals to the call of the raven. In areas ... These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species they vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of ... Crows and the other members of the genus make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Crows have also been observed to ...
... s also produce various vocalizations. Huffing occurs when the animal is tense while woofing is made when alarmed. ... The grizzly bear is the state animal of Montana. The California golden bear is the state animal of California. Both animals are ... with about 600-800 animals), Slovenia (500-700 animals) and Greece (with Karamanlidis et al. 2015 estimating >450 animals) in ... despite the country having no officially-designated national animal. The brown bear is Finland's national animal. ...
Barrows, Edward M. (2000). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Second ... A type of bird vocalization tending to serve such functions as giving alarm or keeping members of a flock in contact-as opposed ... The animal welfare impact of pinioning is subject to increasing debate. For example, it is known that the operation, which is ... K's Exotic Animal ER. Season 03 E01. May 21, 2016. 26 minutes in. Nat Geo Wild. Stout, Jane D. (May 2016). "Common emergencies ...
Christison-Lagay, K. L.; Cohen, Y. E. (2013). "The Neural Representation of Vocalisation Perception". Animal Communication ... From Combe: Propensities do not form ideas; they solely produce propensities common to animals and man. Adhesiveness ... was the seat of the animal soul-one of three "souls" found in the body, each associated with a principal organ. The Swiss ... he believed to exist in other animal species. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their ...
... between groups of animals may also confer advantage; for example, hostile behavior may force a population of animals ... vocalizations such as bird song; the release of chemicals; and changes in coloration. The term agonistic behaviour is sometimes ... An animal defending against a predator may engage in either "fight or flight" or "tend and befriend" in response to predator ... Group-living animals may dispute over the direction of travel or the allocation of time to joint activities. Various factors ...
"Precise and nonscalar timing of intervals in a bird vocalization". Animal Behaviour. 191: 165-177. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav. ... 2022 Precise and nonscalar timing of intervals in a bird vocalization, 2022 "Julia A Clarke , Jackson School of Geosciences , ...
Thomas, D.A. & Barfield, R.J. (1985). "Ultrasonic vocalization of the female rat (Rattus norvegicus) during mating". Animal ... The noise is best described as either a quick clicking or 'burring' sound, varying from animal to animal. Vigorous bruxing can ... Like most rat vocalizations, the chirping is too high in pitch for humans to hear without special equipment. Bat detectors are ... The vocalization, described as a distinct "chirping", has been likened to laughter, and is interpreted as an expectation of ...
... ing is a low, guttural vocalization produced by predatory animals; producing growls. Growling or growl may also refer to: ...
... see List of animal sounds. English words for animal noises include: Baa: vocalization of sheep; "Baa, baa, black sheep" Bark, ... guttural vocalization produced by predatory animals Hiss, sound made by a snake Honk, call of the male Canada goose Hoot, call ... bellowing outburst made by various animals Screech, high-pitched strident or piercing sound, as made by a screech owl Tweet, ... an American folk song about animal sounds "pew pew". Lexico. Oxford Dictionary. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021 ...
The influence of surface atmospheric conditions on the range and area reached by animal vocalizations. Journal of Experimental ... However, the power that an animal can couple into the ground at low frequencies is related directly to its mass. Animals of low ... Other animals mimic the vibrational cues of prey, only to ambush the predator when it is lured towards the mimic. Assassin bugs ... Some animals use eavesdropping to either catch their prey or to avoid being caught by predators. Some snakes are able to ...
ISBN 0-937548-08-1 "Lycaon pictus". Animal Info: Endangered animals of the world. 26 November 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2014. ... Canids communicate with each other by scent signals, by visual clues and gestures, and by vocalizations such as growls, barks, ... The molar teeth are strong in most species, allowing the animals to crack open bone to reach the marrow. The deciduous, or baby ... Almost all canids are social animals and live together in groups. In general, they are territorial or have a home range and ...
Fedorka, K.; Mousseau, T. (2001). "Material and genetic benefits of female multiple mating and polyandry". Animal Behaviour. 64 ... Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations, are produced by female primates, ... Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during copulation and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur ... has noted that female sexual vocalizations tend to become more intense as she approaches orgasm. At orgasm her vocalizations ...
Smyrna GA animal hospital, the cats meow, why do cats meow ... cat vocalizations, cattitude, owning a cat, quirky cats, things ... Posted in Behavior, Cat Care, General Care Tagged attention, boredom, cat noises, cat sounds, cat vocalizations, hunger, ... and sometimes perplexing animals. These little furballs definitely have big personalities, … Read More » ...
... Psicol ... Regarding animal models in ASD, many studies focus on gene expression, cortical neuronal migration and cell maturation, and ... Palabras clave : communication; ultrasound vocalization; ASD; genetics; neurodevelopment. · resumen en Español , Portugués · ... However, very few studies directly link animal oral communication and gene expression in cortical areas of language. The object ...
Orca Vocalizations , Orca Research Trust. * Orca model such as a stuffed animal or photo ... Animals. Ecology and Evolution. Sound. Sustainability. Activity Type. Exploration. Language. English. Print ... While orcas are smaller compared to other whales, they are very large compared to land animals. Some adult males can have ... communicate with each other through vocalizations.. Each Orca pod has its own collection of calls (dialect), which functions ...
Dogs are social animals and require significant time, love, and attention from their owners. When getting a dog, pet owners ... Cats communicate through a combination of vocalizations, body language, and facial expressions. Meowing, purring, hissing, and ... New to dog walks? If you are not a frequent dog walker, VCA Animal Hospitals suggests starting the new year with a fresh slate ... They are intelligent animals that thrive on mental stimulation and interaction. Many rabbits enjoy being petted and cuddled, ...
Cub Vocalizations - Mother Responses. Because bears are intelligent animals, much of their behavior is based on learning rather ... Few animals play more than bear cubs do, but why they play remains a mystery. Scientists have suggested that young animals ...
Beavers use various vocalizations, body language, and scent marking to communicate with each other:. *Vocalizations: Beavers ... Additionally, beavers are wild animals and may pose risks to humans and other pets. ... Eurasian beavers communicate through a variety of vocalizations, body language, and scent marking. They use vocalizations such ... Beavers communicate through vocalizations, scent marking, and body language. They work together to build and maintain their ...
Just like animals in the wild communicate with one another with different vocalizations and body language, our dogs do the same ... It is a human tool that they use to speak with their humans and other animals. Expecting a dog never to vocalize is unrealistic ... Ashley Bates is a freelance dog writer and pet enthusiast who is currently studying the art of animal therapy. A mother to four ... human children- and 23 furry and feathery kids, too - Ashley volunteers at local shelters, advocates for animal well-being, and ...
The collars were brought to market in 2012 by Bayer Animal Health, which was acquired by Elanco Animal Health in 2020. More ... Other frequently reported signs among the cases included lethargy, abnormal behavior, excessive grooming and vocalization, ... Directors of two national animal poison centers - Pet Poison Helpline and the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center - have ... in animal-safety evaluation, ongoing monitoring and adverse-event reporting for animal drugs. ...
Maternal verbal responsiveness to infant vocalizations Millett, Amanda L. (University of Missouri--Columbia, 2013) and ... In western linguonarratology tradition animal.... Linguistic summarization of human activity Anderson, Derek T., 1979- ( ...
Wildlife Vocalizations: Kylie Perez. Perez discusses the biggest challenge facing her generation when it comes to wildlife ... Brazilian researchers are training computers to keep an eye out for animals on the road ...
Dolphin Vocalizations. Dolphin vocalizations are recorded through a pair of hydrophones. Both sonar and whistling vocalizations ... The same animals are consistently being seen within the eight mile search radius of the Project, suggesting that they do indeed ... At present, thirty-six individual animals have been identified.. To record and document the sonar emissions of this population ... These movements suggest communication between individuals that is thought to occur primarily by means of vocalization.. ...
Tallahassee Regional Animal Hospital is your local Veterinarian in Tallahassee serving all of your needs. Call us today at (850 ... Vocalizations and Speech. While not as loud as some larger parrots, lovebirds can produce a loud high pitched screech, ...
Barnyard animals are more empathetic than you might have thought, a new study has found. ... "whether the calls uttered by one animal can somehow affect both the inner state and the vocalizations of another animal." ... Barnyard animals are more empathetic than you might have thought, a new study has found. ... The study concludes that non-human animals, in addition to experiencing their own emotions, "might also be sensitive to the ...
Be prepared for some vocalization. Many cats do not like getting wet, especially their feet, so have towels nearby to absorb ... About Best Friends Animal Society. Best Friends Animal Society, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, operates the nations ... former Cat World manager at Best Friends Animal Society. "It may be a little extra work, but the joy they bring me is ... largest sanctuary for homeless animals and provides adoption, spay/neuter, and educational programs. Learn more. ...
Laurel B. Symes prepares to record the vocalizations of female emus in Vermont. Their inquisitive nature is evident. Laurel B. ... The animals readily approached us and investigated our recording equipment; they drummed regularly but never boomed in our ... Another possibility is that bullroarers were designed to mimic or embody the drumming vocalization of emus. This explanation is ... Scholars have described three types of vocalization-drumming, booming, and grunting-and each is limited to frequencies below ...
Sheehy Animal Hospital is your local Veterinarian in Livonia, MI serving all of your needs. Call us today at (248) 206-3030 for ... Vocalization. Your pet probably isnt shy about letting you know that its unhappy when you leave. Barking, meowing, and ... Veterinarians often treat animals with separation anxiety and can provide a few recommendations that may help ease stress, such ... Transitioning to a new home after spending time in an animal shelter or rescue group can trigger separation anxiety. Pets that ...
Socialization opportunities with other friendly animals who make unique vocalizations. Opportunities for dogs to interact with ... Service animal vest. A vest worn by a service animal to identify them as such and signal to others that they are working. ... Service animals. Animals trained to assist individuals with disabilities or medical conditions, including dogs, cats, and even ... Service animal etiquette in public places. Appropriate behavior and interactions with service animals in public spaces. ...
Another animal in the program is the unusual looking southern ground hornbill. This bird, which is about the size of a large ... "They do a lot of vocalizations and calls out here. They are able to exhibit more natural behaviors out here than they would in ... This is a one-of-a-kind educational safari ride which helps make the zoo as unique as some of the animals is helping to save. ... This interesting animal is being bred through the Dallas Zoos Special Survival Plan breeding program. ...
Read this article to learn more about the 21 most endangered animals in North America and how we can save them from extinction. ... Vocalizations. Known for their loud and distinctive howling calls. Social Structure. Lives in small groups called troops. ... Animals Around The Globe. At Animals Around The Globe™, we believe in a world where humans and animals live in harmony. We want ... Home » Animals » Endangered Animals » 21 Most Endangered Animals In North America. img#mv-trellis-img-1::before{padding-top: ...
Utilizing vocalizations to gain insight into the affective states of non-human mammals Authors: Whitham,Jessica C., Miller, ... Publication/Journal: Animals. Keywords: 3Rs principles, animal behaviour, animal health, animal welfare, animal/physiology, ... Publication/Journal: Animals. Keywords: animal welfare committee, animal welfare monitoring, animal welfare program, program ... The Assessment of Animal Personality and Its Uses for Improving Zoo Animal Welfare Authors: Carly Chadwick ...
... and Use of Animals in Research This database, created in 2000, is updated every four months with newly published scientific ... articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. Tips for ... Animals 11(8), 2384. Collaborative semen collection in monkeys is a valuable tool in research, animal collection management, ... Its Okay to Cry - Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum [LAREF], Volume V. Animal Welfare ...
Each vocalization conveys a different meaning. DOGIDOLI Small Animal Fleece Forest Hideout 3. Shipping policies vary, but many ... and small animals (2.3k) $23.00 Cottonsqueakers TREMENDOUS TUNNEL Guinea Pig Small Animal Fleece Accessory Tube Bed Cosy Sock ... The tunnel complements the natural animal instincts inherent in domesticated animals, such as exploring, hideout. Female guinea ... Pet Small Animal Tunnel,HOMEYA Guinea Pig Hideout Play Tube Toys Hideaway Bedding with Fleece Forest Curtain for Chinchillas, ...
Dogs in the owner-present group had a lower rate of vocalizations, lower mean axillary temperature, and higher rate of yawning ... ANIMALS. 32 client-owned dogs.. PROCEDURES. Dogs underwent a standardized, video-recorded examination consisting of 6 phases ( ...
Abnormally responds in the night (wandering, vocalization, motorically restless). 0. 2. 3. 4. 5. ... Posts in Category: Human-Animal Bond. Dr. Prupas Brought AlignCare Service to Los Angeles April 22, 2024 by The Animal Health ... Posted in: AHF Grant Recipients , Cats , Human-Animal Bond , Medical Issues , The Animal Health Foundation News and Events , ... The dog was lethargic and she knew that the animal would need shots. "So I called the [Aliso Animal] hospital and made an ...
Animal Cognition. (Open access). *Thunström, M., Persson, T. & Björklund, M. (2012). Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee ( ... Klang, K. J. (2019). Flexible rhythm in chimpanzees pant hoot vocalizations. Masters thesis, Cognitive Science, Lund ... Animal Cognition, 11(4), 661-674.. *Osvath, M. & Persson, T. (2013). Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with ... Luff Studsgård, A. (2013). How apes respond to stuffed animals. Masters thesis, Cognitive Science, Lund University. ...
Vocalizations. Wolves communicate through vocalizations that represent hiearchy, conveying distress, a warning to stranger ... Tail Language - A wolfs tail tells a lot about the animals mood, and even their hierachy. A full wagging tail is a sign of a ... content wolf, but a tail swaying back and forth at the tip is conveying an anxious, aggressive, or stressed animal. A tucked ...
Animals make wonderful teachers once we know how to tap into their energies. Mind, body & spirit. How the Giraffe thinks ( ... One of the strongest Heart Chakras of all animals.. Key: Believe & nurture Self Love. Activate Heart Chakra. Good Health is ... The view from the top helps! They possess a unique vocalization that helps the herd communicate. Its infrasonically, below ... Lots of animals on the Savanna want to hang with the Giraffe. Even one of their few predators (lions, crocodiles, humans). ...
Some birds mimic the sounds of larger, more threatening animals through their croaking, effectively intimidating potential ... Their vocalizations consist of rapid, low-pitched "snorrr" or "chuck" calls and can be heard near bodies of water like swamps, ... Distinctive croaking vocalizations can be observed in various species, such as the majestic raven (Corvus corax), graceful ... During the breeding season, when birds are most active and vocal, the air fills with these captivating vocalizations. It is a ...
  • In addition to emitting copulatory vocalizations during and after copulation (as it is mostly seen in primates), non-primate species also vocalize before engaging in mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of vocalizations after copulation varies dependent on the non-human primate species studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent neural network models for the production of primate vocalizations are largely based on research in nonhuman primates. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, the functional brain network underlying human affective vocalizations revealed several features that have been so far neglected in models of primate vocalizations. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, coital vocalizations are linked to sexual pleasure or sexual gratification and orgasm, hence occurring during copulation and serving as an expression of sexual pleasure. (wikipedia.org)
  • By comparing the finch genome with the human genome, we should now be able to expand our understanding of learned vocalization in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Protein-coding components make up just a small fraction of the genomes of humans and other animals. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of the zebra finch genome sequence suggested that ncRNAs, which have been proposed to contribute to the evolution of greater complexity in humans and other animals, may be a driving force behind learned vocal communication. (nih.gov)
  • The vocalizations of female elephants are also used in order to incite mate guarding behavior in the male, which manifests itself in the form of fighting off any newly arriving mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The object of our study aimed to review and to correlate genes involved in ASD and those related to ultrasonic communication in animal model studies of language-based social behavior at the PubMed database. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because bears are intelligent animals, much of their behavior is based on learning rather than instinct, so responses may vary. (bear.org)
  • Thus, vocal motor behavior during affective vocalizations seems to be controlled by a right lateralized network that provides vocal monitoring (IFG), probably based on auditory feedback processing (STG). (nih.gov)
  • Review and update of ultrasonic vocalization in animals: Correlation with autism spectrum disorder experimental models? (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we used an intersectional genetic method to label and manipulate neurons in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) that are transiently active in male mice when they produce ultrasonic courtship vocalizations (USVs). (duke.edu)
  • The Goldberg and Froemke labs will run parallel studies in birds and mice to learn more about the dopamine and oxytocin signals in the neurons that drive the vocalizations. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations, are produced by female primates, including human females, and female non-primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-human primates, copulatory vocalizations begin towards the end of the copulatory act or even after copulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • I thought their vocalizations were cute, if a little repetitive. (writing.com)
  • Regarding animal models in ASD, many studies focus on gene expression, cortical neuronal migration and cell maturation, and neural network deficits. (bvsalud.org)
  • These models seem yet not fully capable of explaining the neural network dynamics especially underlying different types of human vocalizations. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, the repetition of affective prosody compared to evoked vocalizations revealed a more extended neural network probably based on higher control and vocal monitoring demands. (nih.gov)
  • Which of these animals is not a related species? (braingle.com)
  • Tics are abnormal movements or vocalizations that are diverse in presentation. (medscape.com)
  • It also considers information that users enter about patients' movements and vocalizations. (medscape.com)
  • Many animals, from mice to birds, rely on vocalizations to alert their parents when it's time to eat. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The pair plans to develop a framework to model neural responses to pinpoint when these animals are changing their minds. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In regard to the calling properties, frequency analysis is typically used in research to look at the complexity of the vocalization and to distinguish between calls, which is important in determining their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANIMALS 9 healthy adult cockatiels. (avma.org)
  • He is a hunter and is familiar with native animal sounds. (bfro.net)
  • While llamas are capable of several unique vocalizations, they use these sounds in different ways in different situations. (animal-world.com)
  • The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Simple phonic tics are simple vocalizations or sounds. (medscape.com)
  • Llamas are docile, quiet animals, and while they are not outwardly vocal creatures, they do have their own unique form of communication. (animal-world.com)
  • Unlike animal vocalizations, human affective vocalizations might involve higher levels of vocal control and monitoring demands, especially in case of more complex vocal expressions of emotions superimposed on speech. (nih.gov)
  • While orcas are smaller compared to other whales, they are very large compared to land animals. (scienceworld.ca)
  • Cats are not the only animals that purr, and it's easy to mistake the purring of a llama with that of a cat! (animal-world.com)
  • Although vocalization is driven by the larynx and soft tissue in the throat, not bones, anatomists noticed that the bones responsible for anchoring those tissues in place - the hyoid bones - differed in size and number between roaring and purring cats. (ncsu.edu)
  • But when we looked at the anatomy of modern cats, we realized that there isn't really hard evidence to support this idea, since the bones themselves aren't responsible for the vocalization. (ncsu.edu)
  • Although Smilodon wasn't quite as big as the largest modern cats, its hyoid bones are substantially larger than those of any of their living relatives, so potentially they had even deeper vocalizations than the largest tigers and lions. (ncsu.edu)
  • Here we therefore investigated the functional cortico-subcortical network underlying different types (evoked vs. repetition) of producing human affective vocalizations in terms of affective prosody, especially examining the aggressive tone of a voice while producing meaningless speech-like utterances. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, the researchers suspect that the evolution of this group of genes in songbirds may be essential for learned vocalization. (nih.gov)
  • 17%). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Almost 50% of the small animal practices surveyed reported the use of pain scales as part of their routine workflow. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, very few studies directly link animal oral communication and gene expression in cortical areas of language. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is agreed that coital vocalizations fulfill an evolutionary purpose and that they serve as adaptive solutions to problems that the females face, such as infanticide, as well as obtaining high quality sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20,000 Hz and hence not discernible by the human ear) to attract females, with the quantity of calls being related to the male's mating success, making these vocalizations a sexually selected trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only females make use of this, as male Columbian ground squirrels have been observed to use copulatory vocalizations in order to announce their post-copulatory mate guarding to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the researchers, if the missing bones (called epihyoid bones) were key to different vocalizations, the bones most closely connected to them should look different between the two groups. (ncsu.edu)
  • communicate with each other through vocalizations. (scienceworld.ca)
  • What other animals communicate or find food by echolocation? (scienceworld.ca)
  • This ability to communicate through learned vocalization is lacking in chickens and female zebra finches. (nih.gov)
  • Vocalizations that are made prior to copulation are named mating calls. (wikipedia.org)
  • This information about the missing animals made me feel marginally better about this sad little zoo. (writing.com)
  • That's important because the debate over the kind of vocalization a sabertooth tiger would have made relies upon analyzing the anatomy of a handful of tiny bones located in the throat," Hartstone-Rose says. (ncsu.edu)
  • Play a recording of orca vocalizations from the British Columbia Killer Whale Adoption website. (scienceworld.ca)
  • Few animals play more than bear cubs do, but why they play remains a mystery. (bear.org)
  • Derek is taking an active role in bringing these animals into mainstream science. (bfro.net)
  • The uniformity of the upper bones between the two groups suggests that if the hyoid structure plays a role in vocalization, the lower bones are more important than the upper ones. (ncsu.edu)
  • It is perhaps most likely that the size of the hyoids plays a role in the pitch of vocalization," says Deutsch. (ncsu.edu)
  • The vocalizations have been heard by him and other family members going back about ten years. (bfro.net)
  • The vocalizations are heard around dusk and into the night from a mile or so back in the canyon, echoing makes it hard to estimate. (bfro.net)
  • He said the animal was much closer and the sound much louder than what is heard in the Ohio recording. (bfro.net)
  • A new study from North Carolina State University examined the data behind the arguments for each vocalization and found that the answer was more nuanced than they thought - and that it could depend on the shape of a few small bones. (ncsu.edu)
  • Take this quiz on fun and interesting facts about animals. (braingle.com)
  • Read on to find more incredible facts about this underappreciated animal. (a-z-animals.com)
  • When you become a member, you also receive exclusive benefits, like special opportunities to meet animals, discounts at Zoo stores and more. (si.edu)
  • Vocalizations that occur before intercourse, for the purpose of attracting mates, are known as mating calls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The massive cetacean's mysterious clicking and creaking calls got Fischer hooked on animal acoustics. (earthisland.org)
  • Members are our strongest champions of animal conservation and wildlife research. (si.edu)
  • Nor did they give enough information about the nature of the vocalizations. (earthisland.org)
  • Vocalizations are fundamental to mammalian communication, but the underlying neural circuits await detailed characterization. (duke.edu)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: A Specialized Neural Circuit Gates Social Vocalizations in the Mouse. (duke.edu)
  • You will learn the basic skills about techniques for studying birds in the field (including visual identification and identification on vocalizations), as well as theoretical moments about bird morphology, physiology and ecological adaptations. (lu.se)
  • Jesse Goldberg, M.D., Ph.D. , from Cornell University, is teaming up with Robert Froemke, Ph.D. , of New York University's Grossman School of Medicine, to better understand how animals respond to their young's need to feed. (pewtrusts.org)
  • How apes respond to stuffed animals. (lu.se)
  • This is why it's important to take note of a llama's body language as well as their vocalizations when trying to understand them more deeply. (animal-world.com)
  • Uncertainty in the ability to recognise pain in animals contributes to suboptimal analgesia. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to being used to retain the mate via mate guarding induction, female copulatory vocalizations can also be employed to achieve his departure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improvement of training and proper pain scale introduction and implementation in small animal practices in the USA appears to be required. (bvsalud.org)
  • HAB event month was assigned based on available data, using the following hierarchy: 1) bloom observation date, 2) month of bloom notification, 3) earliest date of an associated human or animal case. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal cases were assigned months based on available data, using the following hierarchy: 1) illness onset date, 2) discovery date, 3) death date. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common of all llama vocalizations, llama humming is a relaxing and peaceful sound, often referred to as "morning humming" as they typically make this sound in the morning. (animal-world.com)
  • A great deal of variation is known to underlie the vocalizations of animals. (lu.se)
  • The cases of animal illness were reported as 55 single cases of illness, as well as nine groups of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • The nine groups accounted for at least 358 animal illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Also known as an ass or burrow, a donkey is a hoofed animal that belongs to the Equidae family. (a-z-animals.com)