Sounds used in animal communication.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
Sexual activities of animals.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.
Patients' guests and rules for visiting.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The ability to differentiate tones.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (1/1823)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (2/1823)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

The sexually dimorphic expression of androgen receptors in the song nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale of the zebra finch develops independently of gonadal steroids. (3/1823)

The development of sex differences in brain structure and brain chemistry ("brain sex") of vertebrates is frequently thought to depend entirely on gonadal steroids such as androgens and estrogens, which act on the brain at the genomic level by binding to intracellular transcription factors, the androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs). These hormone actions are thought to shift the brain from a monomorphic to a dimorphic phenotype. One prominent such example is the nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale (HVc) of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), a set of cells in the caudal forebrain involved in the control of singing. In contrast with previous studies using nonspecific cell staining techniques, the size and neuron number of the HVc measured by the distribution of AR mRNA is already sexually dimorphic on posthatching day (P)9. No ARs or ERs are expressed in the HVc before day 9. Slice cultures of the caudal forebrain of P5 animals show that the sexually dimorphic expression of AR mRNA in HVc is independent of the direct action of steroids on this nucleus or any of its immediate presynaptic or postsynaptic partners. Therefore, gonadal steroids do not appear to be directly involved in the initial sex difference in the expression pattern of AR mRNA, size, and neuron number of the HVc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the initial steroid-independent size and its subsequent steroid-independent growth by extension linearly with the extension of the forebrain explains 60-70% of the masculine development of the HVc. Thus, we suggest that epigenetic factors such as the gonadal steroids modify but cannot overwrite the sex difference in HVc volume determined autonomously in the brain.  (+info)

Multifunctional laryngeal motoneurons: an intracellular study in the cat. (4/1823)

We studied the patterns of membrane potential changes in laryngeal motoneurons (LMs) during vocalization, coughing, swallowing, sneezing, and the aspiration reflex in decerebrate paralyzed cats. LMs, identified by antidromic activation from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were expiratory (ELMs) or inspiratory (ILMs) cells that depolarized during their respective phases in eupnea. During vocalization, most ELMs depolarized and most ILMs hyperpolarized. Some ILMs depolarized slightly during vocalization. During coughing, ELMs depolarized abruptly at the transition from the inspiratory to the expiratory phase. In one-third of ELMs, this depolarization persisted throughout the abdominal burst. In the remainder ("type A"), it was interrupted by a transient repolarization. ILMs exhibited a membrane potential trajectory opposite to that of type A ELMs during coughing. During swallowing, the membrane potential of ELMs decreased transiently at the onset of the hypoglossal burst and then depolarized strongly during the burst. ILMs hyperpolarized sharply at the onset of the burst and depolarized as hypoglossal activity ceased. During sneezing, ELMs and ILMs exhibited membrane potential changes similar to those of type A ELMs and ILMs during coughing. During the aspiration reflex, ELMs and ILMs exhibited bell-shaped hyperpolarization and depolarization trajectories, respectively. We conclude that central drives to LMs, consisting of complex combinations of excitation and inhibition, vary during vocalization and upper airway defensive reflexes. This study provides data for analysis of the neuronal networks that produce these various behaviors and analysis of network reorganization caused by changes in dynamic connections between the respiratory and nonrespiratory neuronal networks.  (+info)

Seasonal neuroplasticity in the songbird telencephalon: a role for melatonin. (5/1823)

Neuroplasticity in the vocal control system of songbirds is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in circulating testosterone. These seasonally plastic telencephalic structures are implicated in the learning and production of song in songbirds. The role of the indoleamine melatonin in seasonal adaptations in birds has remained unclear. In this experiment, European starlings were castrated to remove the neuromodulating activity of gonadal steroids and were exposed to different photoperiods to induce reproductive states characteristic of different seasonal conditions. Long days increased the volume of the song-control nucleus high vocal center compared with its volume on short days. Exogenous melatonin attenuated the long-day-induced volumetric increase in high vocal center and also decreased the volume of another song-control nucleus, area X. This effect was observed regardless of reproductive state. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of a role for melatonin in functional plasticity within the central nervous system of vertebrates.  (+info)

Ultrasonic vocalizations elicit orienting and associative reactions in preweanling mice. (6/1823)

On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 13, 90 male Swiss CD-1 mice were tested for orientation to 3 intensities of recorded ultrasounds while climbing an inclined wire grid surface. Motor responses and vocalization to replayed ultrasounds (55-75 kHz) of 20-, 40-, and 60-dB SPL indicated an intensity dependence. In Experiment 2, 138 pups were exposed to either contingent or noncontingent pairings of recorded ultrasounds of 55-75 kHz, averaging 40 dB, and mild inescapable footshocks, or taped vocalizations or footshocks only on PND 12, 14, or 16. At PND 18, subjects were tested for passive avoidance following exposure to the taped ultrasounds only upon entry into the dark side of a black-white compartment. Results suggested only overall, nonspecific effects of pretreatment to elicit responses antagonistic to motor activity. In Experiment 3, 36 pups at PND 15 were tested for passive avoidance with the ultrasound recordings of 40- or 80-dB onset upon entry to the dark compartment; a third group had no ultrasound exposure. A significant intensity effect confirmed that the ultrasounds had prepotent properties.  (+info)

Song-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein in the songbird brain. (7/1823)

We have investigated the participation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the response of the songbird brain to a natural auditory stimulus, a conspecific song. The cells in the two song control nuclei, the higher vocal center (HVC) and area X of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), were intensely stained with an anti-CREB monoclonal antibody. Double-labeling studies showed that CREB immunoreactivity was detected only in area X-projecting neurons in the HVC. The cloned CREB cDNA from zebra finches (zCREB) is highly homologous to mammalian delta CREB. Phosphorylation of zCREB at Ser119 in area X-projecting HVC neurons was induced by hearing tape-recorded conspecific songs of zebra finches, but not by birdsongs of another species or white noise. These results raise the possibility that zCREB plays a crucial role in the sensory process of song learning.  (+info)

Gradual emergence of song selectivity in sensorimotor structures of the male zebra finch song system. (8/1823)

Birdsong is a model system for understanding how motor and sensory information interact to coordinate behavior. Neurons in one potential site of sensorimotor integration, the forebrain nucleus HVc, have premotor activity during singing and auditory activity during playback of the bird's own song. It is not known whether the high degree of selectivity for learned features of song observed during playback arises in HVc or also in structures afferent to HVc. We recorded in anesthetized adult zebra finches from two structures afferent to HVc: either the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) or the L1 subdivision of the field L complex, and simultaneously from a second electrode in HVc. Correlations in the bursting pattern of ongoing activity of HVc and NIf recordings were observed; these helped to localize the first electrode to NIf recording sites. Most NIf neurons exhibited song-selective responses, but as a population, they were less selective than were HVc neurons. Most L1 neurons were not song-selective. NIf neurons have also been reported to have premotor activity during singing; thus, NIf is another potential site of auditory-motor interactions in the song system. Evidence gathered to date suggests that those brain areas in the passerine forebrain that are recruited during song production also display the most selective learned auditory responses.  (+info)

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Vocal learning - the ability to imitate complex vocalizations - is a relatively rare ability in the animal kingdom. Humans obviously are excellent vocal learners, and this ability is central to both singing and speech. Surprisingly, vocal learning of complex sounds (like speech or songs) has not been found in ANY other nonhuman primate.. However, vocal learning is common among birds, and at least three major bird groups have evolved vocal learning, probably independently: the songbirds (oscine passerines), parrots, and hummingbirds. This has led to songbirds becoming the major group in which the genetic and neural basis for vocal learning is studied. Unfortunately, however, birds have both a very different brain from that of mammals, and a completely novel vocal production system (called the syrinx). Thus, there may be important differences between vocal learning mechanisms in humans and birds.. Another large group of vocal learners are the cetaceans: whales and dolphins. Again, unfortunately ...
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Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations are produced by female primates, including human females, and female non-primates. Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during sexual intercourse and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur before intercourse, for the purpose of attracting mates, are known as mating calls. In primates, copulation calling is typically observed at the end of mating and there are vast variations between species regarding its occurrence, frequency and form. It is agreed that coital vocalizations fulfill an evolutionary purpose and that they serve as adaptive solutions to problems that the females face, such as infanticide, as well as obtaining high quality sperm. In non-primates, copulatory calling predominantly occurs before copulation in order to attract mates (mating call). Calls vary in frequency (14 Hz to 70,000 Hz) and function. One of the main purposes of females vocalizing is the induction of ...
as in perro, for example is an alveolar trill. Trills are very different from flaps. Whereas with a flap (or tap), a specific gesture is used to strike the active articulator against the passive one, in the case of a trill the articulator is held in place, where the airstream causes it to vibrate. Usually a trill vibrates for 2-3 periods, but may be up to 5, or even more if geminate. However, trills may also be produced with only a single period. Although this might seem like a flap, the articulation is different; trills will vary in the number of periods, but flaps do not. Trill consonants included in the International Phonetic Alphabet: [r] - alveolar trill [ʙ] - bilabial trill [ʀ] - uvular trill [ʜ] - voiceless epiglottal trill [ʢ] - voiced epiglottal trill In addition, [ʩ] - velopharyngeal fricative found in disordered speech sometimes involves trilling of the velopharyngeal port, producing a snort. The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voices of the dead. T2 - Complex nonlinear vocal signals from the larynx of an ultrasonic frog. AU - Suthers, Roderick A.. AU - Narins, Peter M.. AU - Lin, Wen Yu. AU - Schnitzler, Hans Ulrich. AU - Denzinger, Annette. AU - Xu, Chun He. AU - Feng, Albert S.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Most anurans are highly vocal but their vocalizations are stereotyped and simple with limited repertoire sizes compared with other vocal vertebrates, presumably because of the limited mechanisms for fine vocal motor control. We recently reported that the call of the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus Fei) is an exception in its seemingly endless variety, musical warbling quality, extension of call frequency into the ultrasonic range and the prominence of subharmonics, chaos and other nonlinear features. We now show that the major spectral features of its calls, responsible for this frogs vocal diversity, can be generated by forcing pressurized air through the larynx of ...
Acoustic allometry is the study of how animal vocalisations reflect their body size. A key aim of this research is to identify outliers to acoustic allometry principles and pinpoint the evolutionary origins of such outliers. A parallel strand of research investigates species capable of vocal learning, the experience-driven ability to produce novel vocal signals through imitation or modification of existing vocalisations. Modification of vocalizations is a common feature found when studying both acoustic allometry and vocal learning. Yet, these two fields have only been investigated separately to date. Here, we review and connect acoustic allometry and vocal learning across mammalian clades, combining perspectives from bioacoustics, anatomy and evolutionary biology. Based on this, we hypothesize that, as a precursor to vocal learning, some species might have evolved the capacity for volitional vocal modulation via sexual selection for dishonest signalling. We provide preliminary support for our ...
Climatic conditions represent one of the main constraints that influence avian calling behavior. Here, we monitored the daily calling activity of the Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus) and the Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) during the dry and wet seasons in the Brazilian Pantanal. We aimed to assess the effects of climate predictors on the vocal activity of these focal species and evaluate whether these effects may vary among seasons. Air temperature was positively associated with the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season. However, the vocal activity of both species was unrelated to air temperature during the wet season, when higher temperatures occur. Daily rainfall was positively related to the daily calling activity of both species during the dry season, when rainfall events are scarce and seem to act as a trigger for breeding phenology of the focal species. Nonetheless, daily rainfall was negatively associated with the daily calling activity of the Undulated
The song system of birds has been used extensively as a model system for studying basic mechanisms of neuronal plasticity and development underlying a learned behavior. Discrete sets of interconnected nuclei in the avian brain have evolved and are a prerequisite for song learning processes and the production of song. Zebra finch males, like many other song birds, learn their song by memorizing a tutor song model early in life and then gradually matching their vocal output by auditory feedback to the stored memory of that tutor song. In parallel to these behavioural changes, various changes in neuronal structures of song system nuclei take place. These structural correlates of song learning processes have been investigated in great detail in the current research by raising zebra finches with and without a song tutor model and then studying the consequences for song and for neuronal structure in the song system by using a variety of techniques including Golgi-technique, electron microscopy, ...
Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether
Prof. Erik Zornik [biology 2012-] has been awarded a $444,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health to support his research on mechanisms in the brain that generate rhythmic behavior-with the goal of finding new treatments for neurological disorders.. Prof. Zornik is interested in how behavioral variation is encoded in neural circuits. His research investigates a hindbrain central pattern generator (CPG) that generates the courtship vocal behaviors of African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis.. Adults of this species exhibit a rich vocal repertoire of at least seven call types that range from rhythmically simple to temporally complex, Zornik explains. Xenopus vocalizations are sexually differentiated; males and females produce calls with distinct temporal characteristics that are regulated by steroid hormones during development and in adulthood. This makes their vocal behaviors an ideal subject for understanding the neural basis of behavior and behavioral plasticity. ...
Many factors could influence repertoire size and function. Here, we provide a review of the descriptions of vocal repertoires of New World jays and a unifying terminology for function of their vocalizations. We summarized 19 different functional types of vocal behaviour shared by at least two species, for review purposes. Comparing the 14 studied species, we also classified vocalizations into four major classes defined a priori: Social Integration, Conflict Resolution, Predator-related, and Breeding. Cooperative breeding, as well as group size, are related not only to repertoire size, but to how species allocate their vocalizations into functional classes. We discuss the tendencies of Conflict Resolution and Social Integration and the possibility of the existence and implications of a trade-off between those functional classes. We identified gaps in the current knowledge on vocalizations of the studied species, and emphasize the importance of empiric evidence of vocalization function in the New
Voice is probably the most recognizable sound source of all. See an overview of DPA microphones that can help you make the most of a vocal performance.
Ezequiel Mendoza, Doctoral Student.. In 2001 the chase for genes associated with speech resulted in the identification of a mutation in FOXP2 in individuals that share severe and characteristic core deficits of receptive and productive language. The analysis of the molecular role of FoxP2 in learned vocalizations, has recently been significantly advanced using songbirds as a model [1]. It was demonstrated that FoxP2 pattern of expression in birds vocal learners differ from vocal- non learners, specially in Area X, a part of the specialized basal ganglia forebrain network required for vocal learning that vocal non- learners do not possess. Moreover, FoxP2 expression is elevated in Area X at the time both, when young zebra finches learn to imitate an adult model song and at the time when adult canaries remodel their songs seasonally [2].. The Fox family is composed of over 20 different members, all of which contain a winged-helix motif that is responsible for DNA binding activity. In mice there is ...
There are two kinds of hypertonic vocalization, they are unvoiced and voiced hypertonic vocalization. Unvoiced hypertonic vocalization means that the muscles are constantly hard around the larynx even when you do not vocalize. Voiced hypertonic vocalization is when the muscles strain so hard when you vocalize. Muscles get hard when you talk or sing, because…
In the canary and zebra finch, neuron addition is highest at times when song learning occurs. Yet even when song is stereotyped, new neurons continue to be added. There is evidence that song maintenance requires motor flexibility and we propose that neurogenesis provides the necessary plasticity both for song learning and maintenance. In the zebra finch, a species that normally does not learn new songs in adulthood, there is a progressive decrease in neuron addition that is not accompanied by a decrease in total neuron number (below). This suggests that with age, vocal control regions become more stable. In turn, we hypothesize that this stability is related to ever increasing stability of song motor programs. Interestingly, in age-matched birds, song stability is greater in birds that sing at high rates, suggesting that practice makes perfect. We are now testing whether practice influences neuron addition.. ...
The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], but dental and postalveolar articulations [r̪] and [r̠] also occur. An alleged retroflex trill found in Toda has been transcribed [ɽ] (that is, the same as the retroflex flap), but might be less ambiguously written [ɽ͡r], as only the onset is retroflex, with the actual trill being alveolar. The epiglottal trills are identified by the IPA as fricatives, with the trilling assumed to be allophonic.[1] However, analyzing the sounds as trills may be more economical.[2] There are also so-called strident vowels which are accompanied by epiglottal trill.. The cells in the IPA chart for the velar, (upper) pharyngeal, and glottal places of articulation are shaded as impossible. (The glottis quite readily vibrates, but this occurs as the phonation of vowels and consonants, not as a consonant of its own.) According to Esling (2010),[3] palatal trills are also implausible. The upper pharyngeal tract cannot reliably ...
The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar [r͇], but dental and postalveolar articulations [r̪] and [r̠] also occur. An alleged retroflex trill found in Toda has been transcribed [ɽ] (that is, the same as the retroflex flap), but might be less ambiguously written [ɽ͡r], as only the onset is retroflex, with the actual trill being alveolar. The epiglottal trills are identified by the IPA as fricatives, with the trilling assumed to be allophonic.[1] However, analyzing the sounds as trills may be more economical.[2] There are also so-called strident vowels which are accompanied by epiglottal trill.. The cells in the IPA chart for the velar, (upper) pharyngeal, and glottal places of articulation are shaded as impossible. (The glottis quite readily vibrates, but this occurs as the phonation of vowels and consonants, not as a consonant of its own.) According to Esling (2010),[3] palatal trills are also implausible. The upper pharyngeal tract cannot reliably ...
What is the functional role, if any, of the OMC on song production? Although OMC stimulation can elicit electrical activity in song-relevant musculature, this does not necessarily imply that the OMC can influence song production. To address this directly, we carried out a series of perturbations during singing in the alone condition, beginning with bilateral electrical stimulation of the OMC. Strong stimulation resulted in song truncation, whereas milder stimulation (200 to 500 μA) often produced brief pauses (range: 638 to 1448 ms), with songs resuming once stimulation ended (Fig. 3D). The precise stereotypy of alone S. teguina songs (Fig. 1E) provides an ideal opportunity to distinguish between two possible experimental outcomes. First, the song could resume at the expected point in the sequence, accounting for the time delay (outcome 1; Fig. 3E), consistent with the hypothesis that the vocal patterning is primarily driven by a pathway independent of the OMC. In nonhuman primates, for ...
The direct route from HVC to RA is the song-production freeway. It conveys the neural signals needed to generate song, and if its disrupted at any time in a birds life, song breaks down. Another more circuitous path from HVC to RA veers off into the anterior forebrain. This pathway is not essential for song production per se, but disruptions to it in juvenile birds cause serious deficits in song learning.. Many researchers have been pecking away at this anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in search of clues about the mechanisms of song learning. At the conference, several reported on their latest attempts to puzzle out its role in song learning. Although the picture is still somewhat fuzzy, one thing is coming into focus: The circuitry seen in songbirds is not unique.. David Perkel of the University of Washington, Seattle, presented evidence that the AFP is wired up much like the mammalian basal ganglia. This is the network of brain nuclei that goes haywire in Parkinsons disease; it plays a key ...
Abstract (Full Article Here). Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain and by laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the tympanic membranes response to acoustic stimulation. These measurements revealed that the frogs auditory system is broadly tuned over high frequencies, with peak sensitivity occurring within the ultrasonic frequency range. Our results demonstrate that H. cavitympanum is the first non-mammalian vertebrate described to communicate with purely ultrasonic acoustic signals. These ...
Bird song is one of the most remarkable and impressive sounds in the natural world, and has inspired not only students of natural history, but also great writers, poets and composers. Extensively updated from the first edition, the main thrust of this book is to suggest that the two main functions of song are attracting a mate and defending territory. It shows how this evolutionary pressure has led to the amazing variety and complexity we see in the songs of different species throughout the world. Writing primarily for students and researchers in animal behavior, the authors review over 1000 scientific papers and reveal how scientists are beginning to unravel and understand how and why birds communicate with the elaborate vocalizations we call song. Highly illustrated throughout and written in straightforward language, Bird Song also holds appeal for amateur ornithologists with some knowledge of biology. ...
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Screaming is arguably one of the most relevant communication signals for survival in humans. Despite their practical relevance and their theoretical significance as innate and virtually universal vocalizations, what makes screams a unique signal and how they are processed is not known. Here, we use acoustic analyses, psychophysical experiments, and neuroimaging to isolate those features that confer to screams their alarming nature, and we track their processing in the human brain. Using the modulation power spectrum, a recently developed, neurally informed characterization of sounds, we demonstrate that human screams cluster within restricted portion of the acoustic space (between ∼30 and 150 Hz modulation rates) that corresponds to a well-known perceptual attribute, roughness. In contrast to the received view that roughness is irrelevant for communication, our data reveal that the acoustic space occupied by the rough vocal regime is segregated from other signals, including speech, a ...
Parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds are among the only birds capable of vocal learning. They join humans, bats, elephants, sea lions, whales, dolphins and porpoises as the only animals with this talent. While of course unable to understand language as people do, such animals can memorize long sequences of words. Dogs, for instance, can understand some words spoken by humans when trained, but can only bark to communicate.. Specialized areas in the forebrain give parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds the power to use vocal motor control, which allows them to imitate sound. These areas control cells in the brainstem that manipulate the muscles used to produce sound. Birds that cannot learn vocally lack forebrain structures that include the HVC and RA nuclei, parts of the motor pathway for song, and additional structures called Area X and LMAN, which form the pathway for song learning.. Brain size doesnt really matter - the structure matters more, Jarvis said, adding that there are seven structures ...
I considered his question and asked, Why should anyone care about anything?. This is the type of conversation I live for. And R is always up for it.. I asked him if anyone should care about the recent auction of The Scream, which set a world record by selling for $119.9 million. He said, Yes, because it reflects the state of the current art market and blah blah blah.. Why is The Scream more important to know about than Beyonces dress? This is a real question. I think that everything we care about is just a distraction from the horror of existence. Any time you find yourself in a life or death situation, you realize the fatuousness of all your preoccupations, of everything going on around you. Your choice of car, your shoes, your blue-ray TV, your favorite band, its all a distraction.. Moving away from existentialism, I wonder why The Scream is worth $119.9 million. Its obviously one of the few paintings that is instantly recognizable by any imbecile. The Scream, the Mona Lisa, and ...
One thing that I did not like at first was the length of this release, which is below 25 minutes, because this band has released great quality BDM, and their previous release (which I enjoyed a lot) was above 30 minutes. But after listening to the whole thing, and understanding how the songs are structured and how the vocal patterns are established, the length now makes sense.. I do really like how the songs are structured, as well as the overall production, in which the drums, guitars, bass, and voice are all distinctive and not overshadowing each other. The riffs are well thought-out and show diversity, the drums are sharply executed, and the vocals fit the music perfectly. All the lyrics are in Spanish, and I must admit thats a plus for me.. In addition to the music, the themes displayed in this album are well-conceived and tasteful. When you start listening, look at the order of the songs and read the lyrics, if you can; you will see how they took their time to tell a story of flesh ...
Sensorimotor development is accelerated during critical periods of behavioral variation corresponding to enhanced neuroplasticity, followed by behavioral stabilization concomitant with reduced neuroplasticity. However, a certain degree of development and complex motor behavior may be achieved without the appropriate sensory inputs and may be driven by intrinsic developmental genetic programs instead. Our study revealed audition-independent vocal development and stabilization in a songbird zebra finch. Neural activity-dependent gene induction and vocal output driven by the AFP was similar throughout development in both the intact and deafened birds. Although our global transcriptome analysis identified ,3000 genes differentially regulated in the vocal motor circuit during normal song development, we also observed similar qualitative patterns of developmental gene expression between the hearing-intact and early-deafened birds using PCA and WGCNA. Thus, vocal motor circuit maturation was driven by ...
The avian forebrain region LMAN conveys output from a basal ganglia-thalamic-pallial circuit to the principal vocal motor pathway and is required for the vocal experimentation and feedback-guided validation of vocal output that birds use to learn and maintain stable, stereotyped song patterns (Williams and Mehta, 1999; Kao et al., 2005; Olveczky et al., 2005; Kao and Brainard, 2006; Kao et al., 2008; Andalman and Fee, 2009). LMAN is also necessary for the initiation of adult vocal plasticity that normally occurs after deafening (Brainard and Doupe, 2000b); however, it has been unclear in this context whether LMAN is detecting discrepancies between actual and expected feedback, generating error signals in response to a mismatch, or actually participating in song modification (as in instances of adaptive vocal change). Here, we show that lesioning LMAN, even after deafening-induced changes have emerged, promotes rapid recovery toward the original song pattern. The results suggest that ...
Issue # 50 REVIEWS:. Cesium:137 - THE FALL: Liners say this group name is 100% pure poison. Psychedelic. Ho-hum mix band is more like it. Yeah, the mixes are done well.. but SIX of thee same zong right inna row? Bit much, methinks. Itz beatful! Itz GOT rhythm! Itz very danceable! So, wotz thee PROB-lem, yer say? The SAME song…. THE SAME song… THE SAME SONG! Cant deal with that amount of th same SONG! Mix some MORE mixes in there next time, but make it 6 (or more) DIFFERENT songs! Sorry, Charlies… its not a full thumbs down, but I cant hang wit all the same mix, either! Contact at Tonedeaf Records, POB 1738, Philadelphia, PA 19105-1738 or on the site at Rotcod Zzaj. Mars Lasar - KARMA: Deep, moving and intriguing. These are the words that come to mind on the first few bars of Great Beast of Wisdom, the first cut on this cosmically significant album. Lasar weaves clearly distinguishable movement in to the music(s) of the world (many different styles are ...
In a moving image playback apparatus, periods A which represent human utterance periods, and other periods B are determined on the basis of sub-information contained in moving image data. Based on the moving image data, periods A undergo high-speed moving image playback with playback voice within the speed range from a normal speed to a predetermined speed (e.g., 1.5 to 2 times of the normal speed) at which the user can recognize playback contents, while periods B undergo high-speed moving image playback with at least playback voice in a small tone volume or silent high-speed moving image playback at a speed (e.g., 5 to 10 times of the normal speed) higher than the predetermined speed. During the playback, the moving image playback speeds can be adjusted in accordance with user attribute information registered in a user profile (14).
Significant trial-by-trial variation persists even in the most practiced skills. One prevalent view is that such variation is simply noise that the nervous system is unable to control or that remains below threshold for behavioural relevance. An alternative hypothesis is that such variation enables trial-and-error learning, in which the motor system generates variation and differentially retains behaviours that give rise to better outcomes. Here we test the latter possibility for adult bengalese finch song. Adult birdsong is a complex, learned motor skill that is produced in a highly stereotyped fashion from one rendition to the next. Nevertheless, there is subtle trial-by-trial variation even in stable, crystallized adult song. We used a computerized system to monitor small natural variations in the pitch of targeted song elements and deliver real-time auditory disruption to a subset of those variations. Birds rapidly shifted the pitch of their vocalizations in an adaptive fashion to avoid ...
Many species use low-amplitude (soft) song during close range interactions with conspecifics, such as in aggressive encounters or courtship displays. It has been suggested that soft song is adapted to limit eavesdropping by conspecifics or predators through reduced signal transmission range. If so, other structural features of soft song, besides amplitude, should be adapted to reduce transmission. The soft songs of white-throated thrushes, Turdus assimilis, have properties expected to lower transmission, such as higher frequency and broader bandwidth relative to broadcast songs. We compared the transmission properties of broadcast and soft syllables using a sound propagation field experiment. When played at the same amplitude as broadcast song, soft song showed greater excess attenuation and blur ratios and lower signal-to-noise ratios. Lowering the frequency of soft syllables recovered similar transmission properties as those of broadcast syllables. Further analysis of spectral traits showed ...
To many people, bird song can herald the coming of spring, reveal what kind of bird is perched nearby or be merely an unwelcome early morning intrusion. But to Sandra Vehrencamp, Cornell professor of neurobiology and behavior, bird song is a code from which to glean insights into avian behavior.. Birds use song systems to communicate about mating and reproduction, territorial boundaries, age and even overall health. Vehrencamp studies them to decode which elements convey such essential information. With colleagues in the Bioacoustics Research Program at Cornells Lab of Ornithology, she studies birds in such natural habitats as Costa Rica, Colombia and Bonaire.. Vehrencamp records bird songs and then plays them back to birds of the same species to decipher strategies that various species use to attract mates and resolve territorial disputes. The technique allows researchers to study birds reactions to songs when such elements as overlapping vocalization, finer song structural features and the ...
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From frogs to humans, selecting a mate is complicated. Females of many species judge suitors based on many indicators of health or parenting potential. But it can be difficult for males to produce multiple signals that demonstrate these qualities simultaneously. In a study of Copes grey tree frogs, a team of University of Minnesota researchers discovered that females prefer males whose calls reflect the ability to multitask effectively. In this species (Hyla chrysoscelis), males produce trilled mating calls that consist of a string of pulses. Typical calls can range in duration from 20-40 pulses per call and occur at the rate of between 5-15 calls per minute. Males face a trade-off between call duration and call rate, but females preferred calls that are longer and more frequent, which is no simple task. The findings were published in the August 2013 issue of Animal Behaviour. Its kind of like singing and dancing at the same time, says Dr. Jessica Ward, a postdoctoral researcher who is ...
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Brown pelicans are often found in large colonies, especially during breeding season. They are seasonally monogamous and can be extremely territorial of their nesting sites. As diurnal birds they can be found roosting on predator-free islands, sandbars or offshore rocks.. Vocalizations are common in breeding colonies where birds tirelessly defend their territories. A low hrraa hrraa accompanied by head swaying serves as a warning to birds getting too close.. Breeding and nesting season are highly dependent on a number of environmental factors and thus differs across its range. Breeding generally occurs in late fall to early June and nesting follows shortly afterward. Nests are built on the ground in shallow depressions, in mangroves, cliffs or low trees. Males choose the nesting site and bring the female materials which she uses to line and create the nest. After laying 2-3 eggs, brown pelicans use their large, webbed feet to incubate the eggs for 28-30 days. Both the male and female incubate ...
The chicks vocalizations are actually quite important for survival. Just 5-12 days after hatching, flamingo chicks within a colony leave their nests and form a crèche of similar-aged chicks watched over by a few adults. For subsequent feedings, parents locate their offspring in the crèche through voice recognition ...
While many experts agree that a cats vocalizations are meant to communicate specific messages, they are still not sure exactly what cats are saying! It is also believed that a cats meow is meant to manipulate their human into doing whatever they think the meow might mean. So, try speaking to your cat in their own language tonight and see what happens. We are interested to find out! For now, we will ask if any of our kitty guests have any mhng-a:ou (complaints) so we can quickly see to them, so we hear nothing but hrn-rhn-hrn-rhn (purrs) from the catteries ...
I was attending the Joe Lims RPM class yesterday evening @ the Curve. There was this uncle who was screaming from track #1 to track #7. As the RPM class progress... and the track was getting harder. The scream was louder. So what he screams? He basically screaming ah ah ah ... come on... yay~ yay~ Yes ... hmmm... Is this sound like someone is having sex and scream for more? Its definitely annoying. Especially you were enjoying the music while working out in RPM ...
The Scream from Nature is an eco art project which aims to raise consciousness about the relationship between humans and nature. The project is a contemporary interpretation of Munchs masterpiece the Scream, in which the iconic face is recreated outdoors in nature with a variety of materials. Artist and founder of the project, Lise Wulff, invites you to make your own Scream from Nature and share it on Facebook or Instagram #thescreamfromnature ...
I have no mouth and i must scream pdf 134 pages - Stories by Ellison Have No Mouth and I Must Scream by Harlan Ellison I! Consists of pages and is available in Mass Market Paperback format in: Stuck. Mass Market Paperback, pages. Published Reader Q&A. To ask other readers questions about I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream, please sign up.
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How to Scream Sing. You may have imitated vocalists in bands like Linkin Park, System of a Down, or Slipknot, attempting to crush the vocal screams youve heard in songs by these groups. But without proper form and technique, you could...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila. AU - Coen, Philip. AU - Clemens, Jan. AU - Weinstein, Andrew J.. AU - Pacheco, Diego A.. AU - Deng, Yi. AU - Murthy, Mala. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements We thank B. Arthur and D. Stern for assistance in establishing the song recording system; P. Andolfatto for wild-type fly strains; S. Kamal and V. Cheng for assistance with selecting and maintaining fly strains; G. Guan for technical assistance; T. Tayler for help with injections; J. Shaevitz for help with the fly tracker; R. da Silveira for early discussions on reverse correlation; and G. Laurent, C. Brody, D. Aronov, I. Fiete, M. Ryan, and the entire Murthy lab for thoughtful feedback and comments on the manuscript. Figure 1a was illustrated by K. Ris-Vicari. P.C. is funded by an HHMI International Predoctoral Fellowship and M.M. is funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Human Frontiers Science Program, an NSF CAREER award, the McKnight Endowment Fund, ...
We scream when were excited or happy; we scream when were fearful or in pain; we scream when we are exasperated; we scream when were charging into battle; we scream during sex. But we rarely stop to wonder what those screams, even the ones that erupt from us, signify or if they can be differentiated. Emory University psychologist Harold Gouzoules thinks in those terms, but despite being probably the worlds foremost expert on screaming, he doesnt speak in absolutes. For decades, Gouzoules studied screams in macaques and other nonhuman primates. Hes only worked with Homo sapiens for three years and answers to even the most basic research questions remain elusive ...
Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in females, that normally do not sing. Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in females, that normally do not sing. HVc and RA can be induced to grow by 90% and 53%, respectively, in adult gonadectomized females under the influence of testosterone, as these birds acquire male-like song. The magnitude of this effect is comparable, though of reversed sign, to that following early castration in males. This system is unique in the extent to which gross neural plasticity normally associated with early development can be induced in adulthood.
A brain nucleus that is important for the generation of song in the adult male zebra finch (Poephila guttata), the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), receives dual inputs from two other telencephalic song nuclei: the hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudale (HVc) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (L-MAN). We lesioned each of these afferent inputs to the RA early in development, either by themselves or both at the same time in the same side of the brain, to determine what influences each of these nuclei exerts on the normal development of the RA into adulthood. We found that lesioning the HVc in a 20-day-old male zebra finch prevents the later increase in RA volume and soma size that would normally occur around 35 days post-hatching. MAN lesions at this same early age, on the other hand, had a large effect on reducing the volume and cell number of RA neurons, without affecting soma size. Lesioning both inputs early in development induced considerable RA neuronal ...
White-Crowned Sparrow - Zonotrichia leucophrys - also known as Le bruant à couronne blanche (French), Witkruingors (Dutch), Dachsammer (German), Passero corona bianca (Italian), and Chingolo Piquiblanco (Spanish).. Song Sparrow - Melospiza melodia - also known as Bruant chanteur (French), Zanggors (Dutch), Singammer (German), Passero cantore (Italian), and Chingolo Melodioso (Spanish).. This is the first time I have seen a White-Crowned Sparrow in my yard. The Song Sparrows have been here before, but there appears to be a pair hanging around a lot this Spring. In fact, I even saw one Song Sparrow peaking into my gourd birdhouse, although I do not think a Song Sparrow would nest in a gourd up in an apple tree.. Photo taken with the Canon Digital Rebel XT / 350D and a Sigma 70-300mm Lens on April 29, 2008 in Davenport, Iowa.. ...
In non-avian tetrapods, the larynx is the main sound-producing organ. Birds, however, have evolved a unique phonatory organ, the syrinx, located at the basal end of the trachea. Like the mammalian larynx, the syrinx is controlled by muscles whose action influences acoustic parameters and regulates airflow by closing and opening of the airways. Syrinx morphology and the number of muscles controlling it vary between different bird groups. Despite substantial variation in vocal control, vocal behaviour of birds ranks among the most elaborate use of sound as a communication signal. Because song is an important behaviour for mate attraction and territorial defence, vocal quality is assumed to be under strong sexual selection (e.g. Andersson, 1994). In oscines, song is a learned vocal behaviour, which often displays highly complex temporal and acoustic features. Production of rapid temporal sequences and high rates of amplitude and frequency modulation require precise control of sound onset and ...
In two experiments we explore how speaker sex recognition is affected by vocal flexibility, introduced by volitional and spontaneous vocalizations. In Experiment 1, participants judged speaker sex from two spontaneous vocalizations, laughter and crying, and volitionally produced vowels. Striking effects of speaker sex emerged: For male vocalizations, listeners performance was significantly impaired for spontaneous vocalizations (laughter and crying) compared to a volitional baseline (repeated vowels), a pattern that was also reflected in longer reaction times for spontaneous vocalizations. Further, performance was less accurate for laughter than crying. For female vocalizations, a different pattern emerged. In Experiment 2, we largely replicated the findings of Experiment 1 using spontaneous laughter, volitional laughter and (volitional) vowels: here, performance for male vocalizations was impaired for spontaneous laughter compared to both volitional laughter and vowels, providing further ...
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In adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the telencephalon occupies 64% of the entire brain. This fraction is similar to what is seen in parrots, but many other birds possess a significantly smaller telencephalon. The aim of the present study was to determine the developmental time course and cellular basis of telencephalic enlargement in zebra finches, and then to compare these findings with what is known about telencephalic enlargement in other birds. To this end we estimated the volumes of all major brain regions from serial sections in embryonic and post-hatching zebra finches. We also labeled proliferating cells with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated histone H3. An important finding to emerge from this work is that the telencephalon of zebra finches at hatching contains a thick proliferative subventricular zone (SVZ) that extends from the subpallium into the dorsal pallium. The data also show that the onset and offset of telencephalic neurogenesis ...
While a great deal of our vocabulary is acquired early in life, we continue to acquire new words and string together new phrases throughout adulthood. This trait is not entirely unique to humans. Many species of songbirds are open-ended learners, meaning their repertoire size increases with age as opposed to crystallizing during development. Previous research suggests an important role for estrogens in verbal memory. To begin to better understand the functional significance of this phenomenon, we asked, 1) can circulating concentrations of estradiol in the body, or lack thereof, affect a birds ability to recognize and behaviorally respond to novel song patterns, as encountered naturally in the wild, and 2) does this change according to the reproductive state of the bird. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seasonally breeding, open-ended learners that can be trained to recognize and respond to new song patterns. We measured the latency of birds to learn and respond to new song patterns ...
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In this paper, we describe spatial variation in the demography of the Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia. Long-term population studies of birds have generally considered only single sites in optimal habitat, but recent theory has shown the value of taking spatial variation in population dynamics into account. In this theory, collections of local populations in habitat patches connected by dispersal are defined as metapopulations. We review metapopulation models briefly and then use these ideas in a study of the Song Sparrow. Sparrows were studied on islands of varying size and degree of isolation from the North American continent. For analysis, these islands are grouped into three areas. Sparrows on the isolated Mandarte Island usually reproduced and survived well over 17 years but suffered from catastrophic mortality in some winters. After such events, the population recovered quickly without much immigration. Sparrows on smaller islets near Mandarte also survived and reproduced well during 4 ...
Most owner complaints about feline vocalization are either to do with the intensity and persistence of the vocalization, or the fact that it occurs at night or at other times when family members or neighbors are trying to sleep.
behaviour and the neural systems controlling behaviour. Songbirds, along with humans, are one of only six animal groups (including bats, parrots, hummingbirds, and cetaceous whales and dolphins) that are known to exhibit vocal learning. Furthermore, songbirds possess a highly-evolved network of interconnected brain regions controlling vocal learning, vocal perception and vocal production. As such, songbirds allow researchers a unique opportunity to directly study vocal communication at the interface between brain and behaviour. The SNL studies the cognitive, neurobiological and behavioural substrates underlying songbirds highly evolved and specialized suite of communication behaviours. Current research focuses on vocal communication in one particular group of songbirds, the chickadees (e.g., Black-capped, Boreal, Carolina, Chestnut-backed, and Mountain chickadees).. Research in the SNL is currently aimed at understanding the cognitive, perceptual, evolutionary, developmental, and neural bases ...
Hyla chrysoscelis, the Copes grey treefrog; Gilchrist county, Florida (12 April 2014). Learn more about this species at
Neurospecificity of the electrical stimulus at the frequencies used in this investigation is a matter of debate. To deliver electrical stimuli at 5, 250, and 2,000 Hz, we used a device that has been used for in vivo and in vitro studies, and in clinical settings for diagnosis of neuropathies43-45 and investigations of pharmacodynamics of topical analgesics46 and of mechanisms of nociception.47,48 Although a matter of controversy, there is in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting the notion that electrical stimuli delivered at 2,000, 250, and 5 Hz preferentially activate Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers, respectively.21 Using action potential intracellular recordings from isolated dorsal root ganglia neurons with attached dorsal roots, researchers showed that C fibers were activated by 5-Hz and not by 250- or 2,000-Hz sine-wave stimuli.21 In addition, 2,000-Hz stimulation at low intensity selectively activated Aβ, and at significantly higher intensity, it stimulated Aδ neurons.21 Lastly, 250-Hz ...
The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of relations between child and environmental variables, including factors related to communication aid provision, and participation in informal everyday activities in a sample of children with complex communication needs. Ninety-seven caregivers of children provided with communication aids responded to a questionnaire survey. Child variables assessed were level of ability, trait emotional self-efficacy, and competence in communication aid use. Environmental variables assessed were the impact of childhood disability on the family, family socio-economic category, perceived reliability of electronic communication aids provided to children, and ease of use of the aid. The outcome measure was the intensity of child participation in informal activities. Significant correlations were observed between participation scores and the following variables: child age, level of ability, trait emotional self-efficacy, and family impact of childhood disability.
by Vetscite. Adult songbirds modify their vocalizations when singing to juveniles in the same way that humans alter their speech when talking to babies. The resulting brain activity in young birds could shed light on speech learning and certain developmental disorders in humans, according to a study by McGill University researchers.. Lead author Jon Sakata, a professor of neurobiology at McGill, says that songbirds learn vocalizations like humans learn speech. Songbirds first listen to and memorize the sound of adult songs and then undergo a period of vocal practice-in essence, babbling-to master the production of song.. Researchers have been studying song learning in birds for some time. But the degree to which social interaction with adult birds contributes to that learning has been unclear. Thats because, unlike this current work, past studies didnt control for the time exposed to song and the presence of other birds.. In this study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National ...
Castration of adult male zebra finches (Poephila guttata, Estrildidae) reduces their singing rate and the tempo of song, but castrates continue to sing song identical in form to preoperative song. Injection or implantation of testosterone propionate (TP) but not of vehicle alone reverses the changes …
According to a study investigating the song differences between white-rumped Munias and its domesticated counterpart (Bengalese finch), the wild munias use a highly stereotyped song, whereas the domesticated ones sing a highly unconstrained song. Considering that song syntactical complexity is subject to female preference in the Bengalese finch, it is likely that maternal resource allocation strategies play a role in song evolution.[38] In the field of bird vocalization, brains capable of producing only an innate song have very simple neural pathways: the primary forebrain motor center, called the robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), connects to midbrain vocal outputs which in turn project to brainstem motor nuclei. By contrast, in brains capable of learning songs, the RA receives input from numerous additional forebrain regions, including those involved in learning and social experience. Control over song generation has become less constrained, more distributed, and more flexible. When compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin, via HTR2 receptors, excites neurons in a cortical-like premotor nucleus necessary for song learning and production. AU - Wood, William E.. AU - Lovell, Peter V.. AU - Mello, Claudio. AU - Perkel, David J.. PY - 2011/9/28. Y1 - 2011/9/28. N2 - Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that is important for neural development, learning and memory, mood, and perception. Dysfunction of the serotonin system is central to depression and other clinically important mood disorders and has been linked with learning deficits. In mammals, 5-HT release from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem can modulate the functional properties of cortical neurons, influencing sensory and motor processing. Birds also have serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe, suggesting that 5-HT plays similar roles in sensory and motor processing, perhaps modulating brain circuitry underlying birdsong. To investigate this possibility, we measured the effects of 5-HT on spontaneous firing of projection neurons in ...
We investigate vocal communication and cognitive abilities in mammals. We work on a wide range of mammal species including red deer, domestic horses, African elephants, koalas, dogs and cats and humans. Our lab is well equipped with cutting edge facilities for recording, analyzing and playing back vocalizations as well as tools for experimental presentation of visual cues. People: Karen McComb, David Reby. Lab website: Mammal Vocal Communication and Cognition Research. ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
The Being able to identify a birds song is a skill that brings joy and fosters an appreciation of nature. Learning how to differentiate between the songs of a house finch and a goldfinch, however, is not easy. That is where this enchanting book comes into its own. It features recordings of twelve bird songs from some of the best-known garden bird species seen and heard across North America. This is an interactive board book designed for any age with features for young readers. The board pages are easy to turn. The twelve song buttons are easy to activate and each bears a portrait of the singing bird. The high-quality sound module is encased in durable plastic, and the one-inch (3 cm) speaker makes it easy to hear and differentiate the elements of a birds song, like pitch, tempo, whistles, trills and buzzes. All twelve birds have winter or summer ranges in the United States and Canada. This means that readers are sure to see most if not all the birds. The song birds are: ...
Web hosting customers have the possibility to send e-mails from their applications (see 1&1 Help Center). Most PHP and ASP.NET applications already have such a function. Often, a free sender address can be selected. Customers using as sender address one of their domains registered with 1&1 are not affected by the configuration change.. Customers using another sender address such as „, „ or „ have also been dealt with in the past by SRS. Thus, e-mails with these sender addresses have been dealt with on the recipient page as if they had successfully passed the SPF examination, even though this was not the case.. 1&1 respects the wish of domain owners, explicitly limiting by means of the SPF records the mail servers over which e-mails with their sender addresses can be delivered. Therefore, we no longer use SRS in case of a freely selected sender address. This can cause that e-mails with sender addresses not registered with 1&1 are treated by the ...
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The mechanism of sound production in the collared dove Streptopelia decaocto was studied to test the validity of the whistle model and to analyze the role of vocal tract resonances. In this study, the vocalizations of six male adult doves were recorded both in normal air and in a mixture of 80 % helium and 20 % oxygen (heliox). Depending on the way in which the syrinx operates, the spectral structure of the vocalizations is expected to show specific changes in heliox. The effects of heliox differed substantially depending on the type of vocal element. Except for a significant decrease in amplitude, unmodulated elements, i.e. elements with a constant frequency, were relatively unaffected by heliox. In contrast, modulated elements, i.e. elements with an abrupt increase in frequency, showed a gradual increase in frequency with increasing helium concentration. This specific increase in frequency stopped when the modulation frequency was 1.5 times the base frequency, even when the helium ...
Edvard Munchs The Scream is a composition of four pieces, two done with paint and the other two in pastels. Munch, an Expressionist artist, gave these works the German name Der Schrel der Natur or The Scream of Nature, and show a figure with an agonized expression against a landscape with a tumultuous orange sky, while two figures in the background walk on oblivious to the active environment around them. A lithographic stone of the image existed for Munch to make prints; approximately four dozen were made, and several of those prints survive to this day.. Theres speculation among art historians about Munchs inspiration for The Scream, one example being Munch observing ancient mummies while visiting museums. According to Munch himself, however, the initial inspiration behind The Scream was due to an experience he had while out with friends. In a diary entry on January 22, 1892, he wrote:. I was walking along the road with two friends - the sun was setting - suddenly the sky turned blood red - ...
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Juvenile avian song learning is one of the best animal models used to study generation and recognition of rhythm. The ability for birds to process a tutor song and then generate a perfect replica of that song, underlies our ability to learn rhythm. Two very famous computational neuroscientists Kenji Doya and Terrence J. Sejnowski created a model of this using the Zebra Finch as target organism. The Zebra Finch is perhaps one of the most easily understood examples of this among birds. The young Zebra Finch is exposed to a tutor song from the adult, during a critical period. This is defined as the time of life that learning can take place, in other words when the brain has the most plasticity. After this period, the bird is able to produce an adult song, which is said to be crystallized at this point. Doya and Sejnowski evaluated three possible ways that this leaning could happen, an immediate, one shot perfection of the tutor song, error learning, and reinforcement learning. They settled on the ...
YEAR: 1994. SEASON: Summer. MONTH: June. STATE: Washington. COUNTY: Okanogan County. LOCATION DETAILS: Small lake west of Palmer Lake, it about 10 miles WSW of Oroville.. NEAREST TOWN: Oroville. NEAREST ROAD: Chopaka Creek Road. OBSERVED: June 1994, West bank Chopaka Lake, 2-3am. I awoke to the most god-awful animal voice Ive ever heard. My friends slept through it and teased me the next day when I described the sounds. However, they stayed the next night after I left and reported to me later that they were awakened as I had been and were quite frightened by the same sounds at around the same time. Just today I first heard of sightings by others at the lake in 96. The sound I heard was very loud, echoing across the lake and the hill on the east shore. It originated from the NW corner of the lake. The call was a good 10 secs long each time starting off with a very low register bellow like the bellow of a bull or elephant, then morphing into a cougar-like snarl and then finishing similar to ...
and they dont palatalise. I know there are other trills. About the different trills, I just looked it all up on Wikipedia again, and I discovered that the uvular trill, that is, the way I pronounce the double r with the back of my tongue and my uvula, is how its pronounced in German, and sometimes French, whereas in Spanish and Italian, you use the tip of your tongue (alveolar trill). Template:Uvular. No Personal Attacks or Trolling: Be respectful to fellow posters â name-calling, rudeness & incivility, slurs, vulgarities towards other users, and trolling are not welcome here. Im thinking about giving German another go, but the pronunciation is making me a little hesitant (along with gender & cases, but thats irrelevant at the moment). Hi! The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʀ , a small capital ar. I can do the alveolar trill, but not uvular. I am really interested in ...
Define trill. trill synonyms, trill pronunciation, trill translation, English dictionary definition of trill. n. 1. A fluttering or tremulous sound, as that made by certain birds; a warble. 2. Music a. The rapid alternation of two tones either a whole or a half tone...
The broadcast song of the Tambourine Dove (Turtur tympanistria) is a repetitive coo series produced in a very stereotyped way. The song is similar to those of the other species within the Turtur genus and likely reflects the adaptation to long distance signalling in tropical habitats. There is no study assessing individual variation of the Tambourine Dove song or for the possibility of identity coding through song features. We obtained recordings of 578 songs from 41 males within a population inhabiting montane forest in Cameroon between 2008 and 2018. Additionally, we analysed also recordings from automatic recorders working for a longer time during the year. Songs were analysed to get basic information about within- and between-individual spectro-temporal variation. Potential of identity coding and discriminant analyses were used to investigate if and how these songs may convey information about male identity. The song of the Tambourine Dove is a very simple series of short, unmodulated whistles with
Video #3 - Walrus Roar A young male walrus demonstrates one of his many natural vocalizations.. By training the animals to vocalize on cue, the trainers can demonstrate these sounds to guests and other people who may otherwise never hear such sounds. In addition, scientists can reliably record and analyze the different vocal patterns. Vocalizations from this group of walruses were recorded and used for some of the dinosaur sounds in the Jurassic Park movies. This young male walrus starred as Jocko in the movie 50 First Dates. Courtesy of Six Flags Marine World.. ...
We provide evidence for pulse register phonation in the songbird syrinx, which can be generated by all possible interactions of the two sound sources, but typically involves the use of both sound generators and always gives rise to sounds with a rich harmonic structure. Since sounds were induced in deeply anaesthetized crows, the short labial opening events and the alternation of opening between the left and right sound generators must reflect passive mechanical dynamics of the vocal organ. The alternation pattern indicates coupling between the two sound sources, which might include mechanical coupling presumably via the semilunar membrane and/or direct acoustic coupling. Muscular control of the observed vibration pattern is highly unlikely. Even if the thoracic compression induces a reflex-like neural response, the syringeal muscles would not be fast enough to account for rapid opening events of 1.5 ms duration (Elemans et al. 2004; Rome 2006). We therefore conclude that the observed vibratory ...
Our objective was to identify and characterize the types of vocalization other than meowing (VOM) in two contexts, a pleasant and an aversive situation, and to study the effect of the sex of the animal. A total of 74 cats (32 tom cats and 42 queens) living in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, participated in the study; in total, 68 (29 tom cats and 39 queens) were divided into two groups according to the stimulus they were exposed to: either a pleasant situation (PS), when they were offered a snack, or an aversive situation (AS), with the simulation of a car transport event. The other six animals (three tom cats and three queens) participated in both situations. Only the PS group presented VOM; of the 40 PS animals, 14 presented VOM, mostly acknowledgment or trill and squeak. No correlation was observed between vocalization and cat sex (p = 0.08; Pearson’s Chi-Square). Results show that VOM is exclusively associated with positive situations, suggesting that these vocalizations may be relevant for
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FunkShop is designed for smaller groups/combos, up to 10 musicians. keyboardists, guitarists, bassists, horn players, drummers and vocalists are formed into a funk/rock/pop unit. Joe uses innovative methods of groups training including Tai Chi Breathing Exercises vocal and timing training, djembe drums and instant composition. All musicians must ahve a good understanding of rhythm and timing to function effectively and unselfishly in a group. We must all learn to memorize and take music to our hearts. The concewpt of GROUP is foremost. Several original songs are constructed. All songs are learned to memory by ear. This is a lost technique in educational curriculums but very important in popular funkt & pop musici performance genres. Only after songs are learned and memorized perfectly are they written down for doumentation. The workshop ends in a performace of the original works in a live performace setting. ...
Vehrencamps work also suggests that males that are most successful are those that share many song types with their territorial neighbors. Song sparrows, for example, can learn songs only within a narrow time period restricted to the first few months after fledging, which means that males must learn neighborhood songs quickly to facilitate successful territorial negotiations.. Song sparrows are very restricted learners, so the dominant birds that acquire territories within their natal area share more song types with their neighbors and survive better, explained Vehrencamp, who observed that birds with a low degree of song-sharing spend more time fighting with neighbors and are rarely seen the next breeding season.. Vehrencamp also studies the banded wren in Central America. This species has a longer learning period, up to a year or more, so all birds in the neighborhood share a large fraction of their song types. Males get up early, and sing vigorously with frequent song-type matching in ...
Have you heard? SCREAM 4 opens in 2 weeks.. If youre a horror fan and paying any attention at all there is no way you cant know that Wes Craven and crew are back fro another round of fun in Woodsboro.. SCREAM 4 opens April 15th and to help prime us all for the event the BIOGRAPHY CHANNEL will be airing a retrospective documentary on the franchise and its looking to be a winner.. Think what you will of the films there is no denying their effect on the genre.. The BIO CHANNEL will premiere the show next Wednesday April 6th and Im sure many repeats will follow. This show comes to us from director Dan Francis who was also the man behind HIS NAME WAS JASON and NEVER SLEEP AGAIN so you know were in good hands. Heres the official synopsis from BIO:. In 1996 director Wes Craven unleashed Scream, a slasher flick that shattered box-office records for horror films and turned Craven and some hot young actors (Neve Campbell, Skeet Ulrich, and Rose McGowan) into overnight stars. In this two-hour ...
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Sender ID combines Microsofts Caller ID for E-mail (which was submitted to the IETF for consideration in May) with Sender Policy Framework (SPF).. SPF was authored by Meng Weng Wong, the co-founder and chief technology officer at, a provider of subscription-based e-mail forwarding and mailing list services. Meng submitted SPF to the IETF in February.. Sender ID maintains lists of Internet Protocol addresses from which sent e-mail can be traced, and if adopted as a standard, could provide a way to close loopholes that allow e-mail senders to spoof or fake the origin of their message.. The unified specification, which was the result of discussions between Microsoft and Meng which lasted from January to May, is aimed at simplifying industry adoption of effective e-mail authentication technology.. The IETF is also considering another mail authentication submission from Yahoo, called DomainKeys.. DomainKeys works differently from Sender ID by using encryption to generate a signature based ...
The Song was accepted into the Jewish canon of scripture in the 2nd century CE, after a period of controversy in the 1st century. It was accepted as canonical because of its supposed authorship by Solomon and based on an allegorical reading where the subject-matter was taken to be not sexual desire but Gods love for Israel.[28] For instance, the famed first and second century Rabbi Akiva forbade the use of the Song of Songs in popular celebrations. He reportedly said, He who sings the Song of Songs in wine taverns, treating it as if it were a vulgar song, forfeits his share in the world to come.[29] However, Rabbi Akiva famously defended the canonicity of the Song of Songs, reportedly saying when the question came up of whether it should be considered a defiling work, God forbid! [...] For all of eternity in its entirety is not as worthy as the day on which Song of Songs was given to Israel, for all the Writings are holy, but Song of Songs is the Holy of Holies.[30]. It is one of the ...
The use of demand curves to derive estimates of motivational strength is a popular method for measuring animals preferences for a range of different resources in applied animal behaviour research. In a typical experiment, an animal pays a gradually increasing cost (e.g. by pushing through a weighted door) in order to access a resource it wants or needs. The resulting demand curves are used to calculate several measures of the strength of the animals motivation to access the resource. We tested two assumptions that underlie the majority of applications of this approach: first, that animals have a fixed energy budget to spend on access to resources: and second, that the effect of price on demand is not greatly influenced by the order or magnitude of the price changes. Sixteen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were trained to push through weighted doors to gain access to one of two resources, either a tray of turf, or protective foliage cover. In the first stage of the experiment reservation ...
It must, however, be xylitol free, as xylitol is toxic substance for several animals. Behaviour modifying drugs are used when a ... The second theory proposes that the syndrome is a seizure disorder, and that episodes of vocalisation, wild running, jumping, ... Virga V (November 2004). "Behavioral dermatology". Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 19 (4): 240-9. doi:10.1053/j. ... ISBN 0-7020-2488-0. World Small Animal Veterinary Association - World Congress, Vancouver 2001. Dr. Jon (Articles with short ...
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization. Academic Press. pp. 101-118. ISBN 978-0128151600.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: ... ISBN 978-0-520-24406-1. "Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010. ... the low basal metabolism makes body temperature drop rapidly when the animal is inactive. As in all animals, reptilian muscle ... The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria (though it may have been a temnospondyl). A series of ...
Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization. Academic Press. pp. 101-118. ISBN 978-0-12-815160-0. Orenstein 2012, p. 38. ... The Wikibook Animal Care has a page on the topic of: Turtle Turtle Survival Alliance Turtle Conservancy Symposium on Turtle ... These vocalizations may serve to create group cohesion when migrating. The oblong turtle has a particularly large vocal range; ... Later, the turtle was one of the four sacred animals in Confucianism, while in the Han period, steles were mounted on top of ...
Distasteful animals use warning coloration (aposematism) to prevent attacks from potential predators. Many animals wish to ... ISBN 978-0-521-62996-6. Brudzynski, Stefan M. (8 December 2009). Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization: An Integrative ... Dorcas, Michael E.; Gibbons, Whit (2011). Frogs: The Animal Answer Guide. JHU Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8018-9935-5. "Animal ... edible animals more or less accurately mimic distasteful animals to reduce their own risk of being attacked by predators. ...
This allows the animal to make dorsal turns and maintain a streamlined posture. When moving on land, the California sea lion is ... The only other vocalization made by territorial males is a "prolonged hoarse grunt sound" made when an individual is startled ... These animals exploit more man-made environments like docks for haul-out sites. Many docks are not designed to withstand the ... This vocalization is also made by groups of non-reproductive males. Female California sea lions are less vocal. Their barks, ...
... vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "koww", usually echoed ... As a result of this connection, there have been studies conducted on the reaction of prey animals to the call of the raven. In ... These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species they vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of ... Crows and the other members of the genus make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Crows have also been observed to ...
... s also produce various vocalizations. Huffing occurs when the animal is tense while woofing is made when alarmed. ... The grizzly bear is the state animal of Montana. The California golden bear is the state animal of California. Both animals are ... with about 600-800 animals), Slovenia (500-700 animals) and Greece (with Karamanlidis et al. 2015 estimating >450 animals) in ... despite the country having no appointed national animal. The brown bear is Finland's national animal. ...
Barrows, Edward M. (2000). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Second ... A type of bird vocalization tending to serve such functions as giving alarm or keeping members of a flock in contact-as opposed ... The animal welfare impact of pinioning is subject to increasing debate. For example, it is known that the operation, which is ... K's Exotic Animal ER. Season 03 E01. May 21, 2016. 26 minutes in. Nat Geo Wild. Stout, Jane D. (May 2016). "Common emergencies ...
p. 156 Christison-Lagay, K. L. and Cohen Y. E. (2013). The Neural Representation of Vocalisation Perception. In Animal ... From Combe: Propensities do not form ideas; they solely produce propensities common to animals and man. Adhesiveness ... was the seat of the animal soul-one of three "souls" found in the body, each associated with a principal organ. The Swiss ... he believed to exist in other animal species. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their ...
Instead, animal behaviour experts explain they are modifying the "meow" vocalisation to mimic certain human words. For example ... but it is thought to be produced by the vibration of the animal's vocal cords. When an animal purrs, its vocal cords vibrate at ... Animal communication Cat pheromone Dog communication Turner, D.C.; Bateson, P.P.G; Bateson, P. (8 June 2000). The Domestic Cat ... Miller classified vocalizations into five categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/ ...
"Precise and nonscalar timing of intervals in a bird vocalization". Animal Behaviour. 191: 165-177. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav. ... 2022 Precise and nonscalar timing of intervals in a bird vocalization, 2022 "Julia A Clarke , Jackson School of Geosciences , ...
Thomas, D.A. & Barfield, R.J. (1985). "Ultrasonic vocalization of the female rat (Rattus norvegicus) during mating". Animal ... The noise is best described as either a quick clicking or 'burring' sound, varying from animal to animal. Vigorous bruxing can ... Like most rat vocalizations, the chirping is too high in pitch for humans to hear without special equipment. Bat detectors are ... The vocalization, described as a distinct "chirping", has been likened to laughter, and is interpreted as an expectation of ...
Much of Baker's work features vocalizations of animals and monsters. Baker's roles include animated series such as Avatar: The ... He voiced Pig George in the live action animal film My Brother the Pig. Baker has also been involved with television shows for ... Starting with gigs on The Wild Thornberrys, he voiced an assortment of animal characters, which would become one of his ... In 2014, Perry was nominated for a Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Award for Best Animal Sidekick. Coincidentally, another one of ...
... ing is a low, guttural vocalization produced by predatory animals; producing growls. Growling or growl may also refer to: ...
These songs are amongst some of the longest measured in animals. Only male humpback whales perform these vocalizations; it was ... Animals portal Animal communication Animal echolocation Bioacoustics Biomusic Biophony List of animal sounds Nora (cat) ... Unlike other animals, mankind makes music for purposes other than attracting mates or defending territory. Zoomusicologists in ... The most well-known form of music found in non-human animals is birdsong. Birdsong is different from normal calls. For example ...
In some languages (such as Chinese 喵, miāo, and Thai แมว, mæw), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.[citation ... A meow or miaow is a cat vocalization. Meows may have diverse tones and are sometimes chattered, murmured or whispered. Adult ... "Filipino Animal Sounds: Tagalog to English: Dictionary Online". 1 September 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018. ... Workshop on Vocal interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots (PDF). pp. 5-6. ISBN 978-2-9562029-0-5. Miller, P. ( ...
Animal language Bark (sound) Growling Roar (vocalization) Snarl Coren, Stanley (2012). How To Speak Dog. New York: Simon and ... P.N. Lehner, "Coyote vocalizations: a lexicon and comparisons with other canids," Animal Behavior, vol. 26 (1978) pp. 712-722. ... Howling is generally used by animals that engage in this behavior to signal their positions to one another, to call the pack to ... In coyotes, "bark howls" may serve as both long-distance threat vocalizations and alarm calls. The sound known as 'wow-oo-wow' ...
March 1972). "Vocalizations of the mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". Animal Behaviour. 20 (1): 36-53. doi:10.1016/ ... Fossey turned to animals as a way to gain acceptance. Her love for animals began with her first pet goldfish and continued ... However, spending her summer on a ranch in Montana at age 19 rekindled her love of animals, and she enrolled in a pre- ... Since Fossey would rescue any abused or abandoned animal she saw in Africa or near Karisoke, she acquired a menagerie in the ...
The low-amplitude vocalizations of cotton-top tamarins are believed to be an alternative to high-amplitude mobbing calls. If ... Animal Behaviour. 73 (2): 379-387. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.04.014. S2CID 53164055. Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne (31 ... Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Vocalization: An H215O PET Study (Articles with short description, Short description is ... ingressive speech Whispering campaign Whispering gallery Whispery voice Other forms of unvoiced vocalization: gasping, sighing ...
"Japanese macaques as laboratory animals". Experimental Animals. 58 (5): 451-457. doi:10.1538/expanim.58.451. PMID 19897928. ... "Girney" vocalizations among Japanese macaque females: context and function. Primates 26(4):424-35. Machida S. (1990) "Threat ... In 1999, the Animal Protection Institute took over management of the sanctuary and began to rescue other species of primates. ... Animal Diversity Web, § "Other Comments", ¶ 1, sent. 5, downloaded 2009-02-15T16:00+09:00 Blue Planet Biomes, ¶ 12, sent. 1, ...
The vocalizations that male frogs use to call for females are crucial for reproductive success in frogs. Initially, male frogs ... Bee, M. A.; Schwartz, J. J.; Summers, K. (2013). "All's well that begins Wells : celebrating 60 years of Animal Behaviour and ... Once a satellite male hears a change in vocalizations of other males he will begin courtship calling in an attempt to steal a ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00772.x. Johnstone, R. A. (2001). "Eavesdropping and animal conflict". Proceedings of the ...
Strategic use of affiliative vocalizations by wild female baboons. PLoS One 11: e0163978. Animal communication Ethology Primate ... Cheney received a Biology Department teaching award (2009), the Distinguished Animal Behaviorist Award from the Animal Behavior ... Animal Behaviour 84, 21-27. Platt, M.L., Seyfarth, R.M., & Cheney, D.L. 2016. Adaptations for social cognition in the primate ... Animal Behaviour 26, 389-408. Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.L. & Marler, P. 1980. Monkey responses to three different alarm calls: ...
The bobcat hunts animals of different sizes, and adjusts its hunting techniques accordingly. With small animals, such as ... During courtship, the bobcat's vocalizations include screaming and hissing. Research in Texas revealed that establishing a home ... The animal is regulated in all three of its range countries, and is found in a number of protected areas of the United States, ... For slightly larger animals, such as geese, ducks, rabbits, and hares, it stalks from cover and waits until prey comes within 6 ...
If the targeted animal stands its ground, wolves either ignore it, or try to intimidate it into running. Wolves, or even a wolf ... This is important because wolves do not use vocalization when hunting. In laboratory tests, they appear to exhibit insight, ... After chasing and then confronting a large prey animal, the wolf makes use of its 6 cm (2+1⁄2 in) fangs and its powerful ... To survive, wolves must be able to solve two problems-finding a prey animal, then confronting it. Wolves move around their ...
Vocalization of the fox List of animal sounds Thompson, Jessie (12 November 2014). "What Does the Fox Say?: Ylvis's viral hit ... He gives a summary of animal sounds ("Dog goes woof/cat goes meow", etc.) that "could have been lifted straight from a ... Official video on YouTube British Library Sound and Vision blog - what does the fox say? (red fox vocalizations) What does the ... The video begins with Bård singing at a costume party where other participants are dressed as different animals, whose ...
It focuses and modulates the animal's vocalizations and acts as a sound lens. It is thus a key organ involved in communication ... The sperm whale has the largest nose of any animal in the world. The bulk of that nose is composed of two large, fatty ... The lipids in the melon cannot be digested by the animal as they are metabolically toxic. A starving dolphin will have a robust ...
How Animals Communicate. p. 794. Ralls K, Fiorelli P, Gish S (1985). "Vocalizations and vocal mimicry in captive harbour seals ... In addition to the similarities in the neurobiological circuits necessary for vocalizations between animal vocal learners and ... As a result, they can produce vocalizations, but not learned vocalizations. The anterior vocal pathway (also known as vocal ... If mates prefer more variable vocalizations, predators may also be more strongly attracted to more variable vocalizations. As ...
Infrasounds are also present in the vocalizations of some animals. Low frequency sounds can travel for long distances with very ... If an animal produces a low frequency sound, and uses it in communication, it suggests the animal might also be sensitive to ... Firstly, the animals might actually be more sensitive than the experiments would indicate owing to habituation of the animals ... Another problem that might arise in interpreting field experiments done on groups of animals is that animals may be responding ...
Some of those vocalizations and acoustic features may support individuality. The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the ... The overall population of sea lions is considered stable; the estimate is 265,000 animals. They are declining in the Falkland ... South American sea lions are observed to make various vocalizations and calls which differ between sexes and ages. Adult males ... The overall population of the species is considered stable, estimated at 265,000 animals. The South American sea lion was ...
... pet-owners are more sensitive to negative emotion in animal distress vocalizations". Royal Society Open Science. Royal Society ... Society and Animals. Animals & Society Institute. 15 (2): 169-189. doi:10.1163/156853007X187117. Retrieved 2020-02-09. (CS1 ... Alli B. "10 Signs You Are A Crazy Cat Person (And Proud Of It!)". The Animal Rescue Site Blog. "How are dog people and cat ... Research has shown a link between some personality traits and the type of domesticated animal owned. A 2010 study at the ...
Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press, ... Analysis of behavior and vocalizations is complicated by common parallel evolution, while analyses of different morphological ... Collins, Charles T. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 134-136. ISBN ...
When urine marking, the male elk advertises this with a specialised vocalisation called the "bugle". During the last phase of ... Self-anointing in animals, sometimes called anointing or anting, is a behaviour whereby a non-human animal smears odoriferous ... Barrows, Edward M. (2011-04-26). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology …. ISBN 9781439836514 ... These substances are often the secretions, parts, or entire bodies of other animals or plants. The animal may chew these ...
Animal language, forms of animal communication that are considered to show similarities to human language *Talking animal or ... Speech imitation, the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual ... speaking animal, any non-human animal which produces sounds or gestures resembling those of a human ...
Vocalisation of remaining laryngeals: /H/ , /ə/ - *ph₂tḗr "father" , *pətḗr , *fadēr; *sámh₂dʰos "sand" , *sámədʰos , *samdaz ... Northern Sami jievja "white (of animal, or hair)", from early Proto-Germanic *heują (later *hiują) ...
Its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. Suggested readings include Ḥannobaʿal,[3] Ḥannibaʿl, or Ḥannibaʿal,[4][5] ... Pliny the Elder (2005), The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal: Human History Book 7: Natural History, translated by Beagon, Mary ... of animals and humans" and that the soil bore traces of unique levels of Clostridia bacteria associated with the digestive ...
"The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database. Retrieved 28 August 2014.. *^ Desborough, Laurella; Speer, Brian J. "Toe Tapping from ... vocalization, and behavior differences. ...
Ararat (Western Armenian pronunciation: Ararad) is the Biblical Hebrew name (אררט ʾrrṭ; Tiberian vocalization אֲרָרָט ʾărārāṭ; ... depicts Noah with his family and a procession of animals crossing the Ararat plain, following their descent from Mount Ararat, ...
Animal Behaviour, 61(6), 1069-1078. *^ a b c d e f g Redinov, K.А. (2012). Trophic links of the Buzzard in Ukraine. Russian ... Vocalizations[edit]. Resident populations of common buzzards tend to vocalize all year around, whereas migrants tend to ... Animal Behaviour, 33(1), 155-165. *^ Ramos-Lara, N., Koprowski, J. L., Kryštufek, B., & Hoffmann, I. E. (2014). Spermophilus ... Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 26(5), 1193-1195. *^ Frölich, K., Prusas, C., Schettler, E., & Hafez, H. M ...
Each animal has a uniquely identifying, frequency-modulated narrow-band signature vocalization (signature whistle).[56] ... "Animal Corner. Retrieved September 16, 2008.. *^ Heithaus, M.; Dill, L. (2002). "Food Availability and Tiger Shark Predation ... Bruce Bagemihl (1999). Biological Exuberance - Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.. *^ Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J ... "Journal of Animal Ecology. 75 (1): 14-24. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.01013.x. ISSN 0021-8790. PMID 16903039.. ...
Animal Behaviour. 46 (5): 911-928. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1273.. *^ Lyon, Bruce; et al. (2003). "Ecological and social ... VocalizationsEdit. The American coot has a variety of repeated calls and sounds. Male and female coots make different types of ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 72: 47-61. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00674.x.. ... Yet they are omnivorous, also eating arthropods, fish, and other aquatic animals. During breeding season, coots are more likely ...
The details of the vocalisation vary geographically, including between the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, and birds ... and a faster version of this vocalisation is used by adults and young to signal distress.[31] ...
... which is considered the first postage stamp to show an animal instead of a head of state.[106] It is also the state animal of ... Vocalizations and tail slapping may be used to beg for food, signal to family members to warn of predators, or to drive away or ... Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645 ... These animals are considered pests in parts of their range because their dams can cause flooding, or because their habit of ...
L-vocalisation. When /l/ occurs at the ends of words before pauses and before consonants it sometimes sounds like a vowel sound ... or the names of animals (eg: kangaroo, kookaburra, barramundi) and plants (eg: waratah, kurrajong). A notable borrowing is " ...
Animal Behaviour, 83(3), 671-680. *^ Bayle, P. & Wilhelm, J. (1987). [An unusual prey of Bonelli's Eagle, Hieraaetus fasciatus ... Other recorded vocalizations have included a fluted, low-pitched klu-klu-klu as well as a repeated ki ki ki in alarm. Also ... Animal conservation, 21(2), 120-126. *^ Xirouchakis, S. (2004). Causes of raptor mortality in Crete. Raptors Worldwide. World ... and will readily take young animals across most prey classes.[24] Also, in Keoladeo National Park, India, Bonelli's eagles were ...
"Animal Diversity Web (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Retrieved 2007-08-11.. ... Chimpanzee Facial Expression & Vocalizations. *A chimpanzee laughter sample. Goodall 1968 & Parr 2005 ... Chimpanzees in Research: Past, Present, and Future from The State of the Animals III: 2005 ... "The Animal Within". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2006-06-27.. {{cite web}}. : External link in ,work=. (help ...
Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood ... vocalizations and composition of the group». Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 9: 151-158. ... Bortolotti, Dan (2008). Wild Blue: A Natural History of the World's Largest Animal (em inglês). Nova Iorque: St. Martin's Press ... As vocalizações da baleia-azul estão entre os sons de frequência mais altos e mais baixos produzidos por qualquer animal.[25][ ...
... a fundraising event for the animal shelter launched by the Philippine Animal Welfare Society (PAWS). In December 2008, she ... Like the traditional technique of vocalization, she was submerged into a drum of water while belting out her high notes. Later ... siyerwin (July 12, 2008). "Pose for PAWS: Fundraising for the Animal Shelter". Retrieved August 19, 2011. " ...
Before dawn, duet vocalisation signals to other members of the group to return to the sleeping site. Dian's tarsiers can travel ... Sleeping sites are typically located on the boundary of the home range, possibly to renew the sent of animals on their ... It is highly adapted to vertical clinging and leaping, like other tarsiers, and has a strict live animal diet, consisting ... This species shows sexually dimorphic morning duet vocalization. The majority of duet calls are started by the female. The ...
It is made of plant fibers, spider webs, animal hairs, and down, and it is lined externally with moss for camouflage. She lays ... The fawn-breasted brilliant makes two different vocalizations, a series of "tchik" notes and a common "swi-swi-swi-swu" call. ...
Most animals only look for food at one level; an arboreal species such as a lemur does not look for food on the ground. The ... Other vocalizations include "broken grunting" (low-volume, quick series of grunts made during relatively calm aggressive ... In fact, along with the muzzle, the animal's tail (38-58 cm or 15-23 in) and four-legged gait can make baboons seem very canine ... Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0-7894-7764-5 ...
These vocalizations are high-pitched, while their danger calls are louder. The range of the Chinese alligator is extremely ... A study of the alligator in 1985 showed that snails were the most common animal in its diet at 63%, with 65% of that being ... "List of Animals". Santa Barbara Zoo. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2018. "Chinese ... The Chinese alligator is an opportunistic feeder, meaning that it can prey on a variety of different animals depending on what ...
when the males and females of any animal have the same general habits ... but differ in structure, colour, or ornament, such ... Males arrive at the water's edge first in large numbers, and produce a wide range of vocalizations to attract mates. Among ... In his opinion, ascribing mate choice to females was attributing the ability to judge standards of beauty to animals (such as ... Clutton-Brock, T. H.; Russell, A. F.; Sharpe, L. L. (2004). "Behavioural tactics of breeders in cooperative meerkats". Animal ...
후원] 갓세븐 영재님께서 더봄센터의 견사를 후원해 주셨습니다". (in Korean). Korea Animal Rights Advocates. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 14 ... vocalization and pronunciation, which, along with Choi's facial expressions, realistically expressed the character's emotions. ... were donated to Korea Animal Rights Advocates's The Bom Center, a non-profit care center for abandoned dog. Choi featured in ...
The regular vocalisation is a rapid series of melodious notes delivered at a low volume. The vocalisation of sister species of ... They exhibit little caution in rural areas, gleaning seeds at paddocks after harvests or inside buildings and animal pens. The ... was included in a study of animals occupying tree cavities in jarrah forest, and intended to assist in determining the amount ... export and trade of listed wild-caught animals illegal. P. icterotis was used in a comparative study of tolerance in some ...
ISBN 978-0-517-46890-6. Weishampel, David B. (1981). "Acoustic analyses of potential vocalization in lambeosaurine dinosaurs ( ... suggesting the animal could have used the hands for support. The fifth finger was free and could be used to manipulate objects ... as well as a healed broken thigh bone that he thought would have been too much of a handicap for a terrestrial animal to have ... as the crests took on their distinctive forms as the animals aged.Lambeosaurus was like other hadrosaurids, and could move on ...
Animal Behaviour. vol 57, p. 1275. Nelson DA. (1988). FEATURE WEIGHTING IN SPECIES SONG RECOGNITION BY THE FIELD SPARROW ( ... 1979). AUDITORY-SENSITIVITY AND VOCALIZATIONS OF THE FIELD SPARROW (SPIZELLA-PUSILLA). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. vol ... Animal Behaviour. vol 31, no 3. pp. 948-949. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spizella pusilla. Wikispecies has ...
... they might interpret that as a vocalisation distinct to their flock. They then attempt to make the vocalisation themselves to ... N'kisi is believed to be one of the most advanced users of human language in the animal world. "Einstein" appeared on many ... If the parrot gets no response when it squawks a natural parrot vocalisation, but receives attention or food when it mimics ... Morelle, Rebecca (May 1, 2007). "Animal world's communication kings". BBC News. " Einstein the Parrot". TED. Retrieved May 26, ...
Sacchi, Roberto; Galeotti, Paolo; Fasola, Mauro; Ballasina, Donato (2003). "Vocalizations and courtship intensity correlate ... at least mtDNA is known to evolve more slowly in these than in most other animals. Paleobiogeographical considerations suggest ...
Feather picking is not a true stereotypy and is more like hair pulling in human and loud vocalizations or screaming can be a ... Animal psychopathology is the study of mental or behavioral disorders in non-human animals. Historically, there has been an ... However, domesticated animals including farm, laboratory, and pet animals are prone to disorders. Evolutionary fitness drives ... This article provides a non-exhaustive list of animal psychopathologies. Animals in the wild appear to be relatively free from ...
"Animal Instinct", one of the album's tracks". In May 2017, the band started the world tour as acoustic concerts, with a string ... into complex waterfalls of vocalisation, and yet the jangling folk guitars buffering them were clearly armored by capital-R ...
Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10 days were used to measure numbers and frequencies of the ultrasonic vocalizations under vari … ... The present study investigated how frequency distribution of maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization was altered by ... Vocalization, Animal / physiology* Substances * 2-methyl-4-(N-propyl-N-cycloproanemethylamino)-5-chloro-6-(2,4,6- ... The ultrasonic vocalization consisted of two distinct peaks in the frequency range of 30 kHz to 50 kHz. The area under the ...
Fauna produces natural and synthetic animal vocalizations using waveguide modeling techniques. An extensive set of modulators ...
Learn more about citations and why they are issued and how the Animal Control department handles complaints of animal nuisance ... Nuisance or Vocalization Section 5-8: Animal Nuisance.. (a) An Owner shall not allow his or her animals to be a Nuisance. In ... Citations / Nuisance or Vocalization Citations A Citation is issued due to a county ordinance violation. You may be required to ... e) If any person neglects or refuses to abate a noise in violation of this Article the ASO may impound the animal causing the ...
... not that of a smaller animal. There was a heavier resonance there. No small animal could have been making that sound. It ... Possible vocalizations heard at Lake Huron near the town of Bruce Mines (Show Printer-friendly Version) YEAR: 2005 ... youd think someone was walking up the road making that sound to scare off wild animals. But we are the only ones on this lane ...
Their best-known vocalization is called a bray, which can be heard for over three kilometers.. Donkeys in the wild can defend ... Some animals may not be viewable due to decreasing temperatures.. Kids Zoo. Closed for the season. ... For their well-being, some animals along the Move Your Paws route may be delayed going out on habitat in the morning. Guests ... Like many other grazing animals, they grasp the plant first with their muscular lips, pull it into their mouth, and then tear ...
The animal he heard outside the shelter sounded large and heavy as it walked a perimeter beyond the light of his headlamp. The ... Vocalization heard at close range on Appalachian Trail (Gooch Mountain Shelter) (Show Printer-friendly Version) YEAR: 2005 ... I looked in the morning and found no evidence of a bear, raccoon, or other animal, but the ground was very hard and dry. The ... I have never heard anything close to this sound from any animal I have ever encountered. I do not scare easy but this had me ...
... Psicol ... Regarding animal models in ASD, many studies focus on gene expression, cortical neuronal migration and cell maturation, and ... Palavras-chave : communication; ultrasound vocalization; ASD; genetics; neurodevelopment. · resumo em Português , Espanhol · ... However, very few studies directly link animal oral communication and gene expression in cortical areas of language. The object ...
Chatty Turtles Flip the Script on the Evolutionary Origins of Vocalization in Animals. 60-Second Science - By Pakinam Amer06: ...
Microscopic image of neurons (green) in the brain stem that regulate tempo of animal sounds and coordinate vocalization with ... Novel Brainstem Circuit Gives Rise to the Rhythms of Vocalization UCSF Researchers Identify the Source of a Phenomenon Observed ... Its been widely understood that many animals, including humans, have innate control of breathing - you dont have to use your ... Yackle and his team suspected that the same control exists for innate vocalizations. ...
Using Porpoise Vocalizations to Test the Effectiveness of Acoustic Monitors. It will help scientists more accurately measure ... Should Animals Win Acting Oscars? A Pacific Standard Investigation.. Its a question of whether animals featured in movies are ... Conservationists Are Creating Safer Animal Crossings. To help animals navigate our fast-paced highway systems nature ... Why the FDAs Plan to Regulate Gene Editing in Animals Has Some Scientists Worried. The agencys new plan retains several key ...
Increased vocalization. Dr. Nicole Martell-Morins peer reviewed study in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery revealed ... Before submitting to Animal Wellness, we ask that you familiarize yourself with our publication so that you have a strong sense ... Photo Contest, Animal Wellness Magazine. US: 6834 S. University Blvd. PMB 155, Centennial, CO 80122. CAN: 202-160 Charlotte St ... Click here to view our current issue of Animal Wellness Magazine.. You will receive a 1 Year Digital Subscription to North ...
They do not vocalize to the same extent even during the breeding season these animals tend to be quiet. These animals also ... Vocalization. Chipmunks do make sounds and are quite vocal particularly if it is the breeding season. Gophers do not vocalize ... Categorized under Animals,Nature , Difference Between Chipmunk and Gopher. A chipmunk is a rodent that has dark stripes on the ... They are diurnal animals that are quite noisy, being vocal especially during the mating season. They nest in burrows that they ...
Climate Change - Not Overhunting by Humans - Likely Drove the Extinction of North Americas Largest Animals ... Discovery of Ancient Singing Dog Species May Teach Us About Human Vocalization ...
Each animal has a uniquely identifying, frequency-modulated narrow-band signature vocalization (signature whistle).[56] ... "Animal Corner. Retrieved September 16, 2008.. *^ Heithaus, M.; Dill, L. (2002). "Food Availability and Tiger Shark Predation ... Bruce Bagemihl (1999). Biological Exuberance - Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.. *^ Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J ... "Journal of Animal Ecology. 75 (1): 14-24. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.01013.x. ISSN 0021-8790. PMID 16903039.. ...
Patterson: She just gave some vocalizations there… some soft puffing. [chat host]: I heard that soft puffing! Patterson: Now ... Its hard to resist reading into animals actions, and it turns out, animals read into our actions, too. They carefully watch ... Koko has had her likeness turned into stuffed animals, and she was the guest of honor in two AOL chats, in 1998 and 2000. Koko ... Ape facilities must obtain licenses from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to showcase the animals (e.g. in a zoo) or to use ...
... and Use of Animals in Research This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific ... articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. Links to ... Animals 9(11), 878. Our objective was to identify and characterize the types of vocalization other than meowing (VOM) in two ... Animals 9(8), 543. Cats employ vocalizations for communicating information, thus their sounds can carry a wide range of ...
Animal -, 0.996) Result of the window 54: houspa -, 0.809, (Bird vocalization, bird call, bird song -, 0.708) Result of ... 您刚刚训练的模型有两个输出:原始 YAMNet 的输出和您刚刚训练的输出。这一点很重要,因为现实世界的环境比鸟鸣要复杂得多。您可以使用 YAMNet 的输出过滤掉不相关的音频,例如,在鸟类用例中,如果 YAMNet 没有对 Birds 或 Animals ... Wild animals -, 0.952) Result of the window 20: houspa -, 0.517, (Bird vocalization, bird call, bird song -,
2x PhD: Evolution of identity signalling in animal vocalizations pavel.linhart * Importance of Sound in the Sea: A new, ... Bioacoustic Articles in Animal Behaviour August 2017 Elke Burkhardt * Bioacoustic Articles in Animal Behaviour and Ethology May ... Bioacoustic Articles Animal Behaviour and Ethology Elke Burkhardt * New paper on lack of evidence for jamming avoidance in bats ... Bioacoustic Articles in Animal Behaviour and Ethology March to May 2018 Elke Burkhardt * bioacoustics articles in JASA 143(4), ...
Multi-animal Tracking. Researchers advocate that animals should be studied in group-housed conditions (Peters et al., 2015), ... Recording Vocalizations in the Home Cage. Rodents display a wide range of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to ... Observer animals are initially habituated to the PhenoTyper whilst demonstrator mice are single housed, both animals are ... 2019b) showed that animals exposed to chronic stress and non-stressed animals have a similar immediate response to the light ...
Clay, Z., Smith, C. L., & Blumstein, D. T. (2012). Food-associated vocalizations in mammals and birds: What do these calls ... and to broader across other primate and non-human animals. ... really mean? Animal Behaviour, 88, 323-327. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Tecumseh Fitch shows how studying our animal relatives fosters our understanding of human cognition. ... However, humans arent the only animals capable of learning complex vocalizations; vocal learning has independently evolved in ... Humans Are Animals, Too: A Whirlwind Tour of Cognitive Biology. Humans Are Animals, Too: A Whirlwind Tour of Cognitive Biology ... For a very long time, there have been two main camps on animal behavior and animal cognition: exclusivists, who focus on the ...
These animals are commonly referred to as sea lions.. All members of the Odobenidae family are walruses, and they combine ... Most people would recognize the sound of a seal barking. This vocalization may play a role in navigation, social behaviour ... Claims of convergent evolution-that two types of animals could evolve similar adaptations and features separately-are also ... changes the animals volume, decreasing its buoyancy. This makes for effortless deep diving, involving little or no expenditure ...
This parasite can manipulate the minds of animals-and humans. *Animals. This parasite can manipulate the minds of animals-and ... Most vocalizations have a "dry" quality. Call: most given singly or in stuttering series. A scratchy, frequently heard call is ...
... altered vocalization, and seizures. Progression to death is rapid. There are currently no known effective rabies antiviral ... Captive Wild Animals and Hybrids *Wild animals or hybrids (the offspring of wild animals crossbred to domestic animals) should ... The recommendations regarding domestic animal vaccination, management of animals exposed to rabies, and management of animals ... Other Animals. Other mammals exposed to a rabid animal should be euthanized immediately. Animals maintained in USDA-licensed ...
Animals have similar pain pathways as humans; therefore you MUST assume an animal is in pain. Response to pain is influenced by ... Vocalization and Excitement. After extubation, the patient should slowly come to an awake state. This may take anywhere from ... An animal may wake up excited due to the rapid metabolism of certain drugs or there may be drugs on board causing excitement ... If a dysphoric animal is given more opioid because it was thought they were painful; the delirium can become worse. They may ...
What About Horses and Other Large Animals?. The behavior service consults with owners of large-animal patients that are in the ... Excessive vocalization. *Destructiveness, including excessive chewing or furniture scratching. ... Looking Through the Eyes of Animals Temple Grandin on the importance of first impressions, why "draconian leash laws" are a ... American Veterinary Society for Animal Behavior Position Statement on Punishment AVSABs position is that punishment1 (e.g. ...
Indicators of individual quality in ornamentation or in vocalizations have been reported for different animal species. However ... Potential of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to reflect a degree of discomfort of a caller is mostly investigated in laboratory ... Despite a large amount of published works in this area of study, the prediction of population structure in a number of animal ... But it is still unknown if there are any universal need indicators in chick vocalizations. Previous studies have shown that in ...
The animals hind limbs, hip girdle and tail clearly suggest this was a land animal. Bones show the animal was adapted to ... "These sinuses may be linked to their vocalization. Unlike most reptiles, crocs are very vocal and hear well. We described a ... "This is a brand new animal and possibly the great-grandmother of all crocodiles," he said. "It was still walking. These early ... Chatterjee said he has yet to name the animal, and it probably wont debut in scientific literature for another two years. ...
  • It's been widely understood that many animals, including humans, have innate control of breathing - you don't have to use your brain to do it. (
  • The recommendations regarding domestic animal vaccination, management of animals exposed to rabies, and management of animals that bite humans are the core elements of animal rabies control and human rabies prevention. (
  • Animals perceive the emotions of the humans around them, and the anecdotes in the release could easily be evidence that Koko was responding to the sadness she sensed in her human caregivers. (
  • Zoos use ambassador animals in educational programs featuring close contact with humans. (
  • Although the domestic cat (Felis catus) is probably the most widespread companion animal in the world and interacts in a complex and multifaceted way with humans, the human-cat relationship and reciprocal communication have received far. (
  • For a very long time, there have been two main camps on animal behavior and animal cognition: exclusivists, who focus on the differences between animals and humans, and inclusivists, who concentrate on similarities between humans and the rest of the animal kingdom. (
  • This long-running debate goes back millennia, with philosophers like Aristotle and Descartes arguing that humans are the only animals capable of higher-order cognition such as rational thought and language, and equally distinguished thinkers such as Voltaire, Charles Darwin, and David Hume arguing that it is self-evident "that beasts are endow'd with thought and reason as well as man. (
  • The basis of humans' biology contains an immense amount of shared fundamentals: Every living thing from bacteria to daffodils shares our basic genetic code, and our nervous system structure is shared with lower-order animals such as flies and worms as well as closer relatives such as bonobos. (
  • Along with this highly comparative approach, cognitive biologists break down complex traits, such as language or music, into multiple basic components, some of which may be shared among humans and other animals, and some which may be unique to a particular species. (
  • When humans start to behave out of the norm or show changes in their daily routine, animals find it a little difficult to get used to. (
  • the rumbling sound produced by the movement of gas through the intestines of animal s, including humans. (
  • Is there referentiality, and in which extent in dog vocalizations towards other dogs and humans? (
  • In the exotic-animal trade, sensitive alligators and crocodiles are kept in dank pools and barren, concrete pits while snakes and others are kept in dirty, crowded cages that are stacked on top of one another- creating a breeding ground for many pathogens , including zoonotic ones (those that can be passed on to humans) such as salmonella, E. coli , and West Nile virus. (
  • Just like humans, these animals experience fear and pain and want to be free. (
  • Some wolves are forced to endure a lifetime behind bars at a roadside zoo or pseudo-sanctuary and be touched by strangers or used for photo ops, which are disruptive, frightening, and dangerous not just for the animals but also for the humans involved. (
  • In the absence of evidence to the contrary, ATSDR assumes that humans are more sensitive to the effects of hazardous substance than animals and that certain persons may be particularly sensitive. (
  • In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. (
  • The object of our study aimed to review and to correlate genes involved in ASD and those related to ultrasonic communication in animal model studies of language-based social behavior at the PubMed database. (
  • d) This article shall not apply to noises arising from normal animal behavior or agricultural activities or operations as long as same are in compliance with the Unified Development Code and other County Ordinances. (
  • The behavior service at the Henry and Lois Foster Hospital for Small Animals sees dogs, cats, rabbits, ferrets, birds (including parrots and backyard chickens), and pet pigs. (
  • The behavior service consults with owners of large-animal patients that are in the hospital for treatment with other services. (
  • The behavior service treats other problems in horses and large animals-including aggression, repetitive movement (compulsive) disorders, and severe fearfulness-via consultation with your animal's primary care veterinarian. (
  • In evolutionary terms, the urban environments we take for granted represent radical ecological upheavals -- and the brains and behavior of urban animals are adapting, fast. (
  • Our study links these challenges by connecting the natural behavior of animals to the biogeochemistry of a complex, urban-impacted landscape. (
  • Data on the feeding behavior of Risso's dolphin have been obtained from the stomach contents of stranded animals. (
  • Another benefit is that many animals can stay in the same facility reducing the stress of the human contact and improving their social behavior. (
  • The present study investigated how frequency distribution of maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization was altered by environmental stimuli and pharmacological agents. (
  • The ultrasonic vocalization consisted of two distinct peaks in the frequency range of 30 kHz to 50 kHz. (
  • High-frequency components, but not low-frequency components, of the ultrasonic vocalization were sensitive to changes in negative affective state of isolated pups. (
  • Review and update of ultrasonic vocalization in animals: Correlation with autism spectrum disorder experimental models? (
  • Agonistic vocalization behaviour in the male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). (
  • Animal Behaviour, 88, 323-327. (
  • Animal Behaviour, 80, 1023-1033. (
  • Animal Behaviour, 77, 1387-1396. (
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science. (
  • These observations draw heavily on well-understood psychological results from studies of animal and human behaviour. (
  • These observations only scrape the surface of the complexity of animal behaviour. (
  • As researchers tag an increasing number of species, a debate has arisen over the consequences for animal welfare, conservation, and technology. (
  • This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. (
  • It's Okay to Cry - Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum [LAREF], Volume V. Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC. (
  • But over the past few months I've seen this manifest itself a lot in the animal welfare movement. (
  • For years, people in the breeding community have opposed mandatory spay/neuter laws -- however, in recent years, more animal welfare organizations have also taken notice of the negative impact of these laws and have taken a stance against them -- including the AVMA , ASPCA , the No Kill Advocacy Center , Best Friends and American Humane Association . (
  • And even though most national animal welfare groups do not support MSN, it is still widely supported by folks in local shelters who are often dismissive of the real-world results and real impacts of the laws when passed in communities. (
  • Animal Technology and Welfare 10(2), 105-114. (
  • Animal welfare checks (morning and afternoon) were performed on all the study animals during these dates and all animals appeared unaffected from the transient change in environmental conditions. (
  • Vocalizations are used by group-living animals as aggressive and submissive signals during agonistic interactions, and are also used to maintain dominance hierarchies in many species. (
  • Positive reinforcement training (PRT) is a component of a comprehensive species-appropriate enrichment program to train specific species behaviors and reduce the stress on animals. (
  • Somewhat counterintuitively, bold urban animals also tend to be less-than-typically aggressive, a pattern documented in species as disparate as house sparrows and salamanders, the latter of which are a specialty of Jason Munshi-South, an evolutionary biologist at the City University of New York. (
  • The voice of emotion across species: How do human listeners recognize animals' affective states? (
  • Your source for animal handling, control methods, and wildlife species information. (
  • It's worth noting that the largest animals to have ever lived are all aquatic and include other whale species such as the Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and the Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus) and some species of prehistoric marine reptiles such as the Mosasaurus and the Liopleurodon. (
  • The crests on some hadrosaurs had been linked to vocalisation, social signalling or intra-specific competition where animals of the same species might compete for mates. (
  • Like many other species of animals in Harris County, opossums are clever creatures. (
  • A pet fox may be considered "a wild canine, small canine, non-domesticated species, exotic animal, or native wildlife," so make sure you are allowed to own one where you live. (
  • In North America (NA), RABV variants tend to be species-associated among various bat and mesocarnivore taxa, indicating that intraspecific contact is the predominant mode of transmission and maintenance between animals ( Smith, 1996 ). (
  • 2022. Cat vocalization in aversive and pleasant situations. (
  • Dr. Borns-Weil, our board-certified animal behaviorist offers one-and-a-half to two-hour consultations and training. (
  • Computer technology is finally allowing us to see inside the world of animals in ways that are showing us that they are complex sentient beings that deserve our understanding and respect," Con Slobodchikoff, an animal behaviorist who is a professor emeritus at Northern Arizona University, said. (
  • People think just because the tail is wagging, all is well, but that's not always the case," says certified applied animal behaviorist Jill Goldman. (
  • A growing body of scientific evidence suggests that the brains and behaviors of urban animals are changing rapidly in response. (
  • Some dog behaviors bred into silver foxes included tail-wagging when happy, barking and vocalization, and ear floppiness. (
  • Crying as an emotional expression has been used to describe the vocalizations of many primates, including the coo vocalizations of squirrel monkeys and the whimpers and screams of chimpanzees. (
  • Therese Lamperty moved from the University of Washington in Seattle to Tulane where she started a fellowship with the American Association of University Women to focus on finishing up a project with Jordan that they began during her PhD. The project involves investigating potential genetic consequences for trees that might follow the loss of primates and other fruit-eating and seed-dispersing animals in the Amazon. (
  • These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. (
  • Rarely heard guttural chattering with occasional yelps and howls, mostly heard when animal s are in close proximity to one another. (
  • Therefore, SCP-3165's primary form of communication consists of fractured sign language and guttural vocalizations. (
  • Although many animals have varied and elaborated communication systems, human communicability allows an array of almost infinite construction of oral sound phrases and meanings, not only to share needs and desires but also to establish an even more complex personal relationship (Werker & Hensch, 2015). (
  • A new study definitively disproves a decades-old theory that human "handling" of the animals caused their rapid disappearance from Serengeti National Park in 1991. (
  • The great ape personhood movement aims to extend legal personhood to apes, a distinction that recognizes these non-human animals as beings with the capacity to hold both rights and duties. (
  • A study on human classification and interpretation of domestic cat vocalizations. (
  • I aim to continue my interests in studying the evolution of vocal communication and language, and to broader across other primate and non-human animals. (
  • Straddling the bridge between evolutionary biology and cognitive science, University of Vienna cognitive biologist W. Tecumseh Fitch demonstrated that studying our more distant animal relatives is vital to understanding human cognition. (
  • In giving such persuasively nonhuman animals human personalities and thoughts, the film created a kind of cognitive dissonance. (
  • Today, animal-translation technologies are being developed that use the same "machine learning" approach that is applied to human languages in services such as Google Translate. (
  • One finding of his research is that screaming - probably the most original form of human vocalization - triggers increased activity in the amygdala, a region of the brain responsible for the processing and remembering of fear, among other things. (
  • We conducted a literature search to identify the animal and human epidemiologic studies that examined sex-specific neurodevelopmental differences in response to prenatal and postnatal exposure to fluoride. (
  • Six of 138 animal studies and 15 of 106 human epidemiologic studies tested for sex-specific effects. (
  • The body of evidence examining sex effects associated with postnatal fluoride exposure was scarce, and many animal and cross-sectional human studies were considered to have a high risk of bias. (
  • Gochfeld M. Sex differences in human and animal toxicology. (
  • Human novelty response to emotional animal vocalizations: Effects of phylogeny and familiarity. (
  • The valence of emotional animal vocalizations modulates electrophysiological correlates of the human orienting response. (
  • electricity, human screams, animal screams and vocalizations. (
  • Yet despite these seemingly alien vocalizations, the new study reveals that these creatures have much more in common with human beings than we had previously assumed. (
  • Although human data are preferred, MRLs often must be based on animal studies because relevant human studies are lacking. (
  • SCP-3165's vocal cords are covered in excess skin tissue, rendering it incapable of producing human vocalizations. (
  • Yet anthropomorphized animals in literature and song often instruct human readers/listeners in social and moral conduct. (
  • The Five-Trial Social Memory test assesses cognition, namely the ability to recognize novel versus familiar animals, in rodent models of CNS disorders. (
  • The expression of the emotions in man and animal, Darwin, C. (1982 / 1965), Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. (
  • This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal control officials, and other parties engaged in rabies prevention and control activities and should serve as the basis for standardizing procedures among jurisdictions. (
  • These updated 2011 guidelines include the national case definition for animal rabies and clarify the role of the CDC rabies laboratory in providing confirmatory testing of suspect animals. (
  • Rabies virus usually is transmitted from animal to animal through bites. (
  • The recommendations in this compendium serve as a basis for animal rabies prevention and control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies control program. (
  • and all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and marketed in the United States are listed and described in Part III. (
  • NASPHV periodically updates the recommendations to prevent and control animal rabies. (
  • First, the national case definition for animal rabies was added to clarify how rabies cases are defined for public health surveillance purposes. (
  • Second, the diagnostics section was expanded to 1) clarify that the CDC rabies laboratory is available for confirmatory testing and on an emergency basis to expedite exposure management decisions, 2) include information on testing methodology appropriate for field testing of surveillance specimens, and 3) clarify that no reliable antemortem rabies tests are available for use in animals. (
  • In terms of emotional expression, crying might include any or all behavioral indices of distress (such as vocalizations, body movements, and facial expressions), or indices of sadness (for example, depressed body postures including slumping shoulders), or of pain. (
  • Many scientists thus refrain from using the word crying when referring to nonhumans, preferring to talk about distress vocalizations, or describe the acoustical properties of the sound. (
  • All animals have the capacity to learn through operant conditioning and other types of learning, and as a result, zoos and other animal care facilities have shifted towards the use of positive reinforcement training to. (
  • While her primary focus at Cummings Veterinary Medical Center is dogs and cats, she also treats birds, horses, rabbits and ferrets and consults with institutions such as zoos and aquaria about captive wild animal problems. (
  • Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10 days were used to measure numbers and frequencies of the ultrasonic vocalizations under various ambient temperatures and with pharmacological manipulations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABAergic systems. (
  • You can find many similarities in the way they love to play, their ability to distinguish familiar animals in their community from strangers that may infiltrate their space, and their memories, which can lead to learning habits and tricks. (
  • First, an animal must become self-aware, or have the ability to distinguish itself as an individual separate from other individuals and its surroundings. (
  • Section 5-8: Animal Nuisance. (
  • a) An Owner shall not allow his or her animals to be a Nuisance. (
  • From larger nuisance animals, such as armadillos and opossums, to smaller pests, like rats and bats, you can count on our fully licensed and insured company to deliver the fastest, most affordable, and most reliable results. (
  • The animal's hind limbs, hip girdle and tail clearly suggest this was a land animal. (
  • Three responses, namely tail withdrawal, vocalization and vocalization afterdischarge were studied. (
  • Most owl vocalizations are loud and low in pitch, which helps the sounds travel long distances through the night skies. (
  • Then she made a new LOUD vocalization which sounded a little like "I have done the stinkiest poo" but there was a note of elation. (
  • These animals are commonly referred to as sea lions. (
  • The short legs and long, low-slung body of the corgi, along with ample energy, drive and endurance, has served it well in roles as a farm-guard dog, cattle driver and herder, and now commonly as companion animal. (
  • Tics are abnormal movements or vocalizations that are diverse in presentation. (
  • the more dominant animal will show greater aggression and force its opponent out of the tube. (
  • We will try to predict the level and quality of aggression of the dogs, based on their vocalization. (
  • Being in unfamiliar environments throws animals a little off tangent. (
  • Animals -14 dogs temporarily housed in 2 kennel environments. (
  • A lot of biologists are really interested in how animals are going to deal with changes in their environments,' said biologist Emilie Snell-Rood of the University of Minnesota. (
  • Being highly cognitive might give some animals a push, so they can deal with these new environments,' she said. (
  • Maybe avoiding danger is an useful trait for some animals living in urban environments,' said biologist Catarina Miranda of Germany's Max Planck Institute, who in a September Global Change Biology paper described her experiments with rural and urban blackbirds . (
  • But the animals who involuntarily live in these environments are often treated poorly, not given ample enrichment, and forced to do cruel tricks with negative reinforcement and abuse (like being whipped or tied down) in order to entertain visitors. (
  • Before you take a bite into that piece of pork, we implore you to think about this fact: Pigs are known to be the 4th most intelligent animals behind monkeys and elephants. (
  • Elephants are very tactile animals with a tremendously perceptive sense of smell. (
  • These results demonstrated that emotional levels of isolated pups reflected not only the number but also the frequency distribution of maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. (
  • Vocalization may transmit information from the emitting animal, including information about his or her emotional state. (
  • In domestic animals, the incubation period is generally 3--12 weeks but can range from several days to months, rarely exceeding 6 months ( 7 ). (
  • These smart little animals used their snouts to move the mouse and learned how to complete this task as quickly as the monkeys did. (
  • If we define crying as emitting vocalizations that co-occur with distressing situations, then we can conclude that most monkeys and apes cry, especially as infants. (
  • All mammals (referred to as animals in this report) are believed to be susceptible to the disease. (
  • Food-associated vocalizations in mammals and birds: What do these calls really mean? (
  • With visitor safety as our first priority, ZooBoo will provide a safe environment for all ages to enjoy the spirited holiday featuring several activities: Pumpkin enrichment with the animals Animal Ambassador pop-ups at the ZooLive! (
  • During those years, many cheetahs were traded between the San Diego Wild Animal Park, the Wildlife Safari and other facilities to enhance breeding success at both facilities. (
  • We specialize in all types of animal wildlife control, including humane trap and release, extermination, and the removal of deceased animals. (
  • When an animal is admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, it starts a long process to survey and be released in nature. (
  • After hearing from PETA, Brooks Brothers-the oldest retailer in the country-confirmed that it has stopped ordering products made of exotic-animal skins ! (
  • Pet foxes have basic needs that you should consider before adopting: Exercise and enrichment, habitat considerations, special diet needs , and regular care by an exotic animal veterinarian. (
  • Mice pups will start emitting ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) shortly after birth. (
  • English: Echolocating bats adjust their vocalizations to catch insects against a changing environmental background. (
  • Regarding animal models in ASD, many studies focus on gene expression, cortical neuronal migration and cell maturation, and neural network deficits. (
  • El trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) se caracterizan por deficiencias de interacción social en el dominio del lenguaje verbal y pueden incurrir en comportamientos gestuales repetitivos, estereotipados y restringidos. (
  • El objetivo de nuestro estudio tuvo como objetivo revisar y correlacionar genes involucrados en TEA y aquellos relacionados con la comunicación ultrasónica en estudios con modelos animales de comportamiento social basado en el lenguaje en la base de datos PubMed. (
  • For those who may not know, pigs are very social animals. (
  • Therefore, primary auditory cortex may be larger or show differing organization in an animal with a more complex social structure when compared with an animal with less social complexity and vocalizations. (
  • Abstract Hibernation is a natural condition of animals that lives in the temperate zone, although some tropical lizards also experience hibernation annually, such as the lizard native from South America, Salvator merianae, or "tegu" lizard. (
  • In this study, we investigated if the osmotic tolerance of RBCs of tegu lizard under hibernation is different from the cells obtained from animals while normal activity. (
  • No small animal could have been making that sound. (
  • Researchers at UC San Francisco have discovered that a small cluster of neurons in the brain stem not only regulates tempo but also coordinates vocalization with breathing. (
  • The chipmunks weigh from 1 ounce up to about 5 ounces and are thus small animals. (
  • There are many factors involving a safe smooth recovery for the small animal patient. (
  • All you have to do is search a small selection of animals (like the ones suggested below) on Google. (
  • The estimated population of less than 15,000 animals are found in fragmented and small groups in perhaps 26 African countries with a remnant population of less than 200 in Iran, and viable populations maybe found in fewer than half of the countries where cheetah still live. (
  • They generally form small groups of between 10 and 100 individuals, the average being about 30 animals, although aggregations of up to 4,000 Risso's dolphins can form, which have been related to areas where food is concentrated. (
  • Because he has Terrier DNA in him, he can be prone to chasing small animals and has a high tendency to become distracted and wander off so ensure leash-free parks and yards are always fully fenced. (
  • Pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size, and are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia . (
  • The animal repeatedly made "whooping" sounds that were ascending in pitch. (
  • Microscopic image of neurons (green) in the brain stem that regulate tempo of animal sounds and coordinate vocalization with breathing. (
  • Scientists call these different sounds vocalizations. (
  • However, animals also exchange information with each other: through bodily postures like snarling, through chemical signals like the scent trails of ants, and through sounds like birdsong. (
  • Simple phonic tics are simple vocalizations or sounds. (
  • Excessive feeding has the same effect of indigestion on animals as it does us, so it is good to do a little calculation to find out just how much your pet should eat. (
  • Crying has also been used to describe the vocalizations of monkey and ape infants when they are being weaned, and when they are separated from their mothers (either temporarily due to losing sight of the mother or permanently due to maternal death). (
  • For example the environment (world) we live in consists of many objects, some of which are other animals that interact according to the laws of physics, chemistry and biology. (
  • Yet even as they're bold in certain situations, urban animals are often quite wary in others, especially when confronted with something they haven't seen before. (
  • and it sounded like it came out of a large throat and jaw, not that of a smaller animal. (
  • The animal he heard outside the shelter sounded large and heavy as it walked a perimeter beyond the light of his headlamp. (
  • These animals have large eyes relative to the size of their body, and they have fairly large bushy tails. (
  • What About Horses and Other Large Animals? (
  • These characters help the large animal to move relatively fast in its dense forest habitat. (
  • Laboratory Animal Science Professional 9(6) (November/December), 42-44. (
  • This is the 5th volume of selected discussions that took place on the electronic Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum between February 2016 and December 2019. (
  • Potential of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to reflect a degree of discomfort of a caller is mostly investigated in laboratory rats and mice but poorly known in other rodents. (
  • Laboratory Animal Science Professional 9(3) (May/June), 40-43. (
  • Compassion Makes a Difference - Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum [LAREF], Volume III. (
  • This is the third volume of discussions that took place on the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum (LAREF). (
  • American Association for Laboratory Animal Science [AALAS] Meeting Official Program, 749 (Abstract #P215). (
  • Thus, the resulting MRL may be as much as a hundredfold below levels that have been shown to be nontoxic in laboratory animals. (
  • Apparently, animals find it difficult to escape the snares of stress as much as we do. (
  • Yes, animals do suffer from the doggy,kitty and tweety versions of the provocative ailment of stress. (
  • What causes animals stress? (
  • Boredom in animals fuels high levels of stress. (
  • While some of the study sites allowed birds to eat safely, usually in brushy forest edges, others required the animals to venture out into the open for the best resources. (
  • Sex-Specific Neurotoxic Effects of Early-Life Exposure to Fluoride: a Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Literature. (
  • Prenatal exposure to fluoride was associated with a male susceptibility to adverse behavioural effects in four of six animal studies and lower IQ in one of three prospective cohort studies. (
  • By modeling hypothetical scenarios, the researchers concluded that the most likely explanation for the different dialects is that whales learn vocalization patterns from similar neighbors. (
  • Snell-Rood is one of many researchers who have updated the conventional narrative of urban animals, in which city life favors a few tough, adaptable jack-of-all-trades - hello, crows! (
  • The film's photo-realistic, computer-generated animals spoke with the rich, complex voices of actors such as Donald Glover and Chiwetel Ejiofor-and many viewers found it hard to reconcile the complex intonations of those voices with the feline gazes on the screen. (
  • Crocodiles communicate with each other using a complex series of vocalizations, and alligators spend years raising their babies. (
  • To create a comparison that most will comprehend, these socially complex animals are similar to dogs. (
  • Complex phonic tics are vocalizations of words and/or complex phrases. (
  • That way, they didn't encounter the dinosaurs like other animals did. (
  • All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members. (
  • These animals' DNA sequences may differ by several percentages from the domestic cat, and there's no way to determine whether or not the hybrid cat breed is a purebred. (
  • The area under the curve (AUC) in the high-frequency range and the number of the ultrasonic vocalizations increased when ambient temperature was lowered. (
  • It should come as no surprise to find that changes in temperature cause the same reactions in animals. (
  • the many types of vocalizations great-horned owls make, including chitters, squawks, and hisses! (
  • On completing the ornaments, they make a ritual vocalization. (
  • For their well-being, some animals along the Move Your Paws route may be delayed going out on habitat in the morning. (
  • When one animal has all four paws out of the tube, it is declared the loser while the animal remaining inside the tube is the winner, ending the match. (
  • They are found in all of the world's oceans and are known for their distinctive vocalizations, which can be heard for miles. (
  • Of these eleven animals, seven in experimental group were subjected to bilateral electrolytic lesion of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus while remaining four animals were sham operated. (
  • When too many of animals are crowded in a particular environment at once, it causes them the same discomfort and pressure that we feel. (
  • The wrong diet can cause an upset in the animal's digestive system and bring about issues of nausea or allergic reactions that cause extreme discomfort for animals. (