The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.
The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.
Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.
Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Professional society representing the field of nursing.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Conversion from one language to another language.
A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (1/911)

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

Infants' learning about words and sounds in relation to objects. (2/911)

In acquiring language, babies learn not only that people can communicate about objects and events, but also that they typically use a particular kind of act as the communicative signal. The current studies asked whether 1-year-olds' learning of names during joint attention is guided by the expectation that names will be in the form of spoken words. In the first study, 13-month-olds were introduced to either a novel word or a novel sound-producing action (using a small noisemaker). Both the word and the sound were produced by a researcher as she showed the baby a new toy during a joint attention episode. The baby's memory for the link between the word or sound and the object was tested in a multiple choice procedure. Thirteen-month-olds learned both the word-object and sound-object correspondences, as evidenced by their choosing the target reliably in response to hearing the word or sound on test trials, but not on control trials when no word or sound was present. In the second study, 13-month-olds, but not 20-month-olds, learned a new sound-object correspondence. These results indicate that infants initially accept a broad range of signals in communicative contexts and narrow the range with development.  (+info)

Exchange of stuttering from function words to content words with age. (3/911)

Dysfluencies on function words in the speech of people who stutter mainly occur when function words precede, rather than follow, content words (Au-Yeung, Howell, & Pilgrim, 1998). It is hypothesized that such function word dysfluencies occur when the plan for the subsequent content word is not ready for execution. Repetition and hesitation on the function words buys time to complete the plan for the content word. Stuttering arises when speakers abandon the use of this delaying strategy and carry on, attempting production of the subsequent, partly prepared content word. To test these hypotheses, the relationship between dysfluency on function and content words was investigated in the spontaneous speech of 51 people who stutter and 68 people who do not stutter. These participants were subdivided into the following age groups: 2-6-year-olds, 7-9-year-olds, 10-12-year-olds, teenagers (13-18 years), and adults (20-40 years). Very few dysfluencies occurred for either fluency group on function words that occupied a position after a content word. For both fluency groups, dysfluency within each phonological word occurred predominantly on either the function word preceding the content word or on the content word itself, but not both. Fluent speakers had a higher percentage of dysfluency on initial function words than content words. Whether dysfluency occurred on initial function words or content words changed over age groups for speakers who stutter. For the 2-6-year-old speakers that stutter, there was a higher percentage of dysfluencies on initial function words than content words. In subsequent age groups, dysfluency decreased on function words and increased on content words. These data are interpreted as suggesting that fluent speakers use repetition of function words to delay production of the subsequent content words, whereas people who stutter carry on and attempt a content word on the basis of an incomplete plan.  (+info)

Continuous speech recognition for clinicians. (4/911)

The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging behind the speaking rate. The authors obtained 97 percent accuracy with just 30 minutes of training when using the latest edition of one of the speech recognition systems supplemented by a commercial medical dictionary. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years and is now a serious contender to replace some or all of the increasingly expensive alternative methods of dictation with human transcription.  (+info)

Phonotactics, neighborhood activation, and lexical access for spoken words. (5/911)

Probabilistic phonotactics refers to the relative frequencies of segments and sequences of segments in spoken words. Neighborhood density refers to the number of words that are phonologically similar to a given word. Despite a positive correlation between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density, nonsense words with high probability segments and sequences are responded to more quickly than nonsense words with low probability segments and sequences, whereas real words occurring in dense similarity neighborhoods are responded to more slowly than real words occurring in sparse similarity neighborhoods. This contradiction may be resolved by hypothesizing that effects of probabilistic phonotactics have a sublexical focus and that effects of similarity neighborhood density have a lexical focus. The implications of this hypothesis for models of spoken word recognition are discussed.  (+info)

Word recall correlates with sleep cycles in elderly subjects. (6/911)

Morning recall of words presented before sleep was studied in relation to intervening night sleep measures in elderly subjects. Night sleep of 30 elderly subjects aged 61-75 years was recorded. Before sleep, subjects were presented with a list of paired non-related words and cued recall was asked immediately after the morning awakening. Recall positively correlated with average duration of NREM/REM cycles, and with the proportion of time spent in cycles (TCT) over total sleep time (TST). No significant correlations were found with other sleep or wake measures. These results suggest the importance of sleep structure for sleep-related memory processes in elderly adults.  (+info)

Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: talker-, listener-, and item-related factors. (7/911)

In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically "easy" words (words with few phonetically similar sounding "neighbors" with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically "hard" words (words with many phonetically similar sounding "neighbors"). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken language processing in native and non-native listeners.  (+info)

Cognitive modularity and genetic disorders. (8/911)

This study challenges the use of adult neuropsychological models for explaining developmental disorders of genetic origin. When uneven cognitive profiles are found in childhood or adulthood, it is assumed that such phenotypic outcomes characterize infant starting states, and it has been claimed that modules subserving these abilities start out either intact or impaired. Findings from two experiments with infants with Williams syndrome (a phenotype selected to bolster innate modularity claims) indicate a within-syndrome double dissociation: For numerosity judgments, they do well in infancy but poorly in adulthood, whereas for language, they perform poorly in infancy but well in adulthood. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results could lead to a shift in focus for studies of genetic disorders.  (+info)

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We all know that the English language plays a crucial role in competitive exams like PSC, SSC, Banking exams, etc. So if you are aiming to crack those examinations, you should have a strong command of your English language skills. Vocabulary is one of the most crucial topics of English subject. Vocabulary refers to all the words in a language that is known and used by a particular person. It is essential not only for competitive exams but it is the fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. In order to help you in improving your vocabulary skills, Entri will provide you with Weekly English Vocabulary based on The Hindu editorial every Friday. Reading the daily Hindu editorial is highly recommended for candidates who are aspiring for competitive exams. In this blog, we have given some questions based on Vocabulary with answers and solutions. Check here for Weekly English Vocabulary Based on The Hindu Editorial 2021 August 20.. Attempt free Daily Vocabulary Quiz. ...
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Language proficiency, home-language status, and English vocabulary development: A longitudinal follow-up of the Word Generation program* - Volume 15 Issue 3 - JOSHUA F. LAWRENCE, LAUREN CAPOTOSTO, LEE BRANUM-MARTIN, CLAIRE WHITE, CATHERINE E. SNOW
Hirai, A. (2014). A Review of Four Studies on Measuring Vocabulary Knowledge. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 3 (2), 85-92. doi: 10.7820/vli.v03.2.hirai. ...
(Building Vocabulary Skills) PDF FREE ó Sherrie L. Nist Á Building Vocabulary Skills McGraw Hill Building Vocabulary Skills teaches vocabula
A bilingual-monolingual comparison of young childrens vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production - Volume 35 Issue 6 - ANNICK DE HOUWER, MARC H. BORNSTEIN, DIANE L. PUTNICK
The Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test -Third Edition (CREVT-3) is an innovative, efficient measure of both receptive and expressive oral vocabulary. It is a norm-referenced assessment tool used to identify, describe, and quantify oral vocabulary proficiency in children and adults. Specifically, it can be used to identify individuals who are significantly behind their peers in oral vocabulary facility, note discrepancies between receptive and expressive oral vocabulary, document progress in oral vocabulary development as a consequence of intervention programs, and measure oral vocabulary in research studies. Features of the CREVT-3 Two equivalent forms are available All new normative data (N = 1,535) were collected from a demographically representative sample of the 2011 U.S. population ages 5-0 through 89-11 years. Outdated photos (i.e., automobile, truck, mailman, vacuum cleaner, shaver, stove) were replaced with more contemporary photographs. A pronunciation guide for ...
Take a multiple-choice English vocabulary synonyms test for free. No sign-ups and no forms to fill out, just clean pages of English vocabulary tests to practice on.
This study investigated the effects of different types of captions on English as a Foreign Language Learners (EFL) vocabulary learning and comprehension. Eighty students in a Chinese university participated. Students were divided into four groups with two classes of freshmen, one class of juniors, and one class of graduate students. Each group watched four video clips with four caption conditions: L1 Chinese, L2 English, dual (L1 and L2), and no captions. The order and caption conditions were counterbalanced. The purpose of the study was to find which caption condition is more effective for EFL learners. Four by four mixed ANOVAs were used to compare the differences among the four conditions and groups. Results indicated that students performances were statistically significantly different across captions and class levels. In general, students in L1, L2, and dual captions statistically outperformed the no caption condition in vocabulary and comprehension. Results of the effects of
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Cross-situational learning is a mechanism for learning the meaning of words across multiple exposures, despite exposure-by-exposure uncertainty as to the words true meaning. We present experimental evidence showing that humans learn words effectively using cross-situational learning, even at high levels of referential uncertainty. Both overall success rates and the time taken to learn words are affected by the degree of referential uncertainty, with greater referential uncertainty leading to less reliable, slower learning. Words are also learned less successfully and more slowly if they are presented interleaved with occurrences of other words, although this effect is relatively weak. We present additional analyses of participants trial-by-trial behavior showing that participants make use of various cross-situational learning strategies, depending on the difficulty of the word-learning task. When referential uncertainty is low, participants generally apply a rigorous eliminative approach to ...
Abstract: Studying lexical learning across writing systems in beginning learners is one way to provide insight into how second language (L2) learners approach an entirely unfamiliar orthography and to determine whether previous language learning effects are generalizable to languages that have minimal overlap. This study examined initial L2 orthographic and semantic acquisition in monolingual nati... read moreve English speakers who learned a fixed set of Chinese words under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants were tracked to obtain longitudinal behavioral and event-related potentials (ERP) data in 10 sessions of L2 vocabulary learning. Verbal backward translation and semantic categorization were assessed. Behavioral data supported that participants gradually acquired the L2 stimuli items and several ERP components showed changes during the course of the study. Compared to L1 items, an enhanced P2 component was seen to L2 items in semantic categorization. A small but growing N400 ...
Instructions: This quiz was designed to help you refresh and learn 5000 Must Know English Vocabulary Test 08. Each question has an English word or phrase and 4 meanings for you to select. Choose the meaning of the given words then click submit button to answer. After you finish your test, you can review your answers.
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Barrons French Vocabulary Pdf; Thematic Approach In Writing; Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Start by marking Mastering French Vocabulary: A Thematic Approach as Want to Read: Rate this book See a Problem? Highly recommended. Audio Mp3 A Thematic Approach Mastering Vocabulary Mastering French Vocabulary With Audio Mastering French Vocabulary with Audio MP3: A Thematic Approach (Mastering Vocabulary) (Barrons Vocabulary): Wolfgang von Fischer, Anne-Marie Le Plouhinec: 9781438071534: Books. Wed love your help. flag. This inspirational mastering french vocabulary a thematic approach pdf course is an intensive one-year postgraduate experience designed to extend and. Written by Wolfgang Fischer and AnneMarie Le Plouhinec, this vocabulary treasure comes with ten hours of MP3 audio, which. No_Favorite. Mastering French Vocabulary: A Thematic Approach (Mastering Vocabulary) Gordon Macleod marked it as to-read Sep 20, I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver ...
Instructions: This quiz was designed to test your English vocabulary of Grade 6 - Unit 04. Each question has an English word or phrase and 4 meanings for you to select. Choose the meaning of the given words then click submit button to answer. After you finish your test, you can review your answers.
On this page you will find many vocabulary exercises, games and activities in English, whether you are a beginner or if you have an advanced level. Each exercise is available as a PDF that you can print for free, which is very useful if you are a teacher and you need exercises for your lessons, or if you are learning English alone at home and you need exercises to learn, practice, test your knowledge and thus improve your vocabulary skills.. All the vocabulary worksheets are classified and listed by theme, on all the essential subjects of todays world, with general vocabulary useful in everyday life, but also current topics. They are presented in a very clear manner, with many examples to help you understand what to do. These varied exercises will allow you to enrich your vocabulary in a targeted and effective way.. The detailed answers for each exercise are provided with and will allow you to strengthen your skills, with examples of word use that will allow you to enrich your linguistic ...
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How to Study English Vocabulary Using a Japanese Monster. Remembering everything we need to can be a challenge in our hectic lives. Our brains are busy machines. I cant tell you how many times a day I walk into a particular room, only to find myself wondering why the hell I did so. Was I there to speak to someone? To get something? Jeez, am I even in the right room? For students who are studying English, memory can be even more problematic because developing English fluency involves learning a vast vocabulary. Students have to memorize and try using countless new words, and in their various tenses and forms, as well as their definitions, various uses, synonyms, antonyms and colloquial variations. This is a daunting project, to say the least. To make matters worse, the English language has one of the language worlds largest vocabularies-well over 2.4 million words-and the number is growing, as around the world users add to the lexicon and the new words and ideas are incorporated. How can one ...
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This course is all about vocabulary, application, vocabulary, application, and some more vocabulary. Honestly, it is meant to train you to read correctly, build your familiarity with the language, and, in case we forgot, increase your vocabulary!
php /** * @file * Drush commands related to taxonomy. */ /** * Implements hook_drush_command(). */ function drush_taxonomy_drush_command() { $items[vocabulary-clean] = array( description =, dt(Delete all terms in a vocabulary.), aliases =, array(vc), arguments =, array( name =, dt(The vocabulary names to clean.), ), examples =, array( drush vocabulary-clean tags =, dt(Delete all the terms in tags vocabulary), drush vocabulary-clean tags test =, dt(Delete all the terms in tags and test vocabularies), ), ); return $items; } /** * Callback for the vocabulary clean command. */ function drush_drush_taxonomy_vocabulary_clean() { $names = func_get_args(); if (!empty($names)) { // Check for duplicate ids. $test_names = array_unique($names); if (count($test_names) != count($names)) { drush_set_error(DRUSH_VOCABULARY_CLEAN_ERROR, dt(You have duplicate vocabulary names.)); return; } //Searching the vocabularies in the site $vocabulary_in_db = ...
Download PDF Test your range of English vocabulary with this exercise. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the word given in the brackets. 1. Such an antiquated law should be ………………………. (null) 2. The school is responsible for ……………………….. the childs mind. (nurture) 3. The diet is …………………………. but low in calories. (nutrition) […]
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On Friday, Marjorie presented a workshop at Teachers College on vocabulary acquisition with Ken Pransky. Ken is the author of Beneath the Surface: The Hidden Realities of Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young Learners K-6 ( ) and My Fantastic Word Book: Young Student Thesaurus. The student thesaurus is a wonderful resource for vocabulary acquisition that…
Write a word or words on the board. Click on the free vocabulary worksheet you would like to print or download. • Pages 1 - 57 focus on general vocabulary items. Posted on February 28, 2020 by hamilton93. 8th Grade Vocabulary Worksheets To Print: Vocabulary Quiz - A perfect starting place for eighth graders. Visit this page now! Prefixes Exercises. Articles worksheets are in PDF Format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. The cards can be cut out if des... 138,042 Downloads . Levels of Difficulty : Elementary Intermediate Advanced WF011 - Word Formation - Sentences Intermediate ESL Food Worksheets. Vocabulary Worksheets (B1) This sections provides you with downloadable PDF worksheets and keys for vocabulary at the B1 (Intermediate ) level. A Hard Word Search Puzzle. Grammar worksheets. What makes this so hard? If you are a language teacher yourself you would often have to make your students fill up the vocabulary worksheets to test their vocabulary strength. This ...
Volume 1 of ,i,Approaches to Bootstrapping,/i, focuses on early word learning and syntactic development with special emphasis on the bootstrapping mechanisms by which the child using properties of the speech input enters the native linguistic system. Topics discussed in the area of lexical acquisition are: cues and mechanisms for isolating words in the input; special features of motherese and their role for early word learning; the determination of first word meanings; memory and related processing capacities in early word learning and understanding; and lexical representation and lexical access in early language production. ,br /,The papers on syntactic development deal with the acquisition of grammatical prosodic features for learning language specific syntactic regularities.Volume 2 of ,i,Approaches to Bootstrapping,/i, focuses on the interaction between the development of prosodic and morphosyntactic knowledge as evidenced in the early speech of Dutch, English, German, Portugese, Spanish, ...
Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test 4 (EOWPVT)- NEW! Speech-Therapy Materials, Special Education Products, and other Resources for Special Learning Needs
The current study investigated how readers process different types of contextual information following novel words during the course of silent reading. The two types of contextual information were action context and categorical context. Two experiments were conducted, in which the context type was manipulated following novel or familiar target words to examine their impact on reading patterns. The reading session in the first experiment was followed by a recognition test, while the reading session in the second experiment was followed by a forced choice vocabulary test. Strong familiarity effects were consistently found for measures of initial processing and rereading across both experiments. Effects of context type were found in the second experiment. These effects may be related to different types of inferential processing for each context condition. Analyses of surprise post-test data for both experiments revealed no recognition differences across context conditions, but did reveal differences in eye
If you understood, but made a mistake in spelling your answer, the … Start learning French with these words! Choose from 500 different sets of french vocabulary flashcards on Quizlet. Newsletter (+ 21 000 Happy Subscribers), Email: [email protected] to start (activity, day)/to enter into (battle, interview)/to open (negotiation)/to undermine (credibility, moral)/to eat into (economies)/to cut into/open/start eating (consumption of food, etc.) As I explained in paragraph 1, … This is a revised update of the original French Vocabulary - University Level. It contains the most important and most frequently used French words. If You Can Pass This French Vocabulary Test, You Definitely Belong In Paris. ), to punctuate (life, history)/to line (road), to save (money)/to spare (person, effort). Tough words and tougher competition. Note: The words are very randomly picked from various themes and different levels. Tests (PDF, 520KB) Tests Answer Key ... Test your visual vocabulary with our … ...
SSC and all Competitive Exams. Explore The Hindu Editorial with Vocabulary to score good marks in English Section. Start practising this vocabulary to increase your word power. While reading a passage you have to highlight tough words in it and analyse the correct meaning of those words. This will help you understand the passage clearly and also you can learn more new words, it means also you can develop your vocabulary. To help you in this part we have provided an English Vocabulary passage along with meaning, synonyms and usages of hard words in the passage, make use of it. We also providing Important Vocabulary Quiz based on THE ECONOMIST and THE HINDU. ...
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Online French Language School providing French classes, courses and lessons with a private native French tutor since 2005. If youre looking for a list of French words and phrases related to cars and driving, this blog post is perfect for you. . After reading the whole article, you can easily Download Free English Vocabulary Book Pdf.. To supplement your learning about the world-renowned French cuisine, here is a list of vocabulary that will help you breeze through it all. Grammar and Vocab themes by level. Get feedback on your writing skills with essay exercises corrected by a native French speaker. Important themes to pass the exam. French vocabulary PDF list Each French vocabulary list by theme that you will find on this page contains the essential words to learn and memorize. Oct 30, 2016 - Explore Lizs Lessonss board French Vocabulary, followed by 1532 people on Pinterest. Unlimited word lists from preloaded corpora, e.g. They will be useful if you need to take an exam, or simply to ...
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From the word knowledge assessment viewpoint, Study 2 explored the viability of tablets in assessing early word comprehension among 1-year-olds by means of a two-alternative forced choice word recognition task. Preliminary results indicated that children as young as 18 months can engage meaningfully with a tablet-based assessment, with minimal verbal instruction and child-administrator interaction. The encouraging results further suggest that such assessments have scope for deriving a direct measure of early word comprehension that can supplement parent reports, such as the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI), thereby addressing concerns relating to the exclusive use of parent reports and allowing a more complete picture of childrens early language development. In order to facilitate the assessment of early word knowledge, Study 3 sought to develop a language-general approach that produces adaptive short-form versions of CDIs with test items that are maximally ...
Previous studies evidenced transfer effects from professional music training to novel word learning. However, it is unclear whether such an advantage is driven by cascading, bottom-up effects from better auditory perception to semantic processing or by topdown influences from cognitive functions on perception. Moreover, the long-term effects of novel word learning remain an open issue. To address these questions, we used a word learning design, with four different sets of novel words, and we neutralized the potential perceptive and associative learning advantages in musicians. Under such conditions, we did not observe any advantage in musicians on the day of learning (Day 1 [D1]), at neither a behavioral nor an electrophysiological level; this suggests that the previously reported advantages in musicians are likely to be related to bottom-up processes. Nevertheless, 1 month later (Day 30 [D30]) and for all types of novel words, the error increase from D1 to D30 was lower in musicians compared to ...
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Vocabulary knowledge and expression is critical for children and adolescents success in communicating their ideas and summarizing curriculum information. But what about those with communication disorders, language disorders, and learning disabilities? They often have a limited vocabulary that hinders their ability to comprehend information and clearly express their thoughts. They need direct instruction from speech language pathologists to learn vocabulary building strategies. They need multiple exposures of a word to transfer it to their spoken vocabulary. They need opportunities to hear new words, speak them, read them, and write them in the appropriate context. Children and adolescents need to be taught high frequency tier 2 vocabulary words. However, young children also need therapeutic intervention to expand their semantic processing skills of Tier 1 everyday vocabulary. Did you know that there are six vocabulary building research based steps that speech-language pathologists can use ...
Vocabulary knowledge and expression is critical for children and adolescents success in communicating their ideas and summarizing curriculum information. But what about those with communication disorders, language disorders, and learning disabilities? They often have a limited vocabulary that hinders their ability to comprehend information and clearly express their thoughts. They need direct instruction from speech language pathologists to learn vocabulary building strategies. They need multiple exposures of a word to transfer it to their spoken vocabulary. They need opportunities to hear new words, speak them, read them, and write them in the appropriate context. Children and adolescents need to be taught high frequency tier 2 vocabulary words. However, young children also need therapeutic intervention to expand their semantic processing skills of Tier 1 everyday vocabulary. Did you know that there are six vocabulary building research based steps that speech-language pathologists can use ...
There appears to be a close and probably causal relationship between early variations in phoneme skills and later reading skills in typically developing children, though the pattern in children with Down Syndrome is less clear. We present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 49 children with Down Syndrome (DS) and 61 typically developing (TD) control children with similar initial levels of reading skill. Phoneme awareness and vocabulary were strong concurrent predictors of initial levels of reading skill in both groups. However, longitudinally phoneme awareness was a predictor of the growth of reading skills in TD children but not in children with DS. There was a very high degree of longitudinal stability in reading skills in children with DS, and initial levels of reading skills seemed to be highly constrained by general language skills, as indexed by vocabulary knowledge, in this population. We conclude that reading development in children with DS shows similarities and differences to the
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The main problem D/HH students are straggling with is the comprehension of foreign words and expression and this asDomagala-Zy?k (2016) said is linked with their difficulties in mastering their national language. Vocabulary is defined as the storehouse of word meanings that we draw on to comprehend what is said to us, express our thoughts, or interpret what we read (Moats, 2005, p.7, as cited in Luckner; Cooke, 2010). Unlike hearing students, D/HH students are frequently reported to have reduced and delayed vocabulary knowledge. They have small lexicon and they tend to acquire newwords at slower rates(Luckner ;Cooke, 2010). D/HH students learn the concrete words like (dog, bleu,six)more easily than the abstract words like (before, after, love hate, jealous). They also have problems with function words like (the, an, and) and it is difficult for them to understand polysemic words. D/HH students cannot understand and write complex sentences with relative clauses or passive voice(Mpofu; ...
Sub-optimal language development is associated with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL). Some children with GAL are identified with language impairment from the initial stages of language learning, but a subset of children may exhibit disrupted developmental gains in speech and language skill after a period of age-appropriate skill development. The developmental trajectory of communicative skills in a female with GAL who at 18 months of age presented with age-appropriate skills is presented. Monitoring over an 18-month period indicated appropriate developmental pace on all measures, but receptive vocabulary development is developing at a lower level of functioning. Her below-average vocabulary skills coupled with the risk of emerging skill deficits concomitant with ongoing disruptions to central nervous system maturation associated with GAL suggests an increased risk of emergent skill deficits. Maturation of language capabilities is ongoing; therefore age at assessment may be critical to ...
The world of fun online games is growing rapidly with new games added almost every day. There are so many different online games across a variety of genres, from adventure to war, shooters, sports, and even social games. Many websites offer free games that anyone can play for fun or entertainment. Other games require a subscription fee. Some online gaming sites feature only the top games or the most popular ones on their personal home pages. Either way, millions of people are enjoying the benefits of online gaming.. One of the most popular fun online games is a game called Fluentu. You have to guess words in a grid of letters, which make up a word. You get points each time you guess a word without making mistakes, and the highest score wins the game. Its an excellent crossword puzzle that will keep you entertained and your vocabulary growing as long as you play it. You can get more information about joker123.. In addition to games with vocabulary, another of the best online games involves ...
File Folder Games at File Folder Heaven - Printable, hands-on fun! Apple Themed Vocabulary Cards - The Apple Themed Vocabulary Cards include 18 apple themed vocabulary words: apples, red, green, tree, cider, pie, pick, seeds, stem, flesh, leave, skin, stem, core, basket, bushel, apple juice, and apple slice. Vocabulary cards can be used for many language and vocabulary building activities including: sorting, alphabetizing, sequencing, and identifying.file folder
Advanced Reading Power,by Beatrice S. Mikulecky and Linda Jeffries, is a student-centered reading skills textbook based on a cognitive skills approach. Its four key sections, designed to be used concurrently, help advanced students master reading skills needed for academic success: Extensive Readinghelps students to build reading fluency, increase comprehension, and broaden vocabulary. Vocabulary Buildingincludes numerous strategies for learning vocabulary, including using context clues, analyzing word parts, and noticing collocations. Comprehension Skillsteaches reading skills, such as making inferences, recognizing patterns of organization, and reading critically. Reading Fasterfeatures high-interest, nonfiction selections that help students improve their reading rate and flexibility. Features: A variety ofauthentic reading selections, including excerpts from college textbooks, promotes purposeful reading. Focus on Vocabularysections provide practice with academic vocabulary from the unit. ...
The words your child knows and can use in order to communicate or read are defined as his vocabulary. By increasing the size of your childs vocabulary, you can effectively increase the level at which your child is capable of reading, writing, and speaking.. The NRP says Children learn the meanings of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language. Children learn the words through everyday conversation with peers, adults, through shows they watch, and through listening to books that are read aloud.. Therefore, one of the easiest ways to increase your childs vocabulary is to read aloud to him on a daily basis. You can also use new, unfamiliar words in conversations with your child. Children learn new words best when the words are used in context, so using new words appropriately and purposefully in conversation will help convey meaning, pronunciation, and will expand your childs vocabulary.. Specific word instruction, or teaching individual words, can ...
There are so many great fun online games across many different genres, from shooting to sports, war games, puzzle games, and even virtual reality games. In fact, it is impossible to go online without finding at least one game that you have an interest in playing. While some people play these games for a variety of different reasons, there are others who play them just because they are fun and exciting. No matter what the reason is for you to be enjoying these games, it can be fun no matter what.. The most popular fun online games are those that allow you to speak and understand a language. Fluentu is one of the most recognized vocabulary games available on the internet. This site allows its users to learn to speak and understand the Spanish language from a word list that is not only well designed but easy to comprehend. If you know a lot about any kind of language, you will find that Fluentu can provide a great way to improve your skills in that area.. In addition to learning new words through ...
Academic language is the means by which students develop and express content understandings. Burke recently released his â A-Listâ of 15 academic vocabulary words based on what his current teaching colleagues decided are central to all subjects and are in keeping with state standards and the Common Core. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1] Example / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP, 100 high frequency words taken from the Academic Word List and put into grid. Sight words, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and early reading words occur at this level. reasons, for example, and in comparison are all academic in tone, while Fill out your details to receive the newsletter. Level ***** [B1/B2]. Provide three examples of how you can encourage content-based vocabulary development in your future classroom. meaning and The AWL highlighter allows you to highlight words from the AWL (Academic Word List) in any text you choose. written contexts. which might be used in social science research (e.g. Julie Moore, a ...
The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore how teaching and learning in tertiary education is performed in times of change both in language policy and learning approaches. The study takes social constructivist and socio-cultural theories as its major points of departure. These theories are combined with cognitive theory of learning with multimedia.. The four studies comprising this thesis are born out of a new situation demanding the mastery of a scientific language in English and new ways of teaching and learning backed with ICT. The studies set out to investigate (i) how students and teachers adapt to a change of medium of instruction (ii) what teachers and students of physics learn when constructing a multimedia vocabulary learning instrument (iii) the impact of two methods of teaching vocabulary on students test performance and (iv) how teachers reflect on the use of ICT in Physics teaching.. To attain these targets, the study employed a blend of qualitative and quantitative designs ...
Teaching vocabulary to students is one of the cornerstones of speech-language therapy. Students who lack vocabulary skills have difficulty with reading comprehension, understanding conversations, and accessing curriculum. Categorization is a key skill in vocabulary development.
English is a West Germanic language originating in England, and the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. It is also the co-official language of Malta, along with Maltese. One of the consequences of the French influence due to the Norman Conquest in the Middle Ages is that the vocabulary of the English language contains a massive number of non-Germanic words, i.e., Latin-derived words that entered the lexicon after the invasion. English vocabulary is, to an extent divided between Germanic words (mostly Old English) and Latinate words (Latin-derived, directly from Norman French or other Romance languages). For instance, pairs of words such as ask and question (the first verb being Germanic and the second Latinate) show the division between Germanic and Latinate lexemes that compose Modern English vocabulary. The structure of the English language, however, has remained unequivocally ...
Recent studies have established that adults with post-stroke aphasia can learn to establish connections between familiar words and abstract images, and nonwords with familiar objects. What has not been investigated was whether adults with aphasia could learn non-words with abstract images/ novel meanings i.e. new vocabulary. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether adults with post-stroke aphasia could learn novel word forms with novel word meanings, despite phonological and/or semantic impairment. Specific research questions included: Can post-stroke adults with aphasia learn new vocabulary? If so, what factors affect their capacity to learn? Is it possible to predict which individuals will learn most successfully? The methodology was developed using preliminary studies both with adults of normal language and cognitive functioning and post-stroke non-aphasic and aphasic adults. It incorporated learning theory and a cognitive neuropsychological model of language. A range ...
In 1990 Gathercole and Baddeley proposed a strong hypothesis that has generated a wealth of research in the field of language development and disorder. The hypothesis was that phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition, is causally related to vocabulary development. Support for the hypothesis came from an impressive range of longitudinal, correlational, and laboratory training studies, and from studies of specific language impairment (SLI). However, more recently, Gathercole, Tiffany, Briscoe, Thorn, and The ALSPAC Team (2005), directly tested the causal hypothesis by following a cohort of children from age 5 to 8 years. Contrary to prediction, children with poor nonword repetition abilities at age 5 had normal vocabulary at the age of 8.
Issue status update for Project: Drupal Version: cvs Component: taxonomy.module Category: feature requests Priority: normal Assigned to: Morbus Iff Reported by: Morbus Iff Updated by: Dries Status: patch If would make sense if free tags were also shown if there are less than 25 terms, not? Dries Previous comments: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ April 14, 2005 - 18:31 : Morbus Iff Attachment: (1.28 KB) There was some small talk about this here and there during my folksonomy/free tagging patch, but I held off until now to actually implement it. Much like we handle free tagging vocabularies (this is a free tagging vocabulary: view terms, which leads the admin into the taxonomy pager system), this patch does the same thing for NON-free tagging vocabularies, but ONLY if the vocabulary has more than 25 terms. These patches were made during the exploration and customization of ...
adjective. COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES. artificial additives. ▪. Our products are free from artificial additives .. artificial barriers. ▪. They were committed to breaking down the artificial barriers to womens achievement.. artificial.
noun. a localized swollen area of infection containing pus. had an abscess on his leg. Synonyms: boil, carbuncle, furuncle, pimple, pustule. Related Word: lesion, sore, trauma; botch, ulcer
The word frequency effect is a psychological phenomenon where recognition times are faster for words seen more frequently than for words seen less frequently. Word frequency depends on individual awareness of the tested language. The phenomenon can be extended to different characters of the word in non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese. A word is considered to be high frequency if the word is commonly used in daily speech, such as the word the. A word is considered to be low frequency if the word is not commonly used, such as the word strait. Some languages such as Chinese have multiple levels of daily speech that impact frequency of words. There is frequency at the character level or at the word level. There is also an effect of frequency at the orthographic level. Lower frequency words benefit more from a single repetition than higher frequency words. Most studies looking at the word frequency effect use eye tracking data. When words have a higher frequency, readers fixate on them for ...
Have you ever thought of browsing online book stores to increase your vocabulary? Browsing online books is a great technique to increase and improve your vocabulary skills and at the same time find exciting novels or literature, all right at your fingertips. It is a creative and educational way to have fun for you and family members. All that is needed is a dictionary, a thesaurus, paper and pencil or Word document, time, and patience.. Learn from books online. Since the advent of computers, it has drastically changed the way we do things, in particular when it comes to convenience. Though libraries and book stores still exist, book stores online has made it possible gain knowledge and entertainment simple and easy. You do not have to experience the hassle of driving to the brick and mortar places thus allowing you more time to explore and discover.. What is the advantage of learning from books online?. These online stores have great descriptions, the synopsis, excerpts, and editorials of most ...
Lexical knowledge influences how human listeners make decisions about speech sounds. Positive lexical effects (faster responses to target sounds in words than in nonwords) are robust across several laboratory tasks, while negative effects (slower responses to targets in more word-like nonwords than in less word-like nonwords) have been found in phonetic decision tasks but not phoneme monitoring tasks. The present experiments tested whether negative lexical effects are therefore a task-specific consequence of the forced choice required in phonetic decision. We compared phoneme monitoring and phonetic decision performance using the same Dutch materials in each task. In both experiments there were positive lexical effects, but no negative lexical effects. We observe that in all studies showing negative lexical effects, the materials were made by cross-splicing, which meant that they contained perceptual evidence supporting the lexically-consistent phonemes. Lexical knowledge seems to influence ...
The L1 group did relatively well on the test obtaining mean scores between 70 and 92%, except on the fast mapping of novel verbs (NVFM) subtest where they obtained only 51.2%. They obtained an average total score of 72.5% on the test. Although this suggests that their semantic processing skills are not fully developed, it does indicate that children, who have developed English as their home language, have relatively good semantic processing skills to support the acquisition of academic language. The EAL group in context 2, who were in the same classes as the L1 learners, obtained mean scores between 60 and 79% on all subtests except fast mapping of novel verbs (NVFM) on which they obtained a mean score of 50.8%. The EAL group in context 2 obtained a total mean score of 63% on the semantic subtest, which is lower than that of their L1 peers. The EAL group in context 1 obtained mean scores below 50% on all the subtests except the quantifier subtest, on which they obtained a mean score of 64.1%. ...
Basic Signing Vocabulary: Sign Language Flash Cards Set A, This set of flash cards contain a collection of vocabulary and associated signs chosen from basic sight and beginning vocabulary lists. Remedia Publication, Garlic Press
This volume examines selected aspects of the foreign language learning process from an ecological perspective, adopting a holistic view on complex interrelations among and within organisms (L2 language learners) and their milieus (family, school and society). First of all, the personal ecosystem of
wmitBmmimmmmmmm y wX,^ .4^La nk:JAn, ;*, P z t,f ENGLISH-SWAHILI VOCABULARY. Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive in 2007 witli funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation littp:// ENeLISH-SWAHILI VOCABULARY. COMPILED FROM THE WORKS OP THE LATE BISHOP STEERE AND FROM OTHER SOURCES. ST A. C. MADAN. SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, LONDON: 68, HAYMARKBT, S.W. 1317 BOOii -.-L.. a, MAiaC&Z. B. E.A. ADVERTISEMENT. fiiis Vocabulary was begun as an Index to Swabili Exercises (by Bishop Steere), and can be used for that purpose. It assumed its present form by the addition of a large number of words from his collections in the Handbook of the Swahili Language, and of a few from other sources. As it is intended to be useful, not only to Europeans learning Swahili, but to Swahilis and others learning to read an English book, a description of the abbreyiationa is added from Bichop Steeres ♦ Grammar in Swahili.* ABBREVIATIONS, T. = verb, maana ...
This recording of an OK2Ask online professional development session from June 2016, opens in Adobe Connect. Excite and engage students to jump into learning with tech tools to support direct instruction for vocabulary. Increase the vocabulary in all subjects areas using direct instruction based on Marzano strategies to increase success in school and on achievement tests. Increased vocabulary deepens background knowledge providing a better schemata for different learning experiences. Using the six step approach, discover tech tools to bring the vocabulary from short term memory into long term memory. Discover how the tech tools chosen, can be used to increase student collaboration and provide data for formative assessments. Participants will: 1. Review Marzanos strategies for vocabulary instruction; 2. Explore tools for vocabulary instruction; 3. Learn strategies for student collaboration during vocabulary instruction; and 4. Understand how to create formative assessments for vocabulary using ...
This website incorporates a series of pictures or diagrams intended to teach vocabulary. Visitors to the website can find out the name of a vocabulary item by moving the cursor over the picture to display the name both in Arabic and in English. Gender information about each vocabulary word is available, but is not always accurate. A login is required to access the sound and make edits or comments. This particular page is all about tools such as screwdriver and vice grip.. ...
This website incorporates a series of pictures or diagrams intended to teach vocabulary. Visitors to the website can find out the name of a vocabulary item by moving the cursor over the picture to display the name both in Arabic and in English. Gender information about each vocabulary word is available, but is not always accurate. A login is required to access the sound and make edits or comments. This particular page is devoted to herbs ...
Feb 2, 2020 - Explore BASAVAMANI Hs board Kindergarten sight words list on Pinterest. See more ideas about kindergarten sight words list, sight words list, teaching phonics.
In this chapter, we view the recent evidence on the bilingual lexicon that points to a dynamic view of lexical processes. In contrast to earlier assumptions that words in the bilinguals two languages were represented and processed independently, the findings of studies with both adults and children demonstrate that words in both languages are activated in parallel. Critically, the co-activation of the two languages does not depend on their structural similarity but on the very presence of the two languages themselves. The consequences of cross-language activation can be seen in language processing, not only from the first language (L1) to the second (L2) but also from the L2 to the L1. They can also be seen in the recruitment of cognitive resources in response to the demands of language processing and in the way that words come to influence language processes at the level of the grammar. From this perspective, the lexicon is far more than a collection of words but a lens into the dynamics of
The Hindu Editorial Vocabulary 12th August 2021 Daily Vocabulary Words 12 August The Hindu Daily Vocabulary 12th August 2021 The hindu vocab for exams
The Hindu Editorial Vocabulary 11th June 2021 Daily Vocabulary Words 11 June The Hindu Daily Vocabulary 11th June 2021 The hindu vocab for exams
The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more.
The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more.

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  • The vocabulary makes reference to the UWA ontology for the Web delivery context [UWA-Ontology] . (
  • This sheet (in PDF or Word format) can be used to write down new vocabulary and their definitions from the vocabulary exercises on this site, and students are encouraged to then write sample sentences for each word as a way of learning how to use the vocabulary in context. (
  • Although direct instruction in vocabulary is imperative, students also benefit from learning to use context to determine word meanings, as well as from opportunities to see and hear how words tend to be used. (
  • Vocabulary instruction should target at least two broad categories of words: unfamiliar vocabulary with high generalizability across texts (i.e., words that are likely to recur in different contexts), and those necessary for understanding specific texts used in school (e.g., key terms necessary for comprehension of context area textbooks). (
  • One of the most important reading skills is understanding vocabulary words in context. (
  • In other words, it is important that vocabulary instruction provide students with opportunities to encounter words repeatedly and in more than one context. (
  • eclipse_custom_style.css}} Vocabulary to describe a view of a context. (
  • For example if the attribute is fp:postalCode then metadata statements about fp:postalCode must be in the Flat Persona vocabulary context (fp being a prefix for this vocabulary) along with the definition of fp:postalCode itself. (
  • Most people learn general vocabulary before words specific to a given industry or context, but the line between what is general and what is specific is often quite blurry. (
  • As such, when people talk about general vocabulary, they are typically talking about learning a language in a class or other context. (
  • For instance, one can learn vocabulary from a given context (say reading Athénaze) the writing down variations out of a given example, jot down the obscure words in a paper and read it while commuting, even write the new vocabulary (learnt from context) into flashcards just to practice whenever you want. (
  • Providing a context for each new vocabulary word is perhaps more important than the definition, because the brain is constantly evaluating the meaning and usage of a word in relation to the words around it. (
  • Build your vocabulary in the proper context. (
  • In the context of learning English as a foreign language, a learner is forced to be autonomous and independent and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside the classroom simply because the exposure to the target language is limited in class. (
  • These strategies are based on context as a vocabulary source. (
  • Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. (
  • Researchers interested in vocabulary instruction have examined direct and indirect approaches to teaching vocabulary. (
  • The National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that there is no single research-based method for teaching vocabulary. (
  • Consider some excellent lesson models for teaching vocabulary, explaining idioms, fostering word consciousness, instruction for English Language Learners, and mnemonic strategies. (
  • Teaching vocabulary to English language learners (ELLs) is an important part of students' language development, but making the most of vocabulary instruction requires careful planning. (
  • What methods of teaching vocabulary are most effective? (
  • Teaching vocabulary within the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an essential component of standards-based curriculum alignment. (
  • Teachers can assign students to listen to the vocabulary and practice pronouncing the words on their own. (
  • This activity gives students practice using genetics vocabulary words by matching them to definitions, pictures and examples. (
  • This practice has greatly increased the Chinese vocabulary and also makes it much easier to grasp the meaning of spoken Chinese words. (
  • A series of handy vocabulary books aimed at busy learners who want to fit in some extra practice outside the classroom. (
  • Offering plenty of practice for vocabulary learners, these small and easy-to-carry books are ideal for busy people to use outside the classroom. (
  • Vocabulary in Practice 6 covers about 600 useful words for upper-intermediate students. (
  • These clear examples and practice exercises can help you begin using word forms to improve your English vocabulary. (
  • On the one hand, it is useful for any language learner to establish a basic set of vocabulary words that can be used to create sentences for practice and actual use. (
  • These strategies promote systematic learning and vocabulary practice. (
  • This very straightforward lesson plan contains 10 simple ideas which encourage students to 'play' with the new words they encounter in the hope that they will adopt some of these so they can study vocabulary more effectively on their own. (
  • Eggy Vocabulary is a unique hidden picture app for the iPad where children aged 3+ learn 252 words by exploring 7 visually captivating destinations. (
  • Each destination has lots of words for children to read and hear, and matching images to locate - helping your child expand their vocabulary. (
  • A list of commonly-used vocabulary with a recording of the words in RealMedia and Windows Media formats. (
  • Note that the new science core contains vocabulary words listed at the end of each standard. (
  • Those who like or use these words regret their passing but informal vocabulary is by nature ephemeral. (
  • All the words have been chosen using the Cambridge International Corpus to ensure that students learn the most widely used vocabulary. (
  • This quiz test you on your knowledge of the Internet terms we have discussed in class and the words used in the Basic Internet Vocabulary games. (
  • Most ELLs acquire the vocabulary involved in daily routines, play, and social interaction before they learn academic and rare words. (
  • So far as has been possible, the particular English words selected to illustrate the meanings of the words quoted are the same as those used by Shaw in his vocabularies of Wakhi and Sariqoli in JASB. (
  • Vocabulary refers to the words we must understand to communicate effectively. (
  • Listening vocabulary refers to the words we need to know to understand what we hear. (
  • Speaking vocabulary consists of the words we use when we speak. (
  • Writing vocabulary consists of the words we use in writing. (
  • Kids who hear more words spoken at home learn more words and enter school with better vocabularies. (
  • It is harder for a beginning reader to figure out words that are not already part of their speaking (oral) vocabulary. (
  • As children learn to read more advanced texts, they must learn the meaning of new words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. (
  • Of course, vocabulary knowledge for individuals with LDs also is affected by experience and opportunities to learn new words, just as it is for all children. (
  • For example, whether or not they have learning disabilities, children who are often read to at home and whose teachers address vocabulary in instruction will have more exposure to words and better prospects for vocabulary development. (
  • Receptive vocabulary involves understanding of spoken words, for instance, asking a child to point to a picture that represents a word spoken by the examiner. (
  • Vocabulary instruction should involve many opportunities to use new words, to discuss words, and to compare new words with previously learned words. (
  • Here's how using these words can help students with vocabulary. (
  • Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. (
  • Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. (
  • Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies. (
  • To develop vocabulary intentionally, students should be explicitly taught both specific words and word-learning strategies. (
  • Research shows that there are more words to be learned than can be directly taught in even the most ambitious program of vocabulary instruction. (
  • A more general way to help students develop vocabulary is by fostering word consciousness, an awareness of and interest in words. (
  • There is great improvement in vocabulary when students encounter vocabulary words often (National Reading Panel, 2000). (
  • Here, instructor Serge Borso breaks down the vocabulary heard in the cybersecurity industry, and presents scenarios where those words, phrases, and acronyms are used. (
  • This course aims to break down some of the vocabulary often heard in the cybersecurity industry and expose you to common situations where these words, phrases, and acronyms are often spoken. (
  • Increase reading abilities with an activity that build skills in understanding vocabulary words. (
  • Having a large vocabulary and developing the skills needed to figure out the meanings of new words are important parts of language development. (
  • Is direct instruction in vocabulary words better or does a more natural approach work just as well? (
  • Select a few new vocabulary words you'd like to teach. (
  • Pick words that you think your child may have the most trouble with understanding in their reading, words that are crucial to their comprehension of the story, as well as vocabulary words they are likely to encounter in other texts. (
  • Play games with your child using your child's vocabulary words (both current and past words). (
  • These resources offers tips for identifying the kinds of language and vocabulary words that will be the most useful to teach, as well as numerous strategies and resources. (
  • 101 Strategies to Make Academic Vocabulary Stick was written to offer teachers strategies to help students place Tier Two words in long-term memory. (
  • One of the lenses through which we can view vocabulary breaks words into tiers. (
  • These words are often called "academic vocabulary. (
  • I know that she is being read stories and books that contain rich vocabulary, and her parents are reinforcing academic words in their conversations with their child. (
  • I chose Tier Two words to write about because teachers need more strategies for academic vocabulary. (
  • If we are going to "upgrade" student vocabulary, these words will have the greatest impact. (
  • Using native voice overs to aid the Spanish learning we have also broken the vocabulary down into relevant groups of words that can be learnt day by day. (
  • Create a crossword puzzle to review the spelling or vocabulary words introduced in different subjects during the school week. (
  • Puzzlemaker also has a tool you can use to create simple word-search puzzles for reviewing spelling or vocabulary words. (
  • Have your students create a fun St. Patrick's Day story using these vocabulary words. (
  • Distribute a printable set of vocabulary words related to forms of energy. (
  • General vocabulary is best thought of as the set of words useful to everyone who speaks a given language. (
  • The types of words included in general vocabulary lists are usually highly functional. (
  • Words relating to food, directions, and other travel essentials are usually considered part of this type of vocabulary. (
  • Numbers, colors, and other words that relate to describing basic states of the world are almost always included in this type of vocabulary. (
  • Different age levels may need different basic vocabulary, and younger students often learn words relating to games and play, while older students learn about shopping or asking for directions. (
  • Even so, many of the words often included in basic vocabulary lists are not useful to the people who need these words to talk. (
  • Typically for the younger kids, teachers often use words that the kids already know … conversational words,… but they're not attending to the meanings of words kids are meeting in texts," said Professor McKeown, who helped develop the reading and vocabulary framework for NAEP. (
  • Vocabulary dignity ridiculed Make sure you know how to use each word correctly verb Write the words and a quick reminder of their meanings on your paper The tourists ridiculed the guard. (
  • You've probably already discovered this for yourself when encountering a never-before-seen vocabulary word and successfully inferring its meaning from the surrounding words, phrases, and clauses. (
  • Clues given by parents to toddlers about words can make a big difference in how deep their vocabularies are when they enter school, says study. (
  • Scholars have found that the number of words youngsters hear greatly influences their vocabularies. (
  • A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a set of familiar words within a person's language. (
  • Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person's receptive vocabulary. (
  • In this case, the child's receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but his or her active vocabulary is zero. (
  • It is also possible for the productive vocabulary to be larger than the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation. (
  • One such framework includes nine facets: orthography - written form phonology - spoken form reference - meaning semantics - concept and reference register - appropriacy of use or register collocation - lexical neighbours word associations syntax - grammatical function morphology - word parts Words can be defined in various ways, and estimates of vocabulary size differ depending on the definition used. (
  • Listed in order of most ample to most limited: A literate person's vocabulary is all the words they can recognize when reading. (
  • This is generally the largest type of vocabulary simply because a reader tends to be exposed to more words by reading than by listening. (
  • A person's listening vocabulary is all the words they can recognize when listening to speech. (
  • A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words they use in speech. (
  • thus making the origins of borrowed and re-borrowed words in the Bengali vocabulary numerous and diverse, due to centuries of contact with various languages. (
  • The typical Bengali dictionary lists 75,000 separate words, of which 50,000 (67%) are considered তদ্ভব tôdbhôbô (native Bengali vocabulary with Sanskrit cognates), 21,100 (28%) are তৎসম tôtsômô (words directly re-borrowed from Sanskrit) , and the rest being borrowings from দেশী deshi "indigenous (Austroasiatic)" and বিদেশী bideshi "foreign" sources. (
  • The productive vocabulary used in modern literary works, in fact, is made up mostly 67% of native tôdbhôbô words, while tôtsômô re-borrowings only make up 25% of the total. (
  • Due to centuries of contact with Mughals, Arabs, Persians, Europeans, and East Asians, the Bengali language has absorbed countless words from foreign languages, often totally integrating these borrowings into the core vocabulary. (
  • It's a visual vocabulary for 1º ESO learners of Social Studies, Geography and History as billingual subject. (
  • In the years since the series was first published, faculty at Pitt ELI has been considering new ways to address learners' challenges in acquiring vocabulary. (
  • An important key to the helping English language learners (ELLs) - and their classmates - succeed in the classroom is the mastery of academic language and vocabulary. (
  • Real, functional vocabulary can help keep language learners interested and is also easier to remember because it is more frequently used. (
  • Here is a selection of practical activities that direct learners towards using strategies of vocabulary learning. (
  • To communicate well, children need to develop a large vocabulary, and it's an essential part of learning to read. (
  • A large vocabulary is like a box in the attic . (
  • Ultimately, the purpose of having a large vocabulary is flexibility of expression . (
  • Developing a large vocabulary isn't just important for reading though. (
  • The result of the research and experience is a new five-volume series, Academic Vocabulary Building in English . (
  • This is a great set of strategies and show a real awareness of the difficulties connected to teching vocabulary! (
  • Dr. Nancy Cloud offers ideas, resources, and strategies for teaching ELLs academic vocabulary. (
  • Vocabulary can be improved by many different strategies. (
  • Marilee Sprenger, author of the book, 101 Strategies To Make Academic Vocabulary Stick , agreed to answer a few questions. (
  • The Scale development process consisted of three stages: a) writing the items related to vocabulary learning strategies based on Oxford's (1990) sub-dimensions of 'Language Learning Strategies Scale' b) editing the items in accordance with expert opinions and implementing the pilot study, c) implementing the scale to the students (N = 923), and establishing the validity and reliability studies. (
  • These results prove that the vocabulary learning strategies scale is valid and reliable. (
  • In order to improve the efficiency of vocabulary learning (memorizing and retrieving lexical items) students should be encouraged to make use of learning strategies that are at their disposal, and be taught, either implicitly or explicitly, new strategies for vocabulary learning. (
  • There are no universally useful strategies and they contribute to vocabulary learning in different ways. (
  • The efficiency of vocabulary learning depends on how students combine individual strategies. (
  • The teacher should create activities and tasks (to be done both in and outside class) to help students to build their vocabulary and develop strategies to learn the vocabulary on their own. (
  • 2629 (if approved) January 13, 2016 Intended status: Informational Expires: July 16, 2016 The "xml2rfc" version 3 Vocabulary draft-iab-xml2rfc-02 Abstract This document defines the "xml2rfc" version 3 vocabulary: an XML- based language used for writing RFCs and Internet-Drafts. (
  • Internet-Draft The "xml2rfc" version 3 Vocabulary January 2016 ( ) in effect on the date of publication of this document. (
  • Internet-Draft The "xml2rfc" version 3 Vocabulary January 2016 2.29 . (
  • Having a rich vocabulary should be an important goal for all students. (
  • Some youth who read extensively will likely develop a large, rich vocabulary on their own. (
  • Children need to learn a rich vocabulary in a variety of contexts at a young age - in preschool or before, says Judy Schickedanz, a retired education professor at Boston University who specialized in early-childhood reading. (
  • From its analysis, the panel recommended using a variety of direct and indirect methods of vocabulary instruction. (
  • Yet research has shown that certain methods of vocabulary instruction are more effective, in general, than others. (
  • Our students often note new vocabulary but do they ever go back to revise? (
  • When faced with the problem of 'learning new vocabulary' most students resort to memorisation. (
  • 4. How do our students record vocabulary? (
  • like this: cast = ρίχνω How do our students revise vocabulary? (
  • help students record vocabulary better. (
  • Thus, students need to learn how to understand and use vocabulary in everyday situations. (
  • A Follow-Up exercise for expanding students' use of the vocabulary in a conversation with a partner or group. (
  • Each student group could take the vocabulary from a standard in the core and as students share their work, a review of the entire year s vocabulary could be accomplished. (
  • Ideal for self-study students who wish to practise their English vocabulary outside the classroom. (
  • Can Latin Help Younger Students Build Vocabulary? (
  • These are very valuable means of increasing a student's vocabulary, and students benefit from being involved with all three styles. (
  • Review vocabulary students have learned during Holocaust study. (
  • This election vocabulary will help teaching students about the U.S. Government. (
  • Students list the Holocaust-related vocabulary they've learned. (
  • Have you tried these practical activities to help students with vocabulary learning? (
  • A first deep look at vocabulary skills among America's students shows their vocabulary proficiency tracks closely with their reading ability overall. (
  • In this September file photo, students walk in the hallways as they enter the lunch line of the cafeteria at Draper Middle School in Rotterdam, N.Y. The Nation's Report Card tracks America's students vocabulary proficiency closely with their reading ability overall. (
  • For the first time, the Nation's Report Card is zeroing in on a key component of students' reading skills: vocabulary. (
  • Thursday's new report from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) shows results from a bolstered focus on vocabulary within the reading assessments given to national samples of students in 2009 and 2011. (
  • The results show that students' vocabulary knowledge tracks closely with their overall reading ability . (
  • Students in fourth, eighth, and 12th grades answered multiple-choice vocabulary questions based on passages of text they had read. (
  • But, as in the overall reading assessment, there are some large gaps in vocabulary knowledge between various groups of students. (
  • Among my students who are economically disadvantaged, I see some common barriers: not having reading materials at home, not having a support group to encourage visits to the library or reading newspapers and magazines, or simply not being read to,… [and that] makes a difference," said Brent Houston, principal of Shawnee ( Okla. ) Middle School, in a statement prepared for the NAEP vocabulary release event Thursday morning. (
  • The purpose of this project was to develop a better attitude toward reading, vocabulary, and written expression among students 11-13 years old with waning motivation in English and reading. (
  • To process and store the academic vocabulary of the standards, our students' brains require an efficient automatic memory system. (
  • Vocabulary gloves: have students write the vocabulary word on the back of cheap canvas gloves. (
  • Build vocabulary and grammar skills-with exciting bingo games students love to play! (
  • This article looks at ways to improve your students' abilities to both explore, store and use vocabulary. (
  • Vocabulary' contains practical lesson plans and advice to teachers, 118 classroom activities, four new chapters on covering recent developments in the field including collocations, the mother tongue and lexis as a system. (
  • Fast-forward to about 6:20 in the clip below, embedded courtesy ABC, to get your vocabulary lesson. (
  • Why you -- you specifically -- want a larger vocabulary becomes your first decision. (
  • This larger vocabulary pays off exponentially as a child progresses through school. (
  • The various forms of Chinese differ least in grammar, more in vocabulary, and most in pronunciation. (
  • Although the relationship of receptive vocabulary to reading comprehension seems obvious, expressive vocabulary appears to be an even stronger predictor of beginning reading achievement than is receptive vocabulary. (
  • A person's receptive vocabulary is usually the larger of the two. (
  • As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. (
  • Vocabulary plays a fundamental role in the reading process and is critical to reading comprehension. (
  • Vocabulary is key to reading comprehension. (
  • Direct instruction of vocabulary relevant to a given text leads to better reading comprehension. (
  • Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. (
  • Oral vocabulary, or knowledge of word meanings, plays a key role in reading comprehension. (
  • Therefore, children with vocabulary weaknesses are especially vulnerable to difficulties with reading comprehension from the middle elementary grades onward. (
  • About half of the variation in reading comprehension [on the main test] can be associated with variation in vocabulary," said Jack Buckley, commissioner of the National Center for Education Statistics , in a conference call with reporters Wednesday. (
  • If you use word games and flashcards, improving your vocabulary can be not only fun but key to increasing your general knowledge. (
  • On this page, I'll discuss some of methods for increasing vocabulary and also mention various types of vocabulary programs, games, and activities. (
  • Children with suspected learning disabilities should be individually assessed on measures that include both receptive and expressive oral vocabulary. (
  • This document describes the Device Description Repository Core Vocabulary for Content Adaptation described in the charter of the Device Descriptions Working Group, as well as the process by which the vocabulary was defined. (
  • Implementors of DDR solutions that are intended to support content adaptation for mobile Web-enabled devices should, at a minimum, support the DDR Core Vocabulary as defined in this document. (
  • The following subject specific vocabulary provides definitions of key terms used in our GCSE Food Preparation and Nutrition specification. (
  • One principle of effective vocabulary learning is to provide multiple exposures to a word's meaning. (
  • This is a complete resource to teach children key vocabulary skills. (
  • However, vocabulary is notoriously difficult if not impossible to teach because of the complexity of its linguistic, semantic and psycho-cognitive aspects. (
  • A selection of more than 50 vocabulary games and activities for classroom use. (
  • This resource section provides numerous research-based ideas from veteran educators as well as vocabulary resources for the classroom. (
  • If your classroom has a vocabulary element, this book should be on your shelf now! (
  • This document obsoletes the version 2 vocabulary ("v2") [ XML2RFCv2 ], which contains the extended language definition. (
  • A useful understanding of vocabulary goes beyond simply recalling a dictionary definition, education experts say. (
  • Use the vocabulary definition or math answers to provide you the hint you need! (
  • Another definition often used in research of vocabulary size is that of word family. (
  • Estimates of vocabulary size range from as high as 200 thousand to as low as 10 thousand, depending on the definition used. (
  • 2002). Seeing vocabulary in rich contexts provided by authentic texts, rather than in isolated vocabulary drills, produces robust vocabulary learning (National Reading Panel, 2000). (
  • General vocabulary is almost always too basic to be useful on tests or in higher education, so this term rarely shows up outside of language learning contexts. (
  • Learning English as a second or foreign language (ESL / EFL) takes time, and building your vocabulary is an important key to improving your communication skills. (
  • Then, look for opportunities to use the new vocabulary, either at school, in email, or in situations where you might interact with people in English. (
  • Here is a list of the top 200 English vocabulary items for the landsc. (
  • Here are ten ideas on how to effectively improve your vocabulary in English with suggestions on exercises to help you begin. (
  • Tests that require reading or writing make it impossible to differentiate other problems children may have, such as difficulties in word decoding or spelling, from lack of vocabulary knowledge. (
  • Expressive vocabulary involves using or naming a word, as when the examiner shows a picture to a child and asks the child to name it. (
  • Challenge children on soil erosion vocabulary with this word search. (
  • Offer a few sentences with the new vocabulary word in it. (
  • Ask your child to create a sentence in which they correctly use the new vocabulary word. (
  • Strengthen vocabulary with this Earth Day (April 22) word search. (
  • Create vocabulary word pages in a notebook. (
  • We recommend a daily dose to slowly build your vocabulary one new word at a time. (
  • In order to cement your learning of each new vocabulary word, we provide a list of sentences to go along with each word. (
  • Create vocabulary lists and math problems for pinball or word lists for word search. (
  • Your vocabulary lists will automatically show in Word Find as well. (
  • This simply indicates that a word gradually enters a person's vocabulary over a period of time as more aspects of word knowledge are learnt. (
  • All of them increased their vocabulary, became more motivated in reading, and wrote more colorful descriptive sentences and paragraphs. (
  • For instance, children with dyslexia or specific reading disabilities may have above-average oral vocabularies despite having phonological weaknesses that adversely affect the development of decoding skills. (
  • Building vocabulary skills is a slow but rewarding process. (
  • Learning general vocabulary can help children expand their reading skills. (
  • It is also the default vocabulary object on the PHIN VADS Search page. (
  • Furthermore, vocabulary weaknesses may affect school achievement in many areas beyond reading, including written expression, mathematics, and performance in content subjects such as social studies and science. (
  • While many lists of general vocabulary are separated into topics, these topics themselves are almost always subjects that come up on a daily basis. (
  • Currently there is considerable consensus that explicit vocabulary instruction is highly desirable for children in general, and especially important for youngsters with learning disabilities. (
  • According to the National Reading Panel (2000), explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective. (
  • This makes explicit vocabulary teaching necessary. (
  • The vocabulary defined in this document is not intended to represent an exhaustive set of properties for content adaptation. (
  • For example, here are some guidelines for Vocabulary Bingo: 1) Hand out Bingo cards with definitions in the squares. (
  • For some youngsters with LDs, vocabulary can be an area of strength. (
  • Although vocabulary is critical to reading at all stages of development, the vocabulary demands of the texts used in school escalate greatly beginning at about a fourth-grade level. (
  • Vocabulary knowledge varies greatly in individuals with learning disabilities (LDs). (
  • Children's vocabularies vary greatly in size by the time they enter school. (
  • Working with Standard Development Organization (SDOs) terminology experts and other subject matter experts, PHIN Services actively participates in the development and identification of vocabularies important to the public health arena. (
  • Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. (
  • Use a printable that contains some important vocabulary related to immigration. (
  • As you learn the vocabulary, try to use it in other situations. (
  • How can I best learn new vocabulary items? (
  • When people learn to speak a language as a child or through immersion, vocabulary is usually integrated as it is used rather than through lists. (
  • Sporkasia - I agree that learning particular phrases and a small general vocabulary is the best way to learn a language. (
  • I think it would be a great way to learn more far-reaching vocabulary systematically. (
  • A new study says that listeners can learn new vocabulary through hip-hop music, even though the lyrics may be difficult to understand. (
  • This table below compares the differences of spoken and used Bengali vocabularies in Dhaka & Shantipur in West Bengal. (
  • PHIN VADS is a web-based enterprise vocabulary system for accessing, searching, and distributing vocabularies used within the PHIN. (
  • All Vocabulary is the superset of the data contained within PHIN VADS. (
  • PHIN Vocabulary Groups are used mainly for indexing the value sets in PHIN VADS. (
  • The scientific research on vocabulary instruction reveals that most vocabulary is learned indirectly and that some vocabulary must be taught directly. (
  • Although a great deal of vocabulary is learned indirectly, some vocabulary should be taught directly. (
  • The National Reading Panel reviewed extensive research in the field of reading and based on that research made several recommendations of best practices, including that vocabulary should be taught directly. (
  • It is likely to be a subset of the listening vocabulary. (
  • Differences in the quality of parents' non-verbal clues to toddlers (what children can see when their parents are talking) explain about a quarter (22 percent) of the differences in those same children's vocabularies when they enter kindergarten, researchers found. (
  • This practical course was designed to help beginners build their cybersecurity vocabulary, and give them the foundational knowledge they need to approach this subject with confidence. (
  • US researchers are trying to build up a vocabulary of pain - that in turn could help devise appropriate pain relief. (
  • Click the Unit number for a list of Vocabulary Cards for that unit. (
  • Click Small Cards for an alphabetical list of all Vocabulary Cards in Grade 1. (
  • Assessment of vocabulary is critical for identifying children at risk for reading problems and for designing appropriate instruction. (
  • PHIN Vocabulary Services strives to enable the consistent and accurate representation of information by encouraging and supporting the use of Vocabulary Standards to promote semantic interoperability among public health systems. (
  • Because preschool vocabulary is a major predictor of subsequent school success, this variability must be taken seriously and its sources understood," lead author Erica Cartmill, a postdoctoral scholar at UChicago said. (

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