Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Medical Records, Problem-Oriented: A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.ReadingUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dictionaries, MedicalAmerican Nurses' Association: Professional society representing the field of nursing.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Hospitals, Group Practice: Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)United StatesForms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (1/911)

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

Infants' learning about words and sounds in relation to objects. (2/911)

In acquiring language, babies learn not only that people can communicate about objects and events, but also that they typically use a particular kind of act as the communicative signal. The current studies asked whether 1-year-olds' learning of names during joint attention is guided by the expectation that names will be in the form of spoken words. In the first study, 13-month-olds were introduced to either a novel word or a novel sound-producing action (using a small noisemaker). Both the word and the sound were produced by a researcher as she showed the baby a new toy during a joint attention episode. The baby's memory for the link between the word or sound and the object was tested in a multiple choice procedure. Thirteen-month-olds learned both the word-object and sound-object correspondences, as evidenced by their choosing the target reliably in response to hearing the word or sound on test trials, but not on control trials when no word or sound was present. In the second study, 13-month-olds, but not 20-month-olds, learned a new sound-object correspondence. These results indicate that infants initially accept a broad range of signals in communicative contexts and narrow the range with development.  (+info)

Exchange of stuttering from function words to content words with age. (3/911)

Dysfluencies on function words in the speech of people who stutter mainly occur when function words precede, rather than follow, content words (Au-Yeung, Howell, & Pilgrim, 1998). It is hypothesized that such function word dysfluencies occur when the plan for the subsequent content word is not ready for execution. Repetition and hesitation on the function words buys time to complete the plan for the content word. Stuttering arises when speakers abandon the use of this delaying strategy and carry on, attempting production of the subsequent, partly prepared content word. To test these hypotheses, the relationship between dysfluency on function and content words was investigated in the spontaneous speech of 51 people who stutter and 68 people who do not stutter. These participants were subdivided into the following age groups: 2-6-year-olds, 7-9-year-olds, 10-12-year-olds, teenagers (13-18 years), and adults (20-40 years). Very few dysfluencies occurred for either fluency group on function words that occupied a position after a content word. For both fluency groups, dysfluency within each phonological word occurred predominantly on either the function word preceding the content word or on the content word itself, but not both. Fluent speakers had a higher percentage of dysfluency on initial function words than content words. Whether dysfluency occurred on initial function words or content words changed over age groups for speakers who stutter. For the 2-6-year-old speakers that stutter, there was a higher percentage of dysfluencies on initial function words than content words. In subsequent age groups, dysfluency decreased on function words and increased on content words. These data are interpreted as suggesting that fluent speakers use repetition of function words to delay production of the subsequent content words, whereas people who stutter carry on and attempt a content word on the basis of an incomplete plan.  (+info)

Continuous speech recognition for clinicians. (4/911)

The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging behind the speaking rate. The authors obtained 97 percent accuracy with just 30 minutes of training when using the latest edition of one of the speech recognition systems supplemented by a commercial medical dictionary. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years and is now a serious contender to replace some or all of the increasingly expensive alternative methods of dictation with human transcription.  (+info)

Phonotactics, neighborhood activation, and lexical access for spoken words. (5/911)

Probabilistic phonotactics refers to the relative frequencies of segments and sequences of segments in spoken words. Neighborhood density refers to the number of words that are phonologically similar to a given word. Despite a positive correlation between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density, nonsense words with high probability segments and sequences are responded to more quickly than nonsense words with low probability segments and sequences, whereas real words occurring in dense similarity neighborhoods are responded to more slowly than real words occurring in sparse similarity neighborhoods. This contradiction may be resolved by hypothesizing that effects of probabilistic phonotactics have a sublexical focus and that effects of similarity neighborhood density have a lexical focus. The implications of this hypothesis for models of spoken word recognition are discussed.  (+info)

Word recall correlates with sleep cycles in elderly subjects. (6/911)

Morning recall of words presented before sleep was studied in relation to intervening night sleep measures in elderly subjects. Night sleep of 30 elderly subjects aged 61-75 years was recorded. Before sleep, subjects were presented with a list of paired non-related words and cued recall was asked immediately after the morning awakening. Recall positively correlated with average duration of NREM/REM cycles, and with the proportion of time spent in cycles (TCT) over total sleep time (TST). No significant correlations were found with other sleep or wake measures. These results suggest the importance of sleep structure for sleep-related memory processes in elderly adults.  (+info)

Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: talker-, listener-, and item-related factors. (7/911)

In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically "easy" words (words with few phonetically similar sounding "neighbors" with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically "hard" words (words with many phonetically similar sounding "neighbors"). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken language processing in native and non-native listeners.  (+info)

Cognitive modularity and genetic disorders. (8/911)

This study challenges the use of adult neuropsychological models for explaining developmental disorders of genetic origin. When uneven cognitive profiles are found in childhood or adulthood, it is assumed that such phenotypic outcomes characterize infant starting states, and it has been claimed that modules subserving these abilities start out either intact or impaired. Findings from two experiments with infants with Williams syndrome (a phenotype selected to bolster innate modularity claims) indicate a within-syndrome double dissociation: For numerosity judgments, they do well in infancy but poorly in adulthood, whereas for language, they perform poorly in infancy but well in adulthood. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results could lead to a shift in focus for studies of genetic disorders.  (+info)

  • There were no correlations between ERP and behavioural measures of expressive or receptive vocabulary knowledge for the same items, suggesting that the N400 effect may not be a reliable estimate of vocabulary knowledge in children aged 8-10 years. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During the vocabulary workshop Ken asked teachers to come up with songs using familiar tunes to teach some key academic vocabulary that we often assume kids understand, when in reality they often do not. (wordpress.com)
  • Construct a sentence for each biology vocabulary word provided by your teacher. (google.com)
  • Shared reading is another component of balanced literacy that can be used to highlight vocabulary and show ways to develop word meanings. (wordpress.com)
  • Reading aloud picture books and chapter books is a great way to highlight the power of vocabulary to impact readers, whether narrative or informational, and to anticipate what will be needed to strengthen children's reading and writing. (wordpress.com)
  • On this page, I'll discuss some of methods for increasing vocabulary and also mention various types of vocabulary programs, games, and activities. (hubpages.com)
  • The National Reading Panel reviewed extensive research in the field of reading and based on that research made several recommendations of best practices, including that vocabulary should be taught directly. (hubpages.com)
  • Find a vocabulary program that your child enjoys doing which is on his or her instructional level and use it. (hubpages.com)
  • In fact, improving vocabulary is one of the five components that has been found by the National Reading Panel to be essential in improving the reading of our children. (hubpages.com)
  • Some youth who read extensively will likely develop a large, rich vocabulary on their own. (hubpages.com)