Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The excision of in-frame internal protein sequences (INTEINS) of a precursor protein, coupled with ligation of the flanking sequences (EXTEINS). Protein splicing is an autocatalytic reaction and results in the production of two proteins from a single primary translation product: the intein and the mature protein.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may be involved in molecular ... Smith EA, Fuchs E (1998). "Defining the interactions between intermediate filaments and desmosomes". J. Cell Biol. 141 (5): ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... The desmosomal protein, desmoplakin, is the core constituent of the plaque which anchors intermediate filaments to the ... Plakophilin 2 is expressed in skin and cardiac muscle, where it functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the ... Plakophilin 2 functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. In cardiomyocytes, plakophilin-2 is ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may act in cellular desmosome- ... "Identification of the junctional plaque protein plakophilin 3 in cytoplasmic particles containing RNA-binding proteins and the ... Plakophilin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... direct binding between keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomal proteins". J. Cell Biol. 127 (4): 1049-60. doi:10.1083/jcb ... displacement of the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin from cell-cell interfaces disrupts anchorage of intermediate filament ... Both types of intermediate filaments attach in a lateral fashion to desmoplakin to form the plaque. In cardiac muscle, ...
Thus they express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, a feature used as a marker to distinguish their mesodermal origin ... Weissman-Shomer P, Fry M (1975). "Chick embryo fibroblasts senscence in vitro: pattern of cell division and life span as a ... However, this test is not specific as epithelial cells cultured in vitro on adherent substratum may also express vimentin after ... Fibroblasts from different anatomical sites in the body express many genes that code for immune mediators and proteins. These ...
... intercellular cohesive structures which link the intermediate filaments of adjacent cells in the stratum corneum. Proteolysis ... This may be performed by KLK5 or matriptase, which are in vitro activators of KLK7. Once active, KLK7 is able to cleave ... 2004). "Degradation of corneodesmosome proteins by two serine proteases of the kallikrein family, SCTE/KLK5/hK5 and SCCE/KLK7/ ... KLK7 is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease, preferring to cleave proteins at the residues tyrosine, phenylalanine or leucine. ...
They found that cells in the spheres were nearly all immunoreactive for nestin, an intermediate filament found in ... However, in vitro and in vivo environments have shown to have different inductive effects on precursor cells. The creation of ... Prior to implantation, the NSCs were treated with neurogenin 2 protein to encourage proliferation of the intended inner ear ... After two days in vitro, most of the cells had died, but 15±2 cells for each plate were undergoing cell division. This ...
In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral ... which link intermediate filament networks between cells. Plectin has been revealed to localize to the desmosomes and in vitro ... "Plectin interacts with the rod domain of type III intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin". European Journal of Cell ... Hijikata T, Murakami T, Imamura M, Fujimaki N, Ishikawa H (Mar 1999). "Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs ...
Analysis of roles of the head domains of type IV rat neuronal intermediate filament proteins in filament assembly using domain- ... in vitro. In Ching et al., a model of the intermediate filaments assembly is proposed. This model includes the following steps ... internexin form homopolymers but it form a network of extended filaments in the absence of other intermediate filament proteins ... The protein is a major component of the intermediate filament network in small interneurons and cerebellar granule cells, where ...
... a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV ... is a type VI intermediate filament (IF) protein. These intermediate filament proteins are expressed mostly in nerve cells where ... Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in dividing cells during the early stages of development in the central ... Guérette D, Khan PA, Savard PE, Vincent M (2007). "Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins". BMC Evol. ...
... which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. Since rod domains alone in vitro do not form filaments, the non- ... the type I and II intermediate filaments: in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form ... is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans. It is a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed ... "Phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin by cytoskeletal-associated intermediate filament protein kinase ...
They are composed of the intermediate filament-like protein CfpA (cytoplasmic filament protein A). Although the filaments may ... Edmondson DG, Hu B, Norris SJ (June 2018). "Long-Term in Vitro Culture of the Syphilis Spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. ... Izard J (2006). "Cytoskeletal cytoplasmic filament ribbon of Treponema: a member of an intermediate-like filament protein ... The outer membrane of T. pallidum has too few surface proteins for an antibody to be effective. Efforts to develop a safe and ...
Cytoplasmic filaments, a bacterial intermediate-like filaments composed of the protein CfpA, are adjacent to the inner membrane ... The absence of either flagella or cytoplasmic filaments in deficient mutant increase the mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro ... Those cytoplasmic filaments are critical for pathogenicity, directly or indirectly as they are also involved in chromosome ... A 53-kDa surface protein on T. denticola is responsible for transporting its components into the host cell, exhibiting a ...
... just as eukaryotic intermediate filaments do. The similarity of crescentin protein to intermediate filament proteins suggests ... Esue O, Rupprecht L, Sun SX, Wirtz D (January 2010). "Dynamics of the bacterial intermediate filament crescentin in vitro and ... Eukaryotic intermediate filament proteins assemble into filaments of 8-15 nm within the cell without the need for energy input ... Like eukaryotic intermediate filaments, the filament built from crescentin is elastic. Individual proteins dissociate slowly, ...
... are translocated to plasma membrane and intermediate filaments in a calcium-dependent manner". Blood. 82 (6): 1875-83. doi: ... "In vitro antimicrobial activity of the human neutrophil cytosolic S-100 protein complex, calprotectin, against Capnocytophaga ... S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A8 gene. It is also known as ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 ...
... are translocated to plasma membrane and intermediate filaments in a calcium-dependent manner". Blood. 82 (6): 1875-83. doi: ... "In vitro antimicrobial activity of the human neutrophil cytosolic S-100 protein complex, calprotectin, against Capnocytophaga ... The proteins S100A8 and S100A9 form a heterodimer called calprotectin. S100-A9 is a member of the S100 family of proteins ... S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) also known as migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) or calgranulin B ...
... a bacterial intermediate-like filaments composed of the protein CfpA, are adjacent to the inner membrane and run parallel to ... The absence of either flagella or cytoplasmic filaments in deficient mutant increase the mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro ... outer-sheath protein with pore-forming properties. A number of studies have observed an increase of T. denticola in patients ... A 53-kDa surface protein on T. denticola is responsible for transporting its components into the host cell, exhibiting a ...
The proteins that form neurofilaments are members of the intermediate filament protein family, which is divided into six types ... "Influence of the phosphorylation state of neurofilament proteins on the interactions between purified filaments in vitro". The ... Like other intermediate filament proteins, the neurofilament proteins all share a common central alpha helical region, known as ... The type IV intermediate filament genes all share two unique introns not found in other intermediate filament gene sequences, ...
... is an intermediate filament (IF) family member. IF proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that confer resistance to ... In addition, unlike chicken synemin, in vitro coimmunoprecipitation assays could not detect an interaction between human ... "Entrez Gene: Synemin, intermediate filament protein". Garcia-Pelagio KP, Muriel J, O'Neill A, Desmond P, Lovering R, Lund L, ... an intermediate filament protein that interacts with alpha -dystrobrevin and desmin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Nestin is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that assists with IF polymerization and macromolecule stability. Intermediate ... CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of neuronal cultures in vitro, and it can also act as a differentiator and trophic ... and increase synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is an important intermediate filament protein that ... CDK is a cell-cycle promoting protein, which along with other pro-growth proteins is abnormally activated during glial scar ...
It prevents the formation of non-covalent filament/filament interactions of the intermediate filaments and protects actin ... In vitro it acts as an ATP-independent chaperone by inhibiting protein aggregation and by stabilizing partially denatured ... Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) also known as heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... A well documented function of Hsp27 is the interaction with actin and intermediate filaments. ...
Two lens-specific intermediate filament proteins, phakinin (also known as CP49) and the protein product of this gene, filensin ... Carter JM, Hutcheson AM, Quinlan RA (1995). "In vitro studies on the assembly properties of the lens proteins CP49, CP115: ... Merdes A, Gounari F, Georgatos SD (1994). "The 47-kD lens-specific protein phakinin is a tailless intermediate filament protein ... BFSP1 is a gene that encodes the protein filensin ("beaded filament structural protein 1") in humans. More than 99% of the ...
1991). "Network antibodies identify nuclear lamin B as a physiological attachment site for peripherin intermediate filaments". ... Foisner R, Traub P, Wiche G (1991). "Protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-regulated interaction of plectin with lamin B and ... 1990). "In vitro posttranslational modification of lamin B cloned from a human T-cell line". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (5): 2164-75. ... Ye Q, Worman HJ (1995). "Protein-protein interactions between human nuclear lamins expressed in yeast". Exp. Cell Res. 219 (1 ...
... and protein kinase c-dependent association of S100A11 with S100B and vimentin intermediate filaments". Microscopy Research and ... S100A11 was localized in the cytoplasm of resting human keratinocytes in vitro. It has been shown to interact with the RAGE ... S100 calcium-binding protein A11 (S100A11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A11 gene. The protein encoded by ... It has been shown that S100A11 interacts with many cytoskeletal structures as tubulin, actin, intermediate filaments also with ...
Stress fibers are bundles of about 20 actin filaments linked via non-muscle myosin II. In vitro studies showed that mDia1 ... The formin homology protein mDia1 is a Rho GTPase effector protein, which appears to be universally present in eukaryotic cells ... The FH2 dimer nucleates filament assembly by interacting directly with and stabilizing actin polymerization intermediates ( ... competes with capping protein, accelerates polymerization from monomers, and severs filaments". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (19): 20076- ...
Liao J, Lowthert LA, Ghori N, Omary MB (1995). "The 70-kDa heat shock proteins associate with glandular intermediate filaments ... Drabent B, Genthe A, Benecke BJ (1987). "In vitro transcription of a human hsp 70 heat shock gene by extracts prepared from ... This protein is a member of the Hsp70 family. In conjunction with other heat shock proteins, this protein stabilizes existing ... In order to properly fold non-native proteins, this protein interacts with the hydrophobic peptide segments of proteins in an ...
This protein may serve as a link between the cornified envelope and desmosomes as well as intermediate filaments. AKT1/PKB, a ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ... N-terminal domain of this protein interacts with the plasma membrane and its C-terminus interacts with intermediate filaments. ... Periplakin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPL gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of ...
Three corresponded to vimentin, an intermediate filament protein of 56 kDa believed to be a contaminant, and the other two ... When recombinant NAPE-PLD was tested in COS cells in vitro it had similar activity toward several radiolabeled substrates: N- ... Each of these separates the different types of membrane proteins into different sample containers when the proteins are eluted ... The result of this extensive procedure was still not a pure protein, but it produced a limited number of bands by SDS-PAGE, and ...
In vitro protein binding studies have demonstrated that calponin binds actin and cross-links actin filaments. Calponin also ... Mabuchi K, Li B, Ip W, Tao T (1997). "Association of calponin with desmin intermediate filaments". The Journal of Biological ... Calponin 2 is one of the three isoforms of calponin and an actin filament-associated regulatory protein with wide tissue ... Calponin 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNN2 gene. The CNN2 gene is located at 19p13.3 in the human ...
... and intermediate filament protein K7". J. Cell. Biochem. 80 (4): 483-90. doi:10.1002/1097-4644(20010315)80:4. 3.0.CO;2-B. PMID ... initiation factor eIF3 is required for the stable binding of eIF3 and its subcomplexes to 40 S ribosomal subunits in vitro". J ... Méthot N, Rom E, Olsen H, Sonenberg N (February 1997). "The human homologue of the yeast Prt1 protein is an integral part of ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B (eIF3b) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3B gene. EIF3B ...
lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol. · intermediate filament. · perinuclear region of ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Emerin interacts in vitro with the splicing-associated factor, YT521-B. Eur. J. Biochem. June 2003, 270 (11): 2459-66. PMID ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...
Unlike other proteins involved in DNA metabolism, the RecA/Rad51 family forms a helical nucleoprotein filament on DNA.[9] ... These microRNAs were then tested by over-expressing them in cells in vitro, and they were found to indeed repress RAD51. This ... and the RAD51 paralogs cooperate to load RAD51 onto ssDNA coated with RPA to form the essential recombination intermediate, the ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ...
Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Ikeda K, Takahashi Y, Katagiri S (2000). "Effect of medium change on the development of in vitro matured and fertilized bovine ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ...
GFAP merupakan monomeric intermediate filament protein yang terdapat di astrosit dan sel ependimal otak yang berfungsi sebagai ... S100-β merupakan senyawa pengikat kalsium, secara in vitro, pada kadar rendah, interaksi dengan sistem kekebalan di otak akan ... Protein khas CNS seperti pancortin-2 akan berinteraksi dengan protein modulator aktin, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein ... Myelin basic protein (MBP)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Bagian ini tidak memiliki referensi atau sumber tepercaya sehingga isinya ...
... and intermediate filament proteins in the adult hippocampus CA1 following neonatal exposure to the nonprotein amino acid BMAA" ... In vitro research has shown that protein association of BMAA can be inhibited in presence of excess L-serine.[17] ... "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human Proteins in Place of l-Serine Causing Protein Misfolding and ... BMAA can be misincorporated into nascent proteins in place of L-serine, possibly causing protein misfolding and aggregation, ...
Intermediate filament. *Microtubule. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *Microtubule organizing center *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal ... The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier against vascular and other diseases. Another ... "Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro By Rapid Freezing/Freeze Substitution Transmission Electron Microscopy" ... The glycocalyx also consists of a wide range of enzymes and proteins that regulate leukocyte and thrombocyte adherence, since ...
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant ... Medium-wave, mostly absorbed by the ozone layer: intermediate UV Ultraviolet C UVC 100-280 4.43-12.4. (0.710-1.987) Short-wave ... Due to its black-body spectrum a filament light bulb is a very inefficient ultraviolet source, emitting only a fraction of a ... Damiani, E.; Greci, L.; Parsons, R.; Knowland (1999). "Nitroxide radicals protect DNA from damage when illuminated in vitro in ...
Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ... Ove ćelije razvijaju se in vitro i od tripotencijskih GRP (vjerovatno preko faze O2A) ili od bipotencijskih ćelija O2A (za koje ... Muroyama, Y; Fujiwara, Y; Orkin, SH; Rowitch, DH (2005). "Specification of astrocytes by bHLH protein SCL in a restricted ... Astrociti klasično sr identificiraju pomoću histološke analize; mnoge od ovih ćelija ispoljavaju intermedijerni filament ...
The tumor suppressor protein Lgl1 also inhibits the ability of NM IIA to assemble into filaments in vitro.[24][25] In addition ... Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... actin filament binding. • microtubule motor activity. • microtubule binding. Cellular component. • myosin II filament. • cell ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ...
actin filament binding. • LIM domain binding. • integrin binding. • protein binding. • vinculin binding. • protein complex ... "Loss of talin1 in platelets abrogates integrin activation, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation in vitro and in vivo" ... Intermediate filaments. Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 * ... "Protein sequence of human TLN1 (Uniprot ID: Q9Y490)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 7 July ...
Elastic filaments are composed of titin, a large springy protein; these filaments anchor the thick filaments to the Z disc. ... Myoblasts and their derivatives, including satellite cells, can now be generated in vitro through directed differentiation of ... Intermediate. Low Oxidative Enzyme Capacity High. Intermediate-high. Low Z-Line Width Intermediate. Wide. Narrow ... Thick filaments, composed of protein molecules called myosin. In striations of muscle bands, these are the dark filaments that ...
... are released from the cell's intermediate filaments and relocate to actin filaments to serve as attachments to the ECM for ... Fibrin and fibronectin cross-link together and form a plug that traps proteins and particles and prevents further blood loss.[ ... Newton PM, Watson JA, Wolowacz RG, Wood EJ (August 2004). "Macrophages restrain contraction of an in vitro wound healing model ... which normally anchor the cells by intermediate filaments in their cytoskeleton to other cells and to the ECM.[23] ...
Both proteins are present in large amounts in the intermediate filaments of this cell, so the cell appears yellow. The blue ... Astrocytes in vitro become activated by low glucose and are in vivo this activation increases gastric emptying to increase ... many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[4] Several forms of astrocytes ... Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ...
Interaction with cellular proteins, particularly HMG domain proteins, has also been advanced as a mechanism of interfering with ... Addition of potassium chloride will form the final product which precipitates [26] In the triiodo intermediate the addition of ... Although bacterial cell growth continued, cell division was arrested, the bacteria growing as filaments up to 300 times their ... both of which have been confirmed in vitro and in vivo. However, NHE-1 inhibition has been found to be both dose-dependent ( ...
Intermediate filament. *Microtubule. *Prokaryotic cytoskeleton. *Microtubule organizing center *Centrosome. *Centriole. *Basal ... Alternatively expression in Escherichia coli of whole or truncated proteins can also be performed.[2][3] Therefore, microsomes ... and for examining drug-drug interactions by in vitro-research. Researchers often select microsome lots based on the enzyme ... Because of the need for a multi-part protein-system, microsomes are necessary to analyze the metabolic activity of CYPs. These ...
... filaments). Kang Chen et al. mentioned that the filament was induced by sublethal concentrations of ceftazidime, ofloxacin, or ... In this model, there is another protein Mre, which is not exactly involved in the maintenance of cell shape but in the cell ... Bimodal effect is a situation that bacterial cell in an intermediate size range are consumed more rapidly than the very large ... that are responsible for the helical cell shape in vitro as well as in vivo. A rod shape could have probably an advantage for ...
This protein makes up part of the sarcomere and forms macromolecular filaments composed of multiple myosin subunits. Similar ... A recent single molecule in vitro reconstitution study on assembling actin filaments suggests that Myosin V travels farther on ... The intermediate neck domain is the region creating the angle between the head and tail.[15] In smooth muscle, a single gene ( ... It walks along actin filaments, travelling towards the pointed end (- end) of the filaments.[25] Myosin VI is thought to ...
... proteins can also be used to support 3D cell culture in vitro for modelling tumor development.[35] ... connecting the ECM to intermediate filaments such as keratin. This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface ... Proteins[edit]. Collagen[edit]. Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. In fact, collagen is the most abundant ... of bone matrix protein content.[17] Collagens are present in the ECM as fibrillar proteins and give structural support to ...
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant ... Due to its black-body spectrum a filament light bulb is a very inefficient ultraviolet source, emitting only a fraction of a ... Damiani, E.; Greci, L.; Parsons, R.; Knowland (1999). "Nitroxide radicals protect DNA from damage when illuminated in vitro in ... Medium-wave, mostly absorbed by the ozone layer: intermediate UV; Dorno [de] radiation. ...
... proteins can also be used to support 3D cell culture in vitro for modelling tumor development.[37] ... connecting the ECM to intermediate filaments such as keratin. This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface ... ProteinsEdit. CollagenEdit. Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. In fact, collagen is the most abundant protein ... Cell adhesion proteinsEdit. FibronectinEdit. Fibronectins are glycoproteins that connect cells with collagen fibers in the ECM ...
... in vitro). The CGI component is attributed to the binding of the Ca2+-binding signaling protein calmodulin (CaM) to at least 1 ... intermediate voltage activated. Cav2.3 (CACNA1E). α2δ, β, possibly γ. Cerebellar granule cells, other neurons ... Phosphorylated myosin is able to form crossbridges with actin thin filaments, and the smooth muscle fiber (i.e., cell) ... The δ subunit has a single transmembrane region with a short intracellular portion, which serves to anchor the protein in the ...
RuvC protein is essential to the process of recombinational repair, since it resolves intermediates in this process termed ... Results from in vitro studies suggest that fatty acids, mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, have a bactericidal effect against ... The characteristic sheathed flagellar filaments of Helicobacter are composed of two copolymerized flagellins, FlaA and FlaB.[26 ... The other four families are porins, iron transporters, flagellum-associated proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Like ...
intermediate filament cytoskeleton. • integral component of membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • early ... CTNS is the gene that encodes the protein cystinosin in humans. Cystinosin is a lysosomal seven-transmembrane protein that ... immortalized cell lines as in vitro model systems". Kidney International. 48 (2): 536-43. doi:10.1038/ki.1995.324. PMID 7564123 ... Non-human protein homologs for cystinosin include ERS1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells) and the Caenorhabditis elegans ...
In vitro Renal Elevated levels of protein excretion, urinary catalase and diuresis Damage to proximal convoluted tubules, ... 6) can form the intermediate fluorides of U. 2F. 9, U. 4F. 17, and UF. 5.[91] ... Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (especially uranium nitrate as a toner),[9] in lamp filaments for stage ... The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. coli.[65] ...
Intermediate filament. *Lamellipodium. *Motor protein - converts chemical energy into mechanical work. *MreB - one of the actin ... In vitro studies. Studies focusing on the accumulation and loss of subunits by microfilaments are carried out in vitro (that is ... of these proteins is such that actin is thought to be the protein that takes part in the greatest number of protein-protein ... or in Hsp70 proteins (a protein family that play an important part in protein folding).[30] G-actin is only functional when it ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP). *Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or ... severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. In vitro self-assembly[edit]. Measuring approximately 6 nm ... "A structural scaffolding of intermediate filaments in health and disease". Science. 279 (5350): 514-9. doi:10.1126/science. ... filament depolymerizing protein which binds to ADP-rich actin subunits nearest the filament's pointed-end and promotes filament ...
"Non-Sag Doped Tungsten - Union City Filament". Union City Filament. Retrieved 2017-04-28.. ... 1-4 K; mixing the two phases allows obtaining intermediate TC values.[20][21] The TC value can also be raised by alloying ... Sodium tungstate is used in Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, a mixture of different chemicals used in the "Lowry Assay" for protein ... particulates to induce cancer and several other adverse effects in animals as well as humans has been highlighted from in vitro ...
Both proteins are present in large amounts in the intermediate filaments of this cell, so the cell appears yellow. The blue ... These cells can develop in vitro from the either tripotential GRP (probably via O2A stage) or from bipotential O2A cells (which ... many of these cells express the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[4] Several forms of astrocytes ... Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ...
The association and interaction of plectin (Mr 300,000) with intermediate filaments and filament subunit proteins were studied ... and binding to immobilized intermediate filament proteins.. R Foisner, F E Leichtfried, H Herrmann, J V Small, D Lawson, G ... These results suggest that plectin is a cross-linker of vimentin filaments and possibly also of other intermediate filament ... and binding to immobilized intermediate filament proteins.. R Foisner, F E Leichtfried, H Herrmann, J V Small, D Lawson, G ...
Efficient degradation in vitro of all intermediate filament subunit proteins by the Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase ... Efficient degradation in vitro of all intermediate filament subunit proteins by the Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase ... Efficient degradation in vitro of all intermediate filament subunit proteins by the Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase ... Efficient degradation in vitro of all intermediate filament subunit proteins by the Ca2+-activated neutral thiol proteinase ...
B) In vitro ubiquitination assay showing ubiquitination ladder for the positive control sic 60-barnase-DHFR, but not for ... Intermediate filament proteins and their associated diseases. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(20):2087-2100.. View this article via: ... A 300,000-mol-wt intermediate filament-associated protein in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. J Cell Biol. 1985;100(2):620- ... Structure and assembly properties of the intermediate filament protein vimentin: the role of its head, rod and tail domains. J ...
10-nm-diameter cytoskeletal filaments that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm from the level of the nuclear surface to ... in vitro reconstitution, and binding to immobilized intermediate filament proteins, J. Cell Biol. 106: 723-733.PubMedCrossRef ... Intermediate Filament High Molecular Weight Protein Baby Hamster Kidney Intermediate Filament Vimentin Filament These keywords ... Purification and some in vitro properties of BHK-21 cell intermediate filament-associated proteins 70/280kD, J. Cell Biol. 101 ...
... of keratin 14 promotes filament bundling and enhances the mechanical properties of keratin intermediate filaments in vitro. J. ... Genes for intermediate filament proteins and the draft sequence of the human genome: novel keratin genes and a surprisingly ... The expression of intermediate filament protein nestin as related to vimentin and desmin in regenerating skeletal muscle. J. ... Loss of keratin 6 (K6) proteins reveals a function for intermediate filaments during wound repair. Pauline Wong, Pierre A. ...
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein * Intermediate Filament Proteins * Nerve Tissue Proteins * Nes protein, rat ... Stem cells and nervous tissue repair: from in vitro to in vivo Prog Brain Res. 2004;146:75-91. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6123(03)46005 ...
Regulates degradation of intermediate filaments during apoptosis. May play a role in the general transcription machinery in the ... A scaffold protein that directs CASP3 to certain substrates and facilitates their ordered degradation during apoptosis. May ... Inhibits DNA transcription in vitro (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Figure 1. (a) Structure of an intermediate filament (IF) protein. An monomer IF has a common domain structure consisting of an ... 1987) Site‐specific phosphorylation induces disassembly of vimentin filaments in vitro. Nature 328 (6131): 649-652. ... Peter A and Stick R (2015) Evolutionary aspects in intermediate filament proteins. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 32: 48-55. ... Snider NT and Omary MB (2014) Post‐translational modifications of intermediate filament proteins: mechanisms and functions. ...
1991). Motor protein independent binding of endocytic carrier vesicles to microtubules in vitro. J. Biol. Chem 266, 18141-18148 ... 1981). Intermediate filaments in 3T3 cells collapse after intracellular injection of a monoclonal anti-intermediate filament ... 1991). Intermediate filament-associated proteins. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol 3, 75-81. ... A microtubule-interacting protein involved in coalignment of vimentin intermediate filaments with microtubules ...
With the exception of the nuclear lamins, IF proteins can form IFs in vitro in the absence of cofactors or associated proteins ... The importance of intramolecular ion pairing in intermediate filaments. A Letai and E Fuchs. *. Howard Hughes Medical Institute ... The importance of intramolecular ion pairing in intermediate filaments Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Nuclear and cytoskeletal networks of 10-nm intermediate filaments (IFs) are probably ubiquitous in multicellular eukaryotes. ...
Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: from coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks. Curr Opin Cell ... 124 proteins in the intermediate filaments have multiple locations.. *63 proteins in the intermediate filaments show a cell to ... 1% (186 proteins) of all human proteins have been experimentally detected in the intermediate filaments by the Human Protein ... Intermediate filament proteins with multiple locations. Approximately 67% (n=124) of the intermediate filament proteome ...
The coexpression of C and D in all epidermal cells and the obligatory heteropolymeric IF assembly of the recombinant proteins ... We discuss that type I to III IF proteins are expressed along the chordate branch of metazoa. ... Mutant proteins of Styela D and keratin 8 with a single cysteine in equivalent positions show that these chimeric IF are, like ... proteins (C and D) from the tunicate (urochordate) Styela are characterised as putative keratin orthologs. ...
The protein was thermolabile and was located on 3T3 microtubules prepared by taxol-driven polymerization in vitro. On fixed ... A microtubule-interacting protein involved in coalignment of vimentin intermediate filaments with microtubules ... A microtubule-interacting protein involved in coalignment of vimentin intermediate filaments with microtubules ... A microtubule-interacting protein involved in coalignment of vimentin intermediate filaments with microtubules ...
1988) Distribution of a novel 57 kDa intermediate filament (IF) protein in the nervous system. J Neurosci 8:555-563. ... 1990) Differential expression of two neuronal intermediate-filament proteins, peripherin and the low-molecular-mass ... a class III intermediate filament protein, and CGRP (Gibson et al., 1984; Kruger et al., 1988; Juurlink et al., 1990). Although ... 1995) In vitro kainate injury to large SMI-32(+) spinal neurons is Ca2+ dependent. NeuroReport 6:945-948. ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may be involved in molecular ... Smith EA, Fuchs E (1998). "Defining the interactions between intermediate filaments and desmosomes". J. Cell Biol. 141 (5): ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... The desmosomal protein, desmoplakin, is the core constituent of the plaque which anchors intermediate filaments to the ... Plakophilin 2 is expressed in skin and cardiac muscle, where it functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the ... Plakophilin 2 functions to link cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. In cardiomyocytes, plakophilin-2 is ...
... the mesenchymal intermediate filament protein.. Fischer S, Vandekerckhove J, Ampe C, Traub P, Weber K. ... by direct sequence analysis the major cleavage sites found when murine vimentin is digested by limited proteolysis in vitro ... Neutral thiol proteinases (calpains), activated by calcium are involved in the intracellular turnover of intermediate filaments ... which in current models of intermediate filament structure are thought to be non-helical: the amino-terminal headpiece, the ...
The keratin material is preferably S-sulfonated and enriched in intermediate filament proteins of high molecular weight. The ... "intermediate filament proteins" describes keratin proteins from the intermediate filament protein class. Keratin intermediate ... Thomas, Helga, et al., "In Vitro Reconstitution of Wool Intermediate Filaments", Int. J. Biol. Macromol., vol. 8, pp. 258-264, ... "Enriched in intermediate filament protein" means that there is more intermediate filament protein in the product than in the ...
A strikingly intermediate filament (IF)-like cytoskeleton, composed of crescentin, is also present in Caulobacter crescentus ... from Mycobacterium and other actinomycetes revealed a common IF-like property to spontaneously assemble into filaments in vitro ... Intermediate Filament-Like Proteins in Bacteria and a Cytoskeletal Function in Streptomyces Mol Microbiol. 2008 Nov;70(4):1037- ... A strikingly intermediate filament (IF)-like cytoskeleton, composed of crescentin, is also present in Caulobacter crescentus ...
... is the major component of intermediate filaments (IF) obtained after 2 cycles of in vitro assembly from PC12 cells (Parysek and ... Distribution of a novel 57 kDa intermediate filament (IF) protein in the nervous system. LM Parysek and RD Goldman ... Distribution of a novel 57 kDa intermediate filament (IF) protein in the nervous system ... Distribution of a novel 57 kDa intermediate filament (IF) protein in the nervous system ...
The small heat-shock protein alphaB-crystallin interacts with intermediate filament proteins. Using cosedimentation assay, we ... The in vitro anti-proliferative properties of various supernatants from MUC1-expressing cell lines and of purified preparations ... when NIH 3T3 cells were submitted to different stress conditions a dynamic reorganization of the intermediate filament network ... expressed as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins [PH(PKB)GFP and PH(GRP1)GFP respectively] in HEK 293 cells and ...
Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates various types of non-epithelial intermediate filament proteins. ... in vitro of the 68,000 molecular weight component of the mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins into intermediate-sized ... Steinent, D. M., and Roop, D. R. (1988). Molecular and cellular biology of intermediate filaments.Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57:593- ... structural principles of intermediate filaments with carboxy-terminal extensions increasing in size between triplet proteins. ...
intermediate filaments, nanofilaments, vimentin, vimentin accumulations, GFAP, astrocytes, fibrillary acidic protein, rho- ... Here we report that in vitro immature VIMSA/SA astrocytes exhibit cytokinetic failure and contain vimentin accumulations that ... Vimentin (VIM) is an intermediate filament (nanofilament) protein expressed in multiple cell types, including astrocytes. Mice ... intermediate-filaments, reactive astrocytes, cleavage furrow, mice, deficient, aurora-b, mitochondrial, dynamics, sites, Cell ...
intermediate filaments, nanofilaments, vimentin, vimentin accumulations, GFAP, astrocytes, fibrillary acidic protein, rho- ... Here we report that in vitro immature VIMSA/SA astrocytes exhibit cytokinetic failure and contain vimentin accumulations that ... Vimentin (VIM) is an intermediate filament (nanofilament) protein expressed in multiple cell types, including astrocytes. Mice ... intermediate-filaments, reactive astrocytes, cleavage furrow, mice, deficient, aurora-b, mitochondrial, dynamics, sites, Cell ...
The desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), located at the juncture between the intermediate filament (IF) network and the ... Assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex in vitro with recombinant proteins. J Cell Sci. 1994 Dec;107(Pt 12):3655-3663. [PubMed ... Identification of an epithelial protein related to the desmosome and intermediate filament network. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep;118(6 ... direct binding between keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomal proteins. J Cell Biol. 1994 Nov;127(4):1049-1060. [PMC ...
E-cadherin may interact with intermediate filaments through desmosomal linker proteins (22, 23, 26, 53). Intermediate filaments ... interacts with α-catenin and actin filaments in endothelial cells and stabilizes vascular capillary network in vitro. J Biol ... 2008) Identification of a novel intermediate filament-linked N-cadherin/gamma-catenin complex involved in the establishment of ... 2003) The Armadillo family protein p0071 is a VE-cadherin- and desmoplakin-binding protein. J Biol Chem 278:1774-1783. ...
Biological sciences Carrier proteins Research Cell adhesion Transport proteins ... Protein-protein interactions in intermediate filament structure and anchorage to the cell surface.. ... Cytoskeleton-associated plectin: in situ localization, in vitro reconstitution, and binding to immobilized intermediate ... Immunolocalization of the intermediate filament-associated protein plectin at focal contacts and actin stress fibers. Eur. J. ...
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP): intermediate filament protein specifically expressed in astrocytes.. In order to ... Thus, the protein analysis of IL-37 showed a successful result.. In vitro Testing of IL-37. The in vitro testing of IL-37 was ... Neurofilaments (NEFL): intermediate filaments found in neurons; major component of neuronal cytoskeleton.. Myelin Basic Protein ... An in vitro release study showed that approximately 3.5% of total protein content is being released within seven days. Moreover ...
Intermediate filament linker proteins 50th Annual Symposium of the Society-of-General-Physiologists - Cytoskeletal Regulation ... 3) in vitro protein-protein interaction assays, 4) yeast two-hybrid screening, 5) specific gene targeting in mice. Defining the ... An essential cytoskeletal linker protein connecting actin microfilaments to intermediate filaments CELL Yang, Y. M., Dowling, J ... Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but ...
Intermediate filament linker proteins 50th Annual Symposium of the Society-of-General-Physiologists - Cytoskeletal Regulation ... 3) in vitro protein-protein interaction assays, 4) yeast two-hybrid screening, 5) specific gene targeting in mice. Defining the ... An essential cytoskeletal linker protein connecting actin microfilaments to intermediate filaments CELL Yang, Y. M., Dowling, J ... Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but ...
  • Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament triplet proteins, and a mixture of cytokeratins were digested with Ca 2+ -activated neutral thiol proteinase isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and porcine kidney. (bioscirep.org)
  • During neuro- and gliogenesis, nestin is replaced by cell type-specific intermediate filaments, e.g. neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • For each tissue, adjacent sections treated with vimentin or glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody revealed labeling patterns distinct from that seen with either the 57 kDa or NFT antibodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • Upon differentiation, and during neuro- and gliogenesis, nestin is replaced by cell type-specific intermediate filaments such as neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (biolegend.com)
  • While glial fibrillary acidic protein represents the characteristic intermediate filament of mature astrocytes, expression of vimentin is generally restricted to immature or reactive astrocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • Double-labeling experiments with anti-PSF antibody and anti-neurofilaments or anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies on sections of cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum indicate that PSF is expressed by differentiating neurons but not by astrocytic cells. (ac.be)
  • These include p53 tumour suppressor, the microtubule-associated protein tau, the cytoskeletal protein tubulin (and its prokaryotic ancestor FtsZ), the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),the actin capping protein CapZ and the giant phosphoprotein AHNAK. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cytoskeleton-associated plectin: in situ localization, in vitro reconstitution, and binding to immobilized intermediate filament proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Intermediate filaments (IFs) are resilient cytoskeleton components that provide structural support and mechanical protection. (els.net)
  • Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute the resilient cytoskeleton that provides structural support and protects cells from external forces. (els.net)
  • Plakophilin proteins contain numerous armadillo repeats, localize to cell desmosomes and nuclei, and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strikingly intermediate filament (IF)-like cytoskeleton, composed of crescentin, is also present in Caulobacter crescentus and determines its specific cell shape. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular domain of classical cadherins forms intercellular bonds with cadherins on neighboring cells, whereas the cytoplasmic domain recruits catenins, which in turn associate with additional cytoskeleton binding and regulatory proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Although it is generally thought that cadherins are physically connected to the cytoskeleton through catenins ( 13 ), the cadherin/catenin complex appears to bind poorly to actin in vitro ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Plectin, a cytoskeleton-associated protein of exceptionally large size, is abundantly expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cell types. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Plectin is characterized by versatile binding activities, prominence at distinct strategically important locations within the cytoarchitecture (such as cytoskeleton anchorage junctions), complex exon-intron organization, and differential staining of tissues and cells as revealed by a battery of monoclonal antibodies raised to the protein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Self Assembly and Dynamic Structure of Cytoskeletal Filaments: pg 965-991 How Cells Regulate Their Cytoskeletal Filaments: pg 992-1010 Molecular Motors: pg 1010-1025 Lecture Outline I. Introduction A. The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure with many roles. (coursehero.com)
  • B. The cytoskeleton is a network of three filamentous structures: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. (coursehero.com)
  • The Study of the Cytoskeleton A. Fluorescent microscopy of live cells locates fluorescently-labeled proteins. (coursehero.com)
  • Arginine induced acute pancreatitis was evaluated as a novel and distinct form of experimental pancreatitis with particular attention to the actin cytoskeleton and expression of heat shock or stress proteins. (bmj.com)
  • 10-12 Because the small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been shown to be a phosphorylation dependent regulator of actin polymerisation, 13 14 and CCK has been shown to stimulate pancreatic HSP27 phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro, 15 16 the possibility exists that HSP27 participates in the regulation of the cytoskeleton during caerulein induced acute pancreatitis. (bmj.com)
  • The cytoskeleton is the internal structural framework of a cell, consisting of several different types of filaments (see below). (imm.org)
  • Prompted by previous reports that post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate intermediate filament dynamics, we established in vitro that phosphorylated K17 detaches from the cytoskeleton and enters the nucleus, where it promotes tumor growth by targeting tumor suppressor proteins, including p27, for nuclear export and degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The major components of the cytoskeleton are considered, contractile proteins, actin-myosin, microtubule-dynein and intermediate filaments. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We investigated a potential role for the proteasome in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and found that the proteasome physically associates with actin filaments in vitro and that some conditional mutations in proteasome genes have gross defects in actin organization. (prolekare.cz)
  • Although extensive slow remodeling of the endothelial cytoskeleton in response to shear stress has been inferred from fixed-cell studies, 1 15 16 the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) now allows direct observation of spatiotemporal dynamics in living cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 18 In the present study, we have used a GFP-vimentin fusion protein 19 expressed in ECs to evaluate changes in position of the intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton during a step change in hemodynamic shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as regulation of the intermediate filaments of the actin cytoskeleton and transcription regulation. (hmdb.ca)
  • Two novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins (C and D) from the tunicate (urochordate) Styela are characterised as putative keratin orthologs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein expression in tunicate development: a specific marker for the test cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • alphaB-crystallin interacts with cytoplasmic intermediate filament bundles during mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Most genes encoding cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are required in late embryogenesis. (mpg.de)
  • The genome of the early chordate Ciona intestinalis encodes only five cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins including a single type I and type II keratin and a unique IF-annexin fusion protein. (mpg.de)
  • Essential roles for four cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans development. (mpg.de)
  • This increases during mitosis when the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network is reorganized (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Seven genes encode for the heavy (NF-H), medium (NF-M) and light neurofilament (NF-L) proteins, nestin and α-internexin in nerve cells, synemin α and desmuslin/synemin β (two alternative transcripts of the DMN gene) in muscle cells, and syncoilin (also in muscle cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cephalochordate Branchiostoma genome contains 26 intermediate filament (IF) genes: implications for evolution of chordate IF proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During differentiation, cardiac-specific genes as well as proteins, receptors, and ion channels are expressed in a developmental continuum, which closely recapitulates the developmental pattern of early cardiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Analysis of eight cDNAs and six genes for intermediate filament proteins in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma reveals differences in the multigene families of lower chordates and the vertebrates. (mpg.de)
  • There are about 70 different genes coding for various intermediate filament proteins. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Often the set of genes or proteins identified as altered in genome-wide screens show a poor overlap with canonical disease pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the mentioned pathways, there are many databases containing pairwise connections, such as protein-protein interactions, transcription factors binding to genes and protein sequence similarities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have identified a large number of common and rare genetic variants associated with platelet aggregation, and although some variants are located in genes known to be important in the biology of platelet function, most are in non-protein coding regions of genes (introns) or in intergenic regions of the genome. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Neutral thiol proteinases (calpains), activated by calcium are involved in the intracellular turnover of intermediate filaments but the precise position of the cleavage points has remained unknown. (nih.gov)
  • B. Video microscopy and in vitro motility assays enable observation of intracellular movements. (coursehero.com)
  • Furthermore, in recent years it has become apparent that the FTIs, although originally envisaged as Ras inhibitors, may confer their antitumor properties through intracellular effects on additional proteins that require farnesylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During her postdoctoral work at Stanford Medical School, she demonstrated that bacteria can localize regulatory proteins to specific intracellular regions to control signal transduction and the cell cycle, uncovering a new, unsuspected level of bacterial regulation. (stanford.edu)
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the seven transmembrane protein family and mediate the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular responses. (jove.com)
  • GPCRs control diverse biological functions such as chemotaxis, intracellular calcium release, gene regulation in a ligand dependent manner via heterotrimeric G-proteins 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • The results of this unbiased proteomic mass spectrometry approach identified the target of P15 as the intermediate filament vimentin, biomarker of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is an intracellular protein but is specifically expressed on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By expressing genetically encoded light-sensitive proteins, optogenetic technology enables the reversible perturbation of intracellular biochemistry with subcellular resolution. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • In vivo and in vitro evidence that the four essential intermediate filament (IF) proteins A1, A2, A3 and B1 of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans form an obligate heteropolymeric IF system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vivo and in vitro investigations provided new insights into its pathogenesis with special emphasis on axon-myelin-glia interaction, potential endogenous mechanisms of regeneration, and astroglial plasticity. (mdpi.com)
  • In vivo and in vitro effects of microRNA-27a on proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through targeting of SFRP1 gene via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. (abcam.com)
  • The association and interaction of plectin (Mr 300,000) with intermediate filaments and filament subunit proteins were studied. (rupress.org)
  • It is codistributed with different types of intermediate filaments (IFs) and is prominently located at the plasma membrane attachment sites of IFs and of microfilaments, such as hemidesmosomes (Wiche et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Nanorobots could induce various cell pathologies by mechanically disrupting specialized cytoskeletons consisting of cytoplasmic networks of ~6-nm diameter actin microfilaments, ~10-nm intermediate filaments, ~25-nm microtubules, or their many associated proteins ([1], Section 8.5.3.11), with effects similar to those of chemical disruption. (imm.org)
  • They consist of combinations of interacting domains, which include domains that bind to microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, cell adhesion molecules, as well as members of the catenin family. (columbia.edu)
  • Vimentin (encoded by VIM) a type III intermediate filament, forms the cytoskeletal network with microtubules and microfilaments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intermediate filaments have an average diameter of 10 nanometers , which is between that of 7 nm actin ( microfilaments ), and that of 25 nm microtubules , although they were initially designated 'intermediate' because their average diameter is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Vimentin (VIM) is a type III intermediate filament that maintains cell integrity, and is involved in cell migration, motility and adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we propose that vimentin, a protein comprising type III intermediate filament, participates in such cross-talk for CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) production in mast cells, which is a mechanism for allergic inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To identify sites of self-association in type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins, we have taken an "anti-idiotypic antibody" approach. (rupress.org)
  • 1998. GFAP-deficient astrocytes are capable of stellation in vitro when cocultured with neurons and exhibit a reduced amount of intermediate filaments and an increased cell saturation density. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. (jove.com)
  • Primary mixed glial culture derived from P0-P3 mouse pups, stained for the astrocytic intermediate filament GFAP (Sigma G3893) and the Gap junction protein Connexin 43 (Santa Cruz sc-9059). (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy of whole mount cytoskeletons from various cultured cell lines (rat glioma C6, mouse BALB/c 3T3, and Chinese hamster ovary) and quick-frozen, deep-etched replicas of Triton X-100-extracted rat embryo fibroblast cells revealed that plectin was primarily located at junction sites and branching points of intermediate filaments. (rupress.org)
  • We have tested the binding specificities of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of protein kinase B (PKB) and GRP1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides-1), expressed as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins [PH(PKB)GFP and PH(GRP1)GFP respectively] in HEK 293 cells and Swiss 3T3 cells, using confocal microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1996). Secondary structure predictions based on the deduced amino acid sequences of cDNAs and genomic clones, as well as on electron microscopy of the protein (Foisner and Wiche, 1987), revealed a multi-domain structure composed of a central [approximately]200 nm long, [Alpha]-helical coiled-coil structure flanked by large globular domains. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis. (rupress.org)
  • X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy show that these tissues have a unique arrangement of the constituent proteins, comprising intermediate filaments (IFs) traditionally termed microfibrils, usually aligned in the growth direction, surrounded by a nonfilamentous matrix of IF-associated protein (IFAP). (springer.com)
  • Focal adhesions, also known as "focal contacts," were identified over 30 years ago by electron microscopy and described as electron-dense plaques associated with actin filament bundles [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore immunofluorescence microscopy enabled the direct visualization of O -GlcNAcylation and OGT on the meiotic spindle as well as the observation that chromosomally bound proteins were enriched in O -GlcNAc and OGT. (mcponline.org)
  • Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. (thisisms.com)
  • The kinetics of interaction between these proteins and localization were monitored using live cell video microscopy. (jove.com)
  • Accordingly, plectin was found to bind to the glial fibrillar acidic protein, the three neurofilament polypeptides, and skin keratins. (rupress.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody to neurofilament protein (SM132) labels a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons in the human and monkey neocortex. (springer.com)
  • Self-assembly in vitro of the 68,000 molecular weight component of the mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins into intermediate-sized filaments. (springer.com)
  • My work on neurofilaments began as a post-doc, when I first showed that neurofilaments in both the central and peripheral nervous system were composed primarily of triplet proteins: NFL, NFM, and NFH (for light, middle, and high molecular with neurofilament protein). (columbia.edu)
  • Over the years, we have identified the components of the neurofilament triplet proteins, purified each component using biochemical methods, cloned all the complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and studied their assembly in vitro and in vivo . (columbia.edu)
  • We have shown that the low molecular weight neurofilament (NFL) is essential for the formation of intermediate filaments consisting of the neurofilament triplet proteins. (columbia.edu)
  • We have shown that α−internexin can self-assemble and is expressed earlier in development than the neurofilament triplet proteins. (columbia.edu)
  • A clear link between mutations in the gene for the neurofilament light protein (NEFL) and neurodegenerative diseases has been established in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, where as many as fourteen dominant mutations have been identified. (columbia.edu)
  • Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. (thisisms.com)
  • In vitro USSCs showed homogeneous differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and hematopoietic and neural cells including astrocytes and neurons that express neurofilament, sodium channel protein, and various neurotransmitter phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • Regulates the cytoskeletal network by phosphorylating proteins such as VIM and neurofilament proteins NEFH, NEFL and NEFM, leading to inhibit their polymerization. (hmdb.ca)
  • Nestin (protein) has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is required for mitogenesis in somatic mammalian cells and is activated by a wide variety of oncogenic stimuli. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Association of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase with neurofilaments. (springer.com)
  • Phosphorylation of other stress-activated protein kinase substrates was increased in the K8 G61C and K8 S73A mouse livers compared with wild-type mouse livers. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2012. Protein kinase R plays a pivotal role in oncostatin M and interleukin-1 signalling in bovine articular cartilage chondrocytes . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, NSCLC lines having undergone EMT, expressing vimentin and/or fibronectin, were insensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of EGFR kinase inhibition in vitro and in xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary focus is on the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In vertebrates, intermediate filament (IF) proteins are among the cellular constituents whose regulation is altered within hours after injury. (rupress.org)
  • IFs differentially regulate cell locomotion, depending on the particular IF protein, the cell type, the cellular context and the mode of cell migration. (els.net)
  • 1986 ). Cellular distribution of a protein related to neuronal microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 in Leydig cells. (biologists.org)
  • Our major focus is to elucidate biological functions of cytoskeletal associated proteins in neurons and to define the cellular and molecular basis for how these proteins contribute to the structure and function of neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Cellular and molecular approaches are being employed both in vitro and in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • Mutations in these proteins lead to a variety of cellular defects, including sensory neuron degeneration, muscular dystrophy, and axonal outgrowth defects. (columbia.edu)
  • 2014. Deletion of P58IPK, the cellular inhibitor of the protein kinases PKR and PERK, causes bone changes and joint degeneration in mice . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Although focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia share common signaling proteins, they are distinct in cellular architecture and function (summarized in Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • These protein platforms recruit adaptor proteins and lead to the activation of complex network of signaling cascades that regulate basic cellular functions [ 16 , 36 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Promotes the disassembly of phosphorylated vimentin intermediate filaments (IF) during mitosis and may play a role in the trafficking and distribution of IF proteins and other cellular factors to daughter cells during progenitor cell division (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Fluorescent or radiolabeled (Zr-89) modified HSA was used in in vitro experiments to study cellular uptake by differentiated THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages. (diva-portal.org)
  • Studies have revealed that gigaxonin appears to play an important role in cytoskeletal functions and dynamics by directing ubiquitin-mediated degradations of cytoskeletal proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • The deregulation of cytoskeletal proteins particularly those involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well investigated in solid cancers but not in hematological malignancies such as AML. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kristensen Lars, Purslow Peter P. (2001): The effect of ageing on the water-holding capacity of pork: role of cytoskeletal proteins. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Upon differentiation, nestin becomes downregulated and is replaced by tissue-specific intermediate filament proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes representing all specialized cell types of the heart, such as atrial-like, ventricular-like, sinus nodal-like, and Purkinje-like cells, have been established. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review summarizes the current state of ES cell-derived cardiogenesis and provides an overview of how genomic strategies coupled with this in vitro differentiation system can be applied to cardiac research. (ahajournals.org)
  • Desmin is the muscle-specific intermediate filament protein, and it appears to be one of the first muscle-specific proteins expressed during terminal myogenic differentiation. (springer.com)
  • 1994. Sequential appearance of muscle-specific proteins in myoblasts as a function of time after cell division: Evidence for a conserved myoblast differentiation program in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • Conversely, loss of anchorage in vitro withdraws keratinocytes from the cell cycle and is thought to initiate terminal differentiation ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • We identified a rare, CD45 and HLA class II-negative stem cell candidate displaying robust in vitro proliferative capacity without spontaneous differentiation but with intrinsic and directable potential to develop into mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal cell fates. (rupress.org)
  • In general, vimentin filaments promote and keratin filaments inhibit cell locomotion. (els.net)
  • The cell nuleus is shown in blue, actin filaments in red and keratin filaments in green. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The data presented suggest that the MA-01 antigen is a new microtubule-interacting protein that mediates, directly or indirectly, an interaction between microtubules and vimentin intermediate filaments. (biologists.org)
  • We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. (thisisms.com)
  • In mammalian tissues, alterations in intermediate filament (IF) gene expression represent an early reaction of cells surviving injury. (rupress.org)
  • This activation is reflected through changes in gene transcription and protein regulation at a posttranslational level ( Martin, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • Nestin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NES gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this assumption, the human nestin gene encodes a protein with 1618 amino acids, i.e. 187 amino acids shorter than the rat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plakophilin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) transfection assays, 2) primary neuron cultures, 3) in vitro protein-protein interaction assays, 4) yeast two-hybrid screening, 5) specific gene targeting in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • Nestin gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament, and it is required for survival and renewal of neural progenitor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12415109 The primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a mutation in the dystrophin gene leading to the absence of the corresponding RNA transcript and protein. (jove.com)
  • 1994. Characterization of the mouse gene encoding the neuronal intermediate filament protein, alpha-internexin. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • This gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament protein family and is expressed primarily in nerve cells. (genecards.org)
  • NES (Nestin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity and intermediate filament binding . (genecards.org)
  • Recent clinical data also suggest that EGFR gene amplification, as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and EGFR protein, as measured by immunohistochemical methods, correlate with NSCLC patient benefit from EGFR inhibitors ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. (merckmillipore.com)
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • Solid-phase binding to proteolytically degraded vimentin fragments suggested that plectin interacts with the helical rod domain of vimentin, a highly conserved structural element of all intermediate filament proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The amino acid sequences of the rod domain are highly conserved among all IF proteins, but the head and tail domains differ considerably in size and sequence. (els.net)
  • As HSPs are among the most highly conserved proteins from bacteria to mice to humans (up to 60% identity) 10 , a possibility is that the anti-HSP immune responses are induced originally by bacterial HSPs, and are reactivated by host HSPs during glaucoma. (nature.com)
  • The lamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Microinjection experiments conducted in vivo and filament reconstitution assays carried out in vitro further demonstrate that "uncoupling" of this site-specific association (by competition with PII or anti-Ct) interferes with normal IF architecture, resulting in the formation of filaments and filament bundles with diameters much greater than that of the normal IFs. (rupress.org)
  • As EMT plays a pivotal role to transit cancer cells to invasive cells, tumor cell metastasis assays were performed in vitro. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1981 ). Association of microtubules and intermediate filaments in normal fibroblasts and its disruption upon transformation by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rouse sarcoma virus. (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ). Association of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) with microtubules and intermediate filaments in cultured brain cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1986 ). Effects of colcemid and taxol on microtubules and intermediate filaments in chick embryo fibroblasts. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, mechanical stimulation of cells through the extracellular domain of cadherins results in vinculin-dependent cell stiffening ( 25 ), and membrane protrusion reorientation via a mechanism involving γ-catenin and intermediate filaments ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1996. Target proteins for arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase in membrane fractions from chick skeletal muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • [10] Cytoplasmic filaments, a bacterial intermediate-like filaments composed of the protein CfpA , are adjacent to the inner membrane and run parallel to the tightly organized flagellar filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spirochetes attach to proteins (including fibronectin and collagen ) of local gingival fibroblasts, binding to their plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-arrestins are cytosolic proteins and translocate to membrane upon GPCR activation, binding to phosphorylated receptors (most cases) there by facilitating receptor internalization 4-6 . (jove.com)
  • The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. (merckmillipore.com)
  • To identify the aptamer binding plasma membrane protein, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 3 ] [ 1 ] Most types of intermediate filaments are cytoplasmic , but one type, the lamins , are nuclear. (omicsgroup.org)
  • These results were corroborated by in vitro recombination studies using vimentin and plectin purified from C6 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Given this, it is of interest to define the contribution of IF proteins in the response of cells and tissues to injury. (rupress.org)
  • A protein of M(r) 210,000 was identified in 3T3 cells by immunoblotting and by immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody MA-01. (biologists.org)
  • Microinjection of the antibody into cells pre-treated with vinblastine resulted in localization of the MA-01 antigen on vinblastine paracrystals as well as on coiled vimentin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • 1984 ). 10-nm filaments are induced to collapse in living cells microinjected with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against tubulin. (biologists.org)
  • 1985 ). M r205,000 sulfoglycoprotein in extracellular matrix of mouse fibroblast cells is immunologically related to high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein. (biologists.org)
  • 1979 ). Self-assembly of microtubules in extracts of cultured HeLa cells and the identification of HeLa microtubule-associated proteins. (biologists.org)
  • microtubule-associated protein in cells and tissues of primates. (biologists.org)
  • These intermediate filament proteins are expressed mostly in nerve cells where they are implicated in the radial growth of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in dividing cells during the early stages of development in the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and in myogenic and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution and expression of nestin in mitotically active cells suggests it plays a role in regulation of the assembly and disassembly of intermediate filaments, which, together with other structural proteins, participate in remodeling of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of nestin in dynamic cells, particularly structural organization of the cell, appears strictly regulated by phosphorylation, especially its integration into heterogeneous intermediate filaments together with vimentin or α-internexin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green fluorescent protein (GFP), whose expression is driven by the nestin regulatory element in transgenic mice, serves to mark hair follicle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coexpression of C and D in all epidermal cells and the obligatory heteropolymeric IF assembly of the recombinant proteins argue for keratin orthologs, but the sequences do not directly reveal which protein behaves as a keratin I or II ortholog. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A 57 kDa protein, that is not vimentin, is the major component of intermediate filaments (IF) obtained after 2 cycles of in vitro assembly from PC12 cells (Parysek and Goldman, 1987). (jneurosci.org)
  • Classical cadherins are transmembrane proteins that form intercellular bonds through interactions between their extracellular domains on apposed cells. (pnas.org)
  • These observations are consistent with a model in which the role of plectin is to strengthen cells against mechanical stress both along their surfaces and at their internal anchorage sites for cytoskeletal filaments. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In such cells, a 70-kD DP NH2- terminal polypeptide (DP-NTP) colocalized at cell-cell interfaces with desmosomal proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Later, differentiated cells were further tested for functionality in vitro, by determination of voltage-activated currents, demonstrating the presence of electrically active cells. (europa.eu)
  • Details and Download Full Text PDF: Quantum mechanism of light transmission by the intermediate filaments in some specialized optically transparent cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • Some very transparent cells in the optical tract of vertebrates, such as the lens fiber cells, possess certain types of specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) that have essential significance for their transparency. (pubfacts.com)
  • most likely, these filaments are the channels providing light transmission to the photoreceptor cells in mammalian and avian retinas. (pubfacts.com)
  • Foveolar Müller Cells of the Pied Flycatcher: Morphology and Distribution of Intermediate Filaments Regarding Cell Transparency. (pubfacts.com)
  • Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. (pubfacts.com)
  • Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (pied flycatcher) retina. (pubfacts.com)
  • Spectral selectivity model for light transmission by the intermediate filaments in Müller cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • Recently we have analyzed light transmission and spectral selectivity by optical channels in Müller cells and other transparent cells, proposing a model of their structure, formed by specialized intermediate filaments [1,2]. (pubfacts.com)
  • Filensin and phakinin form a novel type of beaded intermediate filaments and coassemble de novo in cultured cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • Nestin distribution and expression pattern in proliferating cells suggests that it participates in structural organization of the cell by regulating the assembly and disassembly of intermediate filaments. (biolegend.com)
  • Antitumor and pharmacodynamic studies were performed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and companion xenografts with the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor, R115777, presently undergoing Phase II clinical trials, including in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By cultivation in vitro as 3D aggregates called embryoid bodies, ES cells can differentiate into derivatives of all 3 primary germ layers, including cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Arginine pancreatitis was accompanied by a stress response with a large increase in the small heat shock protein HSP27, as well as HSP70, peaking at 24 hours and localised to acinar cells. (bmj.com)
  • In cell transfection studies, we have shown a correlation between the presence of pathogenic mutations in NEFL and abnormal assembly of the filaments in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. (columbia.edu)
  • By contrast, BMGE-H cells, which have emerged from the same original culture but have been grown without hormones added, are not only morphologically different, but also contain vimentin filaments and a different set of cytokeratins, the most striking difference being the absence of the two acidic cytokeratins of mol wt 50,000 and 45,500. (rupress.org)
  • Cells of the BMGE+H line are characterized by an unusual epithelial morphology and represent the first example of a nonmalignant permanent cell line in vitro that produces cytokeratin but not vimentin filaments. (rupress.org)
  • b) loss of expression of relatively large, basic cytokeratins is not an inevitable consequence of growth of epithelial cells in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Keratins are intermediate filament proteins that contribute to the mechanical stability of epithelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In summary, these results suggest that ADP-ribosylation is an important regulatory mechanism in differentiating muscle cells, and that the intermediate filament protein desmin is an important substrate for modification in muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • Compared with fertilized embryos, somatic donor cells lack some important components of sperm, such as sperm small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The utmost relevance of SCNT in regenerative medicine remains unquestionable due to the fact that it is not only free of somatic epigenetic memory but also more similar to conventional embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from in vitro fertilized embryos in their transcriptomic and epigenomic signatures [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2011. The effects of cyclic tensile strain on the organisation and expression of cytoskeletal elements in bovine intervertebral disc cells: an in vitro study . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 1995. The neuronal intermediate filament, alpha-internexin is transiently expressed in amacrine cells in the developing mouse retina. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • 1997. Reorganization of a novel vimentin-associated protein in 3T3-L1 cells during adipose conversion. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Co-stimulation via FcϵRI, using IgE/antigen, and CCR1, using recombinant CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), increased expression of phosphorylated, disassembled, and soluble vimentin in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells expressing human CCR1 (RBL-CCR1 cells) and bone marrow-derived murine mast cells, both models of mucosal type mast cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Preventing disassembly of the vimentin by aggregating vimentin filaments using β,β′-iminodipropionitrile reduced the interaction of vimentin with phosphorylated MAPKs as well as CCL2 production in the cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. (thisisms.com)
  • The differential sensitivity of NSCLC cells with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotypes to EGFR inhibition did not correlate with cell cycle status in vitro or with xenograft growth rates in vivo , or with total EGFR protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we report that human NSCLC cells containing WT EGFR show a variable sensitivity to erlotinib treatment in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, a rare cell from BM of rodents, called multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC), was identified which differentiated in vitro into cells of all three germ layers and contributed to most somatic tissues when injected into an early murine blastocyst ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heat-shock and cadmium chloride increase the vimentin mRNA and protein levels in U-937 human promonocytic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interaction of Drosophila 27,000 Mr heat-shock protein with the nucleus of heat-shocked and ecdysone-stimulated culture cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nuclear proteins in Drosophila melanogaster cells after heat shock and their binding to homologous DNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The spatial distribution of polyribosomes in 3T3 cells and the associated assembly of proteins into the skeletal framework. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Widespread occurrence of intermediate-sized filaments of the vimentin-type in cultured cells from diverse vertebrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Isolation and preliminary characterization of 10-nm filaments from baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of many animal species. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The methodologies in the current paper describe the use of microscopic techniques to investigate the functional responses of G-protein coupled receptors in live cells. (jove.com)
  • In this study, we directly demonstrate rapid deformation of the intermediate filament (IF) network in living endothelial cells subjected to changes in hemodynamic shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • Spatial and temporal dynamics of green fluorescent protein-vimentin IFs in confluent endothelial cells were analyzed. (ahajournals.org)
  • They are used for specific applications, such as to avoid binding of secondary antibodies to live cells with Fc receptors or to Protein A or Protein G. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Force transmission is mediated by a heterotypic interaction between two different proteins, one located on the surface of cancer cells called E-cadherin, and another expressed on the surface of fibroblasts, called N-cadherin. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The E210X mutant protein did not form an intermediate filament network and did not interfere with the filament formation by wild-type human light subunit of neurofilaments in SW-13 vim(-) cells. (genes2cognition.org)
  • After their isolation, these nestin-positive cells have an unusually extended proliferative capacity when cultured in vitro (∼8 months), can be cloned repeatedly, and appear to be multipotential. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nestin forms homodimers and homotetramers in vitro. (biolegend.com)
  • Aberle H, Butz S, Stappert J, Weissig H, Kemler R, Hoschuetzky H. Assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex in vitro with recombinant proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The keratin material is preferably S-sulfonated and enriched in intermediate filament proteins of high molecular weight. (google.com)
  • By use of an antiserum to the 57 kDa protein, a cross-reacting antigen (of identical molecular weight) was detected on immunoblots of IF preparations and by immunofluorescence of various rat tissues. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mouse nestin is 1864 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 207 kD. (biolegend.com)
  • A variety of neuronal intermediate filament proteins are expressed in the mammalian nervous system, and overexpression and mutations in these proteins have resulted in neurodegenerative diseases. (columbia.edu)
  • Aberrant accumulations of cytoskeletal-associated proteins caused by a defect in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been shown to be responsible for neurodegeneration occurring in GAN-null neurons, providing strong support for the notion that UPS plays crucial roles in cytoskeletal functions and dynamics. (stanford.edu)
  • In vitro, mouse PSF was found to be expressed by differentiating cortical and cerebellar neurons. (ac.be)
  • 1996. alpha-internexin is the only neuronal intermediate filament expressed in developing cerebellar granule neurons. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Nuclear lamins are composed of tetrameric filaments of ∼3.5‐nm diameter. (els.net)
  • Nesprin‐3, nuclear envelope spectrin repeat protein 3 and Sun, Sad1 and UNC‐84. (els.net)
  • Nuclear and cytoskeletal networks of 10-nm intermediate filaments (IFs) are probably ubiquitous in multicellular eukaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • With the exception of the nuclear lamins, IF proteins can form IFs in vitro in the absence of cofactors or associated proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The single nuclear lamin of Caenorhabditis elegans forms in vitro stable intermediate filaments and paracrystals with a reduced axial periodicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In diverse cell types, microtubule and actin filament networks cooperate functionally during many processes, such as vesicle and organelle transport, cleavage furrow placement, directed cell migration, spindle rotation, and nuclear migration [4]. (imm.org)
  • In addition to actin and β-tubulin, we identified metabolic/functional proteins such as PP2A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ribosomal proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • In conclusion, K17 undergoes key post-translational modifications that enable solubilization and nuclear translocation, the targeting of tumor suppressor proteins, and enhanced pyrimidine biosynthesis to drive chemoresistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear lamins are composed of the type V intermediate filament proteins. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Often referred to as nucleoskeletal proteins they play a key role in nuclear integrity, positioning of nuclear pores, and overall nuclear size and shape. (merckmillipore.com)
  • These thick fibers are very similar to the ones observed previously when a derivative of desmin missing 27 COOH-terminal residues was assembled in vitro (Kaufmann, E., K. Weber, and N. Geisler. (rupress.org)
  • Reconstitution to filaments: Performed by mixing equimolar amounts of cytokeratins of type I and type II at concentrations of approx. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the heavy neurofilaments protein NF-H. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, K8 G61C was not an effective substrate for in vitro phosphorylation at Ser 73 by several stress-activated protein kinases (p38, JNK, p42). (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, K8 may serve as a phosphorylation sponge preventing apoptosis by competing with the proapoptotic substrates of stress-activated protein kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • [ 10 ] Phosphorylation of the head region can affect filament stability. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The desensitization process of GPCRs occurs via receptor phosphorylation by G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) and subsequent binding of β-arrestins 3 . (jove.com)
  • Apical shear stress induces directional movement of basal focal adhesion contacts and phosphorylation of proteins concentrated at these sites. (ahajournals.org)
  • These dominant mutations in the NFL protein result in the formation of neurofilamentous aggregates that cause abnormalities in mitochondrial and slow axonal transport, as well as neuritic degeneration. (columbia.edu)
  • Autosomal dominant mutations lead to a conformational change and an increased self-aggregation of the protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • 2015) Defective proteasome delivery of polyubiquitinated proteins by ubiquilin-2 proteins containing ALS mutations. (umaryland.edu)
  • The nonhelical tail domain is involved in promoting KRT5-KRT14 filaments to self-organize into large bundles and enhances the mechanical properties involved in resilience of keratin intermediate filaments in vitro. (abcam.com)
  • Expression profiles of the essential intermediate filament (IF) protein A2 and the IF protein C2 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (mpg.de)
  • Nestin (acronym for neuroepithelial stem cell protein) is a type VI intermediate filament (IF) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • has shown that nestin forms homodimers and homotetramers but does not form IF by itself in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mixtures, nestin preferentially co-assembles with purified vimentin or the type IV IF protein internexin to form heterodimer coiled-coil molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, nestin has the shortest head domain (N-terminus) and the longest tail domain (C-terminus) of all the IF proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nestin is a class IV intermediate filament (IF) protein of approximately 240 kD. (biolegend.com)
  • Nestin interacts with other IF proteins including vimentin, desmin and internexin to form heterodimers and mixed polymers. (biolegend.com)
  • Microinjection experiments with purified MA-01 antibody followed by double immunofluorescence have shown that the injection of antibody led to disruption of vimentin filaments, whereas the distribution of cytoplasmic microtubules was unchanged. (biologists.org)
  • The collapse of vimentin filaments started 30 minutes after injecting the antibody at immunoglobulin concentrations 2 mg ml-1 or higher and reached its maximum 3-6 hours after the injection. (biologists.org)
  • 1981 ). Coiling of intermediate filaments induced by microinjection of a vimentin-specific antibody does not interfere with locomotion and mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The antibody has been tested by ELISA and/or solid-phase adsorbed to ensure minimal cross-reaction with bovine, chicken, goat, guinea pig, syrian hamster, horse, human, rabbit and sheep serum proteins, but it may cross-react with immunoglobulins from other species. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Calcium binding induces a conformational change in S100B that allows the interaction with a variety of target proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Tumor response correlated with an increase in the appearance of prelamin A, but no changes in the prenylation of lamin B, heat shock protein 40, or N-Ras were detectable. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that dimers are the basic building blocks of higher order lamin structures and in low concentrations lamins are distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. (merckmillipore.com)
  • During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Subsequently, we identified a new component of neuronal intermediate filaments, α−internexin, as part of the neurofilamentous network. (columbia.edu)
  • We have isolated and sequenced cDNA and genomic clones of α−internexin and studied the developmental regulation of the neuronal intermediate filaments in the nervous system. (columbia.edu)
  • 1998. Studies of carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of the neuronal intermediate filament protein, peripherin. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • 1998. The distribution of neuronal intermediate filament proteins in the developing mouse olfactory system. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • Using cosedimentation assay, we showed previously that in vitro binding of alphaB-crystallin to peripherin and vimentin was temperature-dependent. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By using the intermediate filament protein peripherin as a motoneuron marker, we report here that GDNF increases the number of motoneurons as well as the length of their neurites. (epfl.ch)
  • The first are connected to actin stress fibers, and the second connect intermediate filaments to the underlying extracellular matrix component laminin-5 ( 4 , 15 , 25 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • But micromolar levels of extracellular S100B stimulate apoptosis in vitro. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we identify by direct sequence analysis the major cleavage sites found when murine vimentin is digested by limited proteolysis in vitro with calpain purified from porcine kidney. (nih.gov)
  • [ 1 ] [ 2 ] They are composed of a family of related proteins sharing common structural and sequence features. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The structure of proteins that form IF was first predicted by computerized analysis of the amino acid sequence of a human epidermal keratin derived from cloned cDNAs. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Protein binding and functional characterization of plakophilin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The imposing size of this cell (1.3-mm diameter with a nucleus of 300 μm), a total protein quantity of 25 μg/oocyte, and its amenability for manipulation made this model powerful for the characterization and the identification of many key cell cycle components, such as the M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the cytostatic factor ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • characterization of interphotoreceptor retinol binding proteins. (upstate.edu)
  • Several prototypes were designed but while the conduit's compressive modulus and channel design satisfied the requirements, the crosslinking was not able to prevent rapid degradation in vitro and in vivo. (europa.eu)
  • Vimentin (VIM) is an intermediate filament (nanofilament) protein expressed in multiple cell types, including astrocytes. (gu.se)
  • Here we report that in vitro immature VIMSA/SA astrocytes exhibit cytokinetic failure and contain vimentin accumulations that co-localize with mitochondria. (gu.se)
  • The protein is primarily found in astrocytes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In the present study, by using LPS-induced in vitro injury model of astroglial cultures, we observed a high expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and BDNF in LPS-stimulated normal human astrocytes (NHAs). (portlandpress.com)
  • Keratins are a class of structural proteins widely represented in biological structures, especially in epithelial tissues of higher vertebrates. (google.com)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • Because of a low expression of O -GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O -GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O -GlcNAc-directed antibodies or wheat germ agglutinin lectin affinity were hard to apply, albeit these techniques allowed the identification of actin and erk2. (mcponline.org)
  • The small heat-shock protein alphaB-crystallin interacts with intermediate filament proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It also interacts with other intermediate filament proteins such as vimentin and alpha-internexin. (biolegend.com)
  • Protein-chemical identification of the major cleavage sites of the Ca2+ proteinase on murine vimentin, the mesenchymal intermediate filament protein. (nih.gov)
  • However, all major cleavage sites are located within regions of the vimentin molecule, which in current models of intermediate filament structure are thought to be non-helical: the amino-terminal headpiece, the carboxy-terminal tailpiece and the spacer separating the two major coiled-coil domains. (nih.gov)
  • The desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), located at the juncture between the intermediate filament (IF) network and the cytoplasmic tails of the transmembrane desmosomal cadherins, has been proposed to link IF to the desmosomal plaque. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The complement of desmosomal plaque proteins in different cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Desmoplakin is a large desmosomal plaque protein that [[homodimer]]izes and adopts a dumbbell-shaped conformation. (wikidoc.org)
  • This linkage may also involve additional actin-binding proteins such as activated vinculin or epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), which bind to α-catenin ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to check the expression of BMI1, pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic proteins and mRNA expression levels respectively. (cancerindex.org)
  • This transition is characterized by the combined loss of epithelial cell junction proteins such as E-cadherin and the gain of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin or fibronectin ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rather, there is a correlation between the degree to which there is selection for intrahelical ion pairs and the extent to which a coiled-coil protein participates in highly ordered multimolecular interactions--e.g., as in IFs and myosin thick filaments. (pnas.org)
  • 2) Translocation of microtubules and actin filaments in vitro driven by rotational motor proteins, dynein, myosin, and kinesin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1982 ). Microtubule-associated protein 2, a microtubule-associated protein from brain, is immunologically related to the-subunit of erythrocyte spectrin. (biologists.org)
  • The propensity of putative ion pairs in some IF proteins--e.g., epidermal keratins--suggests that an underlying structural stability at the level of the monomer may play an important role in the extraordinary stability of dimers and higher ordered structures in cytoplasmic IFs. (pnas.org)
  • Epidermal appendages, usually cystine-rich, which are insoluble in usual protein solvents except at extremes of pH, due primarily to an extensive network of disulfide bonding. (springer.com)