Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Glucose in blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Abstaining from all food.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The consumption of edible substances.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Miller ON, Bazzano G (Jul 1965). "Propanediol metabolism and its relation to lactic acid metabolism". Annals of the New York ... In various animal models and in vitro studies on animal and human tissues, they decrease hypertension and pain perception; ... CYP2E1 also carries out the metabolism of endogenous fatty acids such as the ω-1 hydroxylation of fatty acids such as ... Cytochrome Metabolism List of cytochrome P450 modulators GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130649 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
Kubic VL, Anders MW (March 1975). "Metabolism of dihalomethanes to carbon monoxide. II. In vitro studies". Drug Metabolism and ... With a faster metabolism, they showed the effects of poisoning before gas levels became critical for the workers, and so gave ... Cells respond by switching to anaerobic metabolism, causing anoxia, lactic acidosis, and eventual cell death. The rate of ... This binding interferes with aerobic metabolism and efficient adenosine triphosphate synthesis. ...
Stoffel W, LeKim D, Sticht G (December 1968). "Metabolism of sphingosine bases. 8. Distribution, isolation and properties of D- ... Stoffel W, LeKim D, Sticht G (May 1968). "Biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine in vitro". Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für ... This enzyme participates in sphingolipid metabolism. Follicular lymphoma variant translocation 1 is a secreted protein which is ...
Forchielli E, Rosenkrantz H, Dorfman RI (1 August 1955). "Metabolism of 11-deoxycortisol in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 87 (12): 5470-5. doi:10.1210/jc.2001-011959. PMID 12466339. Häggström M, ... Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15 Suppl 4 (8): S298-312. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.86972. PMC 3230101. PMID ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 104 (11): 5065-5072. doi:10.1210/jc.2019-00547. PMID 31090904. " ...
2-14C-phenazepam metabolism in vitro]". Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia (in Russian). 42 (6): 597-600. PMID 40817. "World Health ...
Bush IE, Hunter SA, Meigs RA (1968). "Metabolism of 11-oxygenated steroids. Metabolism in vitro by preparations of liver". ... HSD-11βs participate in c21-steroid hormone metabolism and androgen and estrogen metabolism. Several structures for HSD-11β ... HSD-11βs are partly responsible for intracellular metabolism that determine the operation of glucocorticoids within cells. ... Metabolism. 99 (5): E821-E831. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-3254. ISSN 0021-972X. PMID 24517145. Agarwal AK, Monder C, Eckstein B, White ...
Harvey, D.J.; Brown, N.K. (1991). "Comparative in vitro metabolism of the cannabinoids". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior ... In-vitro studies have investigated the effects of ∆8-THC on cultured neuroblastoma cells and oral cancer cells. Some ... Drug Metabolism Reviews. 46 (1): 86-95. doi:10.3109/03602532.2013.849268. ISSN 0360-2532. PMID 24160757. S2CID 29133059. ... photooxygenation products of ∆8-THC have been found to possess biological activity in-vitro. Although ∆8-THC is a minor ...
Khan FS, Fotherby K (April 1979). "In vitro metabolism of 17 alpha-ethynylsteroids". J. Steroid Biochem. 10 (4): 437-42. doi: ...
"Antioxidants Suppress Th1-Type Immune Response In Vitro". Drug Metabolism Letters. 1 (3): 166-171. doi:10.2174/ ...
This enzyme participates in glycerolipid metabolism. Sato N, Murata N (1982). "Lipid biosynthesis in the blue-green-alga ( ... 3. UDP-glucose-diacylglycerol glucosyltransferase activity in vitro". Plant Cell Physiol. 23: 1115-1120. Biology portal v t e. ...
Maffei Facino R, Bertuletti R, Carini M, Tofanetti O (1980). "In vitro metabolism of methypranolol by rat liver". Analytical ...
This enzyme participates in c21-steroid hormone metabolism. Raman PB, Sharma DC, Dorfman RI (1966). "Studies on aldosterone ... biosynthesis in vitro". Biochemistry. 5 (6): 1795-804. doi:10.1021/bi00870a004. PMID 4381410. Biology portal v t e. ...
This enzyme participates in glycerolipid metabolism. Pieringer J, Keech S, Pieringer RA (1981). "Biosynthesis in vitro of ...
Sjöstrand T (1952). "The in vitro formation of carbon monoxide in blood". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 24 (4): 314-332. doi: ... Coburn RF (1973). "Endogenous carbon monoxide metabolism". Annual Review of Medicine. 24: 241-250. doi:10.1146/annurev.me. ...
"Metabolism of cerivastatin by human liver microsomes in vitro". Drug Metabolism and Dispersion, 25 (3): 321-331 "Cerivastatin ... "Metabolism of cerivastatin by human liver microsomes in vitro". Drug Metabolism and Dispersion. 25 (3): 321-331.. ... In vitro studies with human liver cells showed that two metabolic pathways are equally important; demethylation of the benzylic ...
March 1997). "Metabolism of cerivastatin by human liver microsomes in vitro. Characterization of primary metabolic pathways and ... This has been shown in vivo and in vitro. Since patients with a constipation phenotype present with higher abundance of ... Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ (January 2016). "Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions ... Consumption of grapefruit or grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolism of certain statins. Bitter oranges may have a similar ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. J. Elks (14 ... Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 may influence the metabolism of estradiol and by extension circulating estradiol ... lipid metabolism, or coagulation. A case report of a prolactinoma in a transgender women treated with 10 mg estradiol enantate ...
doi:10.1016/0041-008x(88)90259-1. Motoyama N, D.W. (1972). The in vitro metabolism of azinphosmethyl by mouse liver. Pesticide ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Gungordu,A; Uckun, M (2014). Comparative assessment of in vitro and in vivo toxicity of ... Levine, B.S.; S.D. Murphy (1977). "Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the metabolism of dimethyl and diethyl phosphorothionate ... Cortes-Eslava, J (2013). "The role of plant metabolism in the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of four organophosphorus ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. Greene, R. R.; ... Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 may influence the metabolism of estradiol and by extension circulating estradiol ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. Lauritzen C ( ... The bioavailability and metabolism of estradiol valerate does not differ with intravenous versus intramuscular injection. ... Esterification of the C17β position of estradiol as in estradiol valerate reduces the metabolism of estradiol valerate by 17β- ... A report of its metabolism was published in 1967. Esterification of estradiol, as in estradiol valerate, is thought to improve ...
Cheng ZN, Shu Y, Liu ZQ, Wang LS, Ou-Yang DS, Zhou HH (2001). "Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta ... or lipid metabolism disorders Cerebrovascular events (i.e., stroke) Acute liver disease or previously confirmed liver disease, ...
Metabolism of furans in vitro: Ipomeanine and 4-ipomeanol. Chemical Research in Toxicology 19(10):1320-1329. Bruice PY. 2013. ... Chen, Ling-Jen; DeRose, Eugene F.; Burka, Leo T. (2006-10-01). "Metabolism of Furans in Vitro: Ipomeanine and 4-Ipomeanol". ... Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 32(1):S8-S9. Roellecke K, Virts EL, Einholz R, Edson KZ, Altvater B, Rossig C, von Laer D ... Several in vitro experiments were performed to explore the possible uses of 4-IPO, which showed promising results. Different ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. Bovee TF, ... Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 may influence the metabolism of estradiol and by extension circulating estradiol ... 179-. ISBN 978-3-319-52210-4. Kenneth L. Becker (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott ... 395-. ISBN 978-1-4832-7286-3. Frank Z. Stanczyk (1998). "Structure-function relationships and metabolism of estrogens and ...
"In vitro and in vivo metabolism studies of dimethazine". Biomed. Chromatogr. 30 (8): 1202-9. doi:10.1002/bmc.3668. PMID ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. Schürmeyer T, ... Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 may influence the metabolism of estradiol and by extension circulating estradiol ... metabolism and prostatic cancer: proceedings of a workshop of the Society of Urologic Oncology and Endocrinology, Amsterdam, 27 ... Influence of intraprostatic testosterone metabolism by cyproterone acetate and estradiol undecylate in patients with prostate ...
"Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (2): 148-54. PMID 11741520. Schubert W, ... It is also commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Estrogen helps maintains the endometrial lining of the uterus and ... 179-. ISBN 978-3-319-52210-4. Kenneth L. Becker (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott ... The pharmacokinetics of estradiol, including its bioavailability, metabolism, biological half-life, and other parameters, ...
Estrogen metabolism and function in vivo and in vitro. In Estrogens in the Environment (Vol. 5, pp. 147-167). Elsevier/North ... Africander D, Storbeck KH (May 2018). "Steroid metabolism in breast cancer: Where are we and what are we missing?". Mol. Cell. ... Purohit A, Woo LW, Potter BV (July 2011). "Steroid sulfatase: a pivotal player in estrogen synthesis and metabolism" (PDF). Mol ... Ruder, Henry J.; Loriaux, Lynn; Lipsett, M. B. (1972). "Estrone Sulfate: Production Rate and Metabolism in Man". Journal of ...
Sharan S, Nagar S; Nagar (2013). "Pulmonary metabolism of resveratrol: In vitro and in vivo evidence". Drug Metabolism and ... Gambini J, Inglés M, Olaso G, Borras C (2015). "Properties of Resveratrol: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies about Metabolism, ... Due to rapid metabolism, the half-life of resveratrol is short (about 8-14 minutes), but the half-life of the sulphate and ... In vitro, resveratrol was shown to act as an agonist of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a nuclear receptor ...
In vitro phosphorylation is inhibited by the natural folate ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16): 9638-42. ... Mudd SH, Ebert MH, Scriver CR (August 1980). "Labile methyl group balances in the human: the role of sarcosine". Metabolism. 29 ... In vitro phosphorylation is inhibited by the natural folate ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16): 9638-42. ... which in turn serves as a bridge between methionine and one-carbon metabolism. In addition to the methyltransferase activity, ...
"Stereochemical Aspects of Itraconazole Metabolism in vitro and in vivo". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 34 (4): 583-90. doi: ... It stops fungal growth by affecting the cell membrane or affecting their metabolism. Itraconazole was patented in 1978 and ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 32 (10): 1121-31. doi:10.1124/dmd.104.000315. PMID 15242978. S2CID 6941636. "Sporanox ( ...
Gaddum as a tissue extract that caused intestinal contraction in vitro.[5] Its tissue distribution and biologic actions were ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 31 (6): 785-91. PMID 12756213.. ... receptor and can be growth inhibited by aprepitant in vitro and ... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ...
Spontaneous network bursts are a commonplace feature of neuronal networks both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, this activity is ... gases necessary for metabolism) but impermeable to water and microbes. Other solutions entail an incubator with an impermeable ... They saw bursts throughout the lifetime of the cell cultures, beginning at 4-7 days in vitro (DIV) and continuing until culture ... Other research suggests alternative techniques to stimulating neurons in vitro. One study investigates the use of a laser beam ...
... quercetin undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism that makes the biological effects presumed from in vitro studies unlikely to ... MetabolismEdit. In rats, quercetin did not undergo any significant phase I metabolism.[19] In contrast, quercetin did undergo ... In vitro pharmacologyEdit. Quercetin has been reported to inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and hence is classified as ... Juergenliemk G, Boje K, Huewel S, Lohmann C, Galla HJ, Nahrstedt A (Nov 2003). "In vitro studies indicate that miquelianin ( ...
... toxic to metabolism and neurotoxic. ... In vitro toxicology. *Toxicogenomics. Concepts. *Acceptable ...
Altered fat-soluble vitamin metabolismEdit. Vitamin A is fat-soluble and high levels have been reported affect metabolism of ... Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] resulting in increased bone ... Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins. Hypervitaminosis A ... The toxic effects of vitamin A might be related to altered vitamin D metabolism, concurrent ingestion of substantial amounts of ...
April 2000). "The in vitro immunosuppressive effects of moclobemide in healthy volunteers". J Affect Disord. 58 (1): 69-74. doi ... August 1996). "The role of cytochrome P450 2D6 in the metabolism of moclobemide". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 6 (3): 225- ... Vallès B, Coassolo P, De Sousa G, Aubert C, Rahmani R (October 1993). "In vitro hepatic biotransformation of moclobemide (Ro 11 ... Schoerlin MP, Guentert TW (August 1989). "[Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of reversible MAO-A inhibitors in the human]". ...
Unlike other proteins involved in DNA metabolism, the RecA/Rad51 family forms a helical nucleoprotein filament on DNA.[9] ... These microRNAs were then tested by over-expressing them in cells in vitro, and they were found to indeed repress RAD51. This ...
Many of the studies so far have been performed in vitro, providing only a prediction of what may happen not a real-time ... Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be involved in stress-responses and certain types of metabolism and are more highly ... Results from studies have shown the interaction in vitro so far, but results may be comparable to that in vivo. ... although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA polymerase III can recognize TATA sequences.[25] ...
These minor histones usually carry out specific functions of the chromatin metabolism. For example, histone H3-like CENPA is ... showed that a nucleosome on a core promoter prevents the initiation of transcription in vitro, and Michael Grunstein[25] ...
Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in young obese and normal-weight ... nonhyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome patients on in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertil. Steril. 2010, 93 (6): 1864-9 ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. December 2013, 98 (12): 4565-4592. ISSN 1945-7197. PMC 5399492. PMID ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. December 2013, 98 (12): 4565-92. PMID 24151290. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-2350. ...
metabolism. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • oxidation-reduction process. • acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • ... Removing the methyl group from the coding region has shown to activate the enzyme in vitro.[9] ... as the gene has been activated in vitro via demethylation.[11] ...
... in vitro - in vivo - incidence - Incubation period - IND - Indian Health Service (IHS) - infection - infectious - informed ... metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[14] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory ... activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated ... deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibits reuptake of dopamine in vitro ...
A number of in vitro and in vivo models lend themselves to preclinical evaluation of novel pulmonary therapies. In vitro, ... Phosgene directly reacts with amine, sulfhydryl, and alcohol groups, adversely affecting cell macromolecules and metabolism. ... Test articles passing muster in vitro can be evaluated in a number of in vivo models (usually in mice) of ALI including ... Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and ...
"Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15 (4): 261-7. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.85575. PMC 3193774 . PMID 22028996.. ... Gardner DK, Simón C (26 June 2017). Handbook of In Vitro Fertilization (Fourth ed.). CRC Press. pp. 131-. ISBN 978-1-4987-2947- ... Becker KL (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 973-. ISBN 978-0- ... which is an essential component in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Typically, after GnRH agonists have induced a state of ...
Although research in vitro indicates polyphenols are good antioxidants and probably influence the ORAC value, antioxidant ... but most likely results from increased uric acid levels derived from metabolism of flavonoids. According to Frei, "we can now ... Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro. A ... which have antioxidant capacity in vitro, so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength-the ORAC measurement. Other ...
A possible biological basis for the case reports of depression involves decreased metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) ... "13-Cis-retinoic acid decreases hypothalamic cell number in vitro". Neuroscience Research. 68 (3): 185-90. doi:10.1016/j.neures. ... of the frontal lobe.[38] It has also been found that decreased OFC metabolism was correlated with headaches.[38] People ...
If in vitro evolution works for DNA it will happen much more easily with RNA.. Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to ... Nudler E, Mironov AS (Jan 2004). "The riboswitch control of bacterial metabolism". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 29 (1): 11-7 ... Copley SD, Smith E, Morowitz HJ (Dec 2007). "The origin of the RNA world: co-evolution of genes and metabolism". Bioorganic ... Zhang B, Cech TR (Nov 1997). "Peptide bond formation by in vitro selected ribozymes". Nature. 390 (6655): 96-100. Bibcode: ...
"Cell Metabolism. 21 (2): 215-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.01.016. PMC 4317573. PMID 25651176.. ... Labeling and inhibition of the proteasome is also of interest in laboratory settings for both in vitro and in vivo study of ... "Effects of the proteasome inhibitor ritonavir on glioma growth in vitro and in vivo". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 3 (2): 129 ... "A fluorescent broad-spectrum proteasome inhibitor for labeling proteasomes in vitro and in vivo". Chemistry & Biology. 13 (11 ...
Zheng A., Moritani T. »Influence of CoQ10 on Autonomic nervous Activity and Energy Metabolism during Exercise in Healthy ... Ubikinon in vitamin E in vitro zmanjšata produkcijo kolagenaz, ki je inducirana z UVA žarki in tako zmanjšata razgradnjo ... Starejši fibroblasti in vitro proizvajajo manj glikozaminoglikana in proliferirajo počasneje kot mlajši. Dodatek ubikinona ... Antioksidantno funkcijo ubikinona v koži so in vitro potrdili s sofisticirano ultra-šibko fotonsko emisijo (UPE). Močni ...
DNA cleavage by bleomycin depends on oxygen and metal ions, at least in vitro. The exact mechanism of DNA strand scission is ... Metabolism. ?. Elimination half-life. 2 hours. Excretion. renal (60-70%). Identifiers. IUPAC name ...
Metabolism[edit]. In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase ... Bautista-Pérez R, Segura-Cobos D, Vázquez-Cruz B (July 2004). "In vitro antibradykinin activity of Aloe barbadensis gel". ... though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro.[5] ...
On metabolism and food intake: regulates bitter taste perception.[38]. A local increase in concentration of TNF will cause the ... "Lymphocyte in vitro cytotoxicity: characterization of human lymphotoxin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 61 (4): 1250-5. ...
Strano-Rossi, S.; Cadwallader, A. B.; De La Torre, X.; Botrè, F. (2010). "Toxicological determination and in vitro metabolism ... Meyer, M. R.; Du, P.; Schuster, F.; Maurer, H. H. (2010). "Studies on the metabolism of the α-pyrrolidinophenone designer drug ... Michaelis, W.; Russel, J. H.; Schindler, O. (1970). "Metabolism of pyrovalerone hydrochloride". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ... January 2013). "Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro". British Journal of Pharmacology. 168 (2): ...
Southam E, Kirkby D, Higgins GA, Hagan RM (September 1998). "Lamotrigine inhibits monoamine uptake in vitro and modulates 5- ... Metabolism. Liver (mostly UGT1A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 29 hours. Excretion. Urine (65%), faeces (2%). ... mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat cerebral cortex slices in vitro. As ...
"In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of second-generation histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of spinal muscular ... Other common molecular features in ALS patients are altered RNA metabolism[43] and general histone hypoacetylation.[44] ... "Phenylbutyrate increases SMN expression in vitro: relevance for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy". European Journal of ... HDAC inhibitors are known to prevent SOD1 protein aggregates in vitro.[55] ...
metabolism. • negative regulation of interleukin-17 production. • protein homooligomerization. • negative regulation of ... "Recombinant prion protein induces rapid polarization and development of synapses in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons in vitro ...
In vitro data suggests this co-stimulation leads to increased Th1 type cytokine release of IFN-γ and IL-2 that further ... Metabolism and Mass Balance of [14C]apremilast Following Oral Administration". Xenobiotica. 41 (12): 1063-75. doi:10.3109/ ... In contrast, in vitro assay demonstrated that TNF-α is actually enhanced in T-cell activation, where CD4+ and CD8+ T ... In vitro assays on apoptosis in MM cells have been shown, when treated with thalidomide and its analogs, to upregulate the ...
However, though PA and lysoPA have been shown to affect membrane curvature in vitro; their role in vivo is unclear. ... "Phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism". Eur. J. Biochem. 266 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00822 ... Thus in vitro, physiological changes in pH, temperature, and cation concentrations have strong effects on the membrane ... However, it is worth noting that in vitro, the various acyltransferases exhibit different substrate specificities with respect ...
... agonist and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in vitro.[1] In rodent studies, TTA has been reported to have other ... Metabolism. 11 (4): 304-14. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00958.x. PMID 19267708.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ...
The European Union (EU) pesticides Regulation established that in vitro comparative metabolism studies shall be performed. At ... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Workshop on in vitro comparative metabolism studies in regulatory pesticide risk ... EFSA Workshop on in vitro comparative metabolism studies in regulatory pesticide risk assessment. ... the key elements to be considered for the interpretation of the studies outcome and how metabolism data can be used in a weight ...
In the present study, the metabolism of [3H]DEX has been examined in the liver fr … ... and side-chain cleaved metabolites in human liver both in vitro and in vivo with CYP3A4 responsible for the formation of 6- ... Dexamethasone metabolism in vitro: species differences J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1997 Jul;62(4):345-52. doi: 10.1016/s0960- ... In the present study, the metabolism of [3H]DEX has been examined in the liver fractions from various mammalian species and ...
Drug metabolism and disposition. Compound A (3-A%A2-oxo-3-A%A3-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-A%A1, 8A%Unaphthyrindin-2-yl)propylA%U- ... This study describes metabolism and excretion of A in vivo in rats, dogs, and monkeys, and metabolism of A in vitro in primary ... In vitro and in vivo metabolism of a potent and selective integrin alpha v beta 3 antagonist in rats, dogs, and monkeys. *Cui D ... Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide useful insight on possible biotransformation pathways of A in ...
... F. Rodriguez-Pacheco,1,2,3 M. G. Novelle,1 ... Figure 3: Effect of resistin on mRNA levels of lipid metabolism enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Mean + SEM mRNA ... and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro ... studying if resistin regulates fatty acid metabolism in the gland in vivo and in adenopituitary cells cultures in vitro. ...
In vitro studies on the metabolism of dibenzo[c,f]-[1,2]diazepine. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 4, ... In vitro studies on the metabolism of dibenzo[c,f]-[1,2]diazepine. *A. Frigerio. 1. , ... Itsin vitro metabolism has been studied, incubating the compound with rat liver microsomes. Two metabolites have been ... European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics volume 4, pages35-41(1979)Cite this article ...
Prediction of in vivo drug metabolism in the human liver from in vitro metabolism data.. Iwatsubo T1, Hirota N, Ooie T, Suzuki ... As a new approach to predicting in vivo drug metabolism in humans, scaling of in vivo metabolic clearance from in vitro data ... in vitro is comparable with CLint,in vivo. On the other hand, for some metabolic reactions, differences in CLint,in vitro and ... Even in the case where the first-pass metabolism exhibits nonlinearity, it appears to be possible to predict in vivo metabolic ...
Influence of Val16Ala SOD2 polymorphism on the in-vitro effect of clomiphene citrate in oxidative metabolism.. Costa F1, ... This study investigated the in-vitro antioxidant properties of the ovulation induction drug, clomiphene citrate, and assessed ... The investigation involved an in-vitro experimental protocol testing the effect of different concentrations of clomiphene ... is considered a key molecule involved in female reproductive metabolism, we also tested if a functional SOD2 gene polymorphism ...
... is organising a workshop for stakeholders involved in the peer review of pesticides and with experts in the field of in vitro ... metabolism studies. The EU pesticides Regulation 283/2013 on data requirement established that ... In vitro comparative metabolism studies to identify metabolites using microsomes: standards and criteria for acceptability and ... 04. In vitro comparative metabolism studies to identify metabolites using hepatocytes: standards and criteria for acceptability ...
Carbon Dioxide Metabolism in the Jensen and JA Sarcomas in Vitro. Thomas A. McCoy, Merle D. Maxwell and Paul F. Kruse Jr. ... Carbon Dioxide Metabolism in the Jensen and JA Sarcomas in Vitro Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... and JA-2 sarcomas in vitro. When the cells were grown in the presence of C14O2, isotope was isolated in incorporated aspartic ...
Application in Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) and Toxicology - Thursday, May 31, 2018 , Friday, June 1, 2018 at ... Altertox Academy presents Update in In Vitro Liver System: Cells to Organoid - ... Update in In Vitro Liver System: Cells to Organoid - Application in Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) and Toxicology ... Update in In Vitro Liver System: Cells to Organoid - Application in Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) and Toxicology ...
metabolism drug metabolism in vitro cytochrome P450 CYP enzymes human live microsomes recombinant enzymes ... Statin metabolism both in vivo and in vitro has been subject of study for years. In vitro incubation conditions may ... The data is mostly in agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies regarding both the metabolism rate of statins and ... In this study the metabolism of statin lactones seemed to be faster than the metabolism of the corresponding statin acids. ...
Metabolism of [14C]glucose by postimplantation mouse embryos in vitro Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The rate of metabolism increased rapidly and paralleled the increase in protein content indicating a fairly uniform rate of ... metabolism throughout the period. At all stages studied more than 90% of the glucose utilized was converted to lactate. Over a ...
Prostaglandin Ethanolamides (Prostamides): In Vitro Pharmacology and Metabolism. I. Matias, J. Chen, L. De Petrocellis, T. ... Prostaglandin Ethanolamides (Prostamides): In Vitro Pharmacology and Metabolism. I. Matias, J. Chen, L. De Petrocellis, T. ... Prostaglandin Ethanolamides (Prostamides): In Vitro Pharmacology and Metabolism. I. Matias, J. Chen, L. De Petrocellis, T. ... Prostaglandin Ethanolamides (Prostamides): In Vitro Pharmacology and Metabolism Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ... Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ... We tested the in vitro susceptibility of Candida albicans to three defensins from human neutrophilic granulocytes (HNP-1, 2, ...
In vitro metabolism in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes demonstrates that glucuronidation and oxidation represent the ... In vitro metabolism in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes demonstrates that glucuronidation and oxidation represent the ... Zhong, W. , Lalovic, B. and Zhan, J. (2009) Characterization of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of AG-024322, a novel cyclin- ... Houston, J.B. (2001) Utility of in vitro drug metabolism data in predicting in vivo metabolic clearance. BioChem Pharmacol, 47 ...
In vitro metabolism in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes demonstrates that glucuronidation and oxidation represent the ... "Characterization of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of AG-024322, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)" written by Wei-Zhu ...
... a detailed examination of the metabolism in vitro and in vivo has been performed. (+)- and (−)-flubatine, respectively, were ... Besides a high level of in vitro stability, the microsomal incubations revealed some species differences as well as enantiomer ... Phase I in vitro metabolites were detected and their structures elucidated by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass ... identical chromatographic conditions were applied to LC-MS/MS and radio-HPLC to compare samples obtained in vitro and in vivo. ...
... as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB1 ... Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB1 on the equine hoof in more detail. ... Our study showed that FB1 impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic ... Fumonisin B1 (FB1) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants. Nicole ...
... was studied in vitro using hepatic microsomal preparations from human, monkey, mouse, and rat liver tissue. Two principal ... Alprazolam metabolism in vitro: studies of human, monkey, mouse, and rat liver microsomes Pharmacology. 1993 Oct;47(4):268-76. ... Thus formation of 4-OH-ALP via hydroxylation is the major route of ALP metabolism. This pathway is probably mediated by the ... Biotransformation of the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (ALP) was studied in vitro using hepatic microsomal preparations ...
Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre). Arun K ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ... Abstract 2050: Porcine drug metabolism and toxicity in vitro model utilizing transformed hepatocyte cell lines (HepCre) ...
Brain Protein Metabolism after Forced Exercise in vivo and in vitro BRIAN TIPLADY; BRIAN TIPLADY ... BRIAN TIPLADY, ARUN K. SINHA, STEVEN P. R. ROSE; Brain Protein Metabolism after Forced Exercise in vivo and in vitro. Biochem ...
Metabolism of arachidonic acid in sheep uterus: In vitro studies. Authors: Padma, A Sai. Agarwal, S. Reddy, D Bharat. Prasad, T ... The study forms the first report on the comprehensive analysis on the metabolism of AA in sheep uterus in vitro via the LOX and ... Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the non-pregnant sheep uterus was studied in vitro using conventional chromatographic and ...
Charles Crespi on Laboratory methods for the in vitro study of drug metabolism, part of a collection of online lectures. ... Laboratory methods for the in vitro study of drug metabolism. *Dr. Charles Crespi - BD Biosciences Discovery Labware, USA ... Crespi, C. (2007, October 1). Laboratory methods for the in vitro study of drug metabolism [Video file]. In The Biomedical & ... Laboratory methods for the in vitro study of drug metabolism. Embed in course/own notes ...
In vitro free radical metabolism of phenolphthalein by peroxidases. Herbert J. Sipe, Jean T. Corbett and Ronald P. Mason ... In vitro free radical metabolism of phenolphthalein by peroxidases. Herbert J. Sipe, Jean T. Corbett and Ronald P. Mason ... In vitro free radical metabolism of phenolphthalein by peroxidases. Herbert J. Sipe, Jean T. Corbett and Ronald P. Mason ... In vitro free radical metabolism of phenolphthalein by peroxidases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
To show the applicability for an in vitro CYP-mediated metabolism assay using the cocktail approach, a method was first ... Based on the concentrations employed for the current in vitro phase I metabolism assay, these LOQ values were appropriate for ... Finally, the two analytical methods were applied to in vitro CYP-dependent metabolism testing. Two well-known phytochemical ... and supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to compact single quadrupole mass spectrometer for targeted in vitro metabolism ...
Biological sciences Creatine Analysis Physiological aspects Creatine kinase Glucose metabolism ... Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In ... Vitro.(Research Article) by Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity; ... It is not clear how ageing in vitro affects the energy metabolism in the phase of myoblast proliferation. Also, no study has ...
Synergism was observed when drug combinations were tested in vitro, notably with fumagillin and terramycin and with fumagillin ... An in vitro method is described for measuring the anaerobic metabolism of E. histolytica in terms of acid and CO2 formation, ... Drug Effects on the Metabolism of Endamoeba Histolytica; in Vitro and in Vivo Tests of Synergism * Authors: Mitsuru Nakamura, ... 1. An in vitro method is described for measuring the anaerobic metabolism of E. histolytica in terms of acid and CO2 formation ...
Effects in vitro of alloxan on the glucose metabolism of mouse pancreatic B-cells L. A. Håkan Borg ; L. A. Håkan Borg ... It is concluded that in vitro alloxan has an acute inhibitory effect on the islet glucose metabolism, and that this action can ... L. A. Håkan Borg, Susan J. Eide, Arne Andersson, Claes Hellerström; Effects in vitro of alloxan on the glucose metabolism of ... Alloxan cytotoxicity in vitro . Inhibition of rubidium ion pumping in pancreatic β -cells Biochem J (January,1977) ...
... we characterized in vitro nicotine metabolism and the hepatic enzyme involved. In humans, cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolizes ... and bupropion metabolism (r = 0.81; P , 0.001), suggesting CYP2B-mediation of nicotine metabolism as seen in rats. These ... Nicotine Kinetics in Zebra Finches In Vivo and In Vitro. Sharon Miksys, Susanne L.T. Cappendijk, William M. Perry, Bin Zhao and ... Nicotine Kinetics in Zebra Finches In Vivo and In Vitro Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug ...
Predicting drug pharmacokinetics in humans from in vitro metabolism studies. D. F. McGinnity, R. J. Riley ... Predicting drug pharmacokinetics in humans from in vitro metabolism studies Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Several in vitro incubation milieu (e.g. CYPs, HLM, human hepatocytes) are routinely used and the level of non-specific binding ... Using these recombinant enzymes, fully automated in vitro assays to assess CYP inhibition and determine the enzymology of drug ...
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Workshop on in vitro comparative metabolism studies in regulatory pesticide risk assessment discussed the use of these studies to identify human metabolites and to support the assessment of human relevance of chemical‐mediated thyroid disruption. (europa.eu)
  • Dexamethasone (DEX) is extensively metabolized to 6-hydroxyDEX (6OH-DEX) and side-chain cleaved metabolites in human liver both in vitro and in vivo with CYP3A4 responsible for the formation of 6-hydroxylated products. (nih.gov)
  • 03. In vitro comparative metabolism studies to identify metabolites using microsomes: standards and criteria for acceptability and interpretation. (europa.eu)
  • 05. Identification of metabolites: analytical challenges for conducting in vitro metabolism characterization of pesticides. (europa.eu)
  • In vitro comparative metabolism studies to identify metabolites. (europa.eu)
  • CYP3A4 had a major role in the metabolism of atorvastatin and its metabolites, simvastatin and simvastatin acid. (helsinki.fi)
  • Phase I in vitro metabolites were detected and their structures elucidated by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). (mdpi.com)
  • To show the applicability for an in vitro CYP-mediated metabolism assay using the cocktail approach, a method was first developed in UHPLC-MS to separate a mixture of 8 probe substrates and 8 CYP-specific metabolites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chapter three deals with the development of an automated system for the analysis of microsomal incubation reactions A separation method, capable of separating seven of the potential metabolites of coumann was initially developed and was then applied to the on-system technique The system allowed the metabolism of coumann to be momtored over time with minimal sample handling. (dcu.ie)
  • Using high resolution accurate mass full-scan analysis on the Orbitrap, the in vitro systems were found to generate at least the two most abundant phase I metabolites observed in vitro for all eight drugs studied. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • In the majority of cases, in vitro experiments were also able to generate the minor in vivo metabolites and sometimes metabolites that were only observed in vitro . (spectroscopynow.com)
  • More detailed analyses of fentanyl incubates using LC-MS/MS showed that it was possible to generate good quality spectra from the metabolites generated in vitro . (spectroscopynow.com)
  • To better understand the role of xenobiotic metabolism after cigarette smoking, human subcellular liver and lung fraction models (microsomes, S9) have been established within a case study focused on phase I and phase II metabolism of furan type compounds to assess metabolite profiles and reactive metabolites relevant for toxicology. (pmiscience.com)
  • Our research activities span all scales from in vitro simulations of anaerobic fermentation processes combined with detailed analysis of metabolites produced, across integration of (analytical) knowledge on metabolites into on-farm monitoring and optimization of nutrition to merging technical knowledge in a broader context of inter-disciplinary challenges facing animal husbandry. (ugent.be)
  • For metabolite products that have never been dosed orally (metabolites normally generated from the parent compound in the liver), intestinal microsome studies provide valuable information regarding the metabolism of the metabolite product at the gut wall during the absorption process. (camargopharma.com)
  • In vitro metabolism of ENB generates quinone methide and iminium reactive intermediates that were captured by potassium cyanide and GSH, respectively forming stable conjugates that were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Seven in vitro ENB metabolites were identified through four metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation and reduction. (ovid.com)
  • In vivo metabolism generates five phase I metabolites similar to in vitro metabolism except no metabolic reactions were identified on indazole ring. (ovid.com)
  • citation needed] Since biological perturbation depends on concentration of the toxicant as well as exposure duration of a candidate drug (parent molecule or metabolites) at that target site, in vivo tissue and organ effects can either be completely different or similar to those observed in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, the metabolism of [3H]DEX has been examined in the liver fractions from various mammalian species and metabolite profiles compared with those obtained with human liver microsomes. (nih.gov)
  • Its in vitro metabolism has been studied, incubating the compound with rat liver microsomes. (springer.com)
  • As a new approach to predicting in vivo drug metabolism in humans, scaling of in vivo metabolic clearance from in vitro data obtained using human liver microsomes or hepatocytes is described in this review, based on the large number of literature data. (nih.gov)
  • The intrinsic clearance (CLint) of these molecules was investigated in vitro on human liver microsomes (HLM) and a panel of eleven cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes recombinantly expressed in E. coli. (helsinki.fi)
  • In vitro metabolism in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes demonstrates that glucuronidation and oxidation represent the major metabolic pathways of AG-024322. (scirp.org)
  • Based on the above considerations, we undertook a systematic investigation of the metabolism of the three positional isomers of NO-ASA by rat liver and colon cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, equine liver/lung microsomes/S9 tissue fractions were used to study the phase I metabolism of eight drugs of relevance to equine drug surveillance (acepromazine, azaperone, celecoxib, fentanyl, fluphenazine, mepivacaine, methylphenidate and tripelennamine). (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Microsomes are typically used as the enzyme source for the measurement of metabolic stability and for reaction phenotyping because they express the major drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), along with others that contribute to drug metabolism. (edu.au)
  • Liver microsomes are the most widely used for drug metabolism studies as they are easy to handle and commercially available. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects of organic solvent vehicles on benzo[a]pyrene metabolism in rabbit lung microsomes. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors suggest that DMSO is probably the best solvent vehicle for studying BP metabolism in rabbit lung microsomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation in vitro: contribution of intestinal metabolism to presystemic clearance. (docphin.com)
  • Further, characterization of the enzyme(s) responsible for metabolism (reaction phenotyping) allows prediction, at least at the qualitative level, of factors (including metabolic drug-drug interactions) likely to alter the clearance of both new chemical entities (NCEs) and established drugs. (edu.au)
  • Reviewing literatures revealed the absence of previous articles have been done for the ENB in vitro or in vivo metabolism study or structural characterization of the formed reactive intermediates. (ovid.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way) and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). (hindawi.com)
  • Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, it has been demonstrated that central resistin regulates hypothalamic and peripheral lipid metabolism in a nutritional-dependent fashion and even that this regulation is opposite in peripheral organs in comparison with central effect [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results show that replicative senescence results in reduced capacities of myoblasts to differentiate, in association with defective glycose and lipid metabolism, decreased cellular mitochondrial and ATP contents, and increased ROS production, these changes accompanied with normal-to-increased ATP synthesis capacities of mitochondria [32, 33]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of blocking IL-6 signaling with tocilizumab on lipid, glucose and protein metabolism during rest and exercise in healthy and obese humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We determined glucose tolerance, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption, muscle and liver lipid content, muscle insulin signaling, and expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An attempt has been made to define the extent to which metabolic flux in central plant metabolism is reflected by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, based on an analysis of in vitro cultured immature embryos of two oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) accessions which contrast for seed lipid accumulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes of energy metabolism-related molecules, lipid accumulation, inflammation, nitrosative damage, and fibrotic remodeling were examined in the hearts of diabetic mice 2 weeks, 2 months, and 5 months after the onset of diabetes with Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical assays. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of PI 3-kinase and its downstream protein kinase B (Akt) is essential for almost all insulin-induced glucose and fatty acid or lipid metabolism such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and suppression of triglyceride synthesis ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The liver is the largest internal organ and the hub of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Besides a high level of in vitro stability, the microsomal incubations revealed some species differences as well as enantiomer discrimination with regard to the formation of monohydroxylated products, which was identified as the main metabolic pathway in this assay. (mdpi.com)
  • Biotransformation of the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (ALP) was studied in vitro using hepatic microsomal preparations from human, monkey, mouse, and rat liver tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro studies were performed using subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from European corn borer larval midguts. (unl.edu)
  • In vitro metabolism results indicate microsomal monooxygenases are responsible for the conversion of fipronil to its sulfone form in the European corn borer. (unl.edu)
  • Furthermore, to find first hints of the active principle of the codrug, in vitro stability and microsomal metabolism studies were performed. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In vitro CYP inhibition studies are often recommended to evaluate the potential of the proposed metabolite product to inhibit the human liver microsomal CYP enzymes as compared to the parent product. (camargopharma.com)
  • Morselli P.L. and Frigerio A. (1975): Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, for some metabolic reactions, differences in CLint,in vitro and CLint,in vivo greater than 5-fold were observed. (nih.gov)
  • Even in the case where the first-pass metabolism exhibits nonlinearity, it appears to be possible to predict in vivo metabolic clearance from in vitro metabolic data. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: The in vitro metabolic pathways of the tested ICS in human lung tissue were differing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowledge of the metabolic stability of newly discovered drug candidates eliminated by metabolism is essential for predicting the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that underpin dosing and dosage frequency. (edu.au)
  • Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to constrain a flux balance metabolic model which included 671 biochemical and transport reactions within the central metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase, in skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • It combines research and reviews published in N utrition & Metabolism , Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome , Nutrition Journal , Cardiovascular Diabetology , Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , Journal of Translational Medicine (Nutrition & Metabolism Section), Molecular Cancer and Cancer and Metabolism . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Administration of the enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, to rats did not alter this metabolic pathway nor did repeated administration of CH2Br2 or CH2Ci2 change the rate of metabolism. (harvard.edu)
  • As a proof of principle of the practical significance of this integrative approach, we illustrate the construction of a specific causal network that links gene expression and metabolic changes in the context of glutamate metabolism, and demonstrate its validity by showing that genes in the network respond to changes in glutamine and glutamate availability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The liver is a major site for the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds due to its abundant level of phase I/II metabolic enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • While these culture configurations offer significant metabolic competence, they do so only after a long adaptation period of between 7 to 10 days of culture during which the primary cells slowly adapt their metabolic activity to the in vitro microenvironment ( 6 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • One strategy to eliminate this long adaptation period and attain a high level of metabolic activity from the onset of culture is to minimize the stress associated with the transition between the in vivo to the in vitro microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • The in vitro study assesses both phase 1 (cytochrome [CYP] 450 isozymes) and phase 2 (glutathione and glucuronide conjugations) metabolic reactions. (camargopharma.com)
  • Stormer, E., von Moltke L.L. and Greenblatt, D.J. (2000) Scaling drug biotransformation data from cDNA-ex-pressed cytochrome P-450 to human liver: A comparison of relative activity factors and human liver abundance in studies of mirtazapin metabolism. (scirp.org)
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of powerful chromatographic methods and compact single quadrupole MS device for simple in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, instead of more expensive triple quadrupole MS/MS detectors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Roles of maize cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in stereo-selective metabolism of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) as evidenced by in vitro degradation, biological response and in silico studies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • SMARTCyp 3.0: Enhanced cytochrome P450 site-of-metabolism prediction server. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism continues to be of major importance for a large proportion of small molecule new drug candidates, various methods in recent decades have accelerated the development of drug candidates with significant non CYP-mediated metabolism. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In current practice, isolated hepatocytes are cultured in suspension, a configuration shown to maintain high levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity up to 6 h in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • SRI is a leader in the development and application of in vitro models for ADMET evaluations (ADMET: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity). (sri.com)
  • This study describes metabolism and excretion of A in vivo in rats, dogs, and monkeys, and metabolism of A in vitro in primary hepatocytes from rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans. (mendeley.com)
  • Furthermore, investigations on the migration kinetics including adsorption and excretion occurring in 3D organotypic tissue cultures have been started to better understand the bioavailability of smoke compounds over time and to be able to link it to the observed impact on the exposed in vitro model. (pmiscience.com)
  • With cost of drug development escalating to $400 million/drug there is an urgent need for the development of rigorous models of liver metabolism in the context of ADME/Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) screening. (pnas.org)
  • This study also provides information pertaining to the correct selection of animal species for further evaluation in an in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study if this information was not provided in the original approval of the parent compound. (camargopharma.com)
  • It is generally accepted that physiologically based PK (PBPK) models, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of any given chemical are central to in vitro - in vivo extrapolations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data also suggest that glucuronidation may be a more important pathway for T4 metabolism in rats and deiodination may be a favored pathway in humans. (epa.gov)
  • However, with PCB 153 exposure these data support glucuronidation as a primary route of T4 metabolism in both rat and humans. (epa.gov)
  • There is an increasing need to develop robust, enhanced-throughput in vitro assays, which accurately extrapolate to humans. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • An in vitro hepatocyte study examines the metabolism of a drug product across various species, including humans. (camargopharma.com)
  • The percentual contributions of each CYP enzyme to the metabolism of the compounds was calculated. (helsinki.fi)
  • Our in vitro results suggest that these compounds require further study in patients with SAH who are at risk for vasospasm because they may have a direct benefit for the vasospastic arteries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If these studies allowed demonstrating the therapeutic potential of this plant, so in vitro as in vivo , the underlying mechanisms involved as well as the phytochemical compounds responsible for these effects were not fully documented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present a comprehensive suite of in vitro preclinical drug development assays that can be used as a tool-box to identify lead compounds for mIDH drug discovery programs, as well as what we believe is the most comprehensive publically available dataset on the top mIDH inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • Successful Lead Optimisation employs integrated drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) strategies to drive drug discovery projects and identify preclinical proof of concept compounds and candidate molecules with excellent developability profiles. (criver.com)
  • However, the inherent difficulties in evaluating the metabolism of slow-clearing drugs under such short time periods bars many promising compounds from clinical validation ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • abstract = "When added to incubations in vitro, (±)-propranolol, a cationic amphiphilic drug, causes profound alterations in incorporation of [32P]orthosphosphate into rat cerebral cortex phospholipids. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.001), suggesting CYP2B-mediation of nicotine metabolism as seen in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Facing the therapy limiting hepatotoxic side effects of tacrine in a new approach, a tacrine-silibinin codrug was synthesized that showed promising pharmacological properties such as AChE and BChE inhibitory activity in vitro and pro-cognitive effects in vivo in rats. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In rats, quercetin did not undergo any significant phase I metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] A.Mizuno: 'Extrapancreatic action of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats,an animal model for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus' Metabolism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In vivo metabolism of ENB was done by giving single oral dose (35.2 mg/kg) to Sprague Dawley rats. (ovid.com)
  • Dr. Seda Suvag, MD is an Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Specialist who practices in Hollywood, FL. (healthgrades.com)
  • The European Union (EU) pesticides Regulation established that in vitro comparative metabolism studies shall be performed. (europa.eu)
  • To understand the potential for drug interactions and the regulation of nicotine metabolism in zebra finches, we characterized in vitro nicotine metabolism and the hepatic enzyme involved. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that has versatile biological functions in cells, including regulation of metabolism, cell growth/death, and gene transcription and translation ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to compare the metabolism of T4 in fresh primary rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. (epa.gov)
  • The following factors are considered to be the cause of the differences: (1) metabolism in tissues other than liver, (2) incorrect assumption of rapid equilibrium of drugs between blood and hepatocytes, (3) presence of active transport through the sinusoidal membrane, and (4) interindividual variability. (nih.gov)
  • Gomez-Lechon, M.J., Donato, M.T., Castell J.V. and Jover, R. (2004) Human hepatocytes in primary culture: the choice to investigate drug metabolism in man. (scirp.org)
  • Based on obtained in vitro toxicity data, further testing of long-term toxicity of Y and flavokawains is recommended preferably on primary human hepatocytes or in vivo in a suitable animal model. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • One model found to be useful in the prediction of drug metabolism is the culture of primary human hepatocytes ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Influence of Val16Ala SOD2 polymorphism on the in-vitro effect of clomiphene citrate in oxidative metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • The results are consistent with the idea that the B-cytotoxicity of alloxan reflects an interaction with intracellular sites involved in the oxidative metabolism of the B-cell. (portlandpress.com)
  • at different temperatures and incubation periods before estimating its oxidative metabolism using the luminol chemiluminescesne [CL] technique. (who.int)
  • E. A. Shalabi , Modulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes oxidative metabolism by high temperature in vitro, Med. (who.int)
  • Two well-known phytochemical inhibitors, yohimbine and resveratrol, were investigated, and reliable conclusions were drawn from these experiments with both UHPLC-MS and UHPSFC-MS. At the end, the proposed strategy of optimized chromatography combined with simple MS device has been shown to potentially compete with the widely used combination of generic chromatography and highly selective MS/MS device for simple in vitro CYP inhibition assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using these recombinant enzymes, fully automated in vitro assays to assess CYP inhibition and determine the enzymology of drug oxidation have been developed and validated. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Discussions focused on the minimum amount of information that should be provided to satisfy the data requirement and should be included in the study protocols, the key elements to be considered for the interpretation of the studies outcome and how metabolism data can be used in a weight of evidence (WoE) approach for endocrine mediated mechanisms of toxicity. (europa.eu)
  • However, 6-hydroxylation was most extensive in the hamster which may therefore be a suitable model to use for further studies on DEX metabolism by CYP3A. (nih.gov)
  • EFSA is organising a workshop for stakeholders involved in the peer review of pesticides and with experts in the field of in vitro metabolism studies. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, metabolism studies have a relevant role in understanding endocrine mediated mechanisms of toxicity and human relevance of animal data in a weight of evidence approach (e.g. endocrine mediated-thyroid toxicity). (europa.eu)
  • 07. In vitro studies to assess liver enzyme induction across species. (europa.eu)
  • Stakeholders dealing with the peer review of pesticides and experts in the field of in vitro metabolism studies. (europa.eu)
  • The data is mostly in agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies regarding both the metabolism rate of statins and the contributions by different CYP enzymes to the metabolism of statins. (helsinki.fi)
  • To support clinical studies in patients with early Alzheimer's disease, a detailed examination of the metabolism in vitro and in vivo has been performed. (mdpi.com)
  • Our laboratory has shown that recombinant enzymes are suitable for 'frontline' predictive human metabolism studies in early drug discovery. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In vitro studies using cultured colon and other cell lines indicate that NO-ASA is the most potent among several NO-NSAIDs in inhibiting cell growth (preceding article), which is taken to portend its efficacy in intact organisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In summary, the in vitro and in vivo phase I metabolism results reported herein compare well and demonstrate the potential of in vitro studies to compliment, refine and reduce the existing equine in vivo paradigm. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Although a lot of in vitro studies have been performed to understand the mechanical properties of positive supercoiling reaction, its biological role in vivo remains unclear. (unina.it)
  • We certainly agree with Moser that in vitro and in vivo studies should be well controlled. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have used unconditioned serum as controls in our in vitro studies because serum in general seems to be more amenable to cartilage health than either saline or the synovial fluid the tissue is exposed to in vivo [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To remain upfront within the international research scene, our research group specifically invests in continuously improving our in vitro simulation platform , which reproduces specific digestive processes and allows for detailed and reproducible high throughput studies. (ugent.be)
  • [16] Following dietary ingestion, quercetin undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism that makes the biological effects presumed from in vitro studies unlikely to apply in vivo . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the FDA and EMA have guidelines advising on the conduct of in-vitro studies to evaluate the potential for drug-drug interactions. (criver.com)
  • In October 2017, the US FDA revised and split its 2012 draft guidance for industry on in vitro drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies, into one document for in vitro DDI studies and another for clinical DDI studies. (criver.com)
  • This review provides an overview of the in vitro methods currently used in studies of intestinal drug metabolism and active efflux with a special emphasis on the efflux- metabolism interplay. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In the following discussion, prepared by our research scientists Andrea Hubbel and Stacey Ayres, they discuss in vitro/in vivo metabolism studies that we use to assist our clients to reduce cost, time and the risk of failure in the clinic. (camargopharma.com)
  • The in vitro/in vivo metabolism studies are recommended early on in the drug development program, as they provide reassurance to the Agency that there is minimal uncertainty in regard to the safety of the proposed metabolite product. (camargopharma.com)
  • In vitro hepatocyte studies are one way to evaluate and compare the metabolism of the proposed metabolite product to that of the parent compound. (camargopharma.com)
  • Proliferation of Human Primary Myoblasts Is Associated with Altered Energy Metabolism in Dependence on Ageing In Vivo and In Vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Up to now, only the effects of in vitro ageing on energy metabolism of cultured myoblasts have been addressed [32, 33]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is not clear how ageing in vitro affects the energy metabolism in the phase of myoblast proliferation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Also, no study has addressed the status of energy metabolism comparatively in myoblasts cultured from muscle biopsies of older and young subjects. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the energy metabolism in primary myoblasts derived from muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis of young and older subjects. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • PSK1 coordinates glucose metabolism and utilization and regulates energy metabolism oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Energy-metabolism oscillations (EMO) are ultradian biological rhythms observed in in aerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • EMO regulates energy metabolism such as glucose, carbohydra. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lactate production was measured enzymatically as a marker of energy metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 4 Although the mechanisms linking low HDL to atherosclerosis are well characterized, the links between low HDL and disordered energy metabolism remain relatively unexplored. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that activation of GSK-3β plays a critical role in diabetes-related changes in cardiac energy metabolism, inflammation, nitrosative damage, and remodeling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, defined in vitro systems consisting of the purified LuxS proteins from Por. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • 02. A framework to characterize in vitro hepatic metabolism across species for regulatory applications. (europa.eu)
  • With the cost of drug development escalating to over $400 million/drug there is an urgent need for the development of rigorous models of hepatic metabolism for preclinical screening of drug clearance and hepatotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • The study forms the first report on the comprehensive analysis on the metabolism of AA in sheep uterus in vitro via the LOX and COX pathways. (niscair.res.in)
  • Pantarotto C, Cappellini L., De Pascale A. and Frigerio A. (1977): Epoxide-diol pathway in the metabolism of 5H-dibenzo-(b, f)-azepine (iminostilbene). (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Collectively, these data demonstrate that loss of Nur77 influences systemic glucose metabolism and highlight the physiological contribution of muscle Nur77 to this regulatory pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We also demonstrate that LPA directs glucose metabolism toward the glycolytic pathway during IVM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pappu, AS & Hauser, G 1982, ' Phospholipid metabolism changes in rat tissues in vitro after injections of propranolol ', Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 109-115. (elsevier.com)
  • Their recent study, which was published in the renowned scientific journal Immunity, investigated the communication between inflammation and liver metabolism during chronic viral infection. (news-medical.net)
  • The investigation involved an in-vitro experimental protocol testing the effect of different concentrations of clomiphene citrate on antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture viability. (nih.gov)
  • For (+)α- and (-)γ-HBCDs, their binding affinities to CYPs were lower and the distances to the iron atom of heme in CYPs were shorter than their corresponding antipodes, consistent with the in vitro experimental results showing that they had shorter half-lives and were more easily hydroxylated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental , 60 (4), 523-530. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) refers to the qualitative or quantitative transposition of experimental results or observations made in vitro to predicts phenomena in vivo, biological organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also they show that resistin exerts a nutritional status dependent inhibitory effect on hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by increased phosphorylation levels of both AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, associated with decreased expression of fatty acid synthase in the hypothalamus. (hindawi.com)
  • Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases (LACSs) activate free fatty acids to acyl-CoA thioesters and as such play critical roles in fatty acid metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In an effort to better understand the factors that control fatty acid metabolism in oilseeds, we have sought to identify and characterize genes that encode LACSs in Arabidopsis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As AMD is more prevalent in India, planned (i) to screen the carotenoid composition of commonly used GLVs, (ii) to estimate their bioavailability and properties in vitro and (iii) to study the influence of dietary factor, vegetable oil (as a source of specific fatty acid) on lutein bioavailability in vitro using reverse sac method. (cftri.com)
  • This study investigated the in-vitro antioxidant properties of the ovulation induction drug, clomiphene citrate, and assessed whether its effects are influenced by the Val16Ala polymorphism in the SOD2 gene, which encodes manganese superoxide dismutase enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • As the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is considered a key molecule involved in female reproductive metabolism, we also tested if a functional SOD2 gene polymorphism (Val16Ala) could influence the in-vitro antioxidant clomiphene citrate response. (nih.gov)
  • Impact of DNA Topology on cellular metabolism: in vivo and in vitro approaches to study chromatin dynamics and DNA Topoisomerases. (unina.it)
  • Finally, approaches using both subcellular fractions metabolism models and organotypic tissue cultures are in line with the 3R strategy to find an alternative for animal testing. (pmiscience.com)
  • Advantages and limitations of various in vitro systems are addressed and consideration is given to the physiological relevance of the results obtained and there is discussion of approaches for in vitro - in vivo translation of the data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The two approaches can be applied simultaneously allowing in vitro systems to provide adequate data for the development of mathematical models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statin metabolism both in vivo and in vitro has been subject of study for years. (helsinki.fi)
  • No single in vitro study on a wide panel of statins has previously been conducted. (helsinki.fi)
  • In this study the metabolism of statin lactones seemed to be faster than the metabolism of the corresponding statin acids. (helsinki.fi)
  • Accordingly, the present study was performed to investigate the influence of TXNIP on glucose metabolism in bovine oocytes during maturation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The focus of this research was to develop improved methods for the analysis of drug metabolism by capillary electrophoresis Coumann was initially chosen as the model for the study, which then broadened in its scope to include the analysis of ammo acids Chapter one is a literature survey, which includes capillary electrophoresis techniques, with particular emphasis on sensitivity enhancement methods, in vitro models for drug metabolism, and coumann analysis. (dcu.ie)
  • This study provides solid evidence for the roles of maize CYPs in the metabolism of HBCDs, and gives insight into the molecular mechanisms of the enantio-selective metabolism of HBCDs by plant CYPs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hypothesis of the present study was that greater sensitivity and higher throughput could be achieved by developing existing analytical methodology, metabolite biomarkers of anthocyanin intake could be identified, and physiologically relevant anthocyanin metabolite profiles could reduce expression of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. (bl.uk)
  • Cancer cell lines are commonly used as a model to study physiological processes in vitro , because they are readily manipulated and can be cultured in large quantities. (nature.com)
  • This study elucidated the detailed metabolite profiles of evodiamine, which is helpful in predicting in vivo metabolism of evodiamine in human and in understanding the elimination mechanism of evodiamine and in turn, the effectiveness and toxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study was performed to determine the effects of varying concentrations and exposure times of lidocaine on the viability and proteoglycan metabolism of rabbit zygapophysial chondrocytes in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These nine cDNAs are thought to constitute the entire LACS family in Arabidopsis, and as such, will serve as powerful tools in the study of acyl-CoA metabolism in oilseeds. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Sanna Siissalo and Aki T. Heikkinen, "In Vitro Methods to Study the Interplay of Drug Metabolism and Efflux in the Intestine", Current Drug Metabolism (2013) 14: 102. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The in vivo ADME study will complete the picture of the metabolism of the metabolite drug product to the parent compound and help establish an adequate bridge in order to rely on the Agency's findings of safety and efficacy for the parent compound. (camargopharma.com)
  • We pioneered the application of human tissue preparations to predicting interspecies differences in drug metabolism, potential drug interactions, and human drug metabolizing enzymes. (sri.com)
  • In general, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are the most common enzymes involved in metabolism after CYP enzymes, followed by numerous hydrolases, carbonyl reductases, aldehyde oxidase and other enzymes. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For hydrolases, carbonyl reductases and other enzymes such as FMO, strategies may rely on the use of various subcellular fractions, plasma, and inhibitors to elucidate a plurality of the enzymes that may contribute to drug metabolism. (technologynetworks.com)
  • One phase II metabolite was characterized in in vivo metabolism of ENB resulted from glucuronidation of hydroxyl metabolite of ENB. (ovid.com)
  • Glycolytic metabolism was estimated using specific kits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data also show that this cytotoxicity involves disturbance in tumor cell glycolytic metabolism, seen by a decrease in glucose consumption and lactate production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the aim of this work was to assess and characterize the antitumor activity of a propolis sample collected in Angra do Heroísmo (Archipelago of Azores, Portugal) in a colon cancer cell line, including its effects on tumour cell glycolytic metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neonatal CD8 + T cells exhibit a bias for glycolytic metabolism postinfection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that neonatal CD8 + T cells are inherently biased toward undergoing glycolytic metabolism postinfection, which compromises their ability to develop into memory CD8 + T cells in early life. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although in vivo and in vitro folylpolyglutamate synthesis was found to be similar in both cell lines, about a 4-fold increase in specific activity of [gamma]-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) was detected in the MTX161 cell line. (plantphysiol.org)
  • LuxS: its role in central metabolism and the in vitro synthesis of 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The catechol estrogens were able to stimulate IP synthesis maximally in immature rat uteri incubated in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • With blockade of the metabolism of 2-OHE 2 by an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase, U-0521 (3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone), stimulation of IP synthesis by 2-OHE 2 was potentiated and was brought closer to the value predicted from its receptor affinity. (elsevier.com)
  • The rate of metabolism increased rapidly and paralleled the increase in protein content indicating a fairly uniform rate of metabolism throughout the period. (biologists.org)
  • Thioredoxin-interacting protein regulates glucose metabolism and improves the intracellular redox state in bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MicroRNA-15a Inhibits Glucose Transporter 4 Translocation and Impairs Glucose Metabolism in L6 Skeletal Muscle Via Targeting of Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-Associated Protein A. (bioportfolio.com)
  • protein and transcription levels, and in silico simulation of interactions between CYPs and HBCDs were investigated in order to elucidate the roles of CYPs in the metabolism of HBCDs in maize. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This new thermostable protein-tag will be useful for reverse gyrase analysis both in vitro and in vivo. (unina.it)
  • In vitro incubation conditions may considerably affect the observed clearance, and results obtained with different methods or in different laboratories may not be directly comparable to each other. (helsinki.fi)
  • Finally, the two analytical methods were applied to in vitro CYP-dependent metabolism testing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To comply with push for the development of alternative testing methods, increasingly sophisticated in vitro experiments are now collecting numerous, complex, and challenging data that can be integrated into mathematical models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antitumor activity of Portuguese propolis on the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15, assessing the effect of different fractions (hexane, chloroform and ethanol residual) of a propolis ethanol extract on cell viability, proliferation, metabolism and death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lidocaine cytotoxicity to the zygapophysial joints in rabbits: changes in cell viability and proteoglycan metabolism in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rodents utilize both pathways, but it is uncertain to what degree different species employ deiodination and conjugation in the metabolism of T4. (epa.gov)
  • Furthermore, glucose metabolism through PPP was also enhanced by TXNIP depletion, as TXNIP siRNA treatment promotes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity and NADPH content, and helped maintain a high level of glutathione and a low level of reactive oxygen species within the oocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The proportions of individual folylpolyglutamates were unaffected by culturing the cells in medium containing products of one-carbon metabolism such as glycine, adenine, thymidine, or methionine. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Tetrahydrofolate, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, and folinic acid were effective substrates for the folylpolyglutamate synthetase from Datura cells in vitro, whereas MTX and folate were poor substrates. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To elucidate its role in metabolism, we investigated the influence of an overexpression of JAZF1 on 3T3-L1 adipose cells and hepatoma carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells that represent target tissues for diabetes and insulin resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cow, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts as an auto-/paracrine factor, through its receptors LPAR1-4, on oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following activation, naive CD8 + T cells switch their glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, similar to cancer cells ( 16 - 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The myriad effects of fructose are possible only if fructose reaches physiologically significant concentrations in the plasma and extracellular fluids and if subsequently transported into cells of various organ systems, thereby potentially altering normal metabolism in those organs. (physiology.org)
  • Two solutions are now commonly accepted: (1) Increasing the complexity of in vitro systems where multiple cells can interact with each other in order recapitulate cell-cell interactions present in tissues (as in "human on chip" systems). (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrition and metabolism regulate this adipoine. (hindawi.com)
  • This cross-journal collection builds on these aims by using research from across the fields of nutrition, metabolism and oncology to investigate disease prevention and treatment using both lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the three positional isomers of NO-ASA differ in their metabolism and these differences correlate with their differential effects on cancer cell growth, underscoring the importance of positional isomerism in modulating drug effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Prediction of in vivo drug metabolism in the human liver from in vitro metabolism data. (nih.gov)
  • Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. (jci.org)
  • We tested the in vitro susceptibility of Candida albicans to three defensins from human neutrophilic granulocytes (HNP-1, 2, and 3), a homologous defensin from rabbit leukocytes (NP-1), and four unrelated cationic peptides. (jci.org)
  • In vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone propionate in human lung precision-cut tissue slices. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the in vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), budesonide (BUD), ciclesonide (CIC), and fluticasone propionate (FP) in human lung precision-cut tissue slices. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aerosol exposure of human three dimensional (3D) organotypic airway epithelial tissue cultures, growing at the air-liquid interface is a well-established in vitro model enabling systems biology-based Reduced Risk Product (RRP*) assessment. (pmiscience.com)
  • The effect of salicylate on the metabolism of normal and stimulated human lymphocytes in vitro. (northwestern.edu)
  • In early drug discovery stage, it is hard to get in vivo human metabolism data due to the ethics and safety issues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Development of simple method for a measurement of insulin sensitivity in vitro using human platelet. (nii.ac.jp)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was adopted to further determine the biological significance of TXNIP in regulating glucose metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MicroRNAs have been reported to participate in various important cell biological processes, such as glucose metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Results obtained from in vitro experiments cannot often be directly applied to predict biological responses of organisms to chemical exposure in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data support the suggestion of using in vitro incubates as metabolite reference material in place of in vivo post-administration samples in accordance with new qualitative identification guidelines in the 2009 International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation-G7 (ILAC-G7) document. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • While these in vitro results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical setting, this data suggestcaution in prolonged exposure of zygapophysial cartilage to high concentration lidocaine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data would demonstrate that insulin sensitivity on platelet in vitro would reflect an insulin sensitivity on peripheral tissues in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) Using mathematical modeling to numerically simulate the behavior of a complex system, whereby in vitro data provides the parameter values for developing a model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolite profiling succeeded in identifying 79 intermediates within the central metabolism, some of which differed quantitatively between the two accessions and displayed a significant shift corresponding to flux. (frontiersin.org)
  • To examine the consequence of Nur77 signaling for glucose metabolism in vivo, we challenged Nur77 null mice with high-fat feeding. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prediction of drug metabolism is important in development of new drugs, to understand and reduce adverse drug reactio. (bioportfolio.com)