Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.DextranaseGlucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.PolysaccharidesAmylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Glycoside HydrolasesPolysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Lentinan: Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Isomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.DextrinsSpectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sizofiran: A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
  • Candida albicans β-1-3,1-6-glucan (β-glucan), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) present in the fungal cell wall, has been characterized as a potent immune modulator. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. albicans and fungal cell wall β-glucans induced functional reprogramming of monocytes, leading to enhanced cytokine production in vivo and in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Fungal sources contain a mixture of beta-1,3-glucan and beta-1,6-glucan. (grandstrandmed.com)
  • We sought to determine whether Coccidioides posadasii possesses genes homologous to known fungal FKS genes that encode the catalytic subunit of 1,3-β-glucan synthase. (asm.org)
  • 1,3-β-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in most fungal cell walls, including those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Candida albicans , and Neurospora crassa ( 14 , 38 ), and is a significant component in the walls of C. posadasii in all growth phases ( 21 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • This systematic review aimed to compile and compare clinical studies using these [fungal] beta glucans as adjuvants on patients undergoing cancer treatment. (betaglucan.org)
  • A recent study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal β-glucans stimulate IFN-β production by dendritic cells (DCs) following detection by the Dectin-1 receptor, but the effects of β-glucan-induced type I IFNs have not been defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated whether type I IFNs regulate CD8 T cell activation by fungal β-glucan particle-stimulated DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additional negative tests included serum galactomannan and [beta]-d-glucan, serology for Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces and Coccidioides, CMV PCR, EBV PCR as well as fungal, mycobacterial and bacterial blood cultures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycogen and starch synthesis involves elongation of α(1,4)-linked glucans by glycogen synthase (GS), an enzyme that uses UDP-glucose (Glc) or ADP-Glc as substrate donor in mammalian and fungal or in plant and bacterial cells, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, this novel conjugate vaccine can efficiently immunize and protect against two major fungal pathogens by mechanisms that may include direct antifungal properties of anti-beta-glucan antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dectin-1 binds fungal beta-glucans and is involved in the innate immune responses to fungal pathogens [ PMID: 11470510 , PMID: 16341139 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that fungal sterols down-regulated genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis (such as Srebf2 and Nr1h4 (FXR)) and other specific mushroom extracts (β-glucans and other water-soluble compounds) also stimulated transcriptional profiles similar to simvastatin or ezetimibe (two hypocholesterolemic drugs). (rsc.org)
  • Yet arthritis can be elicited in an SPF environment through antigen-nonspecific activation of innate immunity, for example, by injection of zymosan, a crude fungal extract containing β-glucans, or purified β-glucans such as laminarin ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Since β-glucan-trained monocytes have not been classified within the system of mononuclear phagocytes we analyzed these cells metabolically, phenotypically and functionally with a focus on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and compared them with naïve monocytes and other types of monocyte-derived cells such as classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that β-glucan inhibits spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes independent from autocrine or paracrine M-CSF release and stimulates monocyte differentiation into macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • β-Glucan-differentiated macrophages exhibit increased cell size and granularity and enhanced metabolic activity when compared to naïve monocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that β-glucan priming induces a population of immune competent long-lived monocyte-derived macrophages that may be involved in immunoregulatory processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, using novel and specific reagents, we have defined the receptors involved in the nonopsonic recognition of zymosan and soluble β-glucans in primary macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • B-glucan nonoparticles can activate macrophages to produce immune enhancing cytokines (IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-y). (betaglucan.org)
  • Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, " IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan . (betaglucan.org)
  • 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. (betaglucan.org)
  • Carp macrophages exhibit a trained immunity-like profile in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both peptidoglycan and β-glucan can induce trained immunity in carp macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • We established an in vitro model to study trained immunity in fish by adapting a well-described culture system of head kidney-derived macrophages of common carp. (jimmunol.org)
  • A soluble NOD-specific ligand and a soluble β-glucan were used to train carp macrophages, after which cells were rested for 6 d prior to exposure to a secondary stimulus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) and epigenomes (ChIP-Seq H3K4me1,H3K4me3,H3K27ac) in four primary cell types: monocytes, in vitro differentiated naive, tolerized and trained macrophages were characterized. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to determine, using murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, the immunomodulatory effect of extracellular β-glucan isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (PEBG) and its sulfated derivative (PEBG-S) on signaling molecules implicated in host innate immunity. (begellhouse.com)
  • Abstract: b-glucan, an immunomodulator, can selectively enhance the immunobiological activities of neutrophils and macrophages without stimulating proinflammatory cytokine production. (scientific.net)
  • Particulate yeast β-glucan is internalized by RAW 264.7 macrophages and reduces the activity of the tumor-associated protease legumain. (uio.no)
  • On the other hand, there are macrophages that inhabit the intestinal wall and are able to pick up beta-1,3-D-glucan particles through beta-glucan receptors. (tldp.com)
  • Western analysis of the medium proteins with β1,3-glucan- and β1,6-glucan-specific antibodies showed further that at least some of the released β1,3-glucan was linked to protein as part of a β1,3-glucan-β1,6-glucan-protein complex. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that Gas1p might play a role in the retention of β1,3-glucan and/or β-glucosylated proteins. (asm.org)
  • In addition to the Rho1p regulatory subunit, other proteins are required for normal levels of β-1,3-glucan. (genetics.org)
  • β -Glucans, isolated from Pleurotus citrinopileatus mushroom, were used in the manufacture of yoghurt from reduced fat cow milk with added proteins. (scirp.org)
  • To identify starch-related enzymes that rely on glucan-bound phosphate, we studied the binding of proteins extracted from Arabidopsis wild-type leaves to either phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated starch granules. (plantphysiol.org)
  • S. mutans makes several proteins that have the property of binding glucans. (omicsonline.org)
  • We hypothesized that three of these glucan-binding proteins (Gbps), Gbps A, C and D, contribute to the cariogenicity of S. mutans. (omicsonline.org)
  • It was concluded that, contrary to what happens in mammalian and yeast cells in which two different proteins are required for linear α(1,4)-linked glucan formation (glycogenin for initiation and GS for further elongation), in A. tumefaciens and probably in all other bacteria, the same protein is involved in both glycogen initiation and elongation. (pnas.org)
  • 4)-[beta]-glucan synthase activities was based on the manipulation of digitonin concentrations used in the solubilization of membrane proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 1993. SKN1 and KRE6 define a pair of functional homologs encoding putative membrane proteins involved in beta-glucan synthesis. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with their direct role in the assembly of this polymer, both Kre6p and Skn1p possess COOH-terminal domains with significant sequence similarity to two recently identified glucan-binding proteins. (rupress.org)
  • In conclusion, the botanic type II AGAF in this study was a potent G-CSF inducer in vivo and in vitro. (hindawi.com)
  • 16 ] showed that β -glucan isolated from Grifola frondosa stimulates the production of G-CSF in vivo and in vitro. (hindawi.com)
  • In-vivo and in-vitro studies indicate that β-glucans may augment the effects of some anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies and independently promote tumor regression (Hong et al. (ift.org)
  • In vivo administration of zymosan, or purified soluble β-glucans, has a number of desirable effects on immune function, including the ability to confer resistance to tumors and various infections, prompting interest in the development of β-glucan-based therapeutics ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • The term "beta-glucan" refers to a class of soluble fibers found in many plant sources. (grandstrandmed.com)
  • Oat β-glucans are water-soluble β-glucans derived from the endosperm of oat kernels known for their cholesterol lowering and hypoglycemic properties, as well as their use in various cosmetic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cereal fibers that are high in water-soluble fiber, such as β-glucan, may improve cardiovascular disease risk through improvements in serum cholesterol and other intermediary risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Soluble fiber β-glucan is thought to be the active component for the cholesterol lowering effect of oats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Soluble β-glucan preparation from the cold NaOH extract of Sparassis crispa (SCG) is a six-branched 1,3-β-D-glucan that is a major cell-wall structural component in fungi. (begellhouse.com)
  • As there are two forms of β‑glucans, insoluble and soluble forms, they are able to interact with lipids and biliary salts in the bowel and consequently reduce cholesterol levels. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • a water soluble (1 → 6)-linked β-d-glucan with single and short (1 → 3)-linked β-glucan side chains (ACcSw) and a less branched (1 → 3)-linked β-d-glucan (ACcIw/ACcId), proposed to contain short side chains in O-4. (uio.no)
  • It has been shown to trigger epigenetic remodeling and metabolic reprogramming through a pathway involving dectin-1, the surface receptor of β-glucan, and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling cascade ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Using specific carbohydrate inhibitors, we show that a β-glucan receptor, but not the MR, is a predominant receptor involved in this process. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, nonopsonic zymosan binding was unaffected by genetic CD11b deficiency or a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CR3, demonstrating that CR3 was not the β-glucan receptor mediating this activity. (rupress.org)
  • To address the role of the recently described β-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, we generated a novel anti-Dectin-1 mAb, 2A11. (rupress.org)
  • These findings define Dectin-1 as the leukocyte β-glucan receptor, first described over 50 years ago, and resolves the long-standing controversy regarding the identity of this important molecule. (rupress.org)
  • Early studies, using carbohydrate inhibitors to block various leukocyte receptors, suggested that the cellular recognition of unopsonized zymosan is mediated by the mannose receptor and a β-glucan receptor ( 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • The identity of the β-glucan receptor, which has been defined as a β-glucan inhibitable receptor for particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway ( 6 ), is controversial. (rupress.org)
  • The ability of CR3 to recognize β-glucans led to the proposal that this receptor is the major β-glucan receptor on leukocytes and that it mediates all the immunomodulatory effects of these carbohydrates, including the β-glucan-dependent binding of zymosan ( 4 , 9 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Conflicting evidence, however, indicated that another receptor(s) mediates this activity ( 6 , 12 - 14 ), and although we and others have identified additional receptors capable of recognizing β-glucans ( 15 - 17 ), their role in primary cells is unclear. (rupress.org)
  • The main challenge in defining the contribution of these various receptors to the recognition of β-glucans has been the lack of receptor-specific reagents. (rupress.org)
  • These studies suggest that Dectin-1 is the leukocyte β-glucan receptor, the identity of which has remained elusive since its first description over five decades ago. (rupress.org)
  • The training required the β-glucan receptor dectin-1 and the noncanonical Raf-1 pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction array revealed that the expression levels of nuclear factor-κB and Toll-like receptor signaling genes in cells were upregulated by PEBG and PEBG-S. Moreover, the expression of the β-glucan receptor dectin-2 was significantly upregulated by PEBG and PEBG-S treatment, reflecting immune activation through the dectin-2- Syk -(CARD9/Bcl-10/MALT1) pathway. (begellhouse.com)
  • However, 3-β-D glucan synthase, thus increases hDL leukotriene receptor in practice. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Goldman, and later Czop, identified a specific receptor on the cells of macrophage origin that binds to the beta-1,3-D-glucan molecule. (tldp.com)
  • Barley and beta-glucan isolated from barley lower total and LDL cholesterol. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Barley beta-glucan lowers cholesterol and increases fecal bile acid and short chain fatty acid secretion in mildly hypercholesteremic individuals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The aim of this work was to optimize a malting procedure to degrade phytate and/or increase phytase activity in barley to improve iron availability and to preserve the content of β-glucan, since β-glucan is associated with health promoting properties and is therefore of nutritional interest. (chalmers.se)
  • Fincher, Geoffrey 2004-10-07 00:00:00 A putative barley (1→3)-β-d-glucan synthase cDNA of 6.1 kb, which is homologous to the yeast FKS gene, was assembled from DNA fragments obtained through screening of barley cDNA and BAC libraries, and by PCR amplification. (deepdyve.com)
  • A (1→3)-β-d-glucan synthase has been purified more than 60-fold from barley suspension-cultured cells by detergent extraction, CaCl2 treatment, sucrose density gradient centrifugation and non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, the amino acid sequence predicted from the HvGSL1 gene has been linked with the actual amino acid sequence of an active (1→3)-β-d-glucan synthase fraction from barley. (deepdyve.com)
  • β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • In oats, β-glucan is found mainly in the endosperm of the oat kernel, especially in the outer layers of that endosperm (a marked difference from barley, which contains β-glucan uniformly throughout the endosperm). (wikipedia.org)
  • studied the effects of addition of β-glucan from different cereal sources (oat and barley) on the growth and metabolic activity of probiotic organisms in yoghurt. (scirp.org)
  • Brennan and Tudorica determined the possible beneficial effects of barley beta-glucan, as a fat substitute on the rheological, textural and sensory quality of low-fat yoghurt. (scirp.org)
  • The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was enhanced by treatment with Aureobasidium b-glucan, while neither mushroom b-glucan nor barley b-glucan increased the cell proliferation. (scientific.net)
  • Although β-glucan-primed cells expressed markers of alternative activation and secreted higher levels of IL-10 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), their capability to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and to kill bacteria was unaffected. (frontiersin.org)
  • Leukocytes from DBA/2 mice are highly sensitive to SCG, producing cytokines in vitro . (begellhouse.com)
  • Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. (preprints.org)
  • Oatwell's effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. (preprints.org)
  • Cereal beta-glucans may reduce fasting LDL-cholesterol and post-prandial blood glucose rise in humans. (nofima.no)
  • Pr i dag består min forskningsportefølje av (i) grunnleggende forskning på mekanismer ansvarlig for positive helseeffekter fra bygg, havre og gjærß-glucaner (ii) dynamisk in vitro modellering av cereal fordøyelse og assosiert glykemisk respons (iii) Anvendt forskning i samarbeid med industrien for å utvikle en industriell prosess som fjerner glukose fra frukt juice med tanke på å lage en ny klasse av sunn, funksjonell mat. (nofima.no)
  • Marketed foods supplemented with hypocholesterolemic compounds are only inhibiting mechanisms for cholesterol absorption ( i.e. phytosterols and cereal β-glucans). (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, these results identify Dectin-1 as a new target for examining the immunomodulatory properties of β-glucans for therapeutic drug design. (rupress.org)
  • At the current level of scientific understanding it is not possible to characterize the effects of beta-glucan more specifically than to say that it has "immunomodulatory" actions, or that it is a "biological response modifier. (grandstrandmed.com)
  • Out of different glucans, the beta-1,3-D-glucan configuration has been shown to act as a non-specific immune-activator. (tldp.com)
  • When a macrophage encounters beta-1,3-D-glucan, it becomes activated. (tldp.com)
  • Although most of the research with this substance has been done in vitro and parenterally, later research at Baylor College of Medicine, sponsored by ImmuDyne, indicates the oral effectiveness of purified beta-1,3-D-glucan (Wyde, 1989). (tldp.com)
  • The integrity of beta-1,3-D-glucan taken orally differs from other food substances. (tldp.com)
  • Studies conducted with oral application of C13 labeled glucan also support existence of phagocytic transport for beta-1,3-D-glucan. (tldp.com)
  • An adjuvant concept of pharmacological application for beta-1,3-D-glucan was suggested by DiLuzio in the 70s. (tldp.com)
  • This article is an attempt to overview this concept from today's perspectives utilizing modern knowledge of oral effectiveness, and a specific transport mechanism of beta-1,3-D-glucan. (tldp.com)
  • There is now enough data to support the use of beta-1,3-D-glucan as an adjuvant in several important medicinal applications. (tldp.com)
  • Beta-1,3-D-glucan itself can elicit broad anti-infective effects. (tldp.com)
  • Unlike an antibiotic compound interfering with metabolism of a pathogen, beta-1,3-D-glucan is a substance that modifies host response to cells genetically different from the host. (tldp.com)
  • These results suggest that orally administered β-glucan may modulate cytokine induction by SCG in the spleen through the activation of Peyer's patches. (begellhouse.com)
  • In Europe, several health claim requests were submitted to the EFSA NDA Panel (Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), related to the role of β-glucans in maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2009, the Scientific Committee issued the following statements: On the basis of the data available, the Panel concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the consumption of beta-glucans and the "reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: "Regular consumption of beta-glucans contributes to maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-Glucan was extracted and purified from the mycelial culture using optimal medium concentrations. (begellhouse.com)
  • Proliferation of aHDF was measured at various concentrations of β-glucan by MTT assay, and migration was observed for 36h on microscope. (scientific.net)
  • The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. (preprints.org)
  • Substrates were fermented by using an in vitro batch fermentation system under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. (iastate.edu)
  • Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L), and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a practical dose of β-glucan can significantly lower serum lipids in a high-risk population and may improve colon health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This in vitro study illustrates that C. albicans should not be disregarded in healthy oral ecosystems, as it has the potential to influence bacteria significantly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The group B streptococcus type I pullulanase (SAP) is a class 13 glycoside hydrolase that is anchored to the bacterial cell surface via a conserved C-terminal anchoring motif and involved in α-glucan degradation. (asm.org)
  • It has been suggested that GWD is important for the control of starch degradation, because its transcript levels undergo strong diel fluctuations, its activity is subject to redox regulation in vitro, and starch degradation is strongly decreased in gwd mutant plants. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Reishi mushroom contains complex sugars known as beta-glucans. (mskcc.org)
  • Mushroom b-glucan alone or associated with BMP-7 increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, one of the osteoblast phenotype markers, but the other b-glucans did not affect ALP activity of the cells. (scientific.net)
  • The edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus contains a α-L-fuco-α-D-galactan, α-D-glucan, a branched (1→6)-β-D-glucan and a branched (1→3)-β-D-glucan. (uio.no)
  • Therefore, beta-glucan polymers can be applied in bone induction and regeneration model and have a possibility of association with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) because of tissue-regenerative and antimicrobial effects of those polymers. (scientific.net)
  • Linear (1→3)-β-glucans and side-chain-branched (1→3,1→2)-β-glucans are major constituents of capsular materials, with roles in bacterial aggregation, virulence and carbohydrate storage. (springer.com)
  • This review includes information on the structure, properties and molecular genetics of the bacterial (1→3)-β-glucans, together with an overview of the physiology and biotechnology of curdlan production and applications of this biopolymer and its derivatives. (springer.com)
  • To generate a vaccine to protect against a variety of human pathogenic fungi, we conjugated laminarin (Lam), a well-characterized but poorly immunogenic beta-glucan preparation from the brown alga Laminaria digitata, with the diphtheria toxoid CRM197, a carrier protein used in some glyco-conjugate bacterial vaccines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The presence of C. albicans alters the bacterial microbiome in early in vitro oral biofilms, resulting in the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria under oxygen-rich conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, the bile acids induced alterations to the apparent density of the oat β-glucan aggregates indicating a molecular interaction which was further confirmed with NMR by observing numerous changes in the resonance of bile acids' carbons in presence of oat β-glucan. (lu.se)
  • Steeping at 48°C gave small changes in the content and molecular weight of β-glucan. (chalmers.se)
  • Furthermore, in vitro re-exposure of human PBMC to C. albicans induced a significant IL-6 and TNF-α response, even after a resting period of 6 d following primary exposure to C. albicans . (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of the Dectin-1/RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (Raf-1) pathway in PBMCs by β-glucans present in the cell wall of C. albicans proved crucial for inducing trained immunity ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 2005), suggesting that that these β-glucans or their fragments could function to modulate β-amyloid production through similar cytotoxic mechanisms. (ift.org)
  • The enzyme synthesizes (1→3)-β-d-glucan in vitro and is recognized by antibodies raised against a 17 kDa protein generated by heterologous expression of a fragment of the HvGSL1 cDNA. (deepdyve.com)
  • S cerevisiae-beta glucan protects bone marrow cells from radiation damage through scavenging bone marrow cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitigating bone marrow cell DNA damage and improving cell cycle progress, and thus mitigated myelosuppression induced by irradiation and stimulated hematopoiesis, ultimately increased the survival of radiated mice. (betaglucan.org)
  • The extensive research studying various effects of glucans on bone marrow showed significant restoration of both lymphopenia and neutropenia. (betaglucan.org)
  • In other studies, maitake demonstrated antitumor effects (16) , enhanced bone marrow colony formation, reduced doxorubicin toxicity (11) , and inhibited tumor metastasis in vitro (13) . (mskcc.org)
  • 3) glucan sulfate exerts antitumor therapeutic activity, and (4) glucan sulfate immunoprophylaxis will modify the course of experimental infectious disease. (curehunter.com)
  • Animal and in vitro studies show significant antitumor and antimetastatic activity of lentinan 5 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 increased longevity 3 and synergism with other chemotherapeutic agents. (drugs.com)