Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Cefmenoxime: A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Cefotiam: One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).NaphthyridinesBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Dipeptidases: EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.CephalosporinasePlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.DioxolanesAntimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Eugenia: A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.Enoxacin: A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Spectinomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Mice, Inbred ICRHemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Framycetin: A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.NitrofuransMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Niridazole: An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Tropolone: A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Oxolinic Acid: Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Phenalenes: A group of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three rings joined as a triad around a single carbon atom so all three are conjoined, in contrast to a linear arrangement (ANTHRACENES) or angular arrangement (PHENANTHRENES).Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.PicratesAnnona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Psidium: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Bacteria, AnaerobicMethicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Bacteria, AerobicMonoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Polygonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Cefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.QuinolinesMelitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
In vitro antibacterial activity of Lucilia sericata maggot secretions. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. (20/2) ... Selective antimicrobial activity of maggots against pathogenic bacteria. *^ Maggot debridement therapy DermNet NZ, (19. februar ...
... antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo". Chemotherapy. 23 (6): 424-35. doi:10.1159/000222012. PMID 21771. Pawełczyk E, ...
One species contains chemicals with in vitro antibacterial activity. Mabberley, D.J. (1997), The plant book: A portable ...
... most of these resultant lipopeptides have potent antibacterial activities. Some of these compounds have in vitro antibacterial ... Woodworth JR, Nyhart EH, Brier GL, Wolny JD, Black HR (February 1992). "Single-dose pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity ... It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)), staphylococci ( ... Further, one displayed ameliorated activity against an E. coli imp mutant that was defective in its ability to assemble its ...
Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, VR; Kole, C (1996). "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro". Microbios ... Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu (2006). "In vitro antibacterial activity of some ... "Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella Grass)". Japan International ...
2013). In vitro antibacterial activity of Thonningia sanguinea (Balanophoraceae (Vahl)) flowers extracts. Journal of ... 2007). Antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea against extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL) ... N'guessan JD, Coulibaly A, Ramanou AA, Okou OC, Djaman AJ, Guédé-Guina F. Antibacterial activity of Thonningia sanguinea ... 2008). Assessment of antifungal activity of an African medicinal herb Thonningia sanguinea against Cryptococcus neoformans. ...
Ozturk, Suzan; Ercisli, Sezai (24 January 2006). "Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Seseli libanotis ... Küpelia, Esra; Tosun, Alev; Yesilada, Erdem (6 April 2006). "Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Seseli L. ... "Total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts from three Seseli ...
2007). Antibacterial activity of Dicranopteris linearis under in vitro conditions. STARS Int. Journal (Sciences). 1:2 191-95. ... In vitro samples of the fern kill bacteria. The Diliman district in Quezon City in the Philippines' National Capital Region ...
"The in vitro antibacterial activity of Hedyotis Umbellata - Short Communication". Indian Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. ...
Nuflor website Syriopoulou VP, Harding AL, Goldmann DA, Smith AL (February 1981). "In vitro antibacterial activity of ...
"The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial evaluation of Brilacidin" (PDF). The Association for Research in Vision and ... "In Vitro activity of novel biomimetic compounds against oral Candida strains" (PDF). New Jersey Dental School. "Synthetic ... "The In Vitro Activity of Three Novel Biomimetics Against Clinically Relevant Ocular Pathogens". 2006 Ocular Microbiology and ... Other HDP-Mimetic analogs have proven effective In Vitro against C. albicans and other candida species. Also acquired with ...
Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, VR; Kole, C (1996). "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro". Microbios ... "In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 6: 39. doi:10.1186/ ... "Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella Grass)". Japan International ...
It shows in vitro antibacterial activity and activity on burn wound healing. Astilbin is used in traditional Chinese medicine. ... 2002 Isolation and in vitro antibacterial activity of astilbin, the bioactive flavanone from the leaves of Harungana ... and Its Immunosuppressive Activity against Contact Dermatitis, Jianming Guo, Feng Qian, Jianxin Li, Qiang Xu, Ting Chen, 2006 ... http://anwabio.com/asti.htm[permanent dead link] Astilbin on PubChem Biological activity of astilbin from Dimorphandra mollis ...
Another in vitro study claimed GSE had antibacterial properties. As with the branded in vitro test this extract was ... Although citrus seed extract is sold in health food markets, there is no good evidence for any natural antimicrobial activity. ... "The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: I. An in vitro agar assay". J Altern ... 3.0.CO;2-1. Giamperi L, Fraternale D, Bucchini A, Ricci D (March 2004). "Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric ...
"In Vitro and in Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline". Antimicrobial Agents and ... In vitro studies have shown that omadacycline has activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and select Gram-negative ... Omadacycline has potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... This activity translated to potent efficacy for omadacycline in an in vivo systemic infection model in mice. Additional in ...
May 2010). "In vitro antibacterial activities of JNJ-Q2, a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. ... Farrell DJ, Liverman LC, Biedenbach DJ, Jones RN (July 2011). "JNJ-Q2, a new fluoroquinolone with potent in vitro activity ... JNJ-Q2 is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug being developed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and ...
... has been shown to have in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activity. It also inhibits the growth of breast tumor ... Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ (2006). "Assessment of the antibacterial activity of galangin against 4-quinolone resistant strains of ... cells in vitro. Ciolino, H. P.; Yeh, G. C. (1999). "The flavonoid galangin is an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/ ... Afolayan AJ, Meyer JJ, Taylor MB, Erasmus D (1997). "Antiviral activity of galangin isolated from the aerial parts of ...
The herb seems to have synergistic antibacterial activity over berberine in vitro, possibly due to efflux pump inhibitory ... Berberine alone has weak antibiotic activity in vitro since many microorganisms actively export it from the cell (although a ... Extracts Synergistically Enhance the Antibacterial Activity of Berberine via Efflux Pump Inhibition", Planta Medica 2010 Mills ... activity. Multiple bacteria and fungi, along with selected protozoa and chlamydia are susceptible to berberine in vitro. ...
Antibacterial activities of the extracts and conessine from Holarrhena floribunda. Afr J Trad Complem Alt Med. Vol. 4, No. 3, ... has anti-bacterial properties in vitro. Crude extracts of F. elastica inhibit growth of many molds, including Aspergillus, ...
When isolated from the plant, these have antibacterial and leishmanicidal activities in vitro. It also contains caffeic acid ... "Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the ...
Fu, Yujie; Chen, L; Zu, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, X; Liu, Y; Yao, L; Efferth, T (2009). "The Antibacterial Activity of Clove Essential ... 2010). "In vitro antimicrobial activity of silver-processed catheters for neurosurgery". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy ... 1993). "Antibacterial activity of multilayer silver-copper surface films on catheter material". Canadian Journal of ... "Investigation of antibacterial activity of rosemary essential oil against propionibacterium acnes with atomic force microscopy" ...
"In vitro activity of TR-700, the active ingredient of the antibacterial prodrug TR-701, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial ... "New FDA task force will support innovation in antibacterial drug development". September 2012.. ... tedizolid exerts its bacteriostatic microbial activity through inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal ...
Hirai K, Aoyama H, Hosaka M, Oomori Y, Niwata Y, Suzue S, Irikura T (June 1986). "In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity ... Asahina Y, Iwase K, Iinuma F, Hosaka M, Ishizaki T (May 2005). "Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 1-(2-fluorovinyl)-7- ... Chin NX, Brittain DC, Neu HC (April 1986). "In vitro activity of Ro 23-6240, a new fluorinated 4-quinolone". Antimicrobial ... and spectra of activity in vitro". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 28 (4): 581-6. doi:10.1128/aac.28.4.581. PMC 180310 ...
Janeš, Damjan; Kreft, Samo; Jurc, Maja; Seme, Katja; Štrukelj, Borut (2008). "Antibacterial Activity in Higher Fungi (Mushrooms ... Amanita virosa extract has antibacterial efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. It also ... Kawaji A, Sone T, Natsuki R, Isobe M, Takabatake E, Yamaura Y (1990). "In vitro toxicity test of poisonous mushroom extracts ... has shown inhibitory activity on thrombin. Fungi portal List of Amanita species List of deadly fungi Simpson, D.P. (1979). ...
The antibacterial activity of lactoperoxidase plays an important role in the immune defense system. Hypothiocyanite is one of ... Antibody conjugates of glucose oxidase and to lactoperoxidase have been found to effective in killing tumor cells in vitro. In ... Lactoperoxidase is an effective antimicrobial agent and is used as an antibacterial agent in reducing bacterial microflora in ... Korhonen H (1980). "A new method for preserving raw milk: The lactoperoxidase antibacterial system". World Anim. Rev. 35: 23-29 ...
Dutta, A.; Sarkar, D.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mandal, C.; Chatterjee, M.. «In vitro and in vivo activity of Aloe vera leaf exudate in ... Jelager, L.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Adsersen, A.. «Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants of Mauritius». ... Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from endemic Psiadia species growing in ... Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H.. Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Endemic Medicinal ...
This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of various commercially available silver-containing ... The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were accessed by a disc diffusion test. The ... Results: The cytotoxicity was not a monotonic function of the antibacterial activity among the Ag dressings and could not be ... Biohesive Ag was regarded as a slow-release Ag dressing, showing the lowest cytotoxicity, while the antibacterial activity was ...
In vitro antibacterial activity against sensitive strain Streptococcus pyogenes 77A. ...
Background Compounds having both anticancer and antimicrobial activity have promising therapeutic potential due to their ... In vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of leaf extracts of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Warburgia salutaris (Bertol. F.) ... Chitemerere T, Mukanganyama S. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from Zimbabwe. African J Plant Sci ... Antibacterial assay. Agar disk diffusion. The study of antibacterial activity of the selected medicinal plant extracts was ...
Compound was tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv.. ...
P. Parihar, L. Parihar, and A. Bohra, "In vitro antibacterial activity of fronds (leaves) of some important pteridophtes," ... Screening for antibacterial activity (IV)," Fitoterapia, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 331-337, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at ... B. U. Reddy, "Enumeration of antibacterial activity of few medicinal plants by bioassay method," E-Journal of Chemistry, vol. 7 ... M. N. Somchit, I. Reezal, I. Elysha Nur, and A. R. Mutalib, "In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of ...
The goal of the study was to determine the relationship between in vitro/in vivo efficacy of environmental Pseudomonas phages ... In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of environmental bacteriophages against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from cystic ... Phage lytic activity was tested both in vitro and in vivo using the Galleria mellonella larvae model. The most active phages ... Phage lytic activity tested in vitro in the classical agar method was compared with the Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo ...
In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of shrimp chitosan against some intestinal bacteria * * TSAI GUO-JANE ... Antimicrobial activity of shrimp chitin and chitosan from different treatments and applications of fish preservation Tsai Guo- ... Antibacterial effect of N-sulfonated and N-sulfobenzoil chitosan and application to oyster preservation. CHEN CS ... Antifungal activity of chitosan and its preservative effect on low-sugar candied kumquat FANG SW ...
... Bahram ... In the present study we report the synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new series 2-(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5- ... Compound 6b with 5-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)-residue on 1,3,4-thiadiazole scaffold have shown promising antibacterial activities ... ylsulfonyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (6a-c). Compounds 6a-c were tested in vitro by the conventional agar dilution method against a ...
Antibacterial & antioxidant activity of different extract of Moringa oleifera leaves-an in-vitro study ... Madhu Mohan N., and Singh, R. P., "Antibacterial & antioxidant activity of different extract of Moringa oleifera leaves-an in- ... vitro study", International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 12, pp. 89-94, 2012. ...
This study reports about in vitro antibacterial activity and in vitro cell compatibility of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- ... This study reports about in vitro antibacterial activity and in vitro cell compatibility of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- ... In vitro assessment of antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of silver-containing PHBV nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue ... In vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied by microplate proliferation ...
The antibacterial activities were determined by agar dilution method, and the two-drug antibacterial activities were determined ... and in vitro antibacterial activities of two-drug combinations. All of the MRSA strains evaluated were clinical isolates from ... quercetin and resveratrol show obvious antibacterial activities against MRSA, and the results of two-drug antibacterial ... activity show either synergy or additivity, without evidences of antagonistic effects. ...
In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, a Novel Injectable Streptogramin, against Gram- ... In vitro activities of a streptogramin (RP 59500), three macrolides, and anazalide against four respiratory tract pathogens ... In vitro activity of RP59500, an injectable streptogramin antibiotic, against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms ... In Vitro Evaluation of the Activity of β-Lactams, New Quinolones, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Streptococcus ...
The antibacterial activity of the leaves extract may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and other antimicrobial ... The antimicrobial compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity were screened using standard methods. The active zones ... bactericidal concentration of ethanolic extract of guava leaves was 6.25 mg/ml indicating significant antibacterial activity ... In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava (Guava) leaves extract on carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae causing ...
In vitro antibacterial activity of piperacillin-tazobactam combination on hospital isolates and regression curve ... In vitro antibacterial activity of a new fluoroquinolone, enoxacin against hospital bacteria and regression curve. Pathologie- ... Antibacterial in vitro activity of piperacillin-tazobactam in combination with netilmicin or amikacin against amoxicillin- ... In vitro antibacterial activity of a new fluoroquinolone, fleroxacin, against hospital bacteria and regression curve. ...
In Vitro Comparative Study of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Selected Dietary Plants * Ashok Kumar Department of ... Kumar, A., Sharma, P., Mahajan, A., & Begum, Z. (2019). In Vitro Comparative Study of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of ... These extracts were further studied for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion and spectrophotometric method against ... were used for relative analysis of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH [1, 1- ...
In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline. A. B. Macone, B. K. Caruso, R. G. ... In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of a novel glycylcycline, the 9-t-butylglycylamido derivative of minocycline (GAR ... In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline ... In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline ...
In vitro activities of U-100592 and U-100766, novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents.. G E Zurenko, B H Yagi, R D Schaadt, J ... In vitro activities of U-100592 and U-100766, novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents. ... In vitro activities of U-100592 and U-100766, novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents. ... In vitro activities of U-100592 and U-100766, novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents. ...
In vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and HPLC-TOF/MS Analysis of Anvillea radiata (Asteraceae) Extracts. Author(s): ... In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of herbal parts and ... Title:In vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and HPLC-TOF/MS Analysis of Anvillea radiata (Asteraceae) Extracts ... Abderrahim Benslama*, Abdenassar Harrar, Fatih Gül and Ibrahim Demirtaş, "In vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and ...
In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various parts of Parthenium hysterophorus against pathogenic ... In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various parts of Parthenium hysterophorus against pathogenic ... In the present study in vitro antibacterial activities of P. hysterophorus leaf, flower, bark and root crude methanol extracts ... root 250mg/ml did not show antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus ...
The ranges of indistinctive antibacterial activities for four kinds of typical periodontal pathogens are 6∶1~1∶2,6∶1~2∶3,6∶1~2∶ ... and Peptostreptococcus spp.Statistical test is used to seek the indistinctive ranges of antibacterial activities of Ornidazole ... To understand antibacterial activities of different proportions of Ornidazole and Pefloxacin against periodontal pathogen in ... vitro.Methods: 1) Ornidazole and Pefloxacin are divided to six levels,in order to measure the changes of antiblastic indexes of ...
The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude ... In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity of crude extract, fractions and 3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavone from ... In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity of crude extract, fractions and 3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavone from ... Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tantalized carrot broth. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003;85: ...
The crude extract and the methanol fraction had similar antibacterial activity profile in terms of antibacterial activity ... The purpose of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the crude and solvent fractions of the leaves ... Evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the solvent fractions of the leaves of Rhamnus prinoides LHerit ( ... Antibacterial activity assay. Agar well diffusion. The antibacterial agar well diffusion assay was conducted by following the ...
Triphenyltin(IV) are found to possess better in vitro antibacterial screening activity on two gram-positive bacterial compared ... the complexes obtained were screened for their in vitro antibacterial screening activity. Results: Monomeric R2Sn (2-NH2-5-NO2- ... However, the synthesis and characterization as well as the in vitro antibacterial screening activity of organotin(IV) ... Triphenyltin(IV) are found to possess better in vitro antibacterial screening activity on two gram-positive bacterial compared ...
Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. These data ... Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as ... In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine- ... the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal ...
In vitro antibacterial activities of tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobial agents determined by chequerboard and ...
  • We studied the diversity between particular isolates and determined phage sensitivity in vitro and in vivo in the Galleria mellonella insect model. (springer.com)
  • We assumed that apart of in vitro phage activity testing, a simple and convenient wax moth larvae model should be applied for the evaluation of in vivo effectiveness of particular phage preparations. (springer.com)
  • This broad in vitro activity has been confirmed in various in vivo models of infection ( 21 - 24 ). (asm.org)
  • An ex vivo study evaluated the antibacterial effects of irrigating solutions and their combinations on 110 single-rooted human teeth inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. (drugs.com)
  • The results of the present study suggested that the effect of EENN seedpod and quercetin against the tested bacteria in vitro may contribute to the in vivo activities of the EENN seedpod and quercetin. (innovareacademics.in)
  • To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of F. prausnitzii in both in vitro (cellular models) and in vivo [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced] colitis in mice. (pnas.org)
  • 46 This effect has been more pronounced in vitro than in vivo , and cranberry juice has not been found to eradicate the most adherent bacteria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 45 Although E. coli is the best-studied organism, in vitro examinations of bacterial adherence to urinary epithelial cells have shown that pre-incubation of Proteus , Pseudomonas , and E. coli with cranberry juice cocktail results in decreased adhesion to epithelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In our quest to find new antimicrobial agents with potent anticancer activity, the biological potential of leaves from the three medicinal plants Centella asiatica , Warburgia salutaris and Curtisia dentata as used by Zulu traditional healers for the treatment of cancer is investigated. (springer.com)
  • Lab studies show anticancer activities through different mechanisms, but this use has not been proven by clinical trials. (mskcc.org)
  • There are provided 7-(4-substituted-3-cyclopropylaminomethylpyrrolidinyl)quinolonecarboxylic acid derivatives (such as 1-cyclopropyl-7-[(3S,4S)-3-cyclopropylaminomethyl-4-fluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) that exhibit strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, such as MRSA, PRSP and VRE, while being safe. (google.com)
  • To investigate the influence of pH on the size and distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as well as the antibacterial activity and catalytic performance of rice straw/silver nanocomposites (RS/Ag-NCs), Ag-NPs were synthesized on the surface of rice straw (RS) with various percentages of Ag-NPs (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 wt. (ncsu.edu)
  • Generally, the wax moth model results confirmed the data from in vitro assays, but in massive infection of CF isolates, the application of lytic phages probably led to the release of toxic compound causing an increase in larvae mortality. (springer.com)
  • The CE and fractions from the studied E. uniflora Linn leaves exhibited antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity in the performed assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In microbiological tests, S. aureus was about 4 times more sensitive than E. coli to TLM-LNPs with minimum inhibitory concentration ranges of 0.5-1.0 and 2-4 µg/ml, respectively, and TLM-LNCs exhibited the best antibacterial activities. (ac.ir)
  • Aqueous fractions showed inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, K. pneumonia and C. albicans. (bvsalud.org)
  • found that the HSP90 inhibitory action and the potent antitumor activity, with the anti-HSR action, promise X66 a novel HSP90-targeted agent, which merits further research and development. (selleckchem.com)
  • Present study reveals significantly higher broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of M. Longifolia and such findings could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of UTI and respiratory tract infections. (pharmascholars.com)
  • Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, cell cycle arrest, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with prostate tumor metastasis, and anti-inflammatory activities including inhibition of cyclooxygenases. (sigmaaldrich.com)