An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Diseases of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for the VITIS genus, the source of grapes.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Tartrates are salt derivatives of tartaric acid commonly used in the medical field as astringents, laxatives, and antacids.
A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Picrates are a class of organic compounds that contain a picryl group, and are used in some medical treatments as antiseptics and disinfectants.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Glucosides are a type of plant compound that can be converted into sugar in the body and have various medicinal properties.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.

Orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana of the Hsp70 interacting protein Hip. (1/968)

The Hsp70-interacting protein Hip binds to the adenosine triphosphatase domain of Hsp70, stabilizing it in the adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ligated conformation and promoting binding of target polypeptides. In mammalian cells, Hip is a component of the cytoplasmic chaperone heterocomplex that regulates signal transduction via interaction with hormone receptors and protein kinases. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana revealed 2 genes encoding Hip orthologs. The deduced sequence of AtHip-1 consists of 441 amino acid residues and is 42% identical to human Hip. AtHip-1 contains the same functional domains characterized in mammalian Hip, including an N-terminal dimerization domain, an acidic domain, 3 tetratricopeptide repeats flanked by a highly charged region, a series of degenerate GGMP repeats, and a C-terminal region similar to the Sti1/Hop/p60 protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of AtHip-2 consists of 380 amino acid residues. AtHip-2 consists of a truncated Hip-like domain that is 46% identical to human Hip, followed by a C-terminal domain related to thioredoxin. AtHip-2 is 63% identical to another Hip-thioredoxin protein recently identified in Vitis labrusca (grape). The truncated Hip domain in AtHip-2 includes the amino terminus, the acidic domain, and tetratricopeptide repeats with flanking charged region. Analyses of expressed sequence tag databases indicate that both AtHip-1 and AtHip-2 are expressed in A thaliana and that orthologs of Hip are also expressed widely in other plants. The similarity between AtHip-1 and its mammalian orthologs is consistent with a similar role in plant cells. The sequence of AtHip-2 suggests the possibility of additional unique chaperone functions.  (+info)

Effects of natural intensities of visible and ultraviolet radiation on epidermal ultraviolet screening and photosynthesis in grape leaves. (2/968)

Grape (Vitis vinifera cv Silvaner) vine plants were cultivated under shaded conditions in the absence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in a greenhouse, and subsequently placed outdoors under three different light regimes for 7 d. Different light regimes were produced by filters transmitting natural radiation, or screening out the UV-B (280-315 nm), or screening out the UV-A (315-400 nm) and the UV-B spectral range. During exposure, synthesis of UV-screening phenolics in leaves was quantified using HPLC: All treatments increased concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids but the rise was highest, reaching 230% of the initial value, when UV radiation was absent. In contrast, UV-B radiation specifically increased flavonoid concentrations resulting in more than a 10-fold increase. Transmittance in the UV of all extracted phenolics was lower than epidermal UV transmittance determined fluorimetrically, and the two parameters were curvilinearly related. It is suggested that curvilinearity results from different absorption properties of the homogeneously dissolved phenolics in extracts and of the non-homogeneous distribution of phenolics in the epidermis. UV-B-dependent inhibition of maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II (PSII), measured as variable fluorescence of dark-adapted leaves, recovered in parallel to the buildup of epidermal screening for UV-B radiation, suggesting that PSII is protected against UV-B damage by epidermal screening. However, UV-B inhibition of CO(2) assimilation rates was not diminished by efficient UV-B screening. We propose that protection of UV-B inactivation of PSII is observed because preceding damage is efficiently repaired while those factors determining UV-B inhibition of CO(2) assimilation recover more slowly.  (+info)

Rapid deposition of extensin during the elicitation of grapevine callus cultures is specifically catalyzed by a 40-kilodalton peroxidase. (3/968)

Elicitation or peroxide stimulation of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv Touriga) vine callus cultures results in the rapid and selective in situ insolubilization of an abundant and ionically bound cell wall protein-denominated GvP1. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis, the amino acid composition, and the N-terminal sequence of purified GvP1 identified it as an 89.9-kD extensin. Analysis of cell walls following the in situ insolubilization of GvP1 indicates large and specific increases in the major amino acids of GvP1 as compared with the amino acids present in salt-eluted cell walls. We calculate that following deposition, covalently bound GvP1 contributes up to 4% to 5% of the cell wall dry weight. The deposition of GvP1 in situ requires peroxide and endogenous peroxidase activity. Isoelectric focusing of saline eluates of callus revealed only a few basic peroxidases that were all isolated or purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. In vitro and in situ assays of extensin cross-linking activity using GvP1 and peroxidases showed that a 40-kD peroxidase cross-linked GvP1 within minutes, whereas other grapevine peroxidases had no significant activity with GvP1. Internal peptide sequences indicated this extensin peroxidase (EP) is a member of the class III peroxidases. We conclude that we have identified and purified an EP from grapevine callus that is responsible for the catalysis of GvP1 deposition in situ during elicitation. Our results suggest that GvP1 and this EP play an important combined role in grapevine cell wall defense.  (+info)

Sink feedback regulation of photosynthesis in vines: measurements and a model. (4/968)

An experimental and modelling study of source-sink interactions in Vitis vinifera L., cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, rooted cuttings under non-limiting environmental conditions with a 12 h photoperiod is presented here. After 4 h, measured photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf carbohydrate content reached maximum values. Over the remainder of the photoperiod, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased continuously, whereas leaf carbohydrate content remained relatively constant. Because the experiment took place in a non-limiting environment, the results suggest that stomatal regulation of photosynthesis was mediated by an internal factor, possibly related to sink activity. A simple 1-source, 2-sink model was developed to examine the extent to which the data could be explained by a hypothetical sink-to-source feedback mechanism mediated by carbohydrate levels in either the mesophyll, the source phloem or the phloem of one of the two sinks. Model simulations reproduced the data well under the hypothesis of a phloem-based feedback signal, although the data were insufficient to elucidate the detailed nature of such a signal. In a sensitivity analysis, the steady-state response of photosynthesis to sink activity was explored and predictions made for the partitioning of photosynthate between the two sinks. The analysis highlights the effectiveness of a phloem-based feedback signal in regulating the balance between source and sink activities. However, other mechanisms for the observed decline in photosynthesis, such as photoinhibition, endogenous circadian rhythms or hydraulic signals in the leaf cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the phloem-based feedback model developed here may provide a useful working hypothesis for incorporation into plant growth models and for further development and testing.  (+info)

Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds. (5/968)

AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins (PA) from grape seeds. METHODS: Croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats were prepared. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by NADPH-diaphoras stain assay, nitric oxide (NO) content by Griess diazotization assay, N-acetyl-beta- D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) activity by spectrophotography, malondialdehyde (MDA) content by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorescence technique, and IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 content by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: PA 10-40 mg/kg ip inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice in a dose-dependent manner. PA 10 mg/kg reduced MDA content in inflamed paws, inhibited beta-NAG and NOS activity, and lowered the content of NO, IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 in exudate from edema paws of rats induced by carrageenan. The inhibitory effect of PA on all above indices was more evident than that of dexamethasone 2 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: PA has anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice. Its mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a O-methyltransferase capable of methylating 2-hydroxy-3-alkylpyrazine from Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). (6/968)

An S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase capable of methylating 2-hydroxy-3-alkylpyrazine (HP) was purified 7,300-fold to apparent homogeneity with an 8.2% overall recovery from Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) through a purification procedure including column chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose FF, Ether-5PW, hydroxyapatite, G2000SW(XL), and DEAE-5PW. The relative molecular mass of the native enzyme estimated on gel permeation chromatography was 85 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was estimated to be 41 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme also methylates caffeic acid. The Vmax for IBHP and caffeic acid were 0.73 and 175 pkatals/mg, respectively, and the respective Km for IBHP and caffeic acid were 0.30 and 0.032 mm. The optimum pH for IBHP (8.5) was different from that for caffeic acid (7.5).  (+info)

The daily oral administration of high doses of trans-resveratrol to rats for 28 days is not harmful. (7/968)

trans-3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene (trans-resveratrol) is a phytochemical present in peanuts, grapes and wine with beneficial effects such as protection against cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of trans-resveratrol have harmful effects on Sprague-Dawley rats. trans-Resveratrol was administered orally to male rats for 28 d at a dose of 20 mg/(kg x d), 1000 times the amount consumed by a 70-kg person taking 1.4 g of trans-resveratrol/d. Body weight, and food and water consumption did not differ between rats treated with trans-resveratrol and the control group. Hematologic and biochemical variables were not affected by the treatment. Histopathologic examination of the organs obtained at autopsy did not reveal any alterations. These results support the view that repeated consumption of trans-resveratrol at 20 mg/(kg x d) does not adversely affect the variables tested in rats.  (+info)

Effect of inclusion of defatted grape seed meal in the diet on digestion and performance of growing rabbits. (8/968)

The digestion and nutritive value of defatted grape seed meal (DGSM) was investigated. A basal diet was formulated to meet requirements of growing rabbits. Another diet was formulated by substituting 15.2% of the basal diet with DGSM. Two hundred eight weaned 30-d-old rabbits were fed these diets, and fattening performance was recorded. Eighty animals were used to study the effect of DGSM inclusion on cecal fermentation traits and intestinal disaccharidase activity at two ages (5 and 35 d after weaning). Fecal apparent digestibility of nutrients was measured in 18 rabbits. A third diet was formulated to contain DGSM (61.3%) as the sole source of fiber and a supplement consisting of wheat flour, casein, lard, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals to avoid nutrient imbalances. This semipurified diet was used to determine cecal digestion traits, disaccharidase activity in the small intestine, fecal apparent digestibility of nutrients, and rate of passage in 70-d-old rabbits. Digestible energy and NDF and CP digestibilities of DGSM calculated by difference were 5.51 +/- 0.89 MJ/kg DM, 24.5 +/- 5.76%, and 46.8 +/- 14.9%, respectively. Inclusion of 15% of DGSM in the basal diet increased ADFI in finishing rabbits (from 9 to 15%; P < 0.05), so that DE intake increased although dietary DE concentration decreased. As a consequence, ADG increased by 3.3% in the whole fattening period (P = 0.046). The increase in ADFI was parallel to an 8% decrease in the weight of cecal contents (P = 0.059), and it was in agreement with the relatively short cecal mean retention time of DGSM (7.61 h) in the semipurified diet. Inclusion of 15% of DGSM in the basal diet did not affect (P > or = 0.20) mortality (10.1%) or cecal concentrations of VFA, NH3 N, or cecal pH either at 5 d (71.9 mM, 17.7 mM, and 5.75, respectively) or at 35 d after weaning (74.6 mM, 10.1 mM, and 5.66, respectively) but improved the sucrase activity in the ileum by 36% (P = 0.031). Digestibility of NDF of DGSM in the semipurified diet was 8.57%, which agrees with the low acidity and weight of cecal contents of animals fed this diet (6.26 and 3.63% BW, respectively). From these results, we conclude that DGSM has a relatively high DE concentration and its inclusion at moderate levels (15%) in the diet exerts a positive effect on ADFI, DE intake, and ADG with no impairment of cecal fermentation and mortality.  (+info)

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Anthocyanins are a group of naturally occurring pigments found in plants, particularly in fruits, vegetables, and flowers. They are responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors of many fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, red cabbage, and red grapes. In the medical field, anthocyanins have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some studies have suggested that anthocyanins may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage to cells caused by free radicals. They may also have anti-inflammatory effects, which could help reduce inflammation in the body. Anthocyanins have been studied for their potential role in preventing or treating a variety of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of anthocyanins and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment.

Proanthocyanidins, also known as flavonoids, are a type of polyphenol found in many plant-based foods and beverages, including grapes, berries, apples, and tea. They are known for their antioxidant properties and have been studied for their potential health benefits. In the medical field, proanthocyanidins have been studied for their potential to reduce inflammation, improve cardiovascular health, and protect against certain types of cancer. They have also been studied for their potential to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of age-related diseases. Proanthocyanidins are often used in dietary supplements and are also found in some over-the-counter products, such as skin creams and oral care products. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of proanthocyanidins and to determine the appropriate dosage and duration of use.

Grape seed extract is a dietary supplement derived from the seeds of grapes. It is commonly used in alternative medicine and is believed to have a variety of health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, grape seed extract is sometimes used as a treatment for conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and certain types of cancer. It is also sometimes used to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of blood clots. However, it is important to note that the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of grape seed extract as a medical treatment is limited, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. As with any dietary supplement, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking grape seed extract, especially if you are taking any medications or have any underlying health conditions.

Biological control agents are organisms or substances that are used to control or manage pests, diseases, or invasive species in a natural or managed ecosystem. In the medical field, biological control agents are often used to treat or prevent infections caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. For example, vaccines are a type of biological control agent that are used to prevent infections caused by viruses. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the virus or parts of the virus that can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. This helps to protect the body from future infections by the same virus. Other examples of biological control agents in the medical field include antibiotics, which are used to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, and antiviral drugs, which are used to treat viral infections. Some biological control agents are also used in the treatment of parasitic infections, such as those caused by worms or protozoa. Overall, biological control agents are an important tool in the medical field for preventing and treating a wide range of infections and diseases.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic information of living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is found in the nucleus of cells and in organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA is composed of four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases pair up in a specific way to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with adenine always pairing with thymine and cytosine always pairing with guanine. The sequence of these bases in DNA determines the genetic information that is passed down from parent plants to offspring. This information includes traits such as plant height, leaf shape, flower color, and resistance to diseases and pests. In the medical field, plant DNA is often studied for its potential to be used in biotechnology applications such as crop improvement, biofuels production, and the development of new medicines. For example, scientists may use genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of plants to make them more resistant to pests or to produce higher yields.

RNA, Plant refers to the type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is found in plants. RNA is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes in cells, and there are several types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In plants, RNA plays a critical role in various biological processes, including photosynthesis, growth and development, and defense against pathogens. Plant RNA is also important for the production of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of plant cells. RNA, Plant can be studied using various techniques, including transcriptomics, which involves the analysis of RNA molecules in a cell or tissue to identify the genes that are being expressed. This information can be used to better understand plant biology and to develop new strategies for improving crop yields, increasing plant resistance to diseases and pests, and developing new plant-based products.

Stilbenes are a class of natural and synthetic compounds that contain a trans-1,2-diphenylethene backbone. They are found in a variety of plants, including grapes, peanuts, and berries, and have been shown to have a range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant effects. In the medical field, stilbenes are being studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some stilbenes have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various types of cancer. Other stilbenes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, and are being studied for their potential to treat inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Additionally, stilbenes have been shown to have anti-oxidant properties, and are being investigated for their potential to protect against oxidative stress and prevent age-related diseases.

Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that breaks down the bonds between galacturonic acid residues in the cell wall of plants. It is commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant tissues, and plays a role in the ripening and softening of these foods. In the medical field, polygalacturonase has been studied for its potential use in treating certain medical conditions. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in treating conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. It has also been studied for its potential use in treating cancer, as it may be able to help break down the protective cell walls of cancer cells, making them more susceptible to treatment. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of polygalacturonase in medicine.

In the medical field, tartrates refer to compounds that contain the ionized form of the acid tartrate. Tartrates are commonly found in foods such as grapes, wine, and cheese, and are also used in the production of certain medications and dietary supplements. One common use of tartrates in medicine is in the treatment of gout, a type of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints. Tartrates, such as potassium bitartrate, can help to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood and reduce the risk of gout attacks. Tartrates may also be used in the treatment of other conditions, such as high blood pressure and heart disease. For example, calcium tartrate is sometimes used as a calcium supplement to help prevent osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become weak and brittle. It is important to note that tartrates can interact with other medications and may not be suitable for everyone. If you are considering taking a tartrate-containing supplement or medication, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider first to determine if it is safe and appropriate for you.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

In the medical field, tannins are a type of polyphenol compound found in many plants, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Tannins are known for their astringent taste and their ability to bind to proteins and other molecules, which can give them a range of potential health benefits. Tannins have been studied for their potential to reduce inflammation, lower blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels. They may also have antioxidant properties, which can help protect the body against damage from free radicals. In some cases, tannins may interact with medications or other substances in the body, so it's important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking any supplements or consuming large amounts of tannin-rich foods.

Flavonols are a type of flavonoid, which are a class of plant compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They are found in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and beverages, including tea, wine, and chocolate. In the medical field, flavonols have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, improve cognitive function, and protect against certain types of cancer. Some studies have also suggested that flavonols may have anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects. Flavonols are thought to exert their health benefits by scavenging free radicals, reducing oxidative stress, and modulating the activity of enzymes involved in inflammation and blood pressure regulation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms by which flavonols exert their effects and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of supplementation.

I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on "Picrates" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not commonly used in medicine. Can you please provide more context or clarify your question?

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipids that are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the action of enzymes called lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of fatty acids, leading to the formation of various oxylipins, including hydroxy fatty acids, epoxy fatty acids, and dihydroxy fatty acids. Oxylipins play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, blood pressure regulation, and cell signaling. They are also involved in the development and progression of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, oxylipins are often studied as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for these diseases. For example, some oxylipins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, while others have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the metabolism and function of oxylipins is important for developing new treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.

Cyclopentanes are a type of organic compound that contain a five-membered ring of carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical reactions, and as starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, cyclopentanes are not typically used as drugs or therapeutic agents. However, some cyclopentane derivatives have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

DNA, chloroplast refers to the genetic material found within the chloroplasts of plant cells. Chloroplasts are organelles responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy. The DNA within chloroplasts is circular and contains genes that are involved in the production of proteins necessary for photosynthesis. Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally, meaning that it is passed down from the mother to the offspring. Mutations in chloroplast DNA can affect the ability of plants to carry out photosynthesis and can lead to various genetic disorders.

In the medical field, glucosides refer to a class of organic compounds that are composed of a sugar molecule (glucose) attached to another molecule, usually an alcohol or an amino acid. Glucosides are commonly found in plants and are often used as natural sweeteners or as medicinal compounds. There are several types of glucosides, including monoglucosides, diglucosides, and triglucosides, depending on the number of glucose molecules attached to the other molecule. Some common examples of glucosides include glycyrrhizin (found in licorice root), digitoxin (found in foxglove), and caffeine (found in coffee and tea). In the body, glucosides can be hydrolyzed by enzymes to release the sugar molecule and the other molecule, which can then have various effects on the body. For example, some glucosides have been shown to have medicinal properties, such as improving heart function, reducing inflammation, and treating certain types of cancer. However, some glucosides can also be toxic in high doses, so their use must be carefully monitored by medical professionals.

Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds found in plants that have a wide range of biological activities. They are classified as polyphenols and are known for their antioxidant properties, which can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. In the medical field, flavonoids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. They may also have anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic effects. Flavonoids are found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, tea, and chocolate. Some of the most common flavonoids include quercetin, kaempferol, and anthocyanins.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.

Acyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group from one molecule to another. In the medical field, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, and drug metabolism. One example of an acyltransferase enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA, producing malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is then used as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis. Another example of an acyltransferase enzyme is the cholesterol biosynthesis enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a hydrogen atom from NADPH to HMG-CoA, producing mevalonate. Mevalonate is then used as a substrate for the synthesis of cholesterol. In the field of drug metabolism, acyltransferases are involved in the metabolism of many drugs. For example, the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 is an acyltransferase that is involved in the metabolism of several drugs, including warfarin and diazepam. Overall, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways and are important targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.

Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.

DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.

RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

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"Profile for Vitis vulpina L. (frost grape)". PLANTS Database. USDA, NRCS. Retrieved May 18, 2011. Vitis cordifolia was first ... Vitis cordifolia var. sempervirens was first published in Rev. Vitic. 5: 165. 1896 10990 "Plant Name Details for Vitis ... Vitis cordifolia var. foetida was first published in: American Naturalist 2(6): 321. 1868. "Name - Vitis cordifolia var. ... Vitis vulpina was first published in Species Plantarum 1: 203. 1753. "Vitis vulpina". Germplasm Resources Information Network. ...
Schwartz, A.; Deklerk, C. A. (2017-01-01). "The Relationship between the Mite, Eriophyes vitis (Pagst.) and Leaf Curl on Vitis ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Colomerus vitis. Colomerus vitis In: DrfpLib v t e (Articles with short description, ... Vitis vinifera). E. vitis has spread worldwide and has three distinct strains: a leaf-curling strain, a blister-causing strain ... Eriophyes vitis, also known as grape erineum mite or blister mite, is a mite species in the genus Eriophyes infecting grape ...
... is a species of climbing vine in the grape family native to China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan ... "Vitis chunganensis". Flora of China. eFloras. Retrieved May 30, 2010. Chunganenol: An Unusual Antioxidative Resveratrol Hexamer ... Vitis, Plants described in 1925, Flora of China, All stub articles, Vitaceae stubs). ... from Vitis chunganensis. Shan He, Liyan Jiang, Bin Wu, Chang Li and Yuanjiang Pan, J. Org. Chem., volume 74, issue 20, pages ...
1887 IPNI, Vitis retordii Rom.Caill. Flora of China: Vitis retordii Plants of the World Online: Vitis retordii International ... Vitis retordii is a species of vining plant native to Asia. The plant grows at an altitudes of 200-1,000 m (660-3,280 ft) and ... Plant Names Index: Vitis retordii Global Biodiversity Information Facility: Vitis retordii (Articles with short description, ... Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Vitis, Flora of Asia). ...
... , or Champin's grape, is a hybrid grape resulting from the natural hybridization of Vitis mustangensis with ... "Vitis x\champinii in Flora of North America @". Home. Retrieved 2019-11-14. "Vitis champinii". ... USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Profile for Vitis × champinii Munson ex Viala (pro sp.) (rupestris × ... Vitis, Plants described in 1882, Hybrid grape varieties, Plant nothospecies). ...
... Michx. var. rotundifolia (southeast USA), Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. munsoniana (Florida), and Vitis ... Vitis munsoniana and Vitis popenoei. All have 40 chromosomes, rather than 38, are generally not cross-compatible with Euvitis ... Norbert Tischelmayer: Vitis rotundifolia. On: J.A. Mortensen; J.W. Harris; D.L. Hopkins; P.C. Andersen (1994 ... Vitis rotundifolia, or muscadine, is a grapevine species native to the southeastern and south-central United States. The growth ...
ficifolia : July - September This species was first published under the name Vitis heyneana in Syst. Veg. 5: 318. 1819. "Vitis ... Vitis heyneana is a species of climbing vine in the grape family endemic to Asia. It can be found in shrubby or forested areas ... Vitis heyneana is known by its two subspecies: V. h. subsp. heyneana (autonym), and V. h. subsp. ficifolia. In Chinese, the ... "Vitis heyneana subsp. ficifolia". Flora of China. eFloras. Retrieved November 21, 2012. In: Enum. pl. China bor. 12. 1833 (Mem ...
... (Mustang Grape) Natives of Mustang Grape (Vitis mustangensis) Image archive of Vitis ... Media related to Vitis mustangensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vitis mustangensis at Wikispecies Agie-horticulture. ... Vitis mustangensis, commonly known as the mustang grape, is a species of grape that is native to the southern United States. ... "Vitis mustangensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ...
... Botanical garden in Berlin, Germany. Vitis riparia in Germany Ontario, Canada Vitis riparia leaf Riparia gloire ... Vitis riparia has the largest geographical range of any of the North American Vitis species. It is present across nearly the ... Vitis riparia Michx, with common names riverbank grape or frost grape, is a vine indigenous to North America. As a climbing or ... "Vitis riparia". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP ...
... is a species of liana in the grape family which bears black berries, and is native to western Mexico. Species was ... Sylvain Torchet (June 7, 2009). "Vitis blancoii". Le Lexique des Cépages (in French). ABC du Vin. Retrieved April 24, 2010. v t ... 1906 "Vitis blancoi". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... Vitis, Plants described in 1906, Flora of Mexico, All stub articles, Vitaceae stubs). ...
... is a subgroup of grapes originating from a hybridization of Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera. Popular ... Most are self-fertile, unlike wild Vitis labrusca. For much of the history of American viticulture, such varieties made up the ... Such cultivars are frequently referred to as "labrusca", however many are as little as half Vitis labrusca in their pedigree. ... These varieties do in fact possess many of the traits of Vitis labrusca, frequently including slipskin fruit, strong "foxy" ...
... is a species of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. "Lasioptera vitis Report". Integrated Taxonomic ... "Lasioptera vitis species details". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-05-04. "Lasioptera vitis". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-05-04. " ... "Lasioptera vitis Species Information". Retrieved 2018-05-04. Gagné, Raymond J.; Jaschhof, Mathias (2017). A ...
... is an Old World species of wild grape native to temperate China (Shaanxi province). The original description ... "Vitis xunyangensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... Vitis, Plants described in 1995, Flora of China, All stub articles, Vitaceae stubs). ...
... is a species of plant in the grape family. It is found in the province of Yunnan in China, where it is known ... 1996."Vitis mengziensis". Flora of China. eFloras. Retrieved April 21, 2010. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Vitis, Plants described in 1996, Flora of China, ...
Jepson Flora: Vitis californica Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map Calflora taxon report, Vitis ... UWash Science: Vitis californica propagation protocol Jepson Manual eFlora (TJM2) treatment of Vitis californica USDA Plants ... Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California Pacific Horticulture: Vitis ... USDA Vitis Californica In Fire Effects Information System Calscape: Vitis californica (California Grape) Nation Library of ...
Page (Vitis balansana var. balansana at eFloras) read through Skweezer translate (Chinese to English) Page (Vitis balansana var ... 1996.; Vitis ficifolioides In: Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(3): 75. 1979. "Vitis balansana var. ficifolioides". Flora of China. ... Vitis balansana is a species of climbing vine in the grape family native to temperate and tropical Asia. Its native range ... balansana is the same as that of V. balansana "Vitis balansana var. balansana". Flora of China. eFloras. Retrieved April 25, ...
... (Beautiful Grape) Photo Illustration GBIF, Vitis bellula Wang "Vitis bellula in Flora of China @ ... Plants of the World Online: Vitis bellula Flora of China: Vitis bellula International Plant Names Index: Vitis bellula Global ... Vitis bellula, commonly known as the beautiful grape or small leaf hair grape, is a Chinese liana (woody vine) in the grape ... Vitis, Endemic flora of China, Plants described in 1979, All stub articles, Vitaceae stubs). ...
Vitis has a career high ITF combined juniors ranking of 340 achieved on 6 February 2012. Vitis made her WTA main draw debut at ... Wallis Vitis at the Women's Tennis Association Wallis Vitis at the International Tennis Federation v t e (Articles with short ... Wallis Vitis (born 3 November 1995) is a French tennis player. ...
... , the graybark grape, is a variety of grape. It has small black berries that are juicy, yet seedy. This can make ... Vitis cinerea is an American native grape. The leaves are cordiform-emarinate, flabby, dull, limb finely wrinkled (like crepe) ... "Plant Profile for Vitis cinerea". United States Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 25 ... "Illinois Wildflowers Vitis cinerea Description". Illinois Wildflowers Database. Retrieved 25 August 2017. "PFAF info for V. ...
... is a species of liana in the grape family native to the Asian temperate climate zone. It is found in mainland ... 1835) "Vitis ficifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... Vitis, Flora of China, Flora of Japan, Flora of the Ryukyu Islands, Flora of Korea, Flora of Taiwan, Taxa named by Alexander ...
Look up vitis or Vitis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Vitis is a genus of about 60 species of plants in the flowering ... Austria Vitis, Peru and Vitis District, a town and a district of the province Yauyos VITIS, or the Krastyo Sarafov National ... plant family Vitaceae Vitis can also refer to: vine staff, the centurion's rod used for discipline in the Roman army Vitis, ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitis. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
... , the vine chafer, is a species of scarab (beetle of the family Scarabaeidae). It has a palearctic distribution. ... Male attractant for chafersAnomala vitis Fabr. and A. dubia Scop. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 20 ...
Vitis (German pronunciation: [ˈfɪtɪs] ) is a town in the district of Waidhofen an der Thaya in the Austrian state of Lower ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vitis, Lower Austria. v t e (Pages using the Phonos extension, Articles with short ...
Vitis thunbergii and Vitis vinifera. They feed on the flowers leaves of their host plants. When feeding on the leaf of Cayratia ... Nippoptilia vitis (grape plume moth) is a moth of the family Pterophoridae, that is known from Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, ... Wikispecies has information related to Nippoptilia vitis. v t e (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles with short ... Japanese Moths Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nippoptilia vitis. ...
"SEINet Portal Network - Vitis arizonica". USDA Plants Profile for Vitis arizonica (canyon grape) Wikimedia Commons has media ... Vitis arizonica Species was first published in Amer. Naturalist 2:321. 1868 "Vitis arizonica". Germplasm Resources Information ... Vitis arizonica is a North American species of wild grape. It is a deciduous vine. Common names for the grape are Arizona grape ... Vitis is Latin for "vine", while arizonica means "of or from Arizona". Arizona grape is found in California (Inyo County), ...
... is a species of plant in the grape family. It is found in the province of Hunan in China, where the climate is ... 1925 "Vitis adenoclada". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... Vitis, Plants described in 1925, Flora of China, All stub articles, Vitaceae stubs). ...
PlayStation is making it harder for you to buy PS3 and Vita games. Grab Metal Gear Solid 4 and Persona 4 Golden while you can ... PS3 and PS Vita virtual games experiencing unplayable "expired" error. Some games apparently expired in 1969 ... The PSP store has closed but games appear online via PS3 and PS Vita. 35 games nearly ceased to exist ...
The Truth of the Encyclical "Humanae Vitae" (Cardinal Karol Wojtyla) The Norm of Humanae Vitae Arises From the Natural Law and ... Humanae Vitae: Understanding the Encyclical (An unsigned Editorial in LOsservatore Romano) The Authority of the Encyclical ...
... Join us for an enthralling literary journey back to the early twentieth century in this ... Critical Acclaim for VITA & VIRGINIA:. Carbonell Award Recommended. ... witty and romantic play about the relationship between literary icon Virginia Woolf and socialite Vita Sackville West. ... heroines-in-thinking-caps-vita-and-virginia/. ...
PS Vita. PS Vita. Video game publisher thanks pirates for their interest, offers them a discount Video game piracy is a major ... Celebrate the PS Vitas birthday with this incredible sale The PS Vita is one of the best portable consoles ever released, but ... Here are all the PS4, PS3 and Vita games you can get for free in March It took a little longer than usual for Sony to share the ... Over 25 games on sale for PS4, PS3 and PS Vita this week - up to 80% off! Trying to decide what to do with all the money you ...
What is VITA?. The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program (VITA) is administered by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). IRS- ... How do I get assistance from VITA volunteers?. To get started, most clients will need to complete the Intake Form (13614-C) and ... Who is eligible for VITA tax help?. Most individuals and married couples with incomes less than $58,000 per year are eligible ... Email your intake form to Within a few days of receipt of a completed intake form, a site coordinator will contact ...
VITA: Visual Intelligence for Transportation * Back: VITA: Visual Intelligence for Transportation *People ...
You are using a deprecated Browser. Internet Explorer is no longer supported by Xilinx. ...
With reference to a recent public statement on the teaching of the Magisterium concerning "Humanae Vitae", made by a well-known ... Lumen Gentium, n. 25)" (Humanae Vitae, n. 26). Further: "We are full of confidence as We speak to you, beloved Sons, because We ... As we read m the Encyclical Humanae Vitae: "Though it is true that sometimes it is lawful to tolerate a lesser moral evil in ... 2. Part of this very duty is maintaining that the moral norm of Humanae Vitae concerning contraception, as prohibiting an ...
Curriculum vitae of Federica Provini. Associate Professor at Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences - DIBINEM ...
Speech by Mr Vitas Vasiliauskas, Chairman of the Board of the Bank of Lithuania, at the High-Level International Forum, Minsk, ... Vitas Vasiliauskas: Macroprudential regulation and financial stability. Speech by Mr Vitas Vasiliauskas, Chairman of the Board ...
Vita. Born at Friedrichshafen, Lake of Constance, Germany, married, two daughters (born 2015 and 2018).. Head of the Junior ...
... Commandant Bundeswehr Command and Staff College ... Curriculum Vitae Commodore Ralf Kuchler Curriculum Vitae Commodore Ralf Kuchler. * Command * Bundeswehr Command and Staff ... Curriculum Vitae Brigadier Frank Pieper. Curriculum Vitae of Brigadier Frank Pieper, Director Strategic Affairs and Faculties ... Curriculum Vitae Colonel (GSGesetzliche Schutzaufgaben) Armin Havenith. Colonel (GSGesetzliche Schutzaufgaben) Armin Havenith. ...
Curriculum Vitae No CV available. This user hasnt created a CV yet. ...
VITAS values volunteers as vital members of the interdisciplinary care team. Read news here about volunteer activities and how ... Search VITAS Healthcare. How can we help you?. Search All Careers Volunteer Nursing Jobs Hospice Aide Jobs Physician Careers ... VITAS values volunteers as vital members of the interdisciplinary care team. Read news here about volunteer activities and how ...
Copyright © 1996-2023, VITA. All rights reserved.. VITA Copyright and Use Notice. VITA Privacy Policy ... The ballot will be distributed to the current members of VITA, who will make up the Selection Committee, for online voting. ... Any "fan" may nominate any qualified individual, team of individuals, company, product, or technology to the VITA Technologies ... made up of the current VITA Board of Directors, will ensure that at least five candidates active pre-1995 are included on the ...
A Vita for all seasons - Office Chat. Posted 13 September 2013 by Conrad Zimmerman ... In this latest Office Chat, I hang out with Jordan and Jim, discussing the recent expansion of the PlayStation Vita platform ...
... and learn more about ArtRage Vitae Mobile Painting. Download ArtRage Vitae Mobile Painting and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, ... ArtRage Vitae Mobile Painting 4+ Paint realistic on canvas Ambient Design Ltd. * #26 in Graphics & Design ... ArtRage Vitae isnt just about color: It knows how much paint youve used so you can mix it and spread it on a textured canvas ... So whats "Vitae" about it? Head scratcher. Still good and worth using but wonder why it exists unless purely to dupe original ...
Shop Vita Coco Coconut Oil at Holland & Barrett. 100% raw and extra virgin, this is the perfect cooking oil and goes a long way ... Vita Coco Organic Cold Pressed Virgin Coconut Oil. Inspired by Brazil, where coconut oil is part of everyday life, Vita Cocos ... Popular with those on a keto diet and one of the chief ingredients of bulletproof coffee, edible coconut oil like Vita Coco is ... Totally free of chemicals, Vita Coco coconut oil is made from dried or fresh raw coconut meat only, ensuring it maintains all ...
Education University of Virginia, Ph.D. University of Virginia, M.A. Bates College, B.A., cum laude, honors in English Teaching Woodrow Wilson Professor of Literature, Professor of English and African-American Studies, Princeton University, 2001-2015 Visiting Professor of English and African-American Studies, Princeton University, 2000-01
Vita to a PlayStation®4 console for Remote Play and Second Screen play. ... PS Vita Remote Play connection types Your PlayStation 4 console can connect to the PlayStation Vita in three different ways. ... PS Remote Play on PS Vita and PS4 consoles. Learn how to connect your PlayStation®Vita to a PlayStation®4 console for PS Remote ... To adjust the resolution on your PS Vita, select PS4 Link , Start , Options , Settings , Video Quality for Remote Play , ...
Shop Vita Coco Coconut Water Pure - 33.8 Fl. Oz. from Safeway. Browse our wide selection of Coconut Water for Delivery or Drive ... coconut waters vita coco coconut water organic coconut water vita coco bananas vita coco water pressed strawberry banana 500 ml ... Vita Coco Project: Our coconuts are carefully handpicked on thousands of small forms throughout the tropics. See how we partner ... FAT-FREE, GLUTEN-FREE, and NON-GMO-and with ONLY 45 calories per serving, Vita Coco is the smart, LOWER CALORIE and LOWER SUGAR ...
Black Ops Declassified isnt the only console spin-off that will be exclusive to the PS Vita, as Sonys Gamescom press ... Call of Duty: Black Ops Declassified isnt the only console spin-off that will be exclusive to the PS Vita, as Sonys Gamescom ... Half live action and half gameplay, the trailer gives us our first look at Killzone: Mercenary on the PS Vita. The graphics ... Killzone: Mercenary announced as Vita exclusive at Gamescom. .legacy #content.article .image-holder # ...
The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program (VITA) is sponsored by the IRS and provides free income tax assistance for low and ... The Orange County Department on Agings VC 55+ program has sponsored VITA sites for over 20 years. We recruit and train ... Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) - Chapel Hill NC Flexible Schedule , Chapel Hill, NC 27516 ... Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) - Hillsborough NC Flexible Schedule , Hillsborough, NC 27278 ...
This page has been reproduced from the Vitae website ( Vitae is dedicated to realising the potential of ... At a Vitae membership organisation? For full access use your university/institute email address so that we can recognise you. ... Vitae membership extends to all staff and students of a member organisation. ...
Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. Volume 29, Number 3-March 2023. Article Views: 1408. Data is collected weekly and does not include ... Chorba T. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(3):674-675. doi:10.3201/eid2903.ac2903.. ... Chorba, T. (2023). Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(3), 674-675. ... Chorba T. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(3):674-675. ...
Bucs Vita Vea is reminding everyone hes a special player. The defensive tackle ran down running back Ronald Jones from behind ... TAMPA - The Bucs were still buzzing about the play Vita Vea made in practice two days later. In time, it may become part ... Bucs defensive tackle Vita Vea (50), center, defensive end William Gholston (92) and defensive tackle Ndamukong Suh (93), ...
Ultimately, the Vita is an example of a very good console that, for a variety of reasons, never earned the success it deserved ... But the Vita also proved a fruitful home for indie titles, JRPGs, ports of previous titles, and original PlayStation games. The ... If Sony does decide to build another handheld, hopefully theyll take stock of the Vitas core strengths and expand on them. ... Price cuts and features like Remote Play, which allows you to shift games from the PS4 console to the Vita, may have nudged ...
Shop dolce vita IRL: Visit our stores in NYC and LA. FIND A STORE. ... dolce vita x For Love & Lemons: Introducing the latest collaboration. SHOP NOW. ...
La Dolce Vita is a program especially designed for mature students over the age of 50. You will learn Italian language during ... La Dolce Vita is a program especially designed for mature students over the age of 50. You will learn Italian language during ... Scuola Leonardo da Vinci reserves the right to modify some or all of the activities of the Dolce Vita program. ...
  • Applicants should submit electronically a cover letter, a curriculum vitae (that shows nationality), and a short research statement (not to exceed six double-spaced pages) that describes the research to be undertaken-the topic, methodology, contribution to the literature, and policy relevance-for the two research products. (
  • We continue to offer VITA tax preparation virtually for 2023. (
  • Explore the most appealing deals available for La Dolce Vita - On The Beach - Samara, ensuring you get the best value for your stay. (
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  • La Dolce Vita Playa Samara is a good-value bed & breakfast located a short car ride from Puerto Carrillo. (
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  • Lacan's references to Fellini's film La Dolce vita exemplifying the notion of Thing. (
  • In addition to these mentions, we interpret other scenes from La Dolce Vita that exemplify the Thing of Lacanian seminars and the stranger [Unheimlich] described by Freud. (
  • The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program (VITA) is administered by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). (
  • The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program (VITA) is sponsored by the IRS and provides free income tax assistance for low and moderate-income households. (
  • All volunteers must complete many hours of IRS-certified training and exams to participate in the VITA program. (
  • How do I get assistance from VITA volunteers? (
  • VITAS values volunteers as vital members of the interdisciplinary care team. (
  • The VITA program allowed us to take a concept that we have been working on since the early 90s and move it into a study with human volunteers and two patients who actually had DVT," Dr. Wakefield said. (
  • Totally free of chemicals, Vita Coco coconut oil is made from dried or fresh raw coconut meat only, ensuring it maintains all its tropical goodness, from tree to jar. (
  • Popular with those on a keto diet and one of the chief ingredients of bulletproof coffee, edible coconut oil like Vita Coco is high in natural medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). (
  • Coconut water is the natural choice for everyday, on-the-go refreshment - DRINK VITA COCO before a gym workout, with a meal, as an afternoon pick me up, or after a night out. (
  • FAT-FREE, GLUTEN-FREE, and NON-GMO-and with ONLY 45 calories per serving, Vita Coco is the smart, LOWER CALORIE and LOWER SUGAR alternative to most sodas, sports drinks, and fruit juices. (
  • Vita Coco Project: Our coconuts are carefully handpicked on thousands of small forms throughout the tropics. (
  • In this latest Office Chat, I hang out with Jordan and Jim, discussing the recent expansion of the PlayStation Vita platform into some interesting (and questionable) directions. (
  • Learn how to connect your PlayStation®Vita to a PlayStation®4 console for PS Remote Play and Second Screen play. (
  • PS Remote Play lets you use your PlayStation Vita to access your PS4™ console using a wireless connection. (
  • You can use the PlayStation Vita as a secondary screen to display unique content when playing games that support the Second Screen feature. (
  • PlayStation Vita with system software version 3.00 or later. (
  • Your PlayStation 4 console can connect to the PlayStation Vita in three different ways. (
  • The PlayStation 4 Link app on the PlayStation Vita will choose the connection method best suited to your current situation. (
  • This option lets your PlayStation Vita connect wirelessly directly to your PlayStation 4 console and provides the best PS Remote Play experience. (
  • The PlayStation Vita connects wirelessly to a router, which in turn connects to the PlayStation 4 console. (
  • With this method, the PlayStation Vita connects to the internet, then to an internet-connected PlayStation 4 console. (
  • If you are unable to do so, simply tap Back on the PlayStation Vita and you'll receive a new code. (
  • The PlayStation Vita will search for your PlayStation 4 console and connect via the best connection method. (
  • This obligation does not require a WG Member to search the VITA Member Company's patent databases. (
  • ArtRage Vitae takes full advantage of the Apple Pencil support for pressure & tilt, and 3D touch on your iPhone when available. (
  • Some taxpayers may have less common circumstances that prevent a VITA site from preparing your return, per the Internal Revenue Service guidelines. (
  • Some content is for registered users or Vitae members only. (
  • PlayStation Plus subscribers rejoice: the latest batch of free games for PS4, PS3 and PS Vita were just announced. (
  • If any WG Member does not adequately and timely disclose, the VITA Member Company must license any undisclosed patents or patent applications to the extent essential to implement a Draft VSO Proposed Standard on a royalty free basis and in accordance with the license restrictions in Section 14.4 of the Patent Policy. (
  • The Vitis vinifera group had successfully reduced more plaque score at day 16 (0.04) followed by T. chebula (0.09) and P. granatum (0.12). (
  • From the same menu, be sure the checkbox for Connect Directly to the PS Vita is selected. (
  • The Orange County Department on Aging's VC 55+ program has sponsored VITA sites for over 20 years. (
  • Another NHLBI-supported research program looking to improve treatment for vascular disorders is the Vascular Interventions/Innovations and Therapeutic Advances (VITA) Program. (
  • The VITA program supports a number of translational research projects. (
  • This page has been reproduced from the Vitae website ( (
  • To obtain access, email [email protected] with the subject SEND ME THE LINK. (
  • If you require assistance with your return or would like to arrange an appointment for us to review your return, email [email protected] and include in the subject line FSA. (
  • To get started, most clients will need to complete the Intake Form (13614-C) and Consent Form (1446) and email both to [email protected] . (
  • Clients who are not US citizens or permanent residents (green card holders) will need to complete the Nonresident Intake Form (13614-NR) and the Consent Form (14446) and email it to [email protected] . (
  • With reference to a recent public statement on the teaching of the Magisterium concerning "Humanae Vitae", made by a well-known moral theologian and widely reported by the press, we publish the following clarifications. (
  • WG Members must submit a Declaration form for each new or otherwise previously undisclosed patent or patent application the VITA Member Company owns, controls, or licenses that contains claims essential to implement a Draft VSO Proposed Standard. (
  • Daniel Vita (Lt), showing students how to don personal protective equipment (PPE) with the help of USAMRIID combat medic, U.S. Army Pfc. (
  • The duty of calling good and evil by their right names in the area of responsible procreation was carried out by Paul VI with a most faithful love for Christ and for souls, particularly in his Encyclical Humanae Vitae . (
  • With Guerrilla Games developing the title and using the Killzone 3 engine to do so, this might just turn out to be the high-profile, console-quality game the PS Vita needs. (
  • ArtRage Vitae isn't just about color: It knows how much paint you've used so you can mix it and spread it on a textured canvas. (
  • The objective of this study was to compare different resins and determine their matching color with Vita shade, also investigating the possibility of substitution among them and the correlation between the visual and spectrophotometry methods of color selection. (
  • The Fisher exact test showed that there was no color match among the materials and the reference Vita shade. (
  • Vitae membership extends to all staff and students of a member organisation. (
  • Disclosures must be based on the WG Member's good faith and reasonable inquiry into the patents and patent applications the VITA Member Company they represent owns, controls, or licenses. (
  • Any VSO member that believes a WG Member or the VITA Member Company they represent has not fulfilled his/her or its obligations under the Patent Policy terms may submit his/her complaint to the WG Chair. (
  • Interested clients can learn more about our IRS-approved 100% Virtual VITA process on Consent Form F14446.pdf . (
  • Going forward, Dr. Wakefield sees even more change coming to vascular research through programs like VITA. (
  • Inspired by Brazil, where coconut oil is part of everyday life, Vita Coco's organic coconut oil brings all the flavour and vibrancy of the home of carnival and rainforests right to your kitchen or bathroom cupboard. (
  • ArtRage Vitae is our Premium Natural Painting application for mobile devices! (
  • Call of Duty: Black Ops Declassified isn't the only console spin-off that will be exclusive to the PS Vita, as Sony 's Gamescom press conference also treated us to the announcement of Killzone: Mercenary . (