Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Coloration of the skin.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Breaks in bones.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/2124)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth. (2/2124)

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population. (3/2124)

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-mo follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes.  (+info)

Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. (4/2124)

BACKGROUND: Excessive decreases in fat intake in young children have been linked with low intakes of energy and nutrients and possible growth failure. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated nutrient intakes and growth of healthy children with different fat intakes during the first 5 y of life. DESIGN: In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP), 7-mo-old children were randomly assigned to an intervention aimed at reduced consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol (n = 540) or to a control group (n = 522). This analysis comprises data for children for whom > or = 6 of 8 possible 3-4-d food records were available (n = 730; 353 females). Children were divided according to fat intake pattern (percentage of energy) between the ages of 13 mo and 5 y into groups with continuously high fat intake (5% of children), increasing fat intake (5%), continuously low fat intake (5%), decreasing fat intake (5%), and average fat intake (80%). Children's energy and nutrient intakes and growth were then compared by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Fat intake at 13 mo of age was particularly low (21% of energy) in the increasing fat intake group and in the continuously low fat intake group (22% of energy at 13 mo; 26% of energy at 5 y). Growth of children in all 5 fat intake groups, however, was not significantly different throughout the study period. Intakes of vitamins and minerals, except of vitamin D, met recommended dietary allowances in all fat intake groups. CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes and growth were not significantly different in children whose fat intake patterns differed between 13 mo and 5 y of age.  (+info)

Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice. (5/2124)

The composition of nutritionally and physiologically important molecules in transgenic rice with the soybean glycinin gene was determined and compared with that of a non-transgenic control. Except for the levels of protein, amino acids and moisture, no marked differences were found between the two kinds of rice. The protein content of the transgenic rice was about 20% higher than the control (control, 6.5 g/100 g; transgenic, 8.0 g/100 g) with a concomitantly lower moisture content. This increased protein content mainly resulted from the increased glycinin expressed in the transgenic rice, and the protein was susceptible to gastric and intestinal digestion juices. In parallel with the increased protein content, some important amino acids lacking in quantity in normal rice were replenished.  (+info)

Primary prevention of CHD: nine ways to reduce risk. (6/2124)

Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.  (+info)

Increases in 4-hydroxynonenal and hexanal in bone marrow of rats subjected to total body X-ray irradiation: association with antioxidant vitamins. (7/2124)

Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and its association with antioxidant vitamins in the bone marrow (BM), of rats subjected to total body irradiation (TBI) of X-rays at a dose of 3 Gy was investigated. The concentration of vitamin C in the BM decreased at 4 h, and reached about 2% of the control level at 24 h after irradiation. The concentration of vitamin E in the BM also decreased to 43% at 24 h. Corresponding to the decrease in vitamin E concentration, the concentration of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in the BM increased 2.5-fold at 24 h. Similarly, increases in the concentrations of hexanal and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were detected in the BM. In the plasma, these parameters of lipid peroxidation were unchanged up to 48 h, but were increased at 96 h after irradiation. Four days of vitamin E administration to rats (p.o. 460 mg/kg body weight) prior to the 3 Gy X-irradiation increased the vitamin E concentration in the BM to 1.3-fold the control level, but did not attenuate the increases in HNE and hexanal in the BM. The slight accumulation of vitamin E in the BM as a result of the vitamin E treatment may be partly related to this lack of vitamin E effect.  (+info)

Demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors differentially explain variability in serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins: baseline results from the sentinel site of the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study. (8/2124)

Biochemical measures of nutrients or other dietary constituents can be an important component of nutritional assessment and monitoring. However, accurate interpretation of the nutrient concentration is dependent on knowledge of the determinants of the body pool measured. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of serum carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in a large, community-based sample (n = 1042). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine effects of demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education), health-related behavior (exercise, sun exposure, smoking, alcohol consumption), and intake (diet, supplements) on serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and carotenoid concentrations. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, vitamin A intake, and alcohol consumption were found to be determinants of serum retinol concentration. Race/ethnicity, vitamin D intake, body mass index, smoking status, and sun exposure were determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol were age, sex, race/ethnicity, alpha-tocopherol intake, serum cholesterol, percentage of energy from fat (inversely related), supplement use, and body mass index. Age, sex, phylloquinone intake, serum triglycerides, and supplement use were determinants of serum phylloquinone concentration. Primary determinants of serum carotenoids were age, sex, race/ethnicity, carotenoid intake, serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and smoking status. Overall, the demographic, dietary, and other lifestyle factors explained little of the variability in serum concentrations of retinol (R2 = 0.20), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (R2 = 0.24), and the carotenoids (R2 = 0.15-0.26); only modest amounts of the variability in serum phylloquinone concentration (R2 = 0.40); and more substantial amounts of the variability in serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (R2 = 0.62).  (+info)

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Large-scale trials over the past several years have shown a general lack of effect of single vitamins or small numbers of vitamins given at high doses in preventing cancer. However, as recently reported in JAMA by Gaziano and colleagues, the Physicians Health Study II has found a modest but significant reduction in risk for total cancer-ie, all new cancers-in men taking a daily multivitamin compared with those taking placebo.1 A small reduction in cancer mortality was not statistically significant.. Physicians Health Study. The Physicians Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2×2×2×2 factorial trial assessing multivitamins, vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene use. The components of the trial other than the multivitamin component were terminated several years ago.. In the multivitamin component of the study, 14,641 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years were randomly assigned to receive a daily multivitamin (n = 7,317) or placebo (n = 7,324). Patients had a ...
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Most lipids (fat) are insoluble to water (hydrophobic). Only smallest lipids (fatty acids) can dissolve in watery blood plasma. In order to become soluble in blood plasma, other lipid molecules join with hydrophilic protein molecules. Lipid/protein are called Lipoproteins. They are able to be soluble because the proteins are on the outside and the lipids are on the inside.. Fat soluble vitamins are VITAMIN A, D, E, and K.. Water soluble vitamins are vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin b12. ...
MutiSure Prenatal Multivitamin & Mineral Supplement - Prenatal nutrition requires more than just vitamins – omega-3s such as DHA are vital too. Mult
Low prices on Mens Multiple Vitamins! Multi-vitamins for men are formulated for mens specific vitamin and mineral needs. Many also include herbs and other nutrients for prostate health, energy and mental focus. Most are either iron-free or provide very modest amounts of iron since most men dont require high-potency iron supplementation.L
Press Release issued Nov 20, 2014: Vitamins supplements are non-drug and non-hormone based nutritional products that can be consumed as powders, pills, liquids or by injection. There are various types of vitamins supplements such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. supplements are broadly classified under multivitamins and individual vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.
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Multiple vitamins 55 plus medication - Are vitamins considered medications too? Yes. Vitamins are medications when they are used to treat a given condition caused by the deficiency of that vitamin. By definition, a vitamin is a substance that needs to be present in a very small quantity to maintain health. vita life, min miniscule or very small. Examples being scurvy, the deficiency of vitamin c, or rickets the deficiency of vitamin d.
See below for local vitamin shops that sell vitamins in Perris, CA and get access to vitamins supplements, minerals supplements, vitamin B complex, liquid vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, multivitamins, natural vitamin supplements, as well as advice and content on vegetarian diet.
See below for local vitamin shops that sell vitamins in Jackson, MI and get access to vitamins supplements, minerals supplements, vitamin B complex, liquid vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, multivitamins, natural vitamin supplements, as well as advice and content on vegetarian diet.
but the two ingredients with the highest number of milligrams are Vitamin C and Echinacea. Platz: Name: Biotin-Zink-Kapseln: Kieselerde: Arganl / Kokosle / Kruterle: Wirkstoff: Biotin (Vitamin B7 / Vitamin H) Kieselsureanhydride (Siliciumdioxide) About Vitamin C Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C Vitamin E Selenium and Carotenoids Chameleons: Signs Treatment There are several forms of vitamin vitamin d3 itching liver alcohol b A.. In laboratory rodents the scientists observed that vitamin C was able to kill cancer cells at the concentrations achievable only by intravenous infusion Banish the blues with the right Homemade face msks may contain simple ingredients but when combined correctly have amazing abilities to repair nourish and transform skin. Find out the reasons why vitamin D is important for women with PCOS. Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) A water-soluble antioxidant vitamin found in plants and produced synthetically. Made in USA in an FDA Registered Facility using Good Manufacturing ...
Vitamin Mineral SupplementFlexible Daily Servings - Hypoallergenic Exceptional Absorption - Yeast Freepioneer Vitamin/Mineral Supplement (V/MS) is a highly absorbable, versatile, broad spectrum nutritional supplement of uncompromising quality.Developed by physicians and clinicians who specialize in nutrition and preventive medicine, pioneer V/MS reflects an integration of the most current, scientific nutritional studies with actual nutritional needs observed in many patients. pioneer V/MS combines generous amounts of highly bioavailable nutrients in one supplement. High potencies of these nutrients are usually available only when purchased individually. Suitable for adults and children over four years of age, V/MS is a superior prenatal formula as well.Consider These Advantages:1.All Known Vitamins, Minerals & Micronutrients. pioneer V/MS contains all of the recognized vitamins and minerals in significant ratios and amounts. Included are all known trace minerals, many of which are no longer present in
VITAMINS. Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all.. There are two types of vitamins:. Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. Fat-soluble vitamins are easier to store than water-soluble ones and can stay in the body as reserves for days, some of them for months. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (lipids). Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.. Water-soluble vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins do not get stored in the body for long - they soon get excreted in urine. Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat-soluble ones. Vitamins C and all the B vitamins are water-soluble.. Vitamin A. Chemical names - retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene). Good sources include: liver, ...
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There are two types of supplements you need for your iguana: a multivitamin supplement and a calcium supplement. Most multivitamin supplements have some calcium but not enough to counterbalance the phosphorous naturally found in the food - even when sticking to foods high in calcium. Thats just one of the not insurmountable problems when feeding a vegetarian diet....actually, it is a vegan diet as many vegetarian humans eat eggs and dairy products, both sources of calcium that are not available to iguanas (because animal protein is unhealthful for them).. The reptile multivitamin supplements out there are about the same. You can buy a reptile multivitamin supplement (names like Herptivite, Reptivite, Reptisol, etc.) or you can buy a bird vitamin such as Avitron, or a general animal vitamin like Vionate, buy and crush the canine Pet Tabs, or get a human vitamin - Centrum contains more vitamins and trace elements than any of the reptile and pet vitamins on the market. I use Vionate because not ...
View Notes - Lecture 08 - Vitamin from PHARM gs at UCSD. Lecture 08 Vitamin/Mineral Vitamin/mineral absorption (introduction) In addition to the macronutrients Some are referred to as
Flu season has started. Better start popping multivitamins, right?. Well, not quite.. Multivitamins have been a surprisingly controversial topic in the past few years. Traditionally, multivitamins have been considered the best source for getting our daily dose of vitamins. But, it turns out you can have too much of a good thing. Overdosing on multivitamins may be toxic in extreme amounts, but can also cause unfortunate, though less drastic, side effects with slightly increased doses. Studies have shown that men and women who took multivitamins and other supplements were at a slightly greater risk for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. Other potential side effects of multivitamins include headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, and abnormal taste in the mouth. However, the Harvard School of Public Health argues that many of the studies may have been skewed by underlying illnesses and diseases of the patients in the study.. ...
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AG Patel MD Center for Regenerative Medicine features supplements, nutritional supplements and whole food supplements. Visit the AG Patel MD Supplements Clinic in Dallas Ft Worth for the best vitamin and mineral supplements.
Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Brighton that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is essential in protecting people against the harmful and dangerous effects of pollution.. Vitamin C helps develop our immune system so that it would be easier for one to fight against diseases. This vitamin shields against infections, helps prevent cancer, lessen cholesterol and decrease the possibility of high blood pressure.. Vitamin C natural vitamins supplements are normally taken from citrus products such as but not limited to oranges and lemons. Sources also include acerola cherry tree, rose hips and other plants that are rich in vitamin C. 2. Vitamin B natural vitamins supplements B vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water which play a key role in cell metabolism. They are important in maintaining healthy functions of the nervous system, skin, eyes, hair and liver.. With the help of B vitamins, the conversion of food to energy is made easy. It was proven through research that B vitamins help improve bones and aids in a healthy heart.. Vitamin B ...
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Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Alexander City that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Nekton Rep 35g. Multivitamin compound for reptiles and amphibians NEKTON-Rep contains 12 vitamins, 6 trace elements, 2 amino acids as well as calcium.
Nekton Rep 75g. Multivitamin compound for reptiles and amphibians NEKTON-Rep contains 12 vitamins, 6 trace elements, 2 amino acids as well as calcium.
Normal larvae of two beetles, Lasioderma serricorne and Sitodrepa panicea, and larvae freed from their intracellular symbionts have been grown on various diets. On white flour, a food deficient in vitamins of the B group, normal larvae grow very much better than sterilized larvae, while no such difference in the growth rate occurs on a diet rich in vitamins of the B group, e. g. wholemeal flour plus yeast. On an artificial diet which contains the vitamins of the B complex in pure substances, the normal Lasioderma larva grows well or fairly well in the absence of either thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxin or pantothenic acid, and the normal Sitodrepa larva in the absence of any of these vitamins except thiamin. The sterilized larvae of both species fail to grow in the absence of any of these five vitamins. It is concluded that the intracellular symbionts of Lasioderma and Sitodrepa supply vitamins of the B group. ...
Testosterone is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in males and by the ovaries in females. Vitamin D is one of the 24 essential vitamins needed by the body for survival and it affects more than 1000 body functions, so any fluctuations in the levels of vitamin D can disrupt many functions. There is a clear connection between vitamin D levels and testosterone levels in the body as the former affects a lot of endocrine functions.. Vitamin D is generally got by skin exposure to sun, it is a fat soluble vitamin and is absorbed in the small intestine and stored in the body tissues. It stays longer in the body when compared to water soluble vitamins and so overdosing on Vitamin D can lead to toxicity as well.. Recent studies correlating Vit D and Testosterone. A study found that men who had sufficient vitamin D in their body had significantly higher levels of testosterone in the body than men who had insufficient vitamin levels. It also states that older men who are on vitamin D supplements are ...
Vitamin supplements include amino acids, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, dietary minerals, and many more. They can be found in foods and natural health products. See below for local businesses in Waipahu that give access to vitamin supplements and learn more about how vitamin supplements can help athletic performance.
Vitamin supplements include amino acids, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, dietary minerals, and many more. They can be found in foods and natural health products. See below for local businesses in Quincy that give access to vitamin supplements and learn more about how vitamin supplements can help athletic performance.
I often preach the value of taking a daily multivitamin pill, particularly in light of how our modern lives are lived. In an article I have posted elsewhere entitled Should You Take a Daily Multivitamin, point out how we live our lives these days and how peoples individual situations usually make it in their best interest to at least supplement their nutritional intake with some general, all purpose, daily vitamin pill.. However, I have seldom studied, written about, or discussed the value of individual vitamins, minerals, or supplements.. A recent personal experience, combined with a little research, has moved me to write about one nutrient in particular. At least when I began my researches, I was looking into Vitamin D only, but I soon learned that to discuss this topic without mentioning calcium is only telling part of the story.. The personal experience was that my wife, a particular person with a particular medical history, began experiencing what a doctor eventually determined was ...
You definitely heard a lot about various vitamin supplements: special capsules, tablets or even liquid products which contain one or several (multivitamin supplements) vitamins, minerals or other beneficial nutrients essential for our body. Some of those are nothing else but herbal vitamins derived from organic food sources (soy, corn, alfalfa, yeast, rosehips and so on), and some have artificially synthesized vitamins. Usually, vitamin supplements also contain various substances which facilitate vitamin and mineral absorption in the body. Read the rest of this entry ». ...
This page provides relevant content and local businesses that can help with your search for information on Vitamin Supplement Stores. You will find informative articles about Vitamin Supplement Stores, including Are Your Vitamins Worthless?. Below you will also find local businesses that may provide the products or services you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in North Las Vegas, NV that can help answer your questions about Vitamin Supplement Stores.
A recent article in the New York Times attacks multiple vitamins, warning of the dangers of overdosing. I cant help but wonder if this is really about anti-vitamin activists counter-attacking against last years article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) that advocated the use of multiple vitamins by most of our population. Looking at the reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, vitamin overdoses are rare, with typically no deaths resulting in a typical year. The reporter asserts that researchers say that vitamin supplements cannot correct for a poor diet, that multivitamins have not been shown to prevent any disease and that it is easy to reach high enough doses of certain vitamins and minerals to actually increase the risk of disease. No longer, the experts say, are they concerned about vitamin deficits. Those are almost unheard of today, even with the population eating less than ideal diets and skimping on fruits and vegetables. Instead, the ...
One of the largest observational studies looking at multivitamins and health involved over 160,000 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years. They were all part of the Womens Health Initiative study that explored health markers and risk of cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis.. Over 40 percent of women were taking a multivitamin supplement, yet over the 8 years of the study, there was no link between taking these supplements with the risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease or dying earlier.. For heart disease, the most recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies involving over 2 million participants found no association between multivitamin supplementation and cardiovascular disease outcomes including mortality.. Randomised-controlled trials are better than observational studies for investigating any direct effects of multivitamins on health. But way back in 2006, a comprehensive review looking at only randomised-controlled clinical trials found that taking ...
pregnancy because their vitamin requirements may exceed those of nonpregnant women. Best results are seen combining these injections with diet and exercise. glucose determinations. Adult component toxicity. Digestion. intravenous injection as it may cause dizziness, faintness, and tissue Adult is not physically compatible with moderately Copyright © 2018 by RxList Inc. RxList does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. vitamin A concentrations after administration of M.V.I. Vitamin B-12 plays a crucial role in the body. Each ml of B Complex contains: Vitamin B1 100 mg B2 0.5 mg B6 1mg Nicotinamide 100 mg (B3 amide) Explore today and choose your suitable multivitamin injection in line with your animals and their demands and requirements. Adult is indicated for the prevention of vitamin Caution should be exercised when M.V.I. Adult (multiple vitamins Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration Each bulk vial closure shall be penetrated only one time Find ...
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Nutrition: B vitamin supplements may ward off stroke. New evidence suggests that taking vitamin B supplements may help reduce the risk of stroke.
A four-week feeding trial will be implemented to assess the change in plasma zinc concentration among young adult men who receive: a) bread fortified with a moderate amount of zinc and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals; b) bread fortified with a large amount zinc and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals; c) non-zinc-fortified bread and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals [negative control group]; and d) non-zinc-fortified bread and a zinc-containing liquid vitamin preparation between meals [positive control group ...
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate, has been one of the most researched vitamins over the last five decades. A search of the scientific literature reveals that over 63,000 studies have been conducted on vitamin C since 1968, and almost 20,000 studies in the last decade alone. Medical research has shown that vitamin C helps promote immune system, heart, vascular system, and overall brain health among many other benefits. Low blood levels of vitamin C are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death. According to a 2009 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, over seven percent of people age six and older were vitamin C deficient when their blood levels were measured. More than half of those surveyed consumed low amounts of vitamin C rich foods. In my career, I have diagnosed three American patients with scurvy, a disease that was traditionally diagnosed in British sailors and common among malnourished pirates, both whom had limited access to ...
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate, has been one of the most researched vitamins over the last five decades. A search of the scientific literature reveals that over 63,000 studies have been conducted on vitamin C since 1968, and almost 20,000 studies in the last decade alone. Medical research has shown that vitamin C helps promote immune system, heart, vascular system, and overall brain health among many other benefits. Low blood levels of vitamin C are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death. According to a 2009 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, over seven percent of people age six and older were vitamin C deficient when their blood levels were measured. More than half of those surveyed consumed low amounts of vitamin C rich foods. In my career, I have diagnosed three American patients with scurvy, a disease that was traditionally diagnosed in British sailors and common among malnourished pirates, both whom had limited access to ...
Although modern diets provide plenty of our most vital nutrients, many of us underconsume a few key vitamins and minerals. Learn about the most common vitamin deficiencies and how to ensure youre getting enough.
Is malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies causing your health concerns. Herbal medicine can help to provide your body with the vitamins it requires.
Researcher Dion Zessin has compiled a document listing the mental disorders created by vitamin deficiencies (and the many variants of vitamin
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At their best, vitamin and mineral supplements help fill nutrient gaps when the diet is lacking. Supplements may be most useful to people who cant afford a variety of healthful foods (a basic multivitamin/mineral supplement taken daily can cost as little as $15 per year). People in age groups that require higher intakes for some nutrients (e.g., calcium for teenagers and postmenopausal women) may also benefit from supplement use, as can people who follow special diets for medical (e.g., lactose intolerance) or ethical (e.g., veganism) reasons. Since federal nutrition surveys suggest that considerable numbers of Americans may be falling short on a handful of specific nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium), some experts recommend that all adults take a multivitamin/mineral supplement-one that delivers no more than 100 percent of recommended daily doses-as dietary insurance. Other experts argue that these surveys dont accurately account for nutrients Americans get ...
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... Fan page (archived) Marilyn's Vitamins on (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ... Marilyn's Vitamins were a Canadian punk rock band formed in 1995 from Orangeville, Ontario, Canada, playing their last show ... "Colin Vitamin", Colin Ridiculouspunkpseudonym) Rob Moir (AKA Rob Stiff, Rob Potential) Kris Wood (AKA "Wooder") 1995: Self ...
... prenatal vitamin soft chews, vitamin chewables, and even jellied prenatal vitamins. Prenatal vitamins are available both over ... Often prenatal vitamins also have a reduced dosage of vitamins that may be detrimental to the fetus when taken in high doses ( ... Vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, calcium, and iron are in higher concentrations, while nutrients such as vitamin A are ... Prenatal vitamins, also known as prenatal supplements, are vitamin and mineral supplements intended to be taken before and ...
... may refer to: Vitamins & Minerals (EP), a 2004 EP by Blueprint Vitamins & Minerals (journal), an academic ... journal published by OMICS Publishing Group This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitamins & ...
"Vitamins". Musicbrainz. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2021. "Vitamins: The Recording Of". "Ballof Wax ... Vitamins is the third studio album by Irish anti-folk band Music for Dead Birds. The album was recorded in one weekend at Data ... Official Music for Dead Birds website Vitamins on Bandcamp (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Articles with short description, ... "Music for Dead Birds - Vitamins". 16 January 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2021. " ...
Vitamin B20: L-carnitine. Vitamin Bf: carnitine. Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor". Vitamin Bp ... Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine. Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin. Vitamin Bx: an alternative ... Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B vitamins. Deficiencies of other B vitamins ... Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol. Vitamin B10: ...
"Vitamins" begins with an unnamed male narrator telling the story of how his wife starts a home business selling vitamins. His ... Patti complains of dreaming of vitamins and that her life is becoming consumed by vitamins. A couple of days after the party ... Patti confides to the narrator that she feels suffocated by vitamins, and that she wants to escape from vitamins. These ... The vitamin business was not doing as well as before so Patti holds a party to cheer all her employees up. All the girls are ...
... vitamin D and vitamin E. Vitamin D is necessary for the maintenance and growth of bones in children. Vitamin D deficiency is a ... Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, a disease in which bones become soft and pliable. Vitamin E is a potent anti- ... The dosage of Vitamin C in one tablet of Flintstones Plus Immunity Support Vitamin C is still below the tolerable upper intake ... Flintstones Vitamins-The Leading Brand Moms Trust and Kids Love! "Bayer to add Betty Rubble to Flintstones Vitamins". Boca ...
The YourLife Vitamins LPGA Classic was a golf tournament on the LPGA Tour, played only in 2001. It was played at Grand Cypress ... "YourLife Vitamins LPGA Classic". Golf Observer. v t e v t e (Former LPGA Tour events, Golf in Orlando, Florida, 2001 ...
... vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or ... vitamin A and vitamins B1, B2 and B12. The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored ... vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and ... Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others. Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin or nutrient not available from ...
Vitamin may also refer to: Vitamin (TV series) Vitamins A(short story) Vitamin (Andrea song) Vitamins (Music for Dead Birds ... Look up vitamin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism ... album) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitamin. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
A. "Vitamin L" (Club Version) (4:46) B. "Vitamin L" (LP Version) (5:29) (Articles needing additional references from January ... "Vitamin L" is a song by the American pop rock band B.E. Taylor Group. It is the fifth track on the band's second studio album, ... The lyrics tell the story of a man whose medical condition can only be treated with an unstable drug, called Vitamin L, that ... erasing the idea that the vitamin is an unstable drug. Three whole lines in the third verse are changed, but these do not ...
Verda T. "Vitamin" Smith, Jr. (October 30, 1923 - February 14, 2000) was a National Football League (NFL) running back for the ... "Standout Ram Kick Returner Vitamin T. Smith Dead at 76". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 16 February 2000. Retrieved 15 ...
"Gummy Vitamins Are Surging in Popularity. Are They Healthy or Just Candy?". WSJ. Retrieved 2022-11-09. "Are Gummy Vitamins a ... "Do Gummy Vitamins Work as Well as Traditional Vitamins?". Cleveland Clinic. 2021-05-14. Retrieved 2022-11-09. "Goli Ashwagandha ... "Gummy vitamins are more appealing than pills - but they have some serious drawbacks". Retrieved 2022-11-09. v t e ( ... Global sales of gummy vitamins in 2022 are estimated to be over US$7 billion. Gummy candy Multivitamins Janin, Alex. " ...
... was founded in 1977 by Arthur Rudolph and is headquartered in Great River, New York. Vitamin World was a ... General vitamins and minerals are sold under the "Vitamin World" brand. Natural beauty products are sold under the "V Therapy" ... Vitamin World was acquired by private equity firm Center Lane Partners in 2016. In January 2018, Vitamin World was purchased by ... Vitamin World USA Corporation is a global retailer of vitamins and nutritional supplements and is headquartered on Long Island ...
... may refer to: Methylphenidate, also known as Ritalin or Vitamin R "Vitamin R (Leading Us Along)", a song by Chevelle ... of beer in the Pacific Northwest of the United States This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitamin ...
... is a former designation given to several distinct chemical compounds, none of which is currently considered a true ... vitamin: Adenine Carnitine Choline This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an ...
... is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the B vitamins. The vitamin actually comprises a group of six chemically related ... Wu Y, Zhang L, Li S, Zhang D (April 2021). "Associations of dietary vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with ... Overconsumption of seeds from Ginkgo biloba can deplete vitamin B6, because the ginkgotoxin is an anti-vitamin (vitamin ... Vitamin B6 is one of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient. The term refers to a group of six chemically similar ...
... is a subcategory of vitamin A, including vitamin A1 in the form of retinol, retinyl esters, retinal, and provitamin ... vitamin A2 alcohol), and 3,4-dehydroretinoic acid (vitamin A2 acid). Vitamin A2 was first identified by Richard Alan Morton ... Törmä H, Vahlquist A (1985). "Biosynthesis of 3-dehydroretinol (vitamin A2) from all-trans-retinol (vitamin A1) in human ... Babino D, Golczak M, Kiser PD, Wyss A, Placzewski K, von Lintig J (2016). "The Biochemical Basis of Vitamin A3 Production in ...
... , colloquially referred to as niacin, is a vitamin family that includes three forms or vitamers: niacin (nicotinic ... "Vitamin B3 (Niacin)". 2000. Retrieved 12 May 2020. "Effects of Cooking on Vitamins (Table)". Beyondveg. ... Because deficiencies of other B-vitamins may be present, the WHO recommends a multi-vitamin in addition to the niacinamide. ... Institute of Medicine (1998). "Niacin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin ...
"Vitamin She Movie Review, Trailer, & Show timings at Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 August 2017. "Vitamin She ... Vitamin She (Gujarati: વિટામીન શી) is a 2017 Gujarati romantic comedy-drama film directed by Faisal Hashmi and produced by ... "Vitamin She Review : Gujarati Romantic movie Explains the logics Between Male and Female - Newsfolo". "૯૩.૪ ટકા કલેક્શન સાથે ... "Vitamin She - All Songs - Download or Listen Free - JioSaavn". 19 July 2017. "વિટામિન Sheનો ઑફસ્ક્રીન હીરો છે મેહુલ સુરતી". www ...
... (sitocalciferol) is a form of vitamin D. Analogs of calcitriol, a form of vitamin D3, have been proposed for use as ... The effects of vitamin D5 on prostate cancer have also been studied, and unlike vitamin D3, vitamin D5 does not cause ... Studies on vitamin D3 have shown inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer, but high doses of vitamin D3 result in ... The most researched analogue of vitamin D5 as an antitumor agent is 1α-hydroxyvitamin D5. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D5 is a chemical ...
... is a fat-soluble vitamin, a category that also includes vitamins D, E and K. The vitamin encompasses several ... Vitamin A is found in many foods. Vitamin A in food exists either as preformed retinol - an active form of vitamin A - found in ... Institute of Medicine (2001). "Vitamin A". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper ... Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans. It is a group of organic compounds that includes ...
... is a Turkish pop and pop rock band which make parody songs. The Grup Vitamin is composed of Emrah Anul, Selçuk ... The real Vitamin continued with Gökhan Semiz, Selçuk Aksoy, Emrah Anul and Sertaç Demirtaş. At the same time, Ercan Saatçi and ... He and Ufuk changed their band's name to Uf-Er and release two albums, Vitamin Değil Şifa Niyetine in 1992 and Ebabil Kuştur in ... Debates about which the real Vitamin is started to exist. Ercan and Ufuk attended a morning show and lip synced one of Gökhan's ...
"Vitamin Z Chart History". Retrieved 25 June 2019. Vitamin Z: Official website (Articles with short description, ... Vitamin Z also made news when their video for the song "Circus Ring (We Scream About)" was filmed in Istanbul, making them the ... Vitamin Z were an English band, formed in 1982 by vocalist Geoff Barradale and bassist Nick Lockwood. Their biggest hit " ... Vitamin Z founders Geoff Barradale and Nick Lockwood were born and raised in Sheffield.[citation needed] The group originally ...
... got its first trailer in January, 2020, and was announced to have a release date of February 20, 2020 as a ... Vitamin Connection is a 2020 action-adventure game developed and published by WayForward, exclusively for the Nintendo Switch. ... Reception Vitamin Connection was generally well received by critics. Review aggregator website Metacritic gave the game 80/100 ... "Vitamin Connection, Mighty Switch Force! Collection getting physical releases at Limited Run Games". Nintendo Wire. Nintendo ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vitamin X. Vitamin X US tour at Vitamin X - Bad Trip at ScenePointBlank ... Vitamin X (abbreviated VX) is a Dutch hardcore punk band from Amsterdam formed in 1997. Their sound is characterized by furious ... Once Upon a Time... 7" EP Sleeve -II- CBGB Show Archive Profane Existence Magazine - Interview Exclaim! review "VITAMIN X: ... "Hear Dinosaur Jr.'s J Mascis Solo over Vitamin X's Hardcore Ripper "Flip the Switch"". 27 April 2018. ...
... prescriptions decreased by 53% while vitamin C remained constant and vitamin D increased by 454%. A report on vitamin ... Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin E". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ... vitamin A, vitamin C, beta-carotene, selenium). In the United States vitamin E supplement use by female health professionals ... As of 2017, vitamin E continues to be a topic of active clinical research. There is no clinical evidence that use of vitamin E ...
... , also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is ... Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal- ... "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled ... each of which shows vitamin activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system, they are referred to as vitamers. The vitamin ...
Vitamin K Vitamin K1 Vitamin K3 Myneni VD, Mezey E (November 2017). "Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2". Oral ... Vitamin K2 or menaquinone (MK) (/ˌmɛnəˈkwɪnoʊn/) is one of three types of vitamin K, the other two being vitamin K1 ( ... The mechanism of action of vitamin K2 is similar to vitamin K1. K vitamins were first recognized as a factor required for ... Institute of Medicine, Panel on Micronutrients (2001). "5. Vitamin K". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, ...
... may refer to: Salicylic acid, although not a vitamin, is sometimes called "vitamin S" a song by Jamaican dancehall ... particularly when illicitly provided and/or taken This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitamin S. ...
Learn about the importance of vitamin D supplementation for breastfed infants. ... Vitamin D deficiency rickets among breastfed infants is rare, but it can occur if an infant does not receive additional vitamin ... Why are infants at risk for vitamin D deficiency?. The risk for vitamin D deficiency is increased when there is limited ... Vitamin D is needed to support healthy bone development and to prevent rickets, a condition that causes weak or deformed bones ...
Vitamins. The Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines vitamin as:. vi.ta.min: any of various organic substances that ... Vitamins are smallish molecules (Vitamin B12 is the largest, with a molecular weight of 1,355) that your body needs to keep ... In How Sunburns and Sun Tans Work, we learn that the body can produce its own Vitamin D, but generally vitamins must be ... The following list shows diseases associated with the lack of different vitamins:. *Lack of Vitamin A: Night blindness, ...
HIGH-DOSE mineral and vitamin supplements could be banned in France as a result of a review by the governments health advisers ... Even though the council says that the antioxidant Vitamin E is not very toxic, its daily limit was set at 40 milligrams. This ... The French limits could lead to a wider crackdown on the sale of high-dose vitamins and minerals. French officials say they ... HIGH-DOSE mineral and vitamin supplements could be banned in France as a result of a review by the governments health advisers ...
Im taking a prenatal, drinking RRL tea (yuck!), using a homeopathic estrogen blend, and progresterone cream.
Save face with free Vitamin C facials at GBS stores this week. ... Vitamins for Your Visage Save face with free Vitamin C facials ... Give your face a little R&R with a free Vitamins C facial at GBS, The Beauty Store. A kick of C is just what your pores need to ... From June 23 through 25, all six of GBS South Florida locations will be serving up Vitamin C facials free from Murad. Get in ... The Radiance Restoring Mini-facials, which are made from pure Vitamin C for instant hydration and restoration, come complete ...
Vitamin E prescriptions decreased by 53% while vitamin C remained constant and vitamin D increased by 454%.[59] A report on ... Vitamin E is a group of eight fat soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.[1][2] Vitamin E ... Vitamin E may have various roles as a vitamin.[4] Many biological functions have been postulated, including a role as a fat- ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp ...
There are 13 vitamins your body needs; Each has specific jobs. ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and ... Vitamin K. You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who ... B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate) ... Vitamin A prevents night blindness.. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In ...
Serums & Essences Products Containing Ascorbyl Palmitate (Vitamin C Palmitate) Sort best to worst. Sort worst to best. Sort ...
Shop Multi Vitamins direct from Safeway. Browse our selection and order groceries for flexible Delivery or convenient Drive Up ... VitaFusion Gummy Vitamins For Men Berry Flavored Daily Multivitamins For Men - 150 Count ...
Browse the Vitamins section at Waitrose & Partners and buy high quality Healthy Options products today. Free delivery - T&Cs ... Waitrose Calcium & Vitamin D60s. 60s. 2.5. out of 5 stars(7) ... Waitrose Vitamin C Chewable90s. 90s. 4.5. out of 5 stars(3) ... Stock up your botanical bathroom cabinet with a range of natural herbal remedies and vitamin boosting supplements ...
... vitamins help provide skin protection, lightening and other cosmetic benefits. ... BeauPlex® VH is an all-in-one vitamin blend containing vitamins B3, B5, B6, C and E - vitamins which are known to have a ... Our love of vitamins comes at a time when the world is re-awakening to the potential that vitamins can offer. As one of the ... Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 in cosmetic applications appears to reduce sebum levels in skin and limit the area of oily spots. In ...
Can vitamin C really help fight off a cold? A. Vitamin C helps bolster the immune system, so taking some extra vitamin C if you ... Garden of Life Vitamin Code Raw Vitamin C. What you need to know: This extremely potent vitamin C supplement is ideal for those ... What to know before you buy a vitamin C supplement. Types of vitamin C. Vitamin C is available in several types. Ascorbic acid ... The best supplement, Garden of Life Vitamin Code Raw Vitamin C, provides a high amount of vitamin C per dose without any ...
... vitamins may also work for some people. Learn more in this article. ... Vitamins to avoid. Although some vitamins and minerals can help people with constipation, others may cause it or make it worse. ... SHOP FOR VITAMINS AND SUPPLEMENTS. The vitamins and minerals in this article are available to purchase in drug stores and ... Some vitamins and minerals can cause loose stools or diarrhea, including magnesium and vitamin C. Other supplements, such as ...
Here, Forbes Health rates the top five prenatal vitamin brands available. ... The best prenatal vitamins provide essential support to you and your growing baby. ... Benefits of Prenatal Vitamins. Prenatal vitamins ensure your body receives the vitamins and minerals it needs to support a ... Common side effects of prenatal vitamins include constipation and nausea.. "With vitamin B6, prenatal vitamins are proven to ...
Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a familial hemolytic disorder associated with a variety of mutations that lead to defects in red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins. The morphologic hallmark of HS is the microspherocyte, which is caused by loss of RBC membrane surface area and has abnormal osmotic fragility in vitro.
It is also known as antihemorrhagic factor, and is one of the four fat-soluble vitamins necessary for good health. The others ... Vitamin K Description Vitamin K originates from the German term koajulation. ... Vitamin K1, called phylloquinone, is the natural form of vitamin K. It is found in plants and is the main source of vitamin K ... Vitamin K1, called phylloquinone, is the natural form of vitamin K. It is found in plants and is the main source of vitamin K ...
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3. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The highest concentration of this essential vitamin is found in the brain, especially in the ... Studies show that vitamins of the B group, vitamin C, and minerals are important for normal brain functioning. Furthermore, a ... Magnesium is important for the conversion of many B vitamins into their active form. In other words, taking any vitamin ... 6 Vitamins And Minerals That Boost Brain Power. By Ella James 05/20/17 AT 9:00 AM. ...
WebMD provides information on popular vitamins and supplements including side effects, drug interactions, user ratings and ... Considering taking a vitamin or supplement to treat Denture+Stomatitis? Below is a list of common natural remedies used to ...
What are the lessons that can be learned from the high rate of Vitamin D deficiency through out the world? What are the ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where Clinically speaking, things began to change in the 1970s ... Ideally, the vitamin D blood test should be offered from the fall season through winter when vitamin D blood levels are at ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where ...
Vitamin D - A Special Issue published by Hindawi ... Vitamin D Deficiency in Cystic Fibrosis. William B. Hall , Amy ... Vitamin D Receptor Activation Mitigates the Impact of Uremia on Endothelial Function in the 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats. J. Ruth Wu ... Vitamin D Deficiency-A Clinical Spectrum: Is There a Symptomatic Nonosteomalacic State?. Amar Kanekar , Manoj Sharma , V. R. ... Vitamin D Pathway Genes, Diet, and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma. S. Karami , P. Brennan , ... , L. E. Moore ...
Vitamin D has regulatory roles in immunity, insulin secretion, blood pressure and calcium metabolism, ... ... Vitamin D DeficiencyVitamin D is a vital substance for life. ... Vitamin D Deficiency. Vitamin D is a vital substance for life. ... Any foods that "dumb down" the liver could be a potential cause for low Vitamin D.. It is not enough to bring the Vitamin D ... The liver is the place where Vitamin D3 (from the skin, from natural food sources, or from foods fortified with Vitamin D) has ...
... released a new video featuring some of the worlds leading vitamin D experts answering ... Vitamin D just happens to be the one we are most concerned about now because vitamin D deficiency is so common in the ... "The good news is that there are many benefits to sunlight besides making vitamin D. Vitamin D is made by a narrow band of the ... "Sunbeds of course can be used to make vitamin D. It has been one of the ways that we have measured the amount of vitamin D that ...
... including niacin or vitamin B3, pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 and vitamin B6. ... Vitamin B6 Chicken and poultry in general is one of the best food sources of this important vitamin. A 4 oz. serving of roasted ... Vitamin B5 Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is also found in chicken. A 4 oz. portion of cooked chicken breast provides 1.06 mg, ... Vitamin B3 Cooked chicken breast is an excellent source of vitamin B3 or niacin. A 4 oz. portion provides 14.41mg, meeting 72 ...
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How does your pet give you a big dose of daily Vitamin L? ... Vitamin L: Loving your Fur-Ever Friend. Share this Article: * ...
... caused by misspellings in the genes for vitamin-dependant enzymes, can be treated with vitamins. But research linking such ... The daily vitamin dosages recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture "are based on studies done 60 years ago, and are ... Taking Vitamins Based on Your Genome. Newly discovered genetic variations could predict who needs more folic acid. ... But the same yeast grew at normal rates when given the vitamin in excess, suggesting that higher doses of folate might help ...
Some people claim that certain vitamins and supplements can help you lose weight - but is that true? Learn how to tell the ... Vitamin B12. Whether you take it in pill form or get a pricey injection, dont expect a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your ... Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and keep your bones strong. But experts arent convinced that itll help ... It doesnt hurt to take a daily vitamin, but do you actually know what goes into it - and does it have vitamin D? If you had to ...
  • Vitamin D deficiency rickets among breastfed infants is rare, but it can occur if an infant does not receive additional vitamin D from foods, a vitamin D supplement, or adequate exposure to sunlight. (
  • To avoid developing a vitamin D deficiency, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend breastfed and partially breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU per day of vitamin D beginning in the first few days of life. (
  • Why are infants at risk for vitamin D deficiency? (
  • The risk for vitamin D deficiency is increased when there is limited exposure to sunlight or when an infant is not consuming an adequate amount of vitamin D. Although reducing sun exposure is important for preventing cancer, it also decreases the amount of vitamin D that a person can make from sunlight. (
  • While some vitamins and minerals might help relieve constipation if a person has a deficiency, others can cause it. (
  • While taking vitamin B-12 supplements may not help those without a deficiency, correcting the deficiency may relieve symptoms in those who do. (
  • In 2003 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) restated that prevention of bleeding from early vitamin K deficiency by administration of the vitamin is accepted practice. (
  • Vitamin K is not normally included in daily multivitamins, as deficiency is rare. (
  • Such an assumption is possible since there are symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency that are related to those of COVID-19 infection. (
  • Such an assumption is based on the fact that there are signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency that are similar to those of a coronavirus infection. (
  • Half of the body's stores of this vitamin are in the liver, which is why liver damage can lead to a deficiency of several key B vitamins. (
  • A deficiency of this and other B-vitamins is associated with developmental problems in children. (
  • Furthermore, a deficiency of any of these vitamins can lead to developmental problems in children and psychiatric illnesses in adults. (
  • Does Vitamin D Deficiency Cause Hypertension? (
  • Vitamin D Deficiency-A Clinical Spectrum: Is There a Symptomatic Nonosteomalacic State? (
  • This may be a significant factor for Vitamin D deficiency today. (
  • Vitamin D just happens to be the one we are most concerned about now because vitamin D deficiency is so common in the populations of industrialized nations," reported Dr. Heaney. (
  • program to reduce the complications of vitamin D deficiency encountered during pregnancy and childhood. (
  • But the same yeast grew at normal rates when given the vitamin in excess, suggesting that higher doses of folate might help people who are genetically susceptible to health problems linked to B-vitamin deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is important especially in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers mainly because it is important for the growth and development of infants and growing children. (
  • Children under 5 years of age are at risk of vitamin D deficiency in diet. (
  • Populations over 65 years of age are also at risk of Vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Some ethnic minorities are also at risk of Vitamin D deficiency. (
  • These include those with darker skin, because their bodies are not able to produce as much vitamin D. Children of African-Caribbean and South Asian origin are also at a raised risk of Vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin D leads to muscle weakness and bone deformities. (
  • Children and infants are more susceptible to deficiency of Vitamin D due to their increased demand for calcium and minerals allowing for rapid growth of bones. (
  • Mothers with a Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy are likely to continue to be deficient of this vitamin while breastfeeding. (
  • This would be a deficiency of Vitamin D in an exclusively breastfed baby. (
  • Due to an increase in the rate of vitamin D deficiency in recent years The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfeeding newborns must receive a supplemental daily dose of vitamin D 400 IU/d in order to prevent rickets. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Rickets due to severe vitamin D and calcium deficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. (
  • Shah BR, Finberg L. Single-day therapy for nutritional vitamin D-deficiency rickets: a preferred method. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation: guidelines and evidence for subclinical deficiency. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. (
  • Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. (
  • Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. (
  • This review focuses on the developments in the clinical features and management of vitamin B12 deficiency over the last decade. (
  • Vitamin B1 is, of course, used to treat any of the symptoms of its deficiency or its deficiency disease beriberi (discussed below). (
  • Together we can end the illness and disease caused by the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • When being tested for vitamin D deficiency , calcidiol is the only blood test that should be drawn. (
  • Riboflavin or vitamin B2 deficiency may cause nervousness and digestive disorders. (
  • Vitamin D Deficiency - Hi, I was recently tested for Vitamin D and my levels are 5 Ng/ml. (
  • Is it possible to have nausea as a symptom of vitamin d deficiency? (
  • Doing some internet searching, I see there are many symptoms I have that can be attributed to a vitamin D deficiency, including blurred vision which I have noticed over the past several months. (
  • HI I've been diagnosed with slightly low vitamin d deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency was recently found to significantly increase the risk for miscarriage . (
  • To evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency with diabetic nephropathy across racial/ethnic groups. (
  • 20 ng/mL vitamin D deficiency, 20 to 29 ng/mL vitamin D insufficiency, and ≥30 ng/mL normal vitamin D. (
  • Overall, 30.7% of adults with diabetes have nephropathy, 48.9% have vitamin D deficiency and 36.6% have vitamin D insufficiency. (
  • There is an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency with the presence of nephropathy, even after adjustment for race/ethnicity and other variables. (
  • 4 ,5 Animal studies suggest that, in addition to the impact that chronic renal failure has on increasing the likelihood of 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency and insufficiency caused by the kidney's role in vitamin D metabolism, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency also have an active role in the progression of kidney disease. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is a coagulopathy that develops in infants who do not have sufficient vitamin K stores to support production of clotting factors. (
  • Preliminary queries of Tennessee hospital discharge data during 2007-2012 revealed no confirmed cases of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding, defined as an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis code of either hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (776.0) or vitamin K deficiency (269.0), plus any codes for symptoms of bleeding, including intracranial or gastrointestinal hemorrhages, epistaxis, bruising, or hemothorax. (
  • To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) has long been implicated in activation of tuberculosis (TB) ( 1 ). (
  • In the present study, we explored the role of vitamin D deficiency in TB disease progression within this cohort. (
  • Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain PUFA in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (
  • The amount of vitamins and minerals required by the body is far smaller than that of any of the macronutrients but a deficiency in even one of these nutrients can cause problems for the whole body. (
  • Vitamin A deficiency status and monitoring of Vitamin A indicators such as supplement distribution with routine services and integration with campaigns, are derived from official country reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • Compliance with cobalamin supplementation should be monitored in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency: a factor that induces depression? (
  • The deficiency of vitamin B12 creates a case of hyperhomocysteinemia and decline of S-adenosylmethionine, which is a risk factor for depression without adequate treatment. (
  • This project had as an objective to verify the relation between depression and the deficiency of vitamin B12, through literary revision. (
  • Objective: This study aimed to survey articles, published from 2004 to 2014, about the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the prevalence of early childhood caries. (
  • and to address issues that relate vitamin D deficiency to dental caries in children. (
  • Final considerations: There is a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and early childhood caries. (
  • Vitamin A deficiency affects about 19 million pregnant women and 190 million preschool-age children, mostly from the World Health Organization (WHO) regions of Africa and South-East Asia. (
  • Once a child has started eating solid foods, parents can make sure their child is getting enough vitamin D from foods or supplements. (
  • HIGH-DOSE mineral and vitamin supplements could be banned in France as a result of a review by the government's health advisers. (
  • The French limit reflects the recent findings of a Finnish study which found a higher incidence of strokes among people taking vitamin E supplements of 50 milligrams per day. (
  • In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. (
  • As with any supplements, consult your doctor before adding vitamin C to your diet. (
  • Vitamin C supplements come in dosages usually ranging from 25 to 1,500 milligrams. (
  • In this article, we explore vitamins and supplements for constipation. (
  • Some people take vitamin D supplements, especially if they live in northern countries since sunshine is a vital source of vitamin D. (
  • It also appears to have some effectiveness in preventing osteoporosis, but some studies done involved patients using a high dietary intake of the vitamin rather than supplements. (
  • This test reflected the total amount of vitamin D in the body that was coming from all sources (diet, dietary supplements, and the sun), which makes this test extremely important in the field of nutrition. (
  • It is not enough to bring the Vitamin D blood levels up using supplements. (
  • For example, some people claim that vitamin B12, calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, and green tea supplements can help you lose weight. (
  • To get your daily dose, the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) recommends including foods that contain vitamin B12 in your diet. (
  • A 2014 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that postmenopausal women with overweight who took vitamin D supplements and achieved healthy or "replete" levels of this nutrient lost more weight than women who didn't reach these levels. (
  • But more research is needed to test these results and learn how vitamin D supplements might affect other people with overweight. (
  • Shelling out money for vitamins or other supplements that claim to aid weight loss usually reduces the size of your wallet rather than your waistline. (
  • Among pregnant women sufficient levels include those over 75 nanomoles/Litre (nmol/L). Those women who are deficient of Vitamin D during pregnancy need sun exposure and are given supplements of Vitamin D (oral 1000 international units vitamin D3). (
  • Research from decades ago suggested that taking antioxidant supplements, vitamin E in particular, might help prevent heart disease and cancer. (
  • However, newer findings indicate that people who take antioxidant and vitamin E supplements are not better protected against heart disease and cancer than non-supplement users. (
  • Do Vitamin D Supplements Even Work If They're Not Combined With This Nutrient? (
  • The study, which also did not find any increased lung cancer risk from the supplements, is one of the most detailed, prospective observational studies to look at the effect of vitamin supplements instead of vitamins from foods on lung cancer risk. (
  • In 1996, a large study known as the CARET study which was looking into the effects of the dietary supplements beta-carotene and retinol (vitamin A), was halted after the supplements were found to increase lung cancer risk, particularly among smokers. (
  • In February, the Journal of the American Medical Association published an overview of studies that found that supplements of beta-carotene, vitamin E, or vitamin A slightly increases a person's risk of death. (
  • Diabetic patients can reduce their risk of heart attacks and heart disease by taking vitamin E supplements. (
  • A new study, published in the November issue of the journal "Diabetes Care" has indicated that about 40 per cent of diabetic patients can reduce their risk of heart attacks and of dying from heart disease by taking vitamin E supplements. (
  • When they took the same vitamin E supplements, they did not show any significant reduction of cardiovascular risk resulting from vitamin E therapy. (
  • Headquartered in Long Island , NY, Vitamin World® manufactures over 700 superior-quality vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other nutritional supplements in our own state-of-the-art facilities. (
  • Very few other vitamins and supplements, or even medications, are effective in microgram quantities. (
  • How to choose the best prenatal vitamins and supplements based on ingredients and nutritional needs. (
  • How long till my Vitamin D supplements make me feel better? (
  • i've been taking vitamin D supplements, vit C calcium daily plus 15 min sunshine exposure. (
  • ST. PETERSBURG, Fla. , Jan. 25, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- During the final quarter of 2022, even as the U.S. grappled with a "tripledemic" of flu, RSV and COVID-19, unit sales of vitamins and health supplements declined over the prior year while average unit prices rose, according to shopper intelligence leader Catalina . (
  • An ounce of prevention--often associated with vitamins and immune supplements--was not worth a pound of cure. (
  • an ounce of prevention--often associated with vitamins and immune supplements--was not worth a pound of cure," said Sean Murphy , Chief Data & Analytics Officer at Catalina, referring to unit sales of Immune Supplements declining 11% while average dollar sales in the category fell 4% vs. the prior year. (
  • Vitamins and supplements ensure that your pet is getting the nutrients it needs to thrive, especially when ill, breeding, or pregnant. (
  • Our vitamins and supplements are made with care from the highest quality ingredients. (
  • An essential part of any skincare regime, support skin from the inside out with daily a vitamin Intake containing a mix of 6 supplements designed to support optimum health and great skin. (
  • Under doctor's supervision, you can also take vitamin D supplements, however, we must remember that vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, and any excess stored in the body can be toxic. (
  • Consider total vitamin K intake (food + supplements) if you are taking blood-thinning medication. (
  • Recent recommendations and evidence from the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cast doubt on the efficacy of vitamin and mineral supplements. (
  • Getting enough vitamin C is vitally important for overall health but the human body can't make it, so you have to get vitamin C through diet or supplements. (
  • When we are replacing these vitamins and nutrients on a daily basis through whole foods and supplements then the body will function optimally. (
  • Daily intake of vitamins through food or supplements, may help protect your oral health. (
  • In 1986, the NHIS included questions about the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in the diets of American adults and young children. (
  • Dietary supplements c vitamin and mineral supplement c National Health heart disease, osteoporosis, or neural and Nutrition Examination Survey tube defects) (16-20). (
  • Nutrition categories: single vitamins, single and 1994, approximately 40 percent of Business Journal reported that minerals, multiple vitamins, multiple the U.S. population 2 months of age and supplement sales grew from $8.6 to minerals, combination vitamins and older reported taking some type of $14.9 billion dollars between 1994 and minerals, and other dietary supplements dietary supplement (1). (
  • The authors of an earlier study from 2008 noticed that children with constipation had lower levels of vitamin C, folate , and magnesium . (
  • In a pilot study published in June, scientists focused on an enzyme called MTHFR, or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which converts the B vitamin folate (also called folic acid) from one form into another. (
  • More than a thousand wild-growing edible plants have been identified that could supply five vitamins from the B group - thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5) and folate (B9). (
  • For instance, more than four in 10 people in South and South-East Asia don't get enough folate, one vitamin in the B group, and this can lead to babies being born with a condition called spina bifida . (
  • ATS 2007, SAN FRANCISCO-A study of more than 75,000 adults found that taking supplemental multivitamins, vitamin C and E and folate do not decrease the risk of lung cancer. (
  • Folic Acid is the synthetic form of the naturally occurring B vitamin called folate (B9). (
  • The analysis included information on dietary, supplemental, and total intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 over the course of about 30 years, until 2012 (see Infographic). (
  • The French limits could lead to a wider crackdown on the sale of high-dose vitamins and minerals. (
  • He says that people believe every small study extolling the ability of vitamins and minerals to prevent diseases such as cancer. (
  • Pascal says the French generally consume a satisfactory amount of vitamins and minerals in their diet. (
  • Take note of the amount of the other minerals you're getting in a mineral ascorbate vitamin C supplement to make sure you don't exceed recommended daily values. (
  • Although some vitamins and minerals can help people with constipation, others may cause it or make it worse. (
  • Here are 6 of the essential vitamins and minerals for a healthy brain. (
  • In other words, taking any vitamin supplement on its own would be futile without magnesium and other minerals as their interplay is what makes the brain work. (
  • Studies show that vitamins of the B group, vitamin C, and minerals are important for normal brain functioning. (
  • The human genome codes for approximately 600 enzymes that must interact with vitamins or minerals in order to function properly. (
  • Platinum daily wellness formulas provide these bio-available nutrients along with all the vitamins and trace minerals your senior dog needs. (
  • A comprehensive wellness supplement such as Platinum Performance® Canine that provides omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals can be very beneficial to make sure dogs receive all the essential nutrients they require to stay healthy as they age. (
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals provided in Platinum Performance® Canine CJ complement any canine diet and work synergistically to supply aging cells with the support needed to repair, maintain and thrive. (
  • Wild plants are an overlooked source of vitamins and minerals that could help combat malnutrition. (
  • The same prediction method could be used to find out the levels of other vitamin and minerals in edible plants, says Cantwell-Jones. (
  • Whether or not your pregnancy was planned, if your diet is lacking in certain vitamins and minerals, it increases the likelihood of your baby developing birth defects. (
  • That means it will draw vitamins and minerals from your body to support the growing fetus. (
  • During pregnancy, you will need to increase your intake of certain vitamins and minerals. (
  • macronutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). (
  • Our body uses vitamins and minerals to digest and absorb food so that it can get the nutrients it requires to run, play and work. (
  • 5 Best Vitamins and Minerals for TeethDr. (
  • There are a variety of vitamins and minerals that contribute to the health of your teeth and gums. (
  • Dr. Jacquie Smiles, a leading orthodontist in NYC, has made a list of 5 essential vitamins and minerals your mouth needs the most. (
  • You might be eating a healthy diet to lose weight or maintain high blood pressure and other ailments but your teeth need vitamins and minerals too. (
  • Adding the vegetables and fruit mentioned above will naturally put the minerals and vitamins you need for healthy teeth into your body. (
  • Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. (
  • [6] Population studies suggested that people who consumed foods with more vitamin E, or who chose on their own to consume a vitamin E dietary supplement, had lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases , cancer , dementia , and other diseases, but placebo -controlled clinical trials could not always replicate these findings. (
  • If you're not getting enough vitamin C from fruits such as oranges and strawberries or vegetables like broccoli and peppers, introducing a vitamin C supplement into your diet can provide health benefits year-round. (
  • The best supplement, Garden of Life Vitamin Code Raw Vitamin C , provides a high amount of vitamin C per dose without any fillers or additives. (
  • You might assume a vitamin C supplement contains nothing but some form of vitamin C, but many formulas include added ingredients. (
  • Doctors do not recommend that people take large doses of vitamin C to help them pass stool, but a daily vitamin C supplement may help. (
  • The most common use of vitamin K is to supplement babies at birth, thus preventing hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (
  • Considering taking a vitamin or supplement to treat Denture+Stomatitis? (
  • However, some of these men and women were not given the chance to maintain their bone mineral density through lifestyle changes (such as weight lifting) and supplement intake of calcium and vitamin D before being offered the prescription medication. (
  • If the liver is bogged down by toxins, and the panchabhutagnis (flames of the liver) are not firing properly, the supplement of Vitamin D3 will not get transformed into active Vitamin D. (
  • Whether you take it in pill form or get a pricey injection, don't expect a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your metabolism and burn away fat. (
  • The 77,738 men and women in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study, ages 50-76, filled out an extensive questionnaire on vitamin intake over the previous 10 years, including how much of each supplement they took. (
  • A prenatal vitamin is a supplement that provides pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant with the necessary building blocks to successfully create and support life. (
  • Vitamin C and Bio-Quercetin Phytosome is a high-potency vitamin C supplement with an ultra-absorbable form of quercetin, encased in a plant-derived phytosome delivery system. (
  • This supplement delivers 1,000 mg of vitamin C, plus 15 mg of an ultra-absorbable quercetin, which complements vitamin C's activity in supporting whole-body health. (
  • Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Public Use Tape contains data from these questions as well as socio-demographic and health items obtained about the sample person from the NHIS core questionnaire. (
  • described and the nutrient composition used any vitamin and/or mineral information for each supplement. (
  • To help you on your hunt , the Forbes Health editorial team consulted with OB-GYNS on the Forbes Health Advisory Board, who gave their top picks and explanations behind them for the best prenatal vitamins of 2022. (
  • Retrieved on December 02, 2022 from (
  • In a separate study from earlier in 2022, an ultrahigh-dose of methylcobalamin, an active form of vitamin B12 analogue, was found to slow functional decline by 43% in patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • Rapid Rx Quiz: Vitamin B12 - Medscape - Oct 31, 2022. (
  • Vitamin D has regulatory roles in immunity, insulin secretion, blood pressure and calcium metabolism, which is vital for normal functioning of the nervous system, as well as for bone growth and maintenance of bone density. (
  • Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and keep your bones strong. (
  • Vitamin D helps in improving the absorption of calcium and phosphorous from food that occurs in the small intestine or gut. (
  • The blood levels of calcium that are important for bone growth and repair are regulated and balanced by Vitamin D levels. (
  • Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. (
  • Vitamin D is essential for regulating calcium and phosphate in your body. (
  • And when their vitamin D intake was reduced, the calcium levels quickly returned to normal. (
  • And once you get to that level, check your blood calcium just to make sure that you aren't that exceedingly rare person whose levels go up from taking the vitamin. (
  • id":123005468697,"title":"Celebrate Vitamins - Calcium Citrate - Soft Chews - Watermelon - 500mg - 90 Chews","handle":"celebrate-calcium-citrate-soft-chews-watermelon-500mg-90-chews","description":"\u003cp\u003eYou will be amazed at the great taste of these Celebrate Vitamins SUGAR FREE calcium citrate soft chews! (
  • Each chew providing 500 mg of calcium citrate and 500 IU of vitamin D3, you won't ask how many you have to take, you will be asking how many do I GET to take? (
  • You will be amazed at the great taste of these Celebrate Vitamins SUGAR FREE calcium citrate soft chews! (
  • This vitamin is highly important because it boosts mineral density and assists in absorbing and depositing calcium in the bones that are responsible for supporting your teeth. (
  • The easiest way to ensure you include phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and vitamin A and D into your diet is through food. (
  • Sample population and calcium, iron, multiple vitamins with taken and the manufacturer(s). (
  • Most people in the United States need to adjust their eating patterns to increase their intake of dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, and potassium, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025 [PDF-30.6MB] . (
  • Calcium and vitamin D work together to promote optimal bone health. (
  • See food sources of calcium and vitamin D . (
  • Look for foods that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D. Soy beverages, soy yogurt, orange juice, and some whole-grain cereals may have these added nutrients. (
  • Why are vitamins an important part of daily nutrient intake? (
  • Primarily, increased vitamin K2 intake plays a beneficial role in our cardiovascular system, helping to decrease the chances of dying from heart disease. (
  • In an attempt to overcome risk for reverse causality, researchers examined vitamin B12 intake during four lagged exposure periods: 8, 12, 16, and 20 years. (
  • Overall, the results support a possible protective effect of early intake of vitamin B12 on the development of PD. (
  • There is no credible scientific literature suggesting that vitamin D intake increases the risk for kidney stones. (
  • Similarly, data are weak regarding the association between vitamin D intake and cardiovascular calcifications. (
  • The evidence is clear that vitamin D toxicity is one of the rarest medical conditions and is typically due to intentional or inadvertent intake of extremely high doses of vitamin D, usually in the range of more than 50,000-100,000 units a day for months to years. (
  • So if your doctor ever gets excited over your vitamin D intake, be sure to help him out and give him these references so he can sleep better. (
  • The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between dietary intake of vitamin A in the form of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids and the prevalence of bronchial squamous metaplasia in a sample of asbestos workers from an industrial clinic. (
  • Results indicated that workers with metaplasia reported consuming a significantly lower intake of total vitamin A [2000 retinol equivalents (RE)/d] than did subjects without metaplasia (2710 RE/d, P = 0.02). (
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine or thiamin) , the first B vitamin by Earl Mindell in Vitamin Bible (Warner Books, 1979) because of the support it gives to the nervous system and mental attitude. (
  • Like most other B vitamins, thiamine is needed in regular supply, though after its absorption from the upper and lower small intestine, some B1 is stored in the liver, heart, and kidneys. (
  • Many dried fruits contain some thiamine, though the sulfur dioxide often added as a preservative seems to destroy this vitamin. (
  • Thiamine or vitamin B1 is important for maintaining the brain and nervous system, for example coordination of arms and legs. (
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride). (
  • This high limit was set because vitamin C has few known toxic effects, although scientists remain divided over the benefits of taking huge doses. (
  • High doses of some vitamins can cause problems. (
  • In 2003, however, a group of Japanese researchers reported that supplemental doses of vitamin K 2 given together with vitamin D 3 appeared to reduce bone turnover and sustain bone density in postmenopausal women with mild osteoporosis. (
  • Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) have no specific medical therapy other than vitamin supplementation, particularly high doses of vitamin E. Symptomatic medications for diarrhea and treatment of the cause of malabsorption may be needed. (
  • Fatty fish, such as herring, mackerel, and tuna, also deliver modest doses of vitamin D. Your body produces it when you expose your skin to sunlight. (
  • Here are the key nutrients as well as the recommended doses to look for when shopping for a prenatal vitamin. (
  • Women get relief from the symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome - depression, breast pain, bloating - if extra doses of vitamin B6 are taken ten days before each menstrual period. (
  • High doses of Vitamin B6 taken under doctor's supervision may be the answer to unexplained infertility in women. (
  • And this isn't the only study verifying the incredible safety of vitamin D even in high doses. (
  • Another study reported just last year on more than 17,000 healthy adult volunteers who were taking doses of vitamin D up to 20,000 units a day. (
  • ROS-lowering doses of vitamins C and A accelerate malignant melanoma metastasis. (
  • Vitamin B12 is one of the dietary requirements necessary in the treatment of coronavirus patients. (
  • What can result if there are dietary deficiencies of vitamin B complex? (
  • Modern food processing is partially responsible for some of the dietary deficiencies of vitamin B complex. (
  • The new vitamin C products offer other benefits such as beauty-from-within and acting as a source of dietary fibre, on top of providing vitamin C. (
  • The observed effects of preformed vitamin A on cell and organ culture, on animal models, in dietary observational epidemiological studies, and in human intervention studies are reviewed. (
  • Dietary vitamin A and prevalence of bronchial metaplasia in asbestos -exposed workers. (
  • It is available year-round and it a good source of several B vitamins, including niacin or vitamin B3, pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 and vitamin B6. (
  • Cooked chicken breast is an excellent source of vitamin B3 or niacin. (
  • People taking warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, are able to use the vitamin as an antidote if the serum level of warfarin is too high, increasing the risk of hemorrhage. (
  • For starters, this miracle worker is the world's first 20% vitamin C serum with stabilized L-ascorbic acid (the purest form of vitamin C), according to the brand, and that amped-up potency helps it deliver lightning-fast results (and helps justify the price). (
  • This one-ounce bottle of Vitamin C serum is basically worth its weight in gold, visibly fading the most common signs of aging including fine lines and wrinkles, loss of firmness and dullness. (
  • Golden Glow Bronzing Serum - This revolutionary Vitamin C serum utilizes glowing levels of DHA to deeply nourish and hydrate while providing a luminous glow. (
  • Serum levels of vitamin D in TB patients are lower than in healthy controls ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Paradoxically, prolonged treatment of TB also causes a decline in serum vitamin D levels ( 2 ). (
  • Total circulating serum 25[OH] vitamin D was measured with ELISA by using the Immuno Diagnostic System Ltd (IDS, Fountain Hill, AZ, USA). (
  • The vitamin Biotin improves the quality of keratin structures in cosmetic applications and hence has a positive effect on fine and brittle hair and nails. (
  • Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is also found in chicken. (
  • According to the NutriStrategy website, pantothenic acid aids energy metabolism, like most B vitamins, helping to turn carbohydrates and fats into usable energy for the body's cells. (
  • L-Ascorbic acid is the only active form of vitamin C however it is also highly susceptible to oxidation. (
  • Ascorbic acid is the purest form of vitamin C because it stands alone as an isolated molecule. (
  • It reduces the acidity of the ascorbic acid on its own, making it excellent if you have an extremely sensitive stomach or can't tolerate other vitamin C types due to illness. (
  • Title : The Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juices Lecturer : Madam Rita Rohaizah binti Sohari TITLE: THE VITAMIN C CONTENT OF FRUIT JUICES INTRODUCTION Vitamin C which is also known as ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for human. (
  • Research on the stability of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and other vitamins demonstrates which factors to consider when it comes to the preservation of carbon-based molecules. (
  • Ascorbic acid is a very important but very unstable organic molecule which is characteristic of the class of organic molecules we know as vitamins (Fig. 1). (
  • Figure 1: Ascorbic Acid, better known as Vitamin C, is an unstable organic molecule that is highly water soluble. (
  • Vitamin C is somewhat stable in a dry, powdered form but dilution in water greatly accelerates the transformation of ascorbic acid into a biologically unusable form. (
  • Vitamin C, also called L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is an essential part of your diet. (
  • Do infants get enough vitamin D from breast milk? (
  • For example, if you don't get enough vitamin C, you could become anemic. (
  • In the meantime be sure to take enough vitamin D to get your blood levels between 50-70 ng/ml. (
  • Our bodies can make vitamin D from sunshine, but some individuals may have difficulty producing enough vitamin D, and too much sun exposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. (
  • Even though the council says that the antioxidant Vitamin E is not very toxic, its daily limit was set at 40 milligrams. (
  • [4] Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant which may help protect cell membranes from reactive oxygen species . (
  • Vitamin E benefits the body by acting as an antioxidant, and protecting vitamins A and C, red blood cells, and essential fatty acids from destruction. (
  • An antioxidant involved in over three hundred metabolic functions in the body, vitamin C has a long list of benefits. (
  • Superox C™ - A specialty derived blend of Kakadu Plum known as one of the world's richest sources of Vitamin C, Superox C is a potent antioxidant and contains micronutrient benefits that help to protect against environmental damage. (
  • In multivitamins that contain vitamin C, you can also find other mineral ascorbates, including zinc ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, chromium ascorbate, molybdenum ascorbate and manganese ascorbate. (
  • The vitamin and mineral content of most edible plants is unknown. (
  • This is something to consider the next time you head to your favorite restaurant and scan the menu: how many fruits and vegetables are there are on the menu that are good at retaining their vitamin, mineral and nutrient content while being processed? (
  • Webinar] Is Your Multi-Vitamin & Mineral Everything it Needs to be? (
  • Data from the 1986 Vitamin-Mineral NHIS Questionnaire have been organized into one file. (
  • However, the contents of each record that comprises the file differs depending on a) whether the sample person reported using any vitamin and/or mineral products during the 2 week period prior to the interview, and b) the number of individual products taken. (
  • Every sample person may have from one to twelve Vitamin-Mineral records. (
  • There is at least one Vitamin-Mineral record for every sample child and adult that was interviewed about their use of vitamin and mineral products. (
  • As one of the world's most passionate creators of vitamins, DSM is best-placed to help you maximise this tremendous opportunity. (
  • GrassrootsHealth (GRH) released a new video featuring some of the world's leading vitamin D experts answering questions about 'The Sunshine Vitamin' and discussing the benefits of UV light. (
  • Michael L. Holick, MD is an endocrinologist and is probably the world's leading expert on vitamin D supplementation. (
  • New insights into lipoprotein assembly and vitamin E metabolism from a rare genetic disease. (
  • The metabolism of folic acid is highly dependent on the supply of other vitamins of the B group. (
  • The work is unique because it provides an easy way to assess gene function, something that hasn't been done much in nutrigenomics, says Bruce Ames , a biochemist at Berkeley who helped pioneer the study of vitamins in metabolism and human health. (
  • Both are referred to as "vitamin D" although they are different in their origins, metabolism, and potential toxicity . (
  • Vitamin B6 is converted into the main enzyme responsible for amino acid & protein metabolism. (
  • Vitamin B-12 is involved in numerous vital body functions, including red blood cell formation, synthesis and function of nerve tissue, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. (
  • Prenatal vitamins provide the kind of nutrients that most pregnant people-and their babies-need. (
  • Vitamin K is fairly heat-stable, but gentle cooking preserves the content of other nutrients that are prone to breaking down when heated. (
  • Are We Getting Enough Vitamins and Nutrients? (
  • Supplementing with a daily multi vitamin will ensure that your body is not missing out on these vital nutrients on days when your diet choices may not be the best. (
  • Shopping for the best deal on Vitamins & Nutrition, Kyolic, Acne, Capsules Vitamins & Nutrition - Read product reviews, compare prices and store ratings. (
  • NMPF has expressed concern over a new labeling proposal that was submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requesting the use of simple vitamin letter names on both the Nutrition Facts label and Ingredient Declaration lines. (
  • The vitamins : fundamental aspects in nutrition and health / Gerald F. Combs. (
  • But the limit for vitamin C has been set higher, at 1000 milligrams a day - twelve times the recommended allowance. (
  • Breast milk alone does not provide infants with an adequate amount of vitamin D. Shortly after birth, most infants will need an additional source of vitamin D. (
  • Sunbeds of course can be used to make vitamin D. It has been one of the ways that we have measured the amount of vitamin D that the skin has the capacity to make," stated Dr. Reinhold Vieth, a professor at the University of Toronto in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology. (
  • Since it is present in very few foods, people are mainly dependent on sunlight exposure to get adequate vitamin D. Dark-skinned people, including Indians, need longer time in sunlight to make the same amount of vitamin D than light-skinned people, mentions Dr Jha. (
  • I'm just taking a generic brand prenatal vitamin and 1200mg of fish oil everyday. (
  • I just want to share the wonderful prenatal vitamin I found, which is perfect for all of us who have a hard time swallowing the huge horse pills out there! (
  • That is why a prenatal vitamin is so important! (
  • What Is A Prenatal Vitamin & Why Is It Important? (
  • What this means is that any woman who is sexually active and of reproductive age should be taking a daily prenatal vitamin. (
  • However, you will need to consume 600 mcg of folic acid each day, so taking a prenatal vitamin can help to ensure that you get the proper dosage. (
  • Processing tends to destroy vitamins, so many processed foods are ' fortified ' with man-made vitamins. (
  • You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. (
  • The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. (
  • Some consideration should be given to the potential value of fortifying foods with vitamin B12 in addition to the current mandatory folic acid fortification of grains. (
  • The liver is the place where Vitamin D3 (from the skin, from natural food sources, or from foods fortified with Vitamin D) has to be transformed into active Vitamin D. For this reason, the liver has to be very intelligent. (
  • Any foods that "dumb down" the liver could be a potential cause for low Vitamin D. (
  • My husband works for the Whole Body department at Whole Foods Market so he immediately started researching vitamins when we found out we were pregnant. (
  • K2 has often been linked to Vitamin K1, which is available more widely in the foods that we eat. (
  • Eat more of these vitamin C-rich foods to build your body's defense against common cold and flu. (
  • Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that's found in many foods, particularly fruits and vegetables. (
  • Try taking foods which are rich in vitamin D, like oily fish like salmon, and eggs and red meats. (
  • In fact, vitamin C and bioflavonoids are often present together in healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, notably citrus fruits. (
  • You can get vitamin D naturally from the sun, or by consuming foods fortified in vitamin D like cereal and dairy products. (
  • While very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, several foods and beverages are fortified with this essential nutrient. (
  • Research from 2019 found a strong association between chronic constipation and vitamin D deficiencies. (
  • Asmara 15 Nov 2019 - The Minister of Health, H.E. Ms. Amina Nurhussien today launched the national meningitis A vaccination and Vitamin A supplementation campaign in Asmara, where Zonal Administrators, Director Generals, UN delegates, and invited guests were present. (
  • To understand vitamin D pharmocology one needs to be familiar with the different forms of vitamin D, namely cholecalciferol, calcidiol, and calcitriol. (
  • Cholecalciferol is the naturally occurring form of vitamin D. It is the substance made in large quantities in your skin when sunlight strikes your bare skin. (
  • Cholecalciferol is the naturally occurring form of vitamin D. Whenever I use the term "vitamin D," I am referring to vitamin D3 cholecalciferol. (
  • In fact, cholecalciferol is the only vitamin D-all its other forms are different molecules. (
  • Current studies indicate one needs about 4,000 units of cholecalciferol a day to meet the body's need for vitamin D. 4,000 units of cholecalciferol is equal to 100 micrograms, or 0.1 milligrams. (
  • K2-D3 5000 features the most bioavailable and bioactive form of supplemental vitamin K2 available and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), the identical form in which vitamin D is derived in the body from cholesterol and synthesized by sunlight on the skin. (
  • Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 2.5 mcg or 100 iu, Thyme essential Oil (Thymus vulgaris, herb flowering) 0.006 ml, Oregano Oil (Origanum vulgare leaf) 2.2856 mcl. (
  • Are you Deficient in These Fat-Soluble Vitamins? (
  • It is sometimes referred to as the active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol levels should never be used to determine if you are deficient in vitamin D. (
  • During February-September 2013, four confirmed cases of late vitamin K deficient bleeding were diagnosed at a children's hospital in Nashville, Tennessee. (
  • If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. (
  • The Radiance Restoring Mini-facials, which are made from pure Vitamin C for instant hydration and restoration, come complete with a personalized skin health assessment from a beauty expert. (
  • bringing the power of vitamins to health and beauty and showing the incredible difference that quality vitamins can make to people's skin and hair. (
  • We take a look at the effects of different vitamins on digestive health. (
  • It is also known as antihemorrhagic factor, and is one of the four fat-soluble vitamins necessary for good health. (
  • Vitamins from the B group are considered to be particularly important for good brain health. (
  • Some health insurances cover vitamin D testing and some do not, and prices vary from $10 to $50, so local laboratory costs should be checked before telling the patient that a vitamin D test is needed. (
  • The release of the video coincided with the kickoff of the Vitamin D for Public Health 2-day seminar in San Diego hosted by GrassrootsHealth and UC San Diego. (
  • Seminar attendees heard from Dr. Robert Heaney and Dr. Michael Holick, featured in the video, and other experts on the importance of sun exposure for maintaining optimal levels of vitamin D necessary for human health. (
  • GrassrootsHealth is a nonprofit public health research organization dedicated to moving public health messages regarding vitamin D from science into practice. (
  • In addition vitamin B6 helps to break down proteins and supports a healthy nervous system, according to the National Institutes of Health. (
  • A five day course that offers valuable information on vitamins and their benefits for your daily health and disease prevention. (
  • The vitamin B complex is a team of vitamins that work together for good health. (
  • Since vitamin fits into the metabolic workings of the cell for specific functions, when these vitamins are included in the diet, it means that your health should improve. (
  • It's well known that Folic Acid is important for pregnant women, but did you also know that this essential B Vitamin also supports cardiovascular health in women and men? (
  • Folic Acid is part of a triad of B Vitamins - along with Vitamins B-6 and B-12 - that helps promote heart health. (
  • No doubt this was because of the fact that vitamin D supplementation has been shown to be one of the most important things we can do for our health. (
  • The company also announced a collaboration with Yanhee Vitamin Water in distributing its vitamin B water in view of the growing health conscious trend in April. (
  • It is known as the vitamin which is essential for our good vision, but also it is responsible for our good bone, muscle and tissue health. (
  • I believe in the health advantages of vitamin C. (
  • Vitamin C supports immune health, collagen production, a healthy cardiovascular system and more. (
  • Quercetin is a flavonoid that complements vitamin C's health benefits. (
  • Quercetin complements vitamin C, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation to support cardiovascular health. (
  • Vitamin C is a powerful essential nutrient that provides profound whole-body health benefits. (
  • 1 In fact, some studies have shown that vitamin C supplementation supports certain aspects of cardiovascular health. (
  • Plus, vitamin C's biological activity is complemented by the health benefits of the flavonoid quercetin. (
  • Vitamin D is a factor in the maintenance of good health. (
  • Member States have requested guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) on the effects and safety of vitamin A supplementation in the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) as a. (
  • Vitamin D is important for bone and muscle health. (
  • when you eat beta-carotene, an enzyme in the stomach turns it into Vitamin A. (
  • Use of vitamin E and beta-carotene for the prevention of heart disease, stroke, and cancer were specifically recommended against . (
  • But we did not find sufficient evidence in favor of taking or not taking vitamins, with the two exceptions of beta-carotene and vitamin E, which we recommend against taking," he noted. (
  • This third volume of the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention evaluates the cancer preventive potential of vitamin A. The handbook provides a comprehensive review and evaluation of the relevant information in the published scientific literature through April 1998 on the cancer-preventive activity of retinol and retinyl esters. (
  • The participants with intestinal disorders that cause constipation had lower levels of vitamin D. These findings do not suggest that increasing vitamin D will relieve constipation, however, as the low vitamin D levels may be a consequence of chronic constipation. (
  • Vitamin B12 might lower high homocysteine levels below a threshold level achieved by folic acid alone. (
  • High-dose vitamin E therapy is used to raise tissue levels of tocopherol and to prevent the development of neurologic sequelae. (
  • Low concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism (high levels of parathyroid hormone or PTH). (
  • Ideally, the vitamin D blood test should be offered from the fall season through winter when vitamin D blood levels are at their lowest. (
  • Strengthening the bhutagnis, dehagni and loma randhra is essential if Vitamin D levels are to return to a balanced state. (
  • On the other side are vitamin D advocates, scientists and doctors who believe that sensible, non-burning sun exposure helps you achieve adequate vitamin D levels, which reduces your risk of a number of serious diseases without increasing your risk of skin cancer. (
  • Vitamin D can be checked for levels in blood. (
  • If the blood levels of vitamin D are found normal in a breastfeeding mother she is advised diet rich in vitamin D. This includes fatty fish (salmon, herring and mackerel), liver, eggs, margarine and enriched dairy products along with regular periods of skin exposure to the sun. (
  • Cantwell-Jones and her colleagues predicted the levels of the five B vitamins of about 6400 edible plants that grow in various countries, based on how closely each species is genetically related to other plants that have been nutritionally analysed. (
  • There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. (
  • When someone refers to vitamin D blood levels, they are usually referring to calcidiol levels. (
  • The individual feed manufacturer must take responsibility for assuring customers that vitamins have been stored, handled and added to feeds in an optimum manner and that vitamin levels are routinely monitored for quality assurance. (
  • How can I raise my vitamin D levels quickly? (
  • In preclinical models, investigators found that supplementing the diet with vitamin B12 and folic acid increases hepatic syntaxin 17 levels, restores its role in autophagy, and slows NASH progression and reverses liver inflammation and fibrosis. (
  • Also, in general, Indian people have less than average Vitamin D levels. (
  • How can we get adequate levels of vitamin D in our body? (
  • They found that the number of people testing with vitamin D levels over 50 ng/ml increased more than 25 times. (
  • If the levels of vitamin D increased so dramatically over that period of time, surely the number of toxicity cases went up as well? (
  • Thus, evaluating vitamin D levels in people with diabetes may be warranted. (
  • cord blood and infant liver reserve levels of vitamin K are substantially below adult levels ( 1,2 ). (
  • Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis. (
  • For the present study, 129 de-identified, plasma samples preserved at -70°C from the baseline visit were shipped to Stanford University (Stanford, CA, USA) for analysis of vitamin D levels. (
  • Levels of vitamin D in test samples were derived by fitting a 2-parameter logistic curve to 6 standard levels and expressed as ng/mL (1 nmol/L × 0.4 = 1 ng/mL). (
  • Vitamin D levels in the cohort were classified in population-based tertiles (low, middle, high). (
  • Levels of vitamin D in plasma in the Karachi, Pakistan, tuberculosis (TB) household cohort ( 7 ) by TB status at baseline (disease-free, index TB case-patient, coprevalent TB case-patient, and past. (
  • Cite this: Vitamin D: A Rapid Review - Medscape - Jan 01, 2009. (
  • Her laboratory findings revealed low Vitamin B. The attending doctor prescribed intramuscular daily vitamin B ampoules to replace and prevent further deterioration. (
  • New findings that suggest vitamin B12 is associated with possible protection against Parkinson's disease, ALS progression, and fatty liver disease severity spiked recent interest. (
  • The USPSTF's findings, along with news about the role of vitamins in other conditions, resulted in this week's top trending clinical topic. (
  • The new findings come from the prospective Diabetes Prevention With Active Vitamin D (DPVD) trial of more than 1200 Japanese participants with impaired glucose tolerance. (
  • It is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. (
  • Vitamin D is needed to support healthy bone development and to prevent rickets, a condition that causes weak or deformed bones. (
  • This biotech naturally derived vitamin ingredient B12 helps relieve sensitive and stressed skin and protects the skin barrier damage induced by inflammation. (
  • In fact, whole milk contains Vitamin A naturally, and low-fat milk is fortified to replace the Vitamin A lost when the milkfat is removed. (
  • A diet of fresh, natural food usually provides all of the vitamins that you need. (
  • Thus, strength of the bones depends on presence of vitamin D in diet. (
  • Food Sources for Vitamin E: About 60 percent of vitamin E in the diet comes from vegetable oil (soybean, corn, cottonseed, and safflower). (
  • You can include vitamin A into your diet by eating carrots, cantaloupe, and sweet potatoes. (
  • Even if you expose your skin to sunlight, if the intelligence of your skin is low, Vitamin D3 will not be produced in sufficient quantities to meet the body's needs. (
  • The good news is that there are many benefits to sunlight besides making vitamin D. Vitamin D is made by a narrow band of the sun's radiation and there are many other regions in that visible light that produce all kinds of good effects. (
  • The skin can manufacture vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. (
  • In addition to the vitamin D provided by food, we obtain vitamin D through our skin which produces vitamin D in response to sunlight. (
  • Note that sunlight, which comes through your window, can not help in producing vitamin D since ultraviolet B rays are filtered by glass. (
  • Around 10 to 50 minutes of daily sunlight exposure is needed to meet daily vitamin D requirement. (
  • It is important to note that sunlight, which comes through your window, can not help in producing vitamin D since ultraviolet B rays are filtered by glass. (
  • As a fat-soluble vitamin, it is produced internally when ultraviolet rays from the sunlight hit the skin and initiate the process of vitamin D synthesis. (
  • For the Indian population, if we assume that around 25 percent of our body is exposed, then around 10 to 50 minutes of daily sunlight exposure is needed to meet daily vitamin D requirement. (
  • What Can Vitamin Deficiencies Do? (
  • Mental outcomes as a result of vitamin B deficiencies include schizophrenia, mood changes or depression, memory loss, disorientation and dementia. (
  • Correcting vitamin deficiencies remains important. (
  • Vitamin E would represent an inexpensive and safe way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and heart attack in a significant proportion of diabetic patients," the researchers wrote in their study. (
  • This vitamin is important for the formation of red blood cells, cell division, maintenance of a healthy nervous system, myelin synthesis, cellular growth and reproduction, as well as rapid synthesis of DNA. (
  • Vitamin C is important in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, but it also protects the brain against oxidative stress. (
  • they would bypass the natural physiologic controls of vitamin D synthesis. (
  • SmartyPants, Inc. ("SmartyPants" or the "Company"), a Morgan Stanley Expansion Capital Portfolio company and a leading producer of premium multi-vitamins, was acquired by Unilever (NYSE: UL), a leading global supplier of personal care products. (
  • Gummy Vitamins-Not Just for Kids! (
  • Thiamin is one of the many B vitamins that is found abundantly in the brain and nerve tissue. (
  • Our B-Complex contains a base level of all B vitamins including 50 mg of thiamin available in a small, easy to swallow capsule. (
  • VItamin D supplementation in infants, children, and adolescents. (
  • A MEDLINE search from 1999 to 2007 was performed using the key word vitamin B12. (
  • Rather than vitamins, shoppers instead were prone to spend their money on over-the-counter (OTC) treatment remedies for coughs, colds, flu, fever and aches and pains -- common symptoms associated with the tripledemic. (
  • Low vitamin D was also recently associated with a higher prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers in elderly patients in a preprint study not yet peer-reviewed. (
  • Vitamin K taken by mouth appears to be more effective than intramuscular injections of the vitamin when it is used to counteract the effects of warfarin. (
  • In the United States, administration of intramuscular vitamin K at birth to prevent all forms of VKDB has been standard practice since first recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1961 ( 3 ). (
  • The relative risk for developing late VKDB has been estimated at 81 times greater among infants who do not receive intramuscular vitamin K than in infants who do receive it ( 4 ). (
  • In each case, parents had declined intramuscular vitamin K administration at birth. (
  • Daily versus weekly oral vitamin D3 therapy for nutritional rickets in Indian children: A randomized controlled open-label trial. (
  • The AAP also noted that a possible link between supplemental vitamin K and early childhood cancer has not been proven as of 2003. (
  • Others who may benefit from supplemental vitamin K include those taking medications that interact with it or deplete the supply. (
  • Synthetic forms of vitamin K are also available for supplemental use. (
  • Though Vitamin K1 can be converted by the body into K2, it has been shown in studies that our bodies still need a certain level of supplemental K2 in order to function optimally. (
  • Why Take Supplemental Vitamins? (
  • Furthermore, the interactions between the nutritional environment and genotype might have an important influence on vitamin B12, chronic disease risk, and risk of neural tube defects. (
  • Because this vitamin cannot be stored in the body, it is important you get adequate daily amounts from food, around 90mg daily, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • Magnesium is important for the conversion of many B vitamins into their active form. (
  • Vitamin D3 seemed more effective than D2 at raising this important blood test. (
  • Furthermore, preliminary work showed that enzymes in the liver and the final vitamin D receptors (VDR) in important tissues bind vitamin D3 more effectively. (
  • Instead, the true etiological factors must be isolated and addressed for each person if there is to be any hope of a stable state for this important vitamin in the body. (
  • Another important question addressed in the video is, can sunbeds be used to make vitamin D, especially in winter? (
  • Chicken and poultry in general is one of the best food sources of this important vitamin. (
  • Vitamin B6 performs many important functions in the human body. (
  • This provides a source of this important vitamin. (
  • Therefore, it is important that we try to compensate for the lack of the vitamin by other means, suggests Dr Ravi Shekhar Jha, senior consultant and Head of the Department, Pulmonology, Fortis Escorts Faridabad. (
  • Our immunity plays a very important role in fighting viral diseases such as coronavirus, and vitamin D is one of the very important vitamin that helps in immunoregulation, adds Dr Jha. (
  • Benefits of vitamin A include its being one of the most important vitamins for effective function of our reproductive system. (
  • Vitamin A plays an important role in vision, growth and p. (
  • To promote a healthy pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend taking daily prenatal vitamins that contain 400 micrograms of folic acid. (
  • Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. (
  • Embrace a healthy lifestyle with the great prices, remarkable selection and service that have made Vitamin World® - the #1 place to get healthy! (
  • The orange juice and pineapple lend a bright note-along with healthy amounts of vitamin C-to this tropical-themed beverage, making it a perfect breakfast go-to. (
  • You now know that selecting a mango, chicken salad should at least give you a healthy dose of vitamin C. (
  • This guideline covers vitamin D use in the context of COVID‑19. (
  • In cosmetic applications, Niacinamide PC, a form of vitamin B3, helps to rebalance skin pigmentation, refines pores and improves skin elasticity. (
  • Dark green leafy vegetables are among the best food sources of vitamin K in the form of K 1 . (
  • Vitamin B6 is essential for converting stored energy, in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles to glucose for readily available energy. (
  • But when these at-risk patients, who have the 2-2 form of haptoglobin, take 400 international units of vitamin E daily, they reduce their risk of heart attack by 43 percent, and their risk of dying of heart disease by 55 percent. (
  • However, when dealing with complex and reactive compounds such as the vitamins, no product form can offer complete and unlimited protection against destructive conditions, excessive periods of storage or severe manufacturing processes. (
  • Has anyone tried vitamin A in liquid form topically? (
  • Hi kelly, what you wrote about the vitamin A form. (
  • A factor that may impact the differential development of diabetic nephropathy is vitamin D. The role of the kidney in the hydroxylation of the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxycalciferol (25-OH-D) from the liver to the biologically active form of 1,25(OH)2D3 is well established. (
  • Ultraviolet radiation converts vitamin D precursor to the active form. (
  • The absorption and transformation of UVB to Vitamin D depends on the intelligence of the loma randhra, dehagni and panchabhutagnis. (
  • Gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin B-6 in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). (
  • In one interesting study, researchers took a look at the stability of vitamin C and carotenoids in papaya, mango, and guava after cleaning, peeling, and slicing in a commercial restaurant. (
  • vitamin C (VitC) ranked as number one, followed by the vitamin E analogue Trolox and several carotenoids and Vitamin A -related compounds. (