Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Coloration of the skin.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Breaks in bones.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/2124)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth. (2/2124)

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population. (3/2124)

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-mo follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes.  (+info)

Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. (4/2124)

BACKGROUND: Excessive decreases in fat intake in young children have been linked with low intakes of energy and nutrients and possible growth failure. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated nutrient intakes and growth of healthy children with different fat intakes during the first 5 y of life. DESIGN: In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP), 7-mo-old children were randomly assigned to an intervention aimed at reduced consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol (n = 540) or to a control group (n = 522). This analysis comprises data for children for whom > or = 6 of 8 possible 3-4-d food records were available (n = 730; 353 females). Children were divided according to fat intake pattern (percentage of energy) between the ages of 13 mo and 5 y into groups with continuously high fat intake (5% of children), increasing fat intake (5%), continuously low fat intake (5%), decreasing fat intake (5%), and average fat intake (80%). Children's energy and nutrient intakes and growth were then compared by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Fat intake at 13 mo of age was particularly low (21% of energy) in the increasing fat intake group and in the continuously low fat intake group (22% of energy at 13 mo; 26% of energy at 5 y). Growth of children in all 5 fat intake groups, however, was not significantly different throughout the study period. Intakes of vitamins and minerals, except of vitamin D, met recommended dietary allowances in all fat intake groups. CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes and growth were not significantly different in children whose fat intake patterns differed between 13 mo and 5 y of age.  (+info)

Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice. (5/2124)

The composition of nutritionally and physiologically important molecules in transgenic rice with the soybean glycinin gene was determined and compared with that of a non-transgenic control. Except for the levels of protein, amino acids and moisture, no marked differences were found between the two kinds of rice. The protein content of the transgenic rice was about 20% higher than the control (control, 6.5 g/100 g; transgenic, 8.0 g/100 g) with a concomitantly lower moisture content. This increased protein content mainly resulted from the increased glycinin expressed in the transgenic rice, and the protein was susceptible to gastric and intestinal digestion juices. In parallel with the increased protein content, some important amino acids lacking in quantity in normal rice were replenished.  (+info)

Primary prevention of CHD: nine ways to reduce risk. (6/2124)

Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.  (+info)

Increases in 4-hydroxynonenal and hexanal in bone marrow of rats subjected to total body X-ray irradiation: association with antioxidant vitamins. (7/2124)

Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and its association with antioxidant vitamins in the bone marrow (BM), of rats subjected to total body irradiation (TBI) of X-rays at a dose of 3 Gy was investigated. The concentration of vitamin C in the BM decreased at 4 h, and reached about 2% of the control level at 24 h after irradiation. The concentration of vitamin E in the BM also decreased to 43% at 24 h. Corresponding to the decrease in vitamin E concentration, the concentration of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in the BM increased 2.5-fold at 24 h. Similarly, increases in the concentrations of hexanal and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were detected in the BM. In the plasma, these parameters of lipid peroxidation were unchanged up to 48 h, but were increased at 96 h after irradiation. Four days of vitamin E administration to rats (p.o. 460 mg/kg body weight) prior to the 3 Gy X-irradiation increased the vitamin E concentration in the BM to 1.3-fold the control level, but did not attenuate the increases in HNE and hexanal in the BM. The slight accumulation of vitamin E in the BM as a result of the vitamin E treatment may be partly related to this lack of vitamin E effect.  (+info)

Demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors differentially explain variability in serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins: baseline results from the sentinel site of the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study. (8/2124)

Biochemical measures of nutrients or other dietary constituents can be an important component of nutritional assessment and monitoring. However, accurate interpretation of the nutrient concentration is dependent on knowledge of the determinants of the body pool measured. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of serum carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in a large, community-based sample (n = 1042). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine effects of demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education), health-related behavior (exercise, sun exposure, smoking, alcohol consumption), and intake (diet, supplements) on serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and carotenoid concentrations. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, vitamin A intake, and alcohol consumption were found to be determinants of serum retinol concentration. Race/ethnicity, vitamin D intake, body mass index, smoking status, and sun exposure were determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol were age, sex, race/ethnicity, alpha-tocopherol intake, serum cholesterol, percentage of energy from fat (inversely related), supplement use, and body mass index. Age, sex, phylloquinone intake, serum triglycerides, and supplement use were determinants of serum phylloquinone concentration. Primary determinants of serum carotenoids were age, sex, race/ethnicity, carotenoid intake, serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and smoking status. Overall, the demographic, dietary, and other lifestyle factors explained little of the variability in serum concentrations of retinol (R2 = 0.20), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (R2 = 0.24), and the carotenoids (R2 = 0.15-0.26); only modest amounts of the variability in serum phylloquinone concentration (R2 = 0.40); and more substantial amounts of the variability in serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (R2 = 0.62).  (+info)

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Large-scale trials over the past several years have shown a general lack of effect of single vitamins or small numbers of vitamins given at high doses in preventing cancer. However, as recently reported in JAMA by Gaziano and colleagues, the Physicians Health Study II has found a modest but significant reduction in risk for total cancer-ie, all new cancers-in men taking a daily multivitamin compared with those taking placebo.1 A small reduction in cancer mortality was not statistically significant.. Physicians Health Study. The Physicians Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2×2×2×2 factorial trial assessing multivitamins, vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene use. The components of the trial other than the multivitamin component were terminated several years ago.. In the multivitamin component of the study, 14,641 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years were randomly assigned to receive a daily multivitamin (n = 7,317) or placebo (n = 7,324). Patients had a ...
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Most lipids (fat) are insoluble to water (hydrophobic). Only smallest lipids (fatty acids) can dissolve in watery blood plasma. In order to become soluble in blood plasma, other lipid molecules join with hydrophilic protein molecules. Lipid/protein are called Lipoproteins. They are able to be soluble because the proteins are on the outside and the lipids are on the inside.. Fat soluble vitamins are VITAMIN A, D, E, and K.. Water soluble vitamins are vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin b12. ...
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Low prices on Mens Multiple Vitamins! Multi-vitamins for men are formulated for mens specific vitamin and mineral needs. Many also include herbs and other nutrients for prostate health, energy and mental focus. Most are either iron-free or provide very modest amounts of iron since most men dont require high-potency iron supplementation.L
Press Release issued Nov 20, 2014: Vitamins supplements are non-drug and non-hormone based nutritional products that can be consumed as powders, pills, liquids or by injection. There are various types of vitamins supplements such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. supplements are broadly classified under multivitamins and individual vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.
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Multiple vitamins 55 plus medication - Are vitamins considered medications too? Yes. Vitamins are medications when they are used to treat a given condition caused by the deficiency of that vitamin. By definition, a vitamin is a substance that needs to be present in a very small quantity to maintain health. vita life, min miniscule or very small. Examples being scurvy, the deficiency of vitamin c, or rickets the deficiency of vitamin d.
See below for local vitamin shops that sell vitamins in Perris, CA and get access to vitamins supplements, minerals supplements, vitamin B complex, liquid vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, multivitamins, natural vitamin supplements, as well as advice and content on vegetarian diet.
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but the two ingredients with the highest number of milligrams are Vitamin C and Echinacea. Platz: Name: Biotin-Zink-Kapseln: Kieselerde: Arganl / Kokosle / Kruterle: Wirkstoff: Biotin (Vitamin B7 / Vitamin H) Kieselsureanhydride (Siliciumdioxide) About Vitamin C Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C Vitamin E Selenium and Carotenoids Chameleons: Signs Treatment There are several forms of vitamin vitamin d3 itching liver alcohol b A.. In laboratory rodents the scientists observed that vitamin C was able to kill cancer cells at the concentrations achievable only by intravenous infusion Banish the blues with the right Homemade face msks may contain simple ingredients but when combined correctly have amazing abilities to repair nourish and transform skin. Find out the reasons why vitamin D is important for women with PCOS. Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) A water-soluble antioxidant vitamin found in plants and produced synthetically. Made in USA in an FDA Registered Facility using Good Manufacturing ...
Vitamin Mineral SupplementFlexible Daily Servings - Hypoallergenic Exceptional Absorption - Yeast Freepioneer Vitamin/Mineral Supplement (V/MS) is a highly absorbable, versatile, broad spectrum nutritional supplement of uncompromising quality.Developed by physicians and clinicians who specialize in nutrition and preventive medicine, pioneer V/MS reflects an integration of the most current, scientific nutritional studies with actual nutritional needs observed in many patients. pioneer V/MS combines generous amounts of highly bioavailable nutrients in one supplement. High potencies of these nutrients are usually available only when purchased individually. Suitable for adults and children over four years of age, V/MS is a superior prenatal formula as well.Consider These Advantages:1.All Known Vitamins, Minerals & Micronutrients. pioneer V/MS contains all of the recognized vitamins and minerals in significant ratios and amounts. Included are all known trace minerals, many of which are no longer present in
VITAMINS. Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all.. There are two types of vitamins:. Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. Fat-soluble vitamins are easier to store than water-soluble ones and can stay in the body as reserves for days, some of them for months. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (lipids). Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.. Water-soluble vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins do not get stored in the body for long - they soon get excreted in urine. Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat-soluble ones. Vitamins C and all the B vitamins are water-soluble.. Vitamin A. Chemical names - retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene). Good sources include: liver, ...
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There are two types of supplements you need for your iguana: a multivitamin supplement and a calcium supplement. Most multivitamin supplements have some calcium but not enough to counterbalance the phosphorous naturally found in the food - even when sticking to foods high in calcium. Thats just one of the not insurmountable problems when feeding a vegetarian diet....actually, it is a vegan diet as many vegetarian humans eat eggs and dairy products, both sources of calcium that are not available to iguanas (because animal protein is unhealthful for them).. The reptile multivitamin supplements out there are about the same. You can buy a reptile multivitamin supplement (names like Herptivite, Reptivite, Reptisol, etc.) or you can buy a bird vitamin such as Avitron, or a general animal vitamin like Vionate, buy and crush the canine Pet Tabs, or get a human vitamin - Centrum contains more vitamins and trace elements than any of the reptile and pet vitamins on the market. I use Vionate because not ...
View Notes - Lecture 08 - Vitamin from PHARM gs at UCSD. Lecture 08 Vitamin/Mineral Vitamin/mineral absorption (introduction) In addition to the macronutrients Some are referred to as
Flu season has started. Better start popping multivitamins, right?. Well, not quite.. Multivitamins have been a surprisingly controversial topic in the past few years. Traditionally, multivitamins have been considered the best source for getting our daily dose of vitamins. But, it turns out you can have too much of a good thing. Overdosing on multivitamins may be toxic in extreme amounts, but can also cause unfortunate, though less drastic, side effects with slightly increased doses. Studies have shown that men and women who took multivitamins and other supplements were at a slightly greater risk for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. Other potential side effects of multivitamins include headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, and abnormal taste in the mouth. However, the Harvard School of Public Health argues that many of the studies may have been skewed by underlying illnesses and diseases of the patients in the study.. ...
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Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Brighton that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is essential in protecting people against the harmful and dangerous effects of pollution.. Vitamin C helps develop our immune system so that it would be easier for one to fight against diseases. This vitamin shields against infections, helps prevent cancer, lessen cholesterol and decrease the possibility of high blood pressure.. Vitamin C natural vitamins supplements are normally taken from citrus products such as but not limited to oranges and lemons. Sources also include acerola cherry tree, rose hips and other plants that are rich in vitamin C. 2. Vitamin B natural vitamins supplements B vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water which play a key role in cell metabolism. They are important in maintaining healthy functions of the nervous system, skin, eyes, hair and liver.. With the help of B vitamins, the conversion of food to energy is made easy. It was proven through research that B vitamins help improve bones and aids in a healthy heart.. Vitamin B ...
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Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Alexander City that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Nekton Rep 35g. Multivitamin compound for reptiles and amphibians NEKTON-Rep contains 12 vitamins, 6 trace elements, 2 amino acids as well as calcium.
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Normal larvae of two beetles, Lasioderma serricorne and Sitodrepa panicea, and larvae freed from their intracellular symbionts have been grown on various diets. On white flour, a food deficient in vitamins of the B group, normal larvae grow very much better than sterilized larvae, while no such difference in the growth rate occurs on a diet rich in vitamins of the B group, e. g. wholemeal flour plus yeast. On an artificial diet which contains the vitamins of the B complex in pure substances, the normal Lasioderma larva grows well or fairly well in the absence of either thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxin or pantothenic acid, and the normal Sitodrepa larva in the absence of any of these vitamins except thiamin. The sterilized larvae of both species fail to grow in the absence of any of these five vitamins. It is concluded that the intracellular symbionts of Lasioderma and Sitodrepa supply vitamins of the B group. ...
Testosterone is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in males and by the ovaries in females. Vitamin D is one of the 24 essential vitamins needed by the body for survival and it affects more than 1000 body functions, so any fluctuations in the levels of vitamin D can disrupt many functions. There is a clear connection between vitamin D levels and testosterone levels in the body as the former affects a lot of endocrine functions.. Vitamin D is generally got by skin exposure to sun, it is a fat soluble vitamin and is absorbed in the small intestine and stored in the body tissues. It stays longer in the body when compared to water soluble vitamins and so overdosing on Vitamin D can lead to toxicity as well.. Recent studies correlating Vit D and Testosterone. A study found that men who had sufficient vitamin D in their body had significantly higher levels of testosterone in the body than men who had insufficient vitamin levels. It also states that older men who are on vitamin D supplements are ...
Vitamin supplements include amino acids, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, dietary minerals, and many more. They can be found in foods and natural health products. See below for local businesses in Waipahu that give access to vitamin supplements and learn more about how vitamin supplements can help athletic performance.
Vitamin supplements include amino acids, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, dietary minerals, and many more. They can be found in foods and natural health products. See below for local businesses in Quincy that give access to vitamin supplements and learn more about how vitamin supplements can help athletic performance.
I often preach the value of taking a daily multivitamin pill, particularly in light of how our modern lives are lived. In an article I have posted elsewhere entitled Should You Take a Daily Multivitamin, point out how we live our lives these days and how peoples individual situations usually make it in their best interest to at least supplement their nutritional intake with some general, all purpose, daily vitamin pill.. However, I have seldom studied, written about, or discussed the value of individual vitamins, minerals, or supplements.. A recent personal experience, combined with a little research, has moved me to write about one nutrient in particular. At least when I began my researches, I was looking into Vitamin D only, but I soon learned that to discuss this topic without mentioning calcium is only telling part of the story.. The personal experience was that my wife, a particular person with a particular medical history, began experiencing what a doctor eventually determined was ...
This page provides relevant content and local businesses that can help with your search for information on Vitamin Supplement Stores. You will find informative articles about Vitamin Supplement Stores, including Are Your Vitamins Worthless?. Below you will also find local businesses that may provide the products or services you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in North Las Vegas, NV that can help answer your questions about Vitamin Supplement Stores.
A recent article in the New York Times attacks multiple vitamins, warning of the dangers of overdosing. I cant help but wonder if this is really about anti-vitamin activists counter-attacking against last years article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) that advocated the use of multiple vitamins by most of our population. Looking at the reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, vitamin overdoses are rare, with typically no deaths resulting in a typical year. The reporter asserts that researchers say that vitamin supplements cannot correct for a poor diet, that multivitamins have not been shown to prevent any disease and that it is easy to reach high enough doses of certain vitamins and minerals to actually increase the risk of disease. No longer, the experts say, are they concerned about vitamin deficits. Those are almost unheard of today, even with the population eating less than ideal diets and skimping on fruits and vegetables. Instead, the ...
One of the largest observational studies looking at multivitamins and health involved over 160,000 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years. They were all part of the Womens Health Initiative study that explored health markers and risk of cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis.. Over 40 percent of women were taking a multivitamin supplement, yet over the 8 years of the study, there was no link between taking these supplements with the risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease or dying earlier.. For heart disease, the most recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies involving over 2 million participants found no association between multivitamin supplementation and cardiovascular disease outcomes including mortality.. Randomised-controlled trials are better than observational studies for investigating any direct effects of multivitamins on health. But way back in 2006, a comprehensive review looking at only randomised-controlled clinical trials found that taking ...
pregnancy because their vitamin requirements may exceed those of nonpregnant women. Best results are seen combining these injections with diet and exercise. glucose determinations. Adult component toxicity. Digestion. intravenous injection as it may cause dizziness, faintness, and tissue Adult is not physically compatible with moderately Copyright © 2018 by RxList Inc. RxList does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. vitamin A concentrations after administration of M.V.I. Vitamin B-12 plays a crucial role in the body. Each ml of B Complex contains: Vitamin B1 100 mg B2 0.5 mg B6 1mg Nicotinamide 100 mg (B3 amide) Explore today and choose your suitable multivitamin injection in line with your animals and their demands and requirements. Adult is indicated for the prevention of vitamin Caution should be exercised when M.V.I. Adult (multiple vitamins Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration Each bulk vial closure shall be penetrated only one time Find ...
Nutrition: B vitamin supplements may ward off stroke. New evidence suggests that taking vitamin B supplements may help reduce the risk of stroke.
A four-week feeding trial will be implemented to assess the change in plasma zinc concentration among young adult men who receive: a) bread fortified with a moderate amount of zinc and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals; b) bread fortified with a large amount zinc and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals; c) non-zinc-fortified bread and a liquid vitamin preparation between meals [negative control group]; and d) non-zinc-fortified bread and a zinc-containing liquid vitamin preparation between meals [positive control group ...
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate, has been one of the most researched vitamins over the last five decades. A search of the scientific literature reveals that over 63,000 studies have been conducted on vitamin C since 1968, and almost 20,000 studies in the last decade alone. Medical research has shown that vitamin C helps promote immune system, heart, vascular system, and overall brain health among many other benefits. Low blood levels of vitamin C are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death. According to a 2009 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, over seven percent of people age six and older were vitamin C deficient when their blood levels were measured. More than half of those surveyed consumed low amounts of vitamin C rich foods. In my career, I have diagnosed three American patients with scurvy, a disease that was traditionally diagnosed in British sailors and common among malnourished pirates, both whom had limited access to ...
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate, has been one of the most researched vitamins over the last five decades. A search of the scientific literature reveals that over 63,000 studies have been conducted on vitamin C since 1968, and almost 20,000 studies in the last decade alone. Medical research has shown that vitamin C helps promote immune system, heart, vascular system, and overall brain health among many other benefits. Low blood levels of vitamin C are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death. According to a 2009 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, over seven percent of people age six and older were vitamin C deficient when their blood levels were measured. More than half of those surveyed consumed low amounts of vitamin C rich foods. In my career, I have diagnosed three American patients with scurvy, a disease that was traditionally diagnosed in British sailors and common among malnourished pirates, both whom had limited access to ...
Although modern diets provide plenty of our most vital nutrients, many of us underconsume a few key vitamins and minerals. Learn about the most common vitamin deficiencies and how to ensure youre getting enough.
Is malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies causing your health concerns. Herbal medicine can help to provide your body with the vitamins it requires.
Researcher Dion Zessin has compiled a document listing the mental disorders created by vitamin deficiencies (and the many variants of vitamin
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At their best, vitamin and mineral supplements help fill nutrient gaps when the diet is lacking. Supplements may be most useful to people who cant afford a variety of healthful foods (a basic multivitamin/mineral supplement taken daily can cost as little as $15 per year). People in age groups that require higher intakes for some nutrients (e.g., calcium for teenagers and postmenopausal women) may also benefit from supplement use, as can people who follow special diets for medical (e.g., lactose intolerance) or ethical (e.g., veganism) reasons. Since federal nutrition surveys suggest that considerable numbers of Americans may be falling short on a handful of specific nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium), some experts recommend that all adults take a multivitamin/mineral supplement-one that delivers no more than 100 percent of recommended daily doses-as dietary insurance. Other experts argue that these surveys dont accurately account for nutrients Americans get ...
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Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin along with A, E, and K. The disease characterized by a deficiency of Vitamin D is rickets.. All vitamins in overdosage can cause toxic symptoms. Vitamin D, however, is that vitamin which causes more serious toxicity than any other vitamin. Vitamin D was used enthusiastically for many years for arthritis, but has now been abandoned because of the many cases of calcinosis which resulted.. Vitamin D is actually a hormone rather than a vitamin. As for all other hormones, the body synthesizes adequate amounts under normal circumstances and it is not a nutritional requirement. As with most hormones the amount of hormone produced is dependent on a metabolic control in the liver, which in this case has a feedback mechanism with the blood level of vitamin D to prevent overproduction or deficiency. There is also the metabolism of vitamin D in the kidney which has a feedback mechanism dependent on the blood calcium level. Together these functions offer some protection ...
Vitamin B Supplementation Reduces Atherosclerosis. In what authors believe to be the first placebo-controlled evidence that vitamin supplementation can reduce atherosclerosis in at-risk patients, researchers report a combination of vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid significantly reduced thickening of the carotid artery among participants in a recent study. According to German findings published in the July 2005 journal Atherosclerosis, men and women at risk of cerebral ischemia saw a reduction of IMT (intima-media thickness) of the carotid artery, the thickness of which is used as a key determiner for the presence and extent of atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, the data presented in this report give the first placebo-controlled evidence that vitamin supplementation can reduce carotid IMT in patients at cardiovascular risk and with an age-corresponding plasma HCy [homocysteine] concentration, write the studys authors. In a double blind, randomized trial, lead researcher Uwe Till and ...
These are broken down in nutrition as either water-soluble (Vitamin C) or fat-soluble (Vitamin E). An adequate supply of ... vitamins can prevent diseases such as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of vitamins can produce nausea and ... Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
However the interconnected relationships between vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin K, outlined in a 2007 paper[4] published in ... Vitamin D toxicity, or Hypervitaminosis D is the toxic state of an excess of vitamin D. The normal range for blood ... A mutation of the CYP24A1 gene can lead to a reduction in the degradation of vitamin D and to hypercalcaemia (see Vitamin_D: ... Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity appear several months after excessive doses of vitamin D are administered. In almost every case ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ... Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... and a combination of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.[42] ...
... vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased mortality, but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[41 ... Vitamin E[edit]. Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat- ... Vitamin C[edit]. Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals ... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oils, nuts, and ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. Vitamins are essential nutrients,[72] necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D ... In 1913, Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A, then water-soluble vitamin B ... Subcommittee on Vitamin Tolerance, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (1987). "Vitamin E, in Vitamin ... Vitamin C Scurvy Diarrhea causing dehydration Vitamin D Rickets, Hypovitaminosis D Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, ...
Vitamin D2[edit]. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ... Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced ... Vitamin B12[edit]. According to the United States National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants ...
Increased production of vitamin D[edit]. Vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet light. Thus, higher UVB exposure ... Ozone depletion would magnify all of the effects of UV on human health, both positive (including production of vitamin D) and ... In particular, in the U.S. population, the lowest quarter of vitamin D (,17.8 ng/ml) were found using information from the ... Webb, Ann R.; Engelsen, Ola (2006). "Calculated Ultraviolet Exposure Levels for a Healthy Vitamin D Status". Photochemistry and ...
Vitamin D deficiency[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D deficiency. Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D which is naturally ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is ... Whether cholecalciferol and all forms of vitamin D are by definition "vitamins" can be disputed, since the definition of ...
Flintstones vitamins and One-A-Day vitamins, and Cutter insect repellent.[53] ... One A Day Vitamins[edit]. In 2019, a federal jury in San Francisco CA sided with Bayer in a $600 million (US) class action suit ... in 2017 the US District Court in San Francisco said subclasses of purchasers of the vitamin in Florida, New York, and ... alleging that the company misinformed consumers by promoting its One A Day vitamins as supporting cardiac health, vigorous ...
Vitamins[edit]. Vitamins are one of many of the nutritional factors that change the outward appearance of a dog. The fat ... A deficiency in vitamin A can lead to scaly of skin and other dermatitis-related issues like alopecia.[15] Vitamin E is an ... Vitamin A, which can also be supplemented as beta-carotene, prevents the deterioration of epithelial tissues associated with ... Baviskar, S; Jayanthy, C: Nagarajan, B (2013). "Vitamin A responsive dermatosis in a dog". Intras Polivet. 14 (2): 210.. CS1 ...
27 Vitamins and minerals. *28 Ear, nose and throat medicines. *29 Medicines for diseases of joints *29.1 Medicines used to ...
Vitamin D production[edit]. Concerns have also been raised about potential vitamin D deficiency arising from prolonged use of ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure thanks to an equilibrium the skin reaches in which vitamin D degrades as ... and even moderate protection can substantially reduce vitamin D synthesis.[19][20] However, adequate amounts of vitamin D can ... "Are Vitamin D Levels Jeopardized by Sunscreen?". GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May ...
... vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin K includes vitamin K1 and K2). The list: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ... and Vitamin B12. Vitamin intake below recommended amounts can result in signs and symptoms associated with vitamin deficiency. ... Main article: Vitamin. A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts.[12] An ... For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for anthropoid primates, humans, guinea pigs and bats, but not for other ...
Vitamin B12 structure[edit]. In 1948, Hodgkin first encountered vitamin B12,[33] and created new crystals. Vitamin B12 had ... Rickes, E. L.; Brink, N.G.; Koniuszy, F.R.; Wood, T.R.; Folkers, K. (16 April 1948). "Crystalline Vitamin B12". Science. 107 ( ... "Beginning to work on vitamin B12". Web of Stories. Retrieved 14 October 2014.. ... Brink, C.; Hodgkin, D.C.; Lindsey, J.; Pickworth, J.; Robertson, J.H.; White, J.G. (1954). "Structure of Vitamin B12: X-ray ...
Researchers vitamin-enriched corn derived from South African white corn variety M37W, producing a 169-fold increase in Vitamin ... provides greater amounts of Vitamin A targeted at reducing Vitamin A deficiency.[108][109] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. In 2013 the leaders of ...
... and vitamin C. Beta-Carotene is required to synthesize vitamin A and vitamin A is needed to synthesize retinol. A lack of ... vitamin E, and vitamin C. Supplementation of these three vitamins has been shown to decrease these oxidative effects and ... Vitamin, mineral, and enzyme deficiencies[edit]. Certain vitamin and minerals deficiencies are commonly found in people with ... The most frequently cited deficiencies are those of beta-Carotene,[7] retinol,[8] vitamin A[9] ...
... vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as coenzymes themselves (e.g., vitamin C). However, vitamins do have other ... Vitamins and derivatives[edit]. Cofactor. Vitamin. Additional component. Chemical group(s) transferred. Distribution ... Vitamin K. None. Carbonyl group and electrons. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes Ascorbic acid [38]. Vitamin C. None. Electrons ... Organic cofactors are often vitamins or made from vitamins. Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part ...
Vitamins[edit]. The evidence linking vitamin C supplements with an increased rate of kidney stones is inconclusive.[33] The ... The link between vitamin D intake and kidney stones is also tenuous. Excessive vitamin D supplementation may increase the risk ... Some studies[which?] suggest people who take calcium or vitamin D as a dietary supplement have a higher risk of developing ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-16394-1.. ...
Mehta Saurabh; Fawzi Wafaie (2007). "Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients". Vitam Horm. Vitamins & ... Example: vitamin E[edit]. Orthomolecular proponents claim that even large doses of vitamin E pose no risk to health and are ... Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteoporosis in adults or rickets in children. Too much vitamin D can make the intestines ... Some vitamins are toxic in high doses[70] and nearly all (with the possible exception of Vitamin C[85]) will cause adverse ...
Whale meat and blubber as source of carnitine, vitamins and minerals[edit]. In 1995 the first Faroese patient with systemic ... - Hetta skalt tú eta fyri at fáa nokk av D vitaminum (What should you eat in order to get enough vitamin D) ... 3.1 Whale meat and blubber as source of carnitine, vitamins and minerals ... The whale's blubber is rich in vitamin D, which around half of the elderly population and many amongst the younger generations ...
Vitamin D:. Vitamin D insufficiency is common in diabetics.[60] Observational studies show that serum vitamin D is inversely ... Vitamins[edit]. Many observational and clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of vitamins on diabetic ... these vitamins include folate,[48] thiamine,[42] β-carotene, and vitamin E,[54] C,[58] B12,[59] and D.[60] ... "Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels". Diabetic Medicine ...
... vitamins and minerals[edit]. Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamine, vitamin B6, folate ... vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K in the ... All of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are found in the egg yolk. Egg yolk is one of the few foods naturally ... As food, the chicken egg yolk is a major source of vitamins and minerals. It contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, and ...
Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2] The ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) catalyzes the transfer of ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. *Vitamin B complex *Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ...
... provides greater amounts of vitamin A targeted at reducing vitamin A deficiency.[116][117] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. ...
Vitamin D Influence on Immune Response[edit]. Vitamin D is known as an immune regulator that assists in the adaptive and innate ... Vitamin or hormone supplements for what the body is lacking due to the disease (insulin, vitamin B12, thyroid hormone, etc.) ... With Vitamin D present, vitamin D response elements (VDRE) are encoded and expressed via pattern recognition receptors (PRR) ... sun exposure, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (8). doi ...
Vitamin D[edit]. Reasonable exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can be a good source of vitamin D. One minimal ... UVB induces production of vitamin D in the skin at rates of up to 1,000 IUs per minute. This vitamin helps to regulate calcium ... A combination of lower ultraviolet radiation with insufficient vitamin D in a diet leads to vitamin D deficiency. Individuals ... Weller, RB (23 December 2016). "The health benefits of UV radiation exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D ...
Lack of vitamin D[edit]. The hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency has a role in autism is biologically plausible, but not ... Kočovská E, Fernell E, Billstedt E, Minnis H, Gillberg C. Vitamin D and autism: clinical review. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(5): ...
Thus, it is very important that all babies get a vitamin K shot to prevent VKDB. ... Babies do not have enough vitamin K atbirth and are, therefore, at risk for having seriousbleeding. ... What is vitamin K?. Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. We get vitamin K ... Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally. Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can ...
This article explains exactly how much vitamin D you should be taking. ... The amount of vitamin D you need depends on several factors. ... What is vitamin D?. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin thats ... Vitamins D and K are crucial for your health, but some say vitamin D is harmful to those low in vitamin K. Heres a look at the ... Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( ...
Vitamin E overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Making Decisions , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin E , Vitamin E - Health Professional Vitamin E. Fact Sheet ... 500 mg vitamin C daily, both vitamins, or placebo [27]. During a mean follow-up period of 8 years, intake of vitamin E (and/or ... Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2002; ...
It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in ... applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin ... Related topics: Research, Views, Vitamins & premixes Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe Related news. * Vitamin K, ... and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. Vitamin D helps us absorb ...
Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation. Importantly, we need to tell patients that, to date, no controlled,prospective study ... Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... What do we tell our patients? First, there is no evidence that the intake ofselenium and vitamin E will retard the growth of ...
McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Dutta SK: Editorial: vitamin B 12 malabsorption and omeprazole therapy. J Am Coll Nutr 1994, 13:544-545.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Termanini B, Gibril F, Sutliff VE III, et al.: Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B 12 ... Koop H, Bachem MG: Serum iron, ferritin, and vitamin B 12 during prolonged omeprazole therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992, 14: ...
There are 13 vitamins your body needs; Each has specific jobs. ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and ... Vitamin K. You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who ... B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate) ... Vitamin A prevents night blindness.. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In ...
Read chapter 4 Vitamin A: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of ... µg RAE/day of vitamin A 51â 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A , 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A The RDA for vitamin ... VITAMIN A 117 RDA for Pregnancy 14â 18 years 750 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 19â 30 years 770 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 31â 50 ... VITAMIN A 113 Vitamin A EAR and RDA Summary, Ages 1 through 18 Years EAR for Children 1â 3 years 210 µg RAE/day of vitamin A ...
We call these chemical signals vitamins, because humans extract the vitamins from the bacterial biofilms that always line the ... Thank You so much for helping me find out about vitamin D3 I feel I may finally get over this eczema Ive had since last Easter ... I have been taking vitamin D3 since Monday and I think that it may have boosted my skins healing! My diet is already like your ... Gut flora can produce all of the vitamins that we need, so it is not surprising that multivitamins do not provide any health ...
Vitamin C overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Health Information , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin C , Vitamin C - Health Professional Vitamin C. Fact Sheet ... Vitamin C status is typically assessed by measuring plasma vitamin C levels [4,14]. Other measures, such as leukocyte vitamin C ... vitamin A, or vitamin E) prevents gastrointestinal cancers [39]. A similar review by Coulter and colleagues found that vitamin ...
Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin.. *Vitamin Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and ... B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share ... See also: Vitamin deficiency § Water-soluble vitamins. Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of ... List of B vitamins[edit]. B number Name. Description Vitamin B1. Thiamine. A coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino ...
... vitamin chewables, and even jellied prenatal vitamins. Availability[edit]. Prenatal vitamins are available both over the ... Vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, calcium[2], and iron[3] are in higher concentrations, while nutrients such as vitamin ... Prenatal vitamins, also known as prenatal supplements, are vitamin and mineral supplements intended to be taken before and ... 1] Often prenatal vitamins also have a reduced dosage of vitamins that may be detrimental to the fetus when taken in high doses ...
How vital are vitamins? Find out in this article for kids. ... Vitamin D. No bones about it . . . vitamin D is the vitamin you ... Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins.. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods that have water ... Now, lets look more closely at vitamins - from A to K:. Vitamin A. This vitamin plays a really big part in eyesight. Its ... So these kinds of vitamins need to be replaced often because they dont stick around! This crowd of vitamins includes vitamin C ...
There are a number of vitamins available to help women manage the symptoms of perimenopause and menopause. This MNT Knowledge ... Center article helps with a range of vitamins that can help symptoms, including night sweats and vaginal dryness. ... Vitamin D. Vitamin D is not present in many foods. It is a vitamin that is produced in the body when the skin is exposed to ... What are the health benefits of vitamin D? The body produces vitamin D in response to sun exposure. Vitamin D has a range of ...
2.2 Vitamin D. 2.3 Vitamin E. 2.4 Vitamin K Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K differ from the water-soluble vitamins in their ... Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, is one of several biologically active forms of vitamin D. Vitamin D3 or activated 7- ... Active vitamin A was synthesized in the mid-thirties. 2.1.1 Chemistry Vitamin A alcohol. The relationship of the vitamin A ... Table 3 (concluded) Vitamin Requirements for Growth 1/ Vitamin. (mg/kg dry diet). Carp. Channel catfish. Eel. Sea bream. Turbot ...
The most common B-vitamins are essential for supporting your bodys metabolism rate, producing energy and aiding your body in ... Several of the B-vitamins have additional functions as well:. Vitamin B6: Alternatively known as pyridoxine, vitamin B6 helps ... What Is Vitamin D? What Is Vitamin D? * Fun with Funghi: Garnish Your Meals with Mushrooms Fun with Funghi: Garnish Your Meals ... Although, a vitamin B12 supplement may also be needed. These B-vitamins are more commonly known by their names than by their ...
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. ... Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the bodys fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These ... Vitamin B6 is also called pyridoxine. Vitamin B6 helps form red blood cells and maintain brain function. This vitamin also ... A vitamin deficiency occurs when you do not get enough of a certain vitamin. Vitamin deficiency can cause health problems. ...
Do you personally take vitamins, minerals and other nutritional supplements to enhance health and to prevent common diseases? ... If you sincerely care about the importance of being free to buy and consume your mega-doses of vitamins and minerals, now it is ... Consideration should also be given as to how many resources would be diverted by doing this risk-assessment on vitamins from ... the Codex Guidelines for Vitamin and Mineral Food Supplements. However, quite aside from the fact that applying risk assessment ...
B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight loss ... This vitamin is widely available in food but is sensitive to water and may be destroyed by cooking, food processing, improper ... Choline is one of the "lipotropic" B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight ... Uses: There are a great many uses for this important B vitamin. Choline may be helpful in the treatment of nerve conduction ...
Vitamins are essential, she says. We have known that for 50 years. If your diet is not providing enough vitamins, it can be ... The skins ability to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight also declines with age. Vitamin D is crucial in the absorption of ... Vitamin E is a more difficult nutrient to stock up on, but it can be found in egg yolks, salmon, nuts, seeds and vegetable oils ... Vitamins are natural and essential, she says, but there seems to be a feeling that more is better, which it is not. Taking ...
... help to get pregnant vitamins, pregnancy conception estimator, lutera and pregnancy chances ... Prenatal vitamins can be a great way to make sure that your body is getting enough vitamins and minerals. Prenatal vitamins ... Help to get pregnant vitamins. Prenatal vitamins can boost your fertility before getting pregnant, and once you do get pregnant ... Comments to «Help to get pregnant vitamins». * PRINC. writes: 08.11.2014 at 23:20:28 That subsequent time i will never use ...
Whats On Your Plate? Vitamins and Minerals Find out which vitamins and minerals older adults need more or less of. ... Learn about drugs, vitamins, and herbs, and how the drugs you take compare with others. Check interactions between two or more ... People over 50 need more of some vitamins and minerals than younger adults do. Your doctor or a dietitian can tell you whether ... People who have plenty to eat may be malnourished if they dont eat food that provides the right nutrients, vitamins, and ...
Get the facts on taking prenatal vitamins during your pregnancy. ... Why is it so important to take prenatal vitamins when youre ... Prenatal Vitamins Explained. By Paige Fowler, Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS on October 27, 2017 ... "There are a couple of vitamins and minerals that pregnant women need more of than you can usually obtain from a healthy diet ... "Ideally, youd start taking it before you become pregnant to tune up your body with certain vitamins and minerals that you and ...
Vitamins are essential in metabolic reactions in the body as catalysts in enzymatic reactions or as coenzymes carrying chemical ... The Vitamin & Nutrition Center (2006) Vitamins Guide. Cited 16 June 2006 ... Packer JE, Slater TF, Willson RL (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. ... Some mitochondrial diseases are linked to vitamin deficiencies and can be improved by vitamin supplementation. ...
Water-soluble vitamins consist of the B vitamins and vitamin C. ... Water-Soluble Vitamins are essential organic substances that ... Water-soluble vitamins consist of the B vitamins and vitamin C. With exception of vitamin B6 and B12, they are readily excreted ... vitamins, water‐soluble Vitamin C and the B vitamins (including pantothenic acid, biotin, and folate), which are all soluble in ... Vitamin B12 is found in its free-vitamin form, called cyanocobalamin, and in two active coenzyme forms. Absorption of vitamin B ...
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This guide has information about vitamin A, B vitamins, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, zinc, magnesium. ... skin, eyes and fighting toxins - vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant.. Good sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E is found in a range ... Good sources of vitamin D. Good sources of vitamin D include:. • sunlight (sunlight on the skin allows our bodies to make ... What happens if I take too much vitamin A?. Vitamin A is fat-soluble and so is stored in the body for a long time, especially ...
Ive been taking prenatal vitamins but I was wondering if anyone would recommend any other vitamins that ... ... Ive been taking prenatal vitamins but I was wondering if anyone would recommend any other vitamins that could possibly give me ... There are differing opinions on prenatal vitamins. Do they really help or they unnecessary? What is your opinion? ... There are differing opinions on prenatal vitamins. Do they really help or they unnecessary? What is your opinion? ...
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  • In that case, you may need to rely on your diet (or supplements) for vitamin D as well as on vitamin D that's stored in body fat ( 15 ). (
  • Therefore, there is little justification for the use of vitamin D supplements to maintain or improve musculoskeletal health, and clinical guidelines should reflect these findings. (
  • To conclude that we should stop researching vitamin D supplements and that they are of no value for bone health does a disservice to consumers, many of whom are at risk of insufficiency and deficiency for significant portions of the year. (
  • Some may now decide against exploring vitamin D-containing supplements to fill nutrient gaps. (
  • Many of these studies do not assess baseline levels (to be fair, the vitamin D studies in the new meta-analysis did), or don't fully discuss how many people actually took the supplements (compliance). (
  • In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. (
  • For information on vitamin C and COVID-19, see Dietary Supplements in the Time of COVID-19 . (
  • In general, dietary supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex . (
  • Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific number or name of each vitamin: B 1 = thiamine, B 2 = riboflavin, B 3 = niacin, etc. (
  • A popular way of increasing one's vitamin B intake is through the use of dietary supplements . (
  • Prenatal vitamins , also known as prenatal supplements , are vitamin and mineral supplements intended to be taken before and during pregnancy and during postnatal lactation . (
  • There is a range of vitamins and supplements available to help women manage the symptoms of perimenopause and menopause. (
  • While there are many supplements available, a woman may be able to get all of her vitamins by eating the foods that contain them. (
  • If a woman is unable to get enough vItamin E in her diet, then supplements are available. (
  • Do you personally take vitamins , minerals and other nutritional supplements to enhance health and to prevent common diseases? (
  • While the officially stated goal is " to define a "scientifically-based and internationally applicable approach for nutrient risk assessment " the actual one is to set very restrictive standards for the use and consumptiom of nutritional supplements, to the effect that I will not be able anymore to buy or consume orthomolecular doses of any vitamin or mineral without a doctor's prescription. (
  • Because the FAO and the WHO are the joint administrators of the Codex Alimentarius Commission , the results of their nutrient risk assessment project will be hugely influential upon the maximum levels to be set in connection with the Codex Guidelines for Vitamin and Mineral Food Supplements . (
  • Taking vitamin supplements is sort of a magic-bullet theory that goes back to the early days of nutrition, when certain vitamins such as niacin to cure pellagra helped eradicate debilitating disease,' Ms. Kava says. (
  • The information about magnesium presented in this fact sheet is designed to help you make thoughtful decisions about eating a healthful diet and using vitamin and mineral supplements. (
  • Multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements contain a combination of vitamins and minerals, and sometimes other ingredients as well. (
  • Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. (
  • Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Vitamin A and Carotenoids (2005). (
  • Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Vitamin D (2005). (
  • In developed nations that have access to healthy food, doctors don't recommend vitamin A supplements because they can increase the risk of cancer, heart disease, and bone fractures. (
  • No. Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Breast milk from mothers who are taking vitamin K supplements is also low in vitamin K. (
  • Do Older Adults Need Vitamins, Supplements? (
  • Nov. 30, 2012 -- At least half of adults age 65 and above take daily vitamins and other supplements , but only a fraction actually need them, says an Emory University expert. (
  • He challenges what he says is a widely held belief that the older people get, the more vitamins and mineral supplements they need. (
  • There is some controversy after a report claimed that taking antioxidant vitamin supplements was not only useless but could actually damage your health. (
  • Learn about topics such as How to Store Vitamins and Supplements , How to Add Vitamins to Water , How to Preserve Vitamins in Foods , and more with our helpful step-by-step instructions with photos and videos. (
  • We help women worldwide with the best vitamins & dietary supplements for hair skin & nails. (
  • But many women take prenatal supplements to ensure they are getting a full range of vitamins and minerals to support themselves and the developing fetus properly. (
  • Prenatal vitamins are nutritional supplements that usually contain a concentrated mix of minerals and vitamins that a woman's body needs more of during pregnancy. (
  • Coenzyme Q10 and vitamin C are two antioxidant supplements that are often used for heart health. (
  • While taking supplements is a hot trend, Farris says there's no guarantee vitamins will have the same effect in supplement form as they do in their natural form. (
  • Consequently, you should always consult your vet before administering fat soluble vitamin supplements to your cat. (
  • Do not take vitamin A supplements, or any supplements containing vitamin A (retinol), as too much could harm your baby. (
  • You can get vitamin supplements containing vitamin D free of charge if you are pregnant or breastfeeding and qualify for the Healthy Start scheme . (
  • The researchers extracted information on dispensed folic acid (vitamin B 9 ) and multivitamin supplements (vitamins A, B, C, and D). (
  • Decades of research has failed to find any substantial evidence that vitamins and supplements do any significant good. (
  • Several recent study reviews have found that people who took Vitamin D supplements daily lived longer, on average, than those who didn't. (
  • And a 2007 review of trials of several different types of antioxidant supplements put it this way: "Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality. (
  • It can be rather tricky to fine-tune all the ratios of individual vitamins, minerals, and fats if you primarily rely on dietary supplements. (
  • Taking beta carotene supplements also will not interfere with your vitamin D, so that's another option if for some reason you cannot get enough veggies in your diet. (
  • They found vitamin A supplements reduced child mortality by 24 percent in low and middle income countries. (
  • You get preformed vitamin A when you eat animal products, fortified foods, or when you take vitamin A supplements. (
  • If you take vitamin A supplements, don't take more than the daily recommended value of 5,000 IU. (
  • Scientists have considered various herbs , supplements, and vitamins to decide whether they can advantage with depression. (
  • However, prenatal vitamins are absolutely essential and women with heavy periods may benefit from magnesium supplements. (
  • Researchers at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences report that vitamin E and vitamin C supplements may actually hamper endurance by interfering with exercise-induced cell signaling in the muscles. (
  • For 11 weeks, the researchers monitored 54 young, healthy men and women and randomly assigned them to consume either 1000mg of vitamin C and 235mg vitamin E, which is the amount found in most supplements, or a placebo. (
  • When you take in fat-soluble vitamins (through foods or supplements), your body uses what it needs and stores the rest. (
  • With cat probiotics, vitamins and supplements from the brands you know and trust, you can help your favorite feline stay healthy and happy for years to come. (
  • NoorVitamins™, a division of Noor Pharmaceuticals, specializes in developing high quality, Halal vitamins and dietary supplements made with all natural ingredients to promote a healthy and Halal lifestyle. (
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, which can be obtained from sun exposure, food and supplements. (
  • You can get Vitamin D from certain foods, sunlight, and dietary supplements. (
  • Breast milk only has a small amount of vitamin D. Talk to your family doctor before giving older children vitamin supplements. (
  • Are there any side effects to vitamin D dietary supplements? (
  • Tocopherol esters, present in processed foods and vitamin supplements, must be hydrolysed in the small intestine before absorption. (
  • Large population-based studies in Finland found that taking vitamin E supplements reduced the risk of prostate and colorectal cancers in male smokers. (
  • Several clinical trials have shown that vitamin E supplements may be helpful in preventing LDL oxidation in patients with diabetes, which may help prevent progression to atherosclerosis. (
  • Breastfed infants may need to receive drops containing vitamin D from one month of age if their mother has not taken vitamin D supplements throughout pregnancy. (
  • There are many different types of vitamin D supplements available, which are in different forms such as tablets, capsules or drops. (
  • Evidence strongly suggests Vitamin D supplements could be effective in preventing Covid-19, and play a key role in treating patients if added to existing treatment plans, especially if this is done early in the disease progression. (
  • If you are able to get exposure to natural sunlight then your body will synthesize Vitamin D and you are less likely to need supplements to maintain healthy levels. (
  • Single vitamins C and E showed the most significant current value declines in 2018, as they are often included in other dietary supplements, drinks and foods. (
  • Because B vitamins are water-soluble, only small amounts are stored by the body and they must be obtained from foods rich in B vitamins or from supplements on a regular basis. (
  • B vitamin toxicity rarely occurs, usually when someone ingests much more than the recommended dose of supplements. (
  • Data from the last National Health survey (back in 1995) showed that up to 30% of Australians had recently taken vitamin or mineral supplements - mostly for preventive health reasons. (
  • More recently, the 45 and Up study of more than 100,000 Australian adults found that 19% of men and 29% of women reported taking vitamin or mineral supplements. (
  • The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) translates the national dietary guidelines into recommended daily food serves to help Australians eat better, without the need for vitamins or mineral supplements. (
  • So what do we do: turn to vitamin and mineral supplements to make up the shortfall? (
  • Medical problems that arise due to excessive intakes of vitamins and minerals are almost always due to intakes of supplements. (
  • Let's leave vitamin supplements to those who need them, and call this myth busted. (
  • Dec 01, 2020 · Vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements did not significantly reduce the incidence of SARS CoV-2 infection Next the team broke down the participant population into gender, age and body mass index. (
  • The supplements will differ by the kinds of calcium that they contain, the amount that they contain, and any thing else that is added to them (other minerals or vitamins). (
  • Along with other nutritional supplements, when vitamin B1 is added to a plant, there is an increase in its growth. (
  • With different types of dietary or nutritional supplements, Vitamin and Mineral supplements are types of dietary supplements containing micronutrients meant to help a healthy body function smoothly in a unique way. (
  • Globally, the Vitamins and Nutritional Supplements Market in the recent years has experienced an escalating growth due to rapidly aging population, rising health care cost and growing income levels of middle class as discussed earlier. (
  • Pediatric Vitamins and Dietary Supplements have experienced a healthy growth in the U.S. Market, exceeding a tremendous $600 Million. (
  • Increasing demand for Functional Foods and Beverages is expected to restrain the growth of Vitamin and Nutritional Supplements Market in the near future but the effects don't seem to be very powerful. (
  • But the scenario has changed now and with the increasing health awareness among people, people of all age groups, including teenagers and adults are driven to intake these dietary supplements and vitamins to stay healthy and fit. (
  • China and Japan are some of the rapidly growing markets for vitamins supplements in APAC. (
  • Should you take vitamin supplements? (
  • Many of us choose to take supplements, because we think we're not getting the right amount of vitamins in our body - but you might not realise that taking a high dosage, or taking them for too long, can do more harm than good, especially if you're already taking prescription medication. (
  • Not only that, vitamin supplements can be expensive - and unnecessary. (
  • Nevertheless, vitamin supplements can be helpful for some people, so we asked the experts to help us identify the most common deficiencies to look out for in older people, along with some advice on how to prevent them. (
  • Lead author Joseph Firth, based at the University's Division of Psychology and Mental Health, said: 'Looking at all of the data from clinical trials of vitamin and mineral supplements for schizophrenia to date, we can see that B vitamins effectively improve outcomes for patients. (
  • There are very few foods in nature that contain vitamin D, but this new science-based vitamin D analysis from ARS will advance the analytical values of foods and supplements that were previously unavailable. (
  • What is vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB)? (
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, is a condition that occurs when the baby does not have enough Vitamin K. (
  • Despite that, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. (
  • How common is vitamin D deficiency? (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is a problem all over the world. (
  • In children, a severe vitamin D deficiency can cause delays in growth and rickets, a disease where the bones become soft. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide but occurs at higher rates in specific populations. (
  • A deficiency in vitamin D is linked to various health problems. (
  • The B 12 vitamin is not abundantly available from plant products , [10] making B 12 deficiency a legitimate concern for vegans . (
  • [ medical citation needed ] In cases of severe deficiency, B vitamins, especially B 12 , may also be delivered by injection to reverse deficiencies. (
  • [14] Also, Vitamin B 9 (folic acid) deficiency in early embryo development has been linked to neural tube defects . (
  • Cobalamin, or vitamin B12, plays an important role in creating new red blood cells and a deficiency could result in anemia. (
  • Ames BN, Atamma H, Kililea DW (2005) Mineral and vitamin deficiency can accelerate the mitochondrial decay of aging. (
  • Estornell E, Tormo JR, Marin P, Renau-Piqueras J, Timoneda J, Barber T (2000) Effect of vitamin A deficiency on mitochondrial function in rat liver and heart. (
  • One of the man signs of vitamin A deficiency is night-blindness. (
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K stored in their bodies, which can lead to serious bleeding problems like vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). (
  • Some individuals are at high risk for vitamin deficiency and have higher individual needs for vitamins which will not be covered by diet alone. (
  • Too little sun may contribute to deficiency in vitamin D, which is critical for many things, including building healthy bones and preventing heart disease. (
  • Vitamin A 3 is important for healthy vision, immune function, and proper cell growth, and according to previous research, preventing vitamin A deficiency in children could save an estimated 600,000 lives each year. (
  • As you age, your body loses some of its ability to absorb vitamin B-12 and your risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency increases. (
  • In its later stages, vitamin B-12 deficiency may cause anemia. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency may increase your risk of bone fractures, bone pain, and osteomalacia (softening of the bones). (
  • Older women, especially those who are homebound or not exposed to sunlight, are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Coumarin derivatives, used in medicine to prevent blood coagulation in certain cases, act by antagonizing the action of vitamin K. In the deficiency state an abnormal length of time is needed for the blood to clot, and there may be hemorrhaging in various tissues. (
  • Deficiency occurs in hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant, in liver damage, and in cases where the vitamin is not absorbed properly by the intestine. (
  • A low level of vitamin D in the body is referred to as a "vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can delay a child's growth. (
  • Can a vitamin D deficiency make you feel overly tired? (
  • What is a Vitamin B12 deficiency? (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency and its detection have been in the news lately from The New York Times to The Dr. Oz Show. (
  • B12 Deficiency Effects Widespread: The effects of vitamin B12 deficiency are widespread. (
  • Diagnosing B12 Deficiency: While it is not possible to go into the details of the diagnosis and how to interpret these tests, it is important to understand that assessing vitamin B status involves understanding A DYNAMIC (moving and interacting changes in these parameters) not static assessment of the metabolic systems involved. (
  • Early Detection Is Critical: It is critical that a vitamin B12 deficiency is detected as early as possible in order to prevent permanent damage to the nervous system. (
  • A variety of studies have shown that a simple B12 blood level misses vitamin B12 deficiency over 80% of the time. (
  • There is no one perfect test for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • A low level of vitamin B12 is considered to be a deficiency. (
  • You can prevent a vitamin B12 deficiency by eating foods rich in B12. (
  • Early studies on vitamin D and disease often focused on prevention of rickets (a disease involving bone formation related to deficiency of vitamin D and bone-related minerals). (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to softening or malformation of bone. (
  • Individuals with low vitamin D levels are at risk of developing health problems linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as osteomalacia , which causes bone pain and tenderness. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is common during winter in northern latitudes above 20 degrees and southern latitudes 20 degrees below the equator. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is strongly associated with ARDS, poor mortality outcomes as well as being associated with the majority of comorbidities associated with Covid-19 case fatalities. (
  • Young people with known Vitamin D deficiency and those older than 60 and should supplement with 2,000iu/d during winter. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency occurs during winter since Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during summer exposure to UVB rays. (
  • Italy has one of the worst Vitamin D deficiency rates in Europe and has paid the highest death toll. (
  • Japan is an outlier in the north, with only a very mild outbreak and has the lowest incidence of Vitamin D deficiency thanks to its high fish-content diet. (
  • A deficiency in another vitamin or mineral prevents its use. (
  • Deficiency: Called ariboflavinosis, usually seen along with other vitamin deficiencies in those with alcoholism, malabsorption, liver disease, and in the elderly. (
  • Quick Guide Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? (
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiency can impair the body's ability to heal and protect itself. (
  • One nutritional deficiency in particular that has the potential to wreak havoc on your psyche is niacin (vitamin B3). (
  • B deficiencies play a causative role in mental illness and exacerbate symptoms psychiatric symptoms which can result in poor nutrition vitamin insufficiency - defined as subclinical deficiency which may hamper recovery. (
  • 7 Hence, a deficiency in one or more of these B vitamins may lead to depression, cognitive impairment and dementia. (
  • Vitamin B 12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell metabolism, thus a deficiency may lead to disruption of DNA and cell metabolism and thus have serious clinical consequences. (
  • Vitamin B 12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences. (
  • This review presents a concise summary of the most up to date evidence on how to diagnose and manage vitamin B 12 deficiency. (
  • We searched PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "vitamin B 12 deficiency" and "cobalamin deficiency", and hand selected the most relevant and appropriate articles. (
  • A review of the various factors that can cause vitamin D deficiency are found in Table 1 (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). (
  • Fortification of some foods and beverages have not solved the vitamin D deficiency problem, and recent studies suggest that the regular intake of vitamin D may increase blood levels greater than weekly or monthly oral intakes of equivalent doses (Chel, Wijnhoven, Smit, Ooms, & Lips, 2008). (
  • orthomol symptoms of vitamin d deficiency where I can read about it? (
  • I believe that the public health problem for vitamin D deficiency is quite significant. (
  • But how much of a problem is vitamin D deficiency? (
  • It's always been assumed that vitamin D deficiency is only something of concern in cold climates. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency causes impaired clotting of the blood and internal bleeding, even without injury. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency leads to a deficiency of the proteins that require vitamin K for their synthesis, including prothrombin, factor X, factor IX, and factor VII. (
  • Impaired oxygen delivery can emanate from a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) required for cell energy and oxygen delivery on hemoglobin. (
  • bBut for vitamins and minerals, it is important to assess the totality of the evidence. (
  • Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. (
  • If you sincerely care about the importance of being free to buy and consume your mega-doses of vitamins and minerals, now it is the time you can do something to prevent this from happening. (
  • Ruth Kava, director of nutrition for the American Council on Science and Health, a consumer science organization, says the vitamins and minerals that come from foods are a complex mixture, one that makes it hard to pinpoint exactly where the benefits come from. (
  • When we eat foods, we are getting an incredible mixture of vitamins and minerals. (
  • Prenatal vitamins can be a great way to make sure that your body is getting enough vitamins and minerals. (
  • Prenatal vitamins contain all the important vitamins and minerals that women need to be at their healthiest. (
  • People over 50 need more of some vitamins and minerals than younger adults do. (
  • Your doctor or a dietitian can tell you whether you need to change your diet or take vitamins or minerals. (
  • People who have plenty to eat may be malnourished if they don't eat food that provides the right nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. (
  • Ideally, you'd start taking it before you become pregnant to tune up your body with certain vitamins and minerals that you and your baby need to have a healthy pregnancy," says Ashlesha Dayal, MD, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology and women's health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center. (
  • There are a couple of vitamins and minerals that pregnant women need more of than you can usually obtain from a healthy diet alone," Dayal says. (
  • Vitamins and minerals are important for a healthy lifestyle. (
  • We know too little to suggest there is a greater need in the elderly for most of these vitamins and minerals. (
  • At very high levels, some vitamins and minerals can be toxic, he says. (
  • Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or trying to conceive need more of certain vitamins and minerals than other people, especially folic acid. (
  • Different women will need different doses of some vitamins and minerals, depending on factors such as diet, age, and activity levels. (
  • Your child needs essential vitamins and minerals to grow healthy and strong. (
  • Generally speaking,) vitamins and minerals are important for normal growth and function of the hair follicle and when deficient may contribute to hair loss," says Lou Malinow, M.D., who is also a Medical Advisory Board Member for subscription service Persona Nutrition . (
  • He adds that the hair growth process as a whole likely includes hormones, vitamins, and minerals, alongside genetics and other factors. (
  • Some vitamins may require additional minerals to be properly assimilated. (
  • Eating a healthy, varied diet in pregnancy will help you to get most of the vitamins and minerals you need. (
  • To understand the role of vitamins and minerals, it helps to understand a little bit about the chemistry of your body. (
  • Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are among these necessary substances. (
  • Many vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are found to be deficient or in low-normal range in people with HIV. (
  • Many different vitamins and minerals are present in food and are required in small amounts to maintain good health. (
  • To ensure we get all the vitamins and minerals we need, it is important to eat a well-balanced, varied diet. (
  • Vitamins A, D, and K cooperate synergistically, not only with each other but also with essential minerals like magnesium, calcium, and zinc. (
  • Vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants are called micronutrients. (
  • Yet even in resource-rich countries, it is possible to eat well, feel fine, and still not be getting enough of certain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. (
  • Since different vitamins and minerals are found in different food groups, it is important to include foods from each group in your diet every day. (
  • The two met in 2007, when, intensely fatigued, Paltrow summoned Junger to a Manhattan hotel room to administer an intravenous dose of vitamins and minerals (B, C, and magnesium, among other ingredients) known in the trade as a Myers' Cocktail. (
  • This will be achieved by adding vitamins and minerals to maize flour, edible oils and salt, which are widely available through both modern and traditional retailing outlets and are basic foodstuffs for all households in Kenya. (
  • This post right here will consist of water soluble & fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. (
  • One of the ways the body stays in a state of homeostasis through the use of vitamins and minerals and taking high dosages of one vitamin can throw off the balance leading to adverse health effects. (
  • Are you getting enough vitamins and minerals in your diet? (
  • There are six basic types of nutrients that are considered essential to life: proteins, carbohydrates, fats , vitamins , minerals , and water. (
  • Vitamins and minerals are considered micronutrients because they are needed in smaller quantities than the macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and fat). (
  • Which over-the-counter vitamins or minerals help build bones? (
  • According to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) , dietary supplement is basically a product in form of a pill, capsule, tablet or even liquid form, which contains a single or multiple dietary ingredients (vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids or other vital substances) and is meant to supplement the conventional food we eat. (
  • Most of us can get all the vitamins and minerals we need by eating a healthy, balanced diet, but sometimes we need a little extra help. (
  • When used as an adjunctive with antipsychotics, certain vitamins and minerals may be effective for improving symptomatic outcomes of schizophrenia, by restoring nutritional deficits, reducing oxidative stress, or modulating neurological pathways. (
  • Fruits, goldmine of vitamins, minerals and fibre are ideal to consume at least 4-5 servings in a day. (
  • Since they are in the natural form, account for largest part of water and 100% bad cholesterol free, it's much easier for the body to process and absorb the vitamins and minerals from the fresh fruit. (
  • Valuable for minerals, vitamins and sugar with useful amount of fibre and iron. (
  • For this reason, it is required by law in many countries (including the United States) that the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid be added back to white flour after processing. (
  • The most common B-vitamins - B1 or thiamin, B2 or riboflavin, niacin, B6 or pyridoxine, and B12 - are essential for supporting your body's metabolism rate, producing energy and aiding your body in fighting disease and infection. (
  • The most common vitamins from the B vitamin group include niacin, riboflavin and thiamine. (
  • Vitamins C, E, niacin and folic acid belong to effective scavengers of free radicals, prevent mitochondrial oxidants formation and mitochondrial aging. (
  • Pregnancy Facts Folic acid (from vitamin B) is one of the few nutrients known to prevent neu. (
  • Research shows folate (folic acid), another important component of the B-vitamins, is important for a healthy pregnancy, reducing the risk of serious birth defects of the spine and brain, also known as neural tube defects. (
  • Folic acid is also known as folate or vitamin B-9. (
  • Because of their functions in the body, the vitamin folic acid, vitamin K and magnesium are all used to support proper functioning of the heart or healthy circulation. (
  • Other vitamins that should not lack from your cat's daily diet include choline, biotin or the folic acid. (
  • If you want to get your folic acid from a multivitamin tablet, make sure that the tablet does not contain vitamin A (or retinol). (
  • Other roles of cobalamin include working with pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 and folic acid to reduce harmful homocysteine levels, participating in the metabolization of food, and keeping the immune system operating smoothly. (
  • Pregnant women take a lab-made form of vitamin B9 called folic acid to help prevent birth defects. (
  • Kiwi - A rich source of vitamins A, C, E, B - complex, calcium, iron and folic acid, kiwi is a small oval fruit with thin brown skin, soft green flesh and black seeds. (
  • Vitamin D helps us absorb calcium while vitamin K helps 'fix' calcium in our bones (and keeping calcium out of our arteries). (
  • They are generally nontoxic when present in excess of needs, although symptoms may be reported in people taking megadoses of niacin , vitamin C, or pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 ). (
  • Niacin is one of the most stable of the B vitamins. (
  • Niacin (Nicotine vitamins? (
  • Niacin is also known as Vitamin B3. (
  • I've personally used slow-release niacin (NOT niacinamide) with other B-vitamins to treat and eventually cure a former girlfriend's hypoglycaemia, which had schizoid symptoms, and also used it for myself for stress (until the Australian government made high dose niacin "prescription-only" and forced it off the market - now I take govt subsidized Prozac). (
  • I suspect that most, if not all, of the cases of niacin liver toxicity were due to semi-informed people going off half-cocked and using high dose niacin (or worse, niacinamide) without also supplementing the other B vitamins (B vitamins are synergistic, and using high doses of one without the others is asking for trouble). (
  • Needed to activate and absorb Vitamin B-6, absorption of iron, eases watery eye fatigue, treatment for cataracts, used when protein intake is high, helps to create niacin. (
  • In 2012, I interviewed Dr. Andrew Saul on the topic of using vitamin B3 (niacin) for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. (
  • Figs - Eaten either dried or fresh, figs contain vitamin A, C, folate and niacin. (
  • What Are B-Vitamins and Folate? (
  • You probably already eat some foods that have folate because many fruits and vegetables - including oranges (a good source) and avocado (an excellent source) - are sources of this vitamin. (
  • Some older adults may need more vitamin B6 , B12, and folate, research suggests. (
  • Malinow says that certain studies show normal levels of vitamin D, iron, B12 and folate, and selenium in childhood and early adulthood may prevent or delay premature graying later. (
  • In the review period, folate gained attention in terms of vitamin B intake, which is considered as an important component for fertility. (
  • Lime - Lime or lemon is the most cultivated citrus fruit with green to yellow colour loaded with vitamins A, C and folate. (
  • Intake recommendations for vitamin E and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [ 6 ]. (
  • It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin. (
  • An insufficiently studied area receiving much attention is the long-term effect of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. (
  • Although not intended to replace a healthy diet, prenatal vitamins provide women of childbearing age with nutrients recognized by the various health organizations including the American Dietetic Association as helpful for a healthy pregnancy outcome. (
  • [1] Prenatal vitamins are similar to other multivitamins but do contain different amounts of specific nutrients to better suit the needs of an expecting mother. (
  • Choline, inositol and ascorbic acid are required in appreciable quantities in the diet and sometimes are not referred to as vitamins but as major dietary nutrients. (
  • Since half of pregnancies are unplanned, regular prenatal vitamins ensure that you get those nutrients even before you find out that you're expecting. (
  • While vitamin A supplementation likely improves immunity in children in developing countries, there is no evidence to expect improvement in immunity from taking vitamin A supplementation for those in the developed world who already have access to good food and nutrients," offers Lisa Hayim, registered dietitian and founder of The Well Necessities. (
  • Vitamins are essential nutrients required in very small amounts and serve as facilatators for normal metabolism, growth and physical well being. (
  • The symptoms that come from low blood sugar are probably more related to adrenal than to pancreas, and supporting the adrenals with freeze-dried adrenal at 50-100 mg. twice daily, along with other stress-supporting nutrients, such as the B vitamins, vitamins C and A, and zinc, may be helpful. (
  • Vitamin D is one of the most intensely studied yet widely debated nutrients in health research over the past decades. (
  • Of the World's Healthiest Foods, we list one excellent, two very good, and three good sources of vitamin D. Needless to say, this is a much shorter list than we see with other nutrients and will present a challenge to the goal of meeting needs with diet alone. (
  • Luckily, however, unlike other nutrients, vitamin D is a nutrient that we have the opportunity to increase by increasing our exposure to sunlight, and for some people, this combination of diet-plus-sunlight might provide an acceptable amount of this vitamin. (
  • Vitamins are organic compounds providing essential nutrients, and are proven to help plant growth. (
  • It is important to note that, consuming vitamins does not make up for an unhealthy diet, and vitamins are an insufficient substitute for nutrients from fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. (
  • It's well-established that healthy fats such as animal-based omega-3s - especially DHA - are vitally important for your brain health, but other nutrients such as vitamins are also necessary for cognition and the prevention of neurological disease and mental disorders. (
  • Vitamin C: Skip it - it probably won't help you get over your cold, and you can eat citrus fruits instead. (
  • Vitamin B3: Skip it and eat salmon, tuna, or beets instead. (
  • Looking for vitamin D, pantothenic acid (B5), and biotin (vitamin H) can help deter hair loss, but he notes that biotin interferes with the results of some blood tests and should be held for several days prior to lab draws. (
  • Both thiamine hydrochloride and thiamine mononitrate have been successfully used as the active vitamin in test diets for fish nutrition studies. (
  • Studies published in 'Botanical Gazette' by the University of Chicago Press tell the importance of vitamin B1, or thiamine hydrochloride, in plant growth. (
  • This report also reveals a single nutrient, thiamine (thii-ah-meen) vitamin B1, by virtue of its ability to facilitate the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin (the red oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells), as the antidote to eye, nerve, heart, brain and lung disorders. (
  • Alternatively known as pyridoxine, vitamin B6 helps to produce insulin, fight infection and create non-essential amino acids (the building blocks of protein). (
  • Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) helps make serotonin , a chemical responsible for transmitting brain signals. (
  • Data from 81 RCTs totaling almost 54,000 participants indicated that vitamin D supplementation did not significantly impact fracture, falls, or bone mineral density. (
  • "Vitamin D supplementation did not have meaningful effects on fracture, falls, or bone mineral density, and future trials are unlikely to alter these conclusions," ​wrote the authors, affiliated with the University of Auckland (NZ) and the University of Aberdeen (UK). (
  • Some mitochondrial diseases are linked to vitamin deficiencies and can be improved by vitamin supplementation. (
  • Infants who receive the vitamin K shot do not require further supplementation. (
  • Dr Levine noted that the rates of vitamin supplementation in the current study were largely similar to those found in previous registry-based research. (
  • The researchers carried out a number of sensitivity analyses to determine whether the timing of vitamin supplementation is important to the risk for ASD. (
  • For example, they analyzed use of maternal vitamin supplementation before but not during pregnancy, during but not before pregnancy, and before and during pregnancy. (
  • They also examined exposure during the period from 4 weeks before pregnancy to 8 weeks into pregnancy, and maternal vitamin supplementation 2 years before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 2 years before and during pregnancy. (
  • Therefore, the recommendations in this chapter will be for supplementation-for taking vitamins daily, in addition to maintaining a healthy diet. (
  • analyzed the results of 43 trials of vitamin A supplementation involving over 200,000 children aged 6 months to 5 years. (
  • Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on lung, urinary tract, pancreas, mouth or stomach cancer risks. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute respiratory tract infection. (
  • The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN, 2016) does not recommend routine monitoring of serum vitamin D levels during long-term supplementation with vitamin D. Furthermore, expert opinion in the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group 2017 ( NOG 2017 ) is that routine monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels is unnecessary for people on long-term maintenance doses of vitamin D (up to 2000 IU a day). (
  • The meta-analysis 5 in question, which investigated the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on schizophrenia, found that studies using high doses of vitamins B6, B8 ( inositol ) and B12 in combination were very effective for improving schizophrenic symptoms. (
  • They also found that supplementation with B vitamins appear to be most effective when implemented early on. (
  • Why increase a person's risk for melanoma just to improve vitamin D levels, when supplementation is generally simplistic and cost effective? (
  • the responsible recommendation lies in proper sun protection and potential vitamin D supplementation. (
  • It's often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" and is made in your skin when exposed to sunlight. (
  • Significant amounts of vitamin D can also be made in your skin when exposed to UV rays from sunlight. (
  • Vitamin D is made in the skin when exposed to sunlight, or you can get it from the foods you eat. (
  • It is a vitamin that is produced in the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight . (
  • Vitamin D is produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight. (
  • The skin's ability to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight also declines with age. (
  • Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to summer sunlight (from late March/early April to the end of September). (
  • Most people aged five years and over in the UK will probably get enough vitamin D from sunlight in the summer, so you might choose not to take a vitamin D supplement during these months. (
  • Your body makes vitamin D after being exposed to sunlight. (
  • That's because your body create its own vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. (
  • During some times of the year, especially in northern states, there may not be enough of the right sunlight to make vitamin D. This is true even if you are outside all day. (
  • First is the long-known fact that human skin cells can make vitamin D from sunlight. (
  • In other words, even though we know that our skin cells can make this preliminary form of vitamin D from sunlight, it is not easy for us to predict how much will get made. (
  • Vitamin D (or cholecalciferol) is produced in the skin, when it is exposed to sunlight, but as we get precious few glimpses of the sun during the cold, winter months, we are unlikely to meet our needs for vitamin D. (
  • Most people should be able to get all the vitamin D they need by exposing themselves to enough sunlight and eating a healthy balanced diet. (
  • Most people get some vitamin D from sunlight. (
  • Our body makes most of our vitamin D in reaction to sunlight on our skin. (
  • British Dietetic Association spokesperson Priya Tew says: 'It can be difficult in the UK to meet our vitamin D needs through sunlight and diet alone. (
  • Thus, wearing sunscreen, and sun-protective clothing, or avoiding sunlight all have the ability to result in lower blood levels of vitamin D. However, no clinician should recommend trading one condition for another, and it is a concern that some clinicians advise regular sun exposure several times a week. (
  • Vitamin D can only be made by the body when sunlight falls on skin unprotected by sunscreen. (
  • Most of the vitamin D used by our bodies is made by our skin when it's exposed to sunlight. (
  • We've known for the best part of a century that sunlight makes vitamin D and that means healthy bones. (
  • I think we've always thought that it couldn't happen in Australia - we're too sunny a country but people in institutions often don't get sunlight for various reasons and if you don't get some sunlight you don't make vitamin D and we don't get it much in our food any more so for that reason it's quite common. (
  • Vitamin E is found naturally in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (
  • Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. (
  • Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (
  • [12] The elderly and athletes may need to supplement their intake of B 12 and other B vitamins due to problems in absorption and increased needs for energy production. (
  • Although, a vitamin B12 supplement may also be needed. (
  • The least you should get in a vitamin/supplement is 400 mcg. (
  • Taking vitamins on an empty stomach can cause nausea because sometimes your body excretes more acidic digestive juices than needed, just to break down just the supplement by itself-which can irritate the stomach's lining. (
  • Are you currently taking a Vitamin D supplement? (
  • The Department of Health also advises you to consider taking a vitamin D supplement (see 'Vitamin D in pregnancy' section). (
  • All adults, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, need 10 micrograms of vitamin D a day, and should consider taking a supplement containing this amount. (
  • So everyone over the age of five years, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10mcg of vitamin D. (
  • Certain groups, however, for example the sick, elderly, post-menopausal women, pregnant women or individuals following restrictive diets, may need to take an additional vitamin or mineral supplement. (
  • You should find a supplement that has at least 20 percent vitamin A from beta-carotene. (
  • You can help meet this requirement during and after menopause by taking a vitamin B-12 supplement and eating fortified foods. (
  • Taking a vitamin B-6 supplement during and after menopause may help tame prevent symptoms caused by low serotonin levels. (
  • Although it's possible to do this with a diet rich in vitamin D, it may be best to take a supplement. (
  • To increase vitamin E during and after menopause, take a vitamin E supplement and add foods rich in vitamin E to your diet. (
  • Noor Vitamins, an all natural Halal Certified company, has created an Omega 3 Fish Oil Supplement with the highest production standards in order to ensure consumer safety. (
  • If you are a senior, a vegetarian or vegan, a nursing mother, or a pregnant woman, talk to your doctor about whether you should take a vitamin D supplement. (
  • If you breastfeed your baby, your doctor may prescribe a vitamin D supplement. (
  • You also can get vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement. (
  • In addition to diet , you may need to take a supplement of vitamin B12. (
  • Do I need a vitamin D supplement? (
  • The Department of the Health recommends that these groups of people should take a vitamin D supplement daily. (
  • All pregnant and breastfeeding women should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. This will help to ensure the mother's requirements for vitamin D are met and build adequate stores of vitamin D in the unborn baby for use during the first six months of life. (
  • All babies and young children aged 6 months to 5 years should take a daily supplement containing vitamin D in the form of vitamin drops. (
  • People aged 65 years and over and people not exposed to much sun should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (
  • People with dark skin, such as people of African, African Caribbean and south Asian origin should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (
  • People who are not in the any of the groups mentioned above may take a vitamin D supplement daily, but this should not be more that 25 micrograms (1000 units) daily. (
  • Vitamin D. Most often we get our vitamin D through the sun, but throughout this time, Palacios said, taking a supplement is a good idea. (
  • However, a general multivitamin and mineral supplement can be a good safeguard against periodic vitamin shortfalls in your diet. (
  • The Vitamins and Nutritional Supplement Market is a very vast and growing market. (
  • High doses of some vitamins can cause problems. (
  • Results from pharmacokinetic studies indicate that oral doses of 1.25 g/day ascorbic acid produce mean peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 135 micromol/L, which are about two times higher than those produced by consuming 200-300 mg/day ascorbic acid from vitamin C-rich foods [ 10 ]. (
  • Dr. Linus Pauling, the Nobel Prize-winning scientist, has argued for years that cancer patients live longer when treated with high doses of Vitamin C. In one study, he and a colleague showed that patients who received Vitamin C in addition to other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation, lived 16 times as long as patients who only received the generally accepted medical treatment. (
  • A large 2014 study of more than 25,000 people with heart disease found that putting people on long-acting doses of Vitamin B3 to raise their levels of "good," or HDL, cholesterol didn't reduce the incidence of heart attacks, strokes, or deaths. (
  • For example, large doses of vitamin C can cause nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. (
  • Generally a balanced B-complex vitamin is preferable to taking high doses of cobalamin unless there is a specific indication for it, such as megaloblastic anemia. (
  • Vitamin E' is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds with distinctive antioxidant activities [ 1 ]. (
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation. (
  • In addition to its activities as an antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in immune function and, as shown primarily by in vitro studies of cells, cell signaling, regulation of gene expression, and other metabolic processes [ 1 ]. (
  • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant [ 3 ] and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) [ 4 ]. (
  • Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a causal role. (
  • In addition to its biosynthetic and antioxidant functions, vitamin C plays an important role in immune function [ 4 ] and improves the absorption of nonheme iron [ 5 ], the form of iron present in plant-based foods. (
  • Vitamin E has antioxidant properties, and some scientists believe that it can help to relieve stress symptoms by reducing oxidative stress. (
  • I always tell people, the best way to get any phytonutrient, vitamin or antioxidant, is in the foods it's been grown in. (
  • Load up on foods like sweet potatoes, kale, mangoes and carrots to get the antioxidant benefits of vitamin A. Retinol, one of the only FDA-approved wrinkle treatments , is a form of this vitamin, which works inside cells, hitting receptors which helps them function as if they were younger. (
  • Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps fight cell-damaging free radicals in the body. (
  • Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant defence system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. (
  • Vitamin E is an example of a phenolic antioxidant. (
  • Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a natural antioxidant that is found in foods such as plant oils, eggs, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and whole grains. (
  • If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. (
  • So, one thing that we can say is that certain vitamins included in a multivitamin are known to bring certain benefits. (
  • The lack of certain vitamins from the cat's diet, the cat is susceptible to numerous diseases and anemia. (
  • In fact, recent studies skew in the opposite direction, having found that certain vitamins may be bad for you . (
  • Thiamin, or vitamin B 1 , is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in energy production (through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) and nerve conduction. (
  • Vitamin D even lends a hand to an important mineral - it helps your body absorb the amount of calcium it needs. (
  • Many middle-aged and older people don't produce enough stomach acid to absorb vitamin B12 properly from food. (
  • Vitamin D isn't present in most of the foods we eat, but it's a critical ingredient that keeps our bones strong by helping us absorb calcium. (
  • The following conditions also make it hard to absorb vitamin B12. (
  • This is in part why Vitamin C tends to absorb better when found naturally than found in pill form. (
  • It is necessary that this be taken with Vitamin C or it won't absorb. (
  • Someone is unable to absorb or utilize one or more of the vitamins. (
  • Cobalamin, also known as B 12 , is a member of the water-soluble family of B vitamins. (
  • Scientists are investigating whether, by limiting free-radical production and possibly through other mechanisms, vitamin E might help prevent or delay the chronic diseases associated with free radicals. (
  • Vitamin E helps fight damaging free radicals on a cellular level, which protects your cells from vulnerability. (
  • The major biologic role of vitamin E is to protect PUFAs and other components of cell membranes and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation by free radicals. (
  • The major function of vitamin E is to act as a free-radical scavenger, meaning that it neutralizes free radicals and protects cells from their damaging effects. (
  • All things considered, a daily vitamin D intake of 1,000-4,000 IU, or 25-100 micrograms, should be enough to ensure optimal blood levels in most people. (
  • Vitamin D recommended intake is at 400-800 IU/day or 10-20 micrograms. (
  • Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, widespread connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 6-9 ]. (
  • This vitamin is widely available in food but is sensitive to water and may be destroyed by cooking, food processing, improper food storage, and the intake of various drugs, including alcohol, estrogen, and sulfa antibiotics. (
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are concerned about your vitamin intake. (
  • The adequate intake of vitamins in the elderly is a concern," MacKay of the Council for Responsible Nutrition says. (
  • The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics says older adults should pay special attention to their intake of calcium , vitamin D, vitamin B-12, potassium, and fiber. (
  • Hence, this app is crucial for your balanced intake of vitamins for the day, no matter what source of food you want to consume. (
  • In the case of pernicious anemia, intake may be appropriate but absorption is poor due to a lack of normal stomach substance, called intrinsic factor, that facilitates absorption of vitamin B 12 . (
  • Below is the daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 in micrograms (mcg). (
  • A few population-based studies have suggested that high intake of vitamin E in the diet is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The research debate over vitamin D has focused partly on its roles in the body, and more recently on its optimal levels in the body and on the relationship of those levels to dietary intake. (
  • Originally, recommended intake for vitamin D by the National Academy of Sciences was approximately 200 IU (5 micrograms of cholecalciferol). (
  • Finally, recommended daily intake of vitamin D is controversial because scientists aren't certain about the relationship between blood levels of this vitamin and disease risk. (
  • In the forecast period, multivitamins will continue to have an advantage over single vitamins, due to efficient nutritional intake and comprehensive efficacy. (
  • However, the recently increasingly popular gummy format helped to familiarise daily vitamin intake and is also convenient as it does not require water for consumption. (
  • April, the springboard to warm, sunny weather, is National Minority Health Month-a good time to focus on the sun, vitamin D insufficiency for African-Americans, and the ways that monitoring its intake have improved. (
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can lead to serious bleeding problems. (
  • People who are overweight or have obesity may also need higher amounts of vitamin D ( 27 , 28 ). (
  • High amounts of vitamin A may cause toxicity. (
  • A diet containing adequate amounts of vitamin E is important in maintaining general health, and may prevent against some forms of cancer. (
  • As vitamin D research has expanded in scope, researchers have been less certain about optimal amounts of vitamin D necessary to prevent unwanted problems in these many body systems. (
  • Relatively large amounts of vitamin C are required-for instance, an adult man is said to need about 70 mg (1 mg = 0.001 gram) per day. (
  • Vitamin D is involved in many of your body's functions. (
  • McCormick also found no evidence that absorption or the body's use of vitamin E changes as people get older. (
  • It's not known exactly how much time is needed in the sun to make enough vitamin D to meet the body's needs, but if you are out in the sun take care to cover up or protect your skin with sunscreen before you start to turn red or burn. (
  • And during or following an illness, the body's natural processes of healing and repair cannot go forward unless we have enough-sometimes more-of the vitamins required. (
  • The best sources are leafy green vegetables, such as cabbage and spinach, and intestinal bacteria (which produce most of the body's supply of vitamin K). Vitamin K is required for the synthesis in the liver of several blood clotting factors, including prothrombin. (
  • However, African-Americans have more melanin in their skin, resulting in the reduction of the body's ability to make the vitamin from sun exposure. (
  • [8] [9] In addition, each of the preceding studies further emphasizes that elevated consumption of beer and other alcoholic beverages results in a net deficit of those B vitamins and the health risks associated with such deficiencies. (
  • In addition, many people with HIV have been shown to have actual vitamin deficiencies-lower body stores of some vitamins than what is considered necessary even for a person in perfect health. (
  • For these people, prescription vitamin B12 shots can treat some deficiencies. (
  • Severe B vitamin deficiencies are rare in the United States but are still prevalent in areas of the world with diet deficiencies. (
  • Pregnant women with a limited diet can be at an increased risk for B vitamin deficiencies and so can their babies. (
  • Symptoms associated with B vitamin deficiencies can be seen in characteristic groups but may also be nonspecific, especially with mild to moderate deficiencies. (
  • Since an affected person often has multiple vitamin deficiencies, they may also have multiple symptoms. (
  • That said, other vitamin B deficiencies, including B1, B2, B6, B8 and B12 also have an uncanny ability to produce symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, and can be a valuable treatment adjunct. (
  • About 42% of the U.S. population is vitamin D deficient. (
  • In the same study, individuals who were vitamin D deficient needed 5,000 IU to reach blood levels above 30 ng/ml. (
  • If you have low amounts of the water-soluble vitamins in your diet, you can become deficient relatively quickly. (
  • No matter how much data emerges, many oncologists insist we must wait for large confirmatory studies before encouraging patients to take Vitamin D. While such studies may be necessary to confirm cause and effect, there is no justification for leaving patients in a deficient state. (
  • The authors say that, if the risk of death for 190 million vitamin A deficient children were reduced by 24 percent, over 600,000 lives would be saved each year and 20 million disability-adjusted life years (a measure of quantity and quality of life) would be gained. (
  • It has become difficult to identify a population of individuals that has sufficient blood levels of vitamin D. Why are so many people vitamin D deficient? (
  • Table 1 demonstrates how easy it is to become deficient in this vitamin. (
  • Some experts predict that up to 25 per cent of Australians could be Vitamin D deficient. (
  • I would estimate minimum 25% of adults in the United States, Europe and probably even in Australia are vitamin D deficient. (
  • Without enough vitamin K, your baby has a chance of bleeding into his or her intestines, and brain, which can lead to brain damage and even death. (
  • The intestine of the newborn baby has very little bacteria so they do not make enough vitamin K on their own. (
  • Without enough vitamin K, blood cannot clot well. (
  • Babies do not have enough vitamin K at birth and are, therefore, at risk for having serious bleeding. (
  • For example, if you don't get enough vitamin C, you could become anemic. (
  • Do infants get enough Vitamin K from breast milk? (
  • Could Your Kids' Sunscreen Prevent Them From Getting Enough Vitamin D? (
  • If you have dark skin (for example, if you are of African, African Caribbean or south Asian origin) or always cover your skin when outside, you may be at particular risk of not having enough vitamin D (vitamin D insufficiency). (
  • If you are concerned that you are not getting enough vitamin D, talk to your doctor. (
  • Children who don't get enough vitamin D are at risk for rickets. (
  • Adults who do not get enough vitamin D are at risk for osteomalacia (weak bones), osteoporosis (thin bones), and muscle weakness. (
  • Talk to your doctor to make sure you're getting enough vitamin B12. (
  • Am I getting enough vitamin B12? (
  • However, people over the age of 65 are at risk of not getting enough vitamin D, especially when we're not exposed to much sun. (
  • Got (Enough) Vitamin D? (
  • The amount of non-prescription prenatal vitamins needed to achieve this dose may have too much vitamin A and lead to fetal toxicity. (
  • Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ (2006) Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. (
  • Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ (2006) Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamins on the one-carbon transfer pathways. (
  • Unlike the water-soluble vitamins, these are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess. (
  • To develop toxicity from vitamins in food you'd have to eat excessive amounts of specific foods such as carrots (which could make your skin turn yellow) or liver (vitamin A toxicity would leave you with blurred vision, dizziness, nausea and headaches). (
  • Due to tolerance challenges, the prenatal vitamin industry has developed a multitude of dosage forms to meet the needs and tolerances of expecting mothers. (
  • The most common form of prenatal vitamin is the compressed tablet which is available through all channels and at various quality levels. (
  • [ citation needed ] Other organizations within the category offer products in a variety of dosage forms such as liquids, prenatal vitamin soft chews, vitamin chewables, and even jellied prenatal vitamins. (
  • For women who want something tried, true and inexpensive, a regular prenatal vitamin is a great place to start. (
  • If you have any sort of nutritional shortcoming, a prenatal vitamin can help you to bridge those gaps so you will have a better chance of getting pregnant. (
  • Also, if you do happen to get pregnant, taking a prenatal vitamin can help protect against neural tube defects and other disorders that normally occur in the first few weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Before you decorate the nursery, pick out a name, or test-drive strollers, one item should rise to the top of your to-do list: Take a daily prenatal vitamin. (
  • If you already know you're pregnant, the sooner you start taking a prenatal vitamin, the better. (
  • Breastfed babies are low in vitamin K for several weeks until they start eating regular foods, usually at 4-6 months, and until the normal intestinal bacteria start making vitamin K. (
  • You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. (
  • The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. (
  • Though these vitamins share similar names, they are chemically distinct compounds that often coexist in the same foods. (
  • [12] Some nutritionists have been critical of these claims, pointing out for instance that while B vitamins do "help unlock the energy in foods," most Americans acquire the necessary amounts easily in their diets. (
  • When you eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver. (
  • When you eat foods that have water-soluble vitamins, the vitamins don't get stored as much in your body. (
  • Your body is able to get the vitamins it needs from the foods you eat because different foods contain different vitamins. (
  • The key is to eat different foods to get an assortment of vitamins. (
  • Though some kids take a daily vitamin, most kids don't need one if they're eating a variety of healthy foods. (
  • Which foods are rich in vitamin A? (
  • Vitamin D is not present in many foods. (
  • The 13 major vitamins are found in a wide range of foods and each has a different function in the body. (
  • As vitamin D is found only in a small number of foods, whether naturally or added, it might be difficult to get enough from foods alone. (
  • This level of synergy is a reminder that your best bet is to cooperate with the wisdom of nature by eating a wide variety of nutrient-dense foods, and in the case of vitamin D , by getting appropriate sun exposure. (
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin found in many foods. (
  • Most people get very little vitamin D from the foods they eat. (
  • That's because there are very few foods that contain vitamin D. Foods that naturally contain vitamin D include fatty fish, fish oil, eggs, cheese, and butter. (
  • There are also foods and drinks that have been fortified with vitamin D, such as milk, milk alternatives, some brands of orange juice, and some vitamin-fortified breakfast cereals. (
  • Babies and toddlers who are given non-milk food products or foods that are not fortified with vitamin D. (
  • Vitamin B12 is found naturally in some foods and is added to other fortified foods. (
  • What foods should I eat to get more vitamin B12? (
  • What foods can I eat that are high in vitamin B12 if I'm vegetarian or vegan? (
  • B-3 is destroyed when foods containing this vitamin are cooked in water. (
  • A person eats foods that inhibit the action of a vitamin. (
  • You can still get this vitamin from "B12-fortified" foods, like breakfast cereal, or from pills or shots. (
  • It's harder to get this vitamin from foods, but fatty fish like salmon is a good source. (
  • This natural form of vitamin B9 is in leafy greens, nuts, beans, and other foods. (
  • In order to consume more of the vitamin, known to reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other health conditions to which African-Americans already have a higher predisposition, diets must be rich in foods containing vitamin D. It's important to read the nutritional labels on sources of vitamin D such as milk and fruit juices to determine the amount supplied. (
  • Because vitamin C is easily destroyed by reactions with oxygen , especially in neutral or alkaline solution or at elevated temperatures, it is difficult to preserve in foods. (
  • Adolescents could benefit from taking children's vitamins through puberty, when they are growing rapidly and have greater nutritional needs than adults, she says. (
  • Dietary fats are an important nutritional component not only because your body needs them for building healthy cells and producing hormones-fat is also required for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. (
  • Although vitamin D is also available from dietary sources such as oily fish, eggs and fortified cereals, nutritional research suggests that daily requirements for this key nutrient cannot be met through diet alone. (
  • B vitamin tests measure these specific compounds in the blood or urine to help evaluate a person's nutritional status. (
  • Helper nutrient that assists activity of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and vitamin K2 MK7 to support bone, joint, and brain health. (
  • If you are taking a multivitamin that contains the fat-soluble vitamins, you need to take it with a meal," Zorich continues. (
  • Taking a multivitamin may increase daily quality of life through increased energy, often from the B vitamin combinations, along with other protective measures,' says Dr. Danielle Plummer, PharmD. (
  • Vitamin C is also a water soluble vitamin that should not be absent from the cat's daily diet, as it supports the cat's skin health, being employed in the collagen synthesis. (
  • Serum concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) depend on the liver, which takes up the nutrient after the various forms are absorbed from the small intestine. (
  • the liver metabolizes and excretes the other vitamin E forms [ 2 ]. (
  • B vitamins are particularly concentrated in meat such as turkey, tuna and liver. (
  • Eating salmon, tuna, liver, and egg yolks will add vitamin D to someone's diet. (
  • Preformed vitamin A, also known as retinol, is stored in your liver. (
  • In short: the role of our liver cells and kidney cells in creating fully active vitamin D adds further complications when researchers try to predict vitamin D status. (
  • High concentrations of a few of the B vitamins may affect the liver or nervous system. (
  • associated with a lack of vitamin K, which is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver cells. (
  • The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin B-12 is 2.4 micrograms (mcg) daily for females 14 and older. (
  • This will help them meet the requirement set for this age group of 7 to 8.5 micrograms (280 to 340 units) of vitamin D a day. (
  • Contain vitamin C, flavanoids, provides pectin and rich in sodium when ripened in sunshine. (
  • Vitamin D is crucial for bone health and immune system function. (
  • Almost every cell in your body has a receptor for vitamin D. It's essential to many processes, including bone health, immune system function, and can help protect against cancer ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • To improve the innate immune system of AD patients, we studied immune stimulation of macrophages by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3(1,25D3) in combination with curcuminoids. (
  • Vitamin C to "boost your immune system," Vitamin A to protect your vision, Vitamin B to keep you energized. (
  • This second transfer allows our kidney cells to take 25(OH)D and convert it into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1,25(OH)D. It's this more complicated form of vitamin D that is active as a regulator of certain immune system activities. (
  • Vitamin D also helps your muscles, nerves, and immune system work right. (
  • Vitamin C. This vitamin has been hailed for years as a go-to source for aiding the immune system. (
  • For example, vitamin A supports vision and bone growth, whereas vitamin E strengthens the immune system and helps repair DNA. (
  • The vitamin also helps in stimulating the immune system . (
  • How Much Vitamin D Should You Take for Optimal Health? (
  • Vitamin D is essential for good health. (
  • Up to 42% of the American adult population has low vitamin D levels, which can cause health problems ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • They also work together, and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. (
  • And when it comes to vitamin D and bone health, the totality of the evidence strongly says it helps. (
  • Vitamin D is essential for good bone health, and people who do not have a lot of it may develop brittle bones, often called osteoporosis . (
  • The United States' Office on Women's Health recommend that women up to the age of 70 should get 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D each day. (
  • Extensively revised and expanded on the basis of recent research findings with enlarged coverage of health effects of vitamin-like factors, it is ideally suited for students and an important reference for anyone interested in nutrition, food science, animal science or endocrinology. (
  • A new study suggests that popular multi-vitamins may not actually improve your health. (
  • If there are things that these vitamins do in terms of health that aren't measurable, we don't know about them. (
  • In one study, 90% of psoriasis patients improved markedly when a form of Vitamin D was applied to their skin.The National Institutes of Health has been interested in Vitamin C, and in September, it sponsored a conference on the vitamin's usefulness in treating cancer. (
  • A doctor may sometimes prescribe prenatal vitamins to women with particular health considerations. (
  • Unlike the water soluble vitamins, which can be administered in excess without creating a health problem, the fat soluble vitamins in excess can be toxic. (
  • Some vitamins may help ease menopause symptoms and support overall health. (
  • Vitamin D has other health benefits, as well. (
  • Can too much vitamin D be bad for your health? (
  • Recent studies on vitamin D and disease have focused on many health problems not specific to bone, including problems involving our immune, cardiovascular, and blood sugar regulating systems. (
  • Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining good health. (
  • The 2012 results of an ongoing survey carried out by the Department of Health and the Food Standards Agency revealed that a quarter of the people who took part had low levels of vitamin D in their blood. (
  • The shift towards busier and less active lifestyles in urban areas, poorer diets and growing health awareness are fuelling value and volume sales within vitamins in Kenya. (
  • Additionally, the growing urban population and health consciousness among upper and middle income consumers is gradually boosting sales as uptake of vitamins rises among consumers looking to improve personal health. (
  • Health conscious consumers mainly purchase vitamins as a preventive measure and a way of boosting their immunity. (
  • Due to frequent access to health institutions, such consumers are able to purchase vitamin products more regularly, with most products in vitamins thus targeting this core market. (
  • Forget an apple a day, vitamin manufacturers would have you believe it's important to take daily vitamins to boost your health. (
  • There are, however, people with health conditions or in a particular life stage when they really need vitamins. (
  • Vitamin D. 'Low levels of vitamin D may put people at risk for developing COVID -19, according to a new study by Leumit Health Care Services and Bar-Ilan University's Azrieli Faculty of Medicine,' reports the Jerusalem Post. (
  • Palacios said vitamin C is vital for the health of leukocytes, a type of white blood cells that help fight infections. (
  • Medical experts around the world are talking about a new epidemic, a health concern that may be dramatically increasing our risk of cancer, hypertension and even diabetes - it's a lack of Vitamin D. (
  • Vitamin A is fat-soluble and so is stored in the body for a long time, especially in pregnancy. (
  • Plenty of mothers who use adequate vitamins before and during pregnancy will have a child who develops autism, so clearly, we still need much more research. (
  • In search of the "perfect vitamin," CEO and founder Katerina Schneider eliminated all the bullsh*t in both her product and her brand. (
  • A quick Google search of "athletes + vitamin E" shows a plethora of claims about the benefits of the vitamin for physical activity and recovery. (
  • While many vitamins are water soluble-which means they will dissolve and be absorbed into the body when taken with a glass of water at almost any time of the day-there are four fat-soluble vitamins that can only be absorbed when in the presence of fat: A, D, E, and K." Translate that for us, doc! (
  • Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and cannot be stored in the body. (
  • Vitamins generally fall into one of two categories: (1) fat-soluble, or those that dissolve in fats, and (2) water-soluble, or those that dissolve in water. (
  • Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. (
  • The water-soluble vitamins are the B vitamins and vitamin C . Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat, not water. (
  • Small changes in diet and exercise, e.g. omega-3 oils, vitamin D, low starch, and maintaining muscle mass, can dramatically alter predisposition to disease and aging, and minimize the negative impact of genetic risks. (
  • A typical vitamin test diet for fish control over the water-soluble vitamins is listed in Table 1. (
  • If your diet is not providing enough vitamins, it can be supplemented. (
  • Vitamins are essential organic substances that are needed in small amounts in the diet for the normal function, growth, and maintenance of body tissues. (
  • Most vitamins are not made in the body so they must be obtained from the diet. (
  • The American Academy of Dermatology recommends getting vitamin D from your diet, as unprotected sun exposure can damage your skin and cause premature aging. (
  • There are 2 types of vitamins that cats require: water soluble and fat soluble vitamins and a healthy cat's diet should include both types of vitamins. (
  • Most of us should meet our vitamin and mineral requirements by eating a healthy, well balanced diet. (
  • One of the simplest ways to ensure an appropriate and beneficial ratio between these two vitamins is to make sure you're getting your vitamin D from sensible sun exposure, and your vitamin A or beta-carotene from your diet, in the form of colorful vegetables. (
  • As for whether or not multivitamins are actually necessary, doctors say that most people can get micronutrients (with the exception of vitamin D) through a healthy, balanced diet. (
  • To estimate the a-TE of mixed diet containing natural forms of vitamin E, the number of milligrams of b-tocopherol should be multiplied by 0.5, g-tocopherol by 0.1, and a-tocotrienol by 0.3. (
  • how easy is it to get all the vitamins we need from our diet? (
  • High carbohydrate diet increases need for this vitamin. (
  • B vitamins are absorbed from the diet, used as needed, and any excess is removed from the body through the urine. (
  • Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Western Human Nutrition Center at the University of California-Davis have a preliminary model that predicts an individual requirement of vitamin D based on diet, sun exposure and skin tone. (
  • Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy , a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. (
  • Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, the Netherlands, measured vitamin B 6 in the blood of 11 men who spent successive three-week periods drinking water, red wine, Dutch gin (genever) or lager with meals. (
  • This vitamin and mineral guide's recommended daily amount (RDA) is based on EU guidance that is used for nutrition tables on food products. (
  • Read the food nutrition labels to learn if the products you choose are sources of vitamin D. (
  • Check the nutrition fact label for the amount of vitamin B12. (
  • Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( 28 ). (
  • The reason this works is it's the retinoic acid (retinol) form of vitamin A that is problematic. (
  • When certain wavelengths of ultraviolet B (UVB) light from the sun land on our skin cells, a molecule in our skin cells called 7-dehydrocholesterol can be converted into a preliminary form of vitamin D called cholecalciferol. (
  • Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that's involved in many essential body functions. (
  • Any excess vitamin D is stored in your body fat for later use. (
  • Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. (
  • There are 13 vitamins your body needs. (
  • Oral vitamin C produces tissue and plasma concentrations that the body tightly controls. (
  • The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g [ 4 ]. (
  • Chemical variants of the B 12 vitamin found in plant sources are active for bacteria, but cannot be used by the human body. (
  • These vitamins help the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. (
  • Vitamin C in oranges helps your body heal if you get a cut . (
  • B vitamins in whole grains help your body make energy from food. (
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are happy to stay stored in your body for awhile - some stay for a few days, some for up to 6 months! (
  • The B vitamins are important in metabolic (say: meh-tuh-BAH-lik) activity - this means that they help make energy and set it free when your body needs it. (
  • This group of vitamins is also involved in making red blood cells , which carry oxygen throughout your body. (
  • Every part of your body needs oxygen to work properly, so these B vitamins have a really important job. (
  • This vitamin is important for keeping body tissues, such as gums, bones, and blood vessels in good shape. (
  • This vitamin also helps your body resist infection . (
  • This means that even though you can't always avoid getting sick, vitamin C makes it a little harder for your body to become infected with an illness. (
  • There are eight well known B-vitamins that play a role in the body. (
  • Choline is one of the "lipotropic" B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight loss. (
  • Vitamin D is crucial in the absorption of calcium, which protects the body against osteoporosis. (
  • Vitamins are essential in metabolic reactions in the body as catalysts in enzymatic reactions or as coenzymes carrying chemical groups between enzymes. (
  • Now that you know more about what the soluble vitamins mean from the first tip, here's another insight to remember: "Water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished often because they're not stored in large amounts in the body," comments Zorich. (
  • As this was a prospective study and showed a strong dose response it adds considerable strength to the body of data on Vitamin D. We now have similar effects demonstrated in all four of the most common and dangerous forms of cancer: prostate, breast, colon and lung cancer. (
  • if the vitamins are not needed by the cat's body, they will be eliminated in the urine. (
  • Vitamin D regulates the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body, which are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy. (
  • This includes vitamins A, D, E, and K, all of which perform a variety of important functions in your body. (
  • Beta carotene is not a concern because it is PRE-vitamin A. Your body will simply not over-convert beta carotene to excessive levels of vitamin A. (
  • Your body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A as needed. (
  • Vitamin E may also help reduce inflammation in the body. (
  • Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. It is important not to take too much of these vitamins because they can build up in the body and cause harmful side effects. (
  • When you take in water-soluble vitamins, such as B vitamins and vitamin C, your body uses what it needs and filters out the extra into your urine. (
  • Vitamin D is biologically inactive and converted into the biologically active calcitriol via double hydroxylation in the body. (
  • Depending on where you live, you might only need 10 minutes of sunshine 3 to 4 times a week to help your body create the vitamin D it needs. (
  • The amount of vitamin D your body needs can vary depending on your weight, your genes, your skin color, whether you have any chronic conditions, and even where you live and how much sun exposure you get. (
  • Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient for your body. (
  • Your body needs a certain amount of vitamin B12 to stay healthy. (
  • But your body is less able to convert sun's rays to vitamin D as you age. (
  • For example, just getting older can reduce vitamin D levels because the mechanisms needed to synthesize its structure from cholesterol become less efficient through time, as is the case with most intrinsic synthesizing methods in the human body. (
  • Does my baby get vitamin K from breast milk? (
  • There is only a little vitamin K in breast milk. (
  • Vitamin D in milk helps your bones . (
  • Vitamin D is added to all infant formula milk, as well as some breakfast cereals, fat spreads and non-dairy milk alternatives. (
  • However, babies fed infant formula will not need vitamin drops until they are receiving less than 500ml (about a pint) of infant formula a day, as formula milk is fortified with vitamin D. (
  • Many vitamins function in enzyme complexes participating in mitochondrial respiration and energy production or they are required for synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain components. (
  • While vitamin D synthesis also occurs from our daily sun exposure, sunscreen with SPF 8 and higher can block that effect. (
  • However, it is less obvious that humans also age internally, and inadequate vitamin D synthesis is just one example of this internal aging issue. (
  • Numerous theories abound as to why this is the case, such as hemodilution from greater blood volumes or the finding that adipose tissue is a greater storage site for vitamin D. Higher cholesterol levels may be associated with lower vitamin D blood levels, and conversely, cholesterol-lowering medications, such as statins, may increase vitamin D synthesis (Perez-Castrillon et al. (
  • Sunscreen has the ability to block ultraviolet B (UVB) light, and this form of light stimulates vitamin D synthesis in skin tissue. (
  • Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen , a protein important in the formation of connective tissue and in wound healing. (
  • Vitamin D is an important nutrient. (
  • Since vitamin D was first recommended as an essential nutrient for the U.S. public in 1943, recommendation levels for this nutrient have varied. (
  • These two trials strongly suggest that at the very least, no prostate cancer patient should be left in a state of Vitamin D insufficiency and all patients should talk to their physician and ensure they have their levels checked. (
  • Once vitamin K2 activates these proteins, they help mineralize bones and teeth, protect arteries and other soft tissues from abnormal calcification, and protect against cell death. (
  • B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism . (
  • Water-soluble vitamins are different. (
  • Water-soluble vitamins consist of the B vitamins and vitamin C. With exception of vitamin B 6 and B 12 , they are readily excreted in urine without appreciable storage, so frequent consumption becomes necessary. (
  • Water-soluble vitamins are easily lost with overcooking. (
  • Nora Zorich, M.D., Ph.D. and Chair on Arbonne Scientific Advisory Board, breaks down why this matters: "The major water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and a group of B- vitamins generally referred to as 'B-complex," she says. (
  • The B group vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins required by the cat's organism. (
  • The fat soluble vitamins are deposited in the cat's fat tissues and used when they are needed. (
  • The cat needs the following fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K. (
  • A deficit of fat soluble vitamins will result in a scaly skin and a dull looking coat. (
  • Side effects from water-soluble vitamins are less common, but can occur. (
  • In vitro studies have found that oxidized vitamin C, or dehydroascorbic acid, enters cells via some facilitated glucose transporters and is then reduced internally to ascorbic acid. (
  • Vitamin C , also called ascorbic acid , water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. (
  • Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. (
  • Load up on leafy greens to get your vitamin K, especially if you complain about bruising. (
  • Vitamin D alone may not directly boost our bone mineral density, although some RCTs do show a benefit. (
  • Later studies were mixed, so it's unclear how much preformed vitamin A may increase bone fracture risk. (
  • Vitamin A obtained from beta-carotene doesn't appear to increase bone fracture risk. (
  • Vitamin B12 has a major influence on the function of neurons and also on the ability of the bone marrow to make red blood cells. (
  • Chlorella is also loaded with natural beta carotene and can be very useful for optimizing your vitamin A levels. (
  • You also get vitamin A when you eat fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene. (
  • Beta-carotene (vitamin A) and selenium are also antioxidants. (
  • As a result, blood and cellular concentrations of other forms of vitamin E are lower than those of alpha-tocopherol and have been the subjects of less research [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The FNB's vitamin E recommendations are for alpha-tocopherol alone, the only form maintained in plasma. (
  • The intestinal absorption of vitamin C is regulated by at least one specific dose-dependent, active transporter [ 4 ]. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns, whether breastfed or formula fed, receive a one-time intramuscular shot of vitamin K 1 (phytonadione) at a dose of 0.5 to 1.0 milligrams shortly after birth (this is usually given during the birth hospitalization). (
  • An oral dose of vitamin K is not recommended. (
  • High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? (
  • A clinical trial in prostate cancer is being conduced in Canada using a dose of 40,000IU Vitamin D3 per day. (
  • The bottom line is studies show changes in the ability to adapt to exercise could be impaired by high-dose vitamins, but until there are studies showing them affecting athletic performance, people shouldn't be worried. (
  • The dose of vitamin D required for these groups is outlined below. (
  • High-dose B vitamins may be useful for reducing residual symptoms in people with schizophrenia, although there were significant differences among the findings of the studies we looked at. (
  • Prenatal Vitamins: OK for Women Who Aren't Pregnant? (
  • In pregnant woman, too much vitamin A can even harm the developing fetus. (
  • Ideally, a woman will take prenatal vitamins while trying to become pregnant, and while she is breastfeeding. (
  • Certainly pregnant mothers should follow existing medical advice regarding the timing of vitamin use. (
  • You should get 2.6 mcg of vitamin B12 if you're pregnant. (
  • Vitamins remain popular, especially among vulnerable groups such as children, pregnant women and elderly people. (
  • The review article by Drs. Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer patients. (
  • This article provides physicians with a useful tool for discussing with theirpatients what is known about the use of PC-SPES, vitamin E, and selenium. (
  • However, initial data from the large-scale SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention) Trial shows vitamin E taken alone or with selenium for five years, did not reduce the risk of prostate cancer. (
  • If you have access to strong sun all year, then occasional sun exposure may be enough to fulfill your vitamin D requirements. (
  • Fresh food is best, as freezing and exposure to light may destroy some of the vitamin content. (
  • The farther south you live, the easier it is to get your vitamin D from sun exposure all year round. (
  • Vitamin D is a steroid hormone naturally produces in the skin in summer exposure to UVB light. (
  • Vitamin D is primarily produced by exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. (
  • The data suggests that those with low levels of sun exposure needed additional vitamin D to reach a target blood level of 50 nanomoles of vitamin D per liter of plasma. (
  • In Europe it's estimated that 25% of women that die of breast cancer may not have died of breast cancer if they would have maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life and have had some sun exposure. (
  • D3 is the more powerful of the two types and raises vitamin D levels almost twice as much as D2 ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • However, if you live far north or south of the equator, your vitamin D levels may fluctuate depending on the season. (
  • Studies in postmenopausal women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml found that ingesting 800-2,000 IU raised blood levels above 20 ng/ml. (
  • What are the optimal blood levels of vitamin D? (
  • Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biological activity [ 1 ]. (
  • High levels of vitamin C (millimolar concentrations) are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain. (
  • Relatively low levels of vitamin C (micromolar concentrations) are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva [ 4 ]. (
  • Also, some studies have found that people with low levels of vitamin E are more likely to experience depression than those with higher levels. (
  • Differences in Vitamin D levels were thought to offer an explanation. (
  • Two studies where then published which suggested there was no association between Vitamin D levels and prostate cancer. (
  • But somewhat concerning was a suggestion that very high levels of Vitamin D were associated with an increased risk of aggressive disease. (
  • Then in early 2009 The British Journal of Cancer published some very positive findings showing high Vitamin D levels had a very positive effect on the risk of death from prostate cancer. (
  • In this study, Vitamin D levels were measured in 160 patients with advanced prostate cancer. (
  • 20ng/ml), medium (20-32ng/ml) or high (>32ng/ml) Vitamin D levels. (
  • This is almost a seven fold increase in the risk of death in those with low compared to high vitamin D levels. (
  • After noting a prostate cancer patient PSA levels had dropped after the patient's wife had given him Vitamin D, Waxman started a small trial to study the effect in advanced prostate cancer. (
  • 1) Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case control study in the nordic countries. (
  • Optimizing your vitamin D levels could cut your risk for cancer in half. (
  • A 2002 study linked high levels of preformed vitamin A with hip fractures in postmenopausal women. (
  • Some research shows these low vitamin levels can lead to lower CD4 cell counts and worsening of HIV. (
  • Most people with low vitamin B12 levels don't get enough from food sources. (
  • She added that studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D have been associated with a greater risk of developing respiratory conditions in adults and children. (
  • Low levels of vitamin D are also found in individuals with larger amounts of belly fat or visceral obesity (Aasheim, Hofso, Hjelmesaeth, Birkeland, & Bohmer, 2008). (
  • The lack of reliable dietary sources that contain consistently higher levels of vitamin D has been an issue. (
  • however, it has not been substantiated through recent research demonstrating low blood levels of vitamin D in individuals residing in Florida and southern Arizona (Jacobs et al. (
  • 2005). Perhaps regular sun avoidance, aging, and obesity are independently or synergistically involved in lowering vitamin D levels in some of these geographic areas. (
  • Even more amazing, one expert believes 25 per cent of breast cancer deaths could be avoided if the women had maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life. (
  • We think now that being able to maintain adequate vitamin D levels may be important for decreasing your risk of getting prostate cancer and breast cancer and colon cancer. (
  • After a month, the patients blood pressure had returned to normal and their blood levels of vitamin D had doubled. (
  • Thus, it is very important that all babies get a vitamin K shot to prevent VKDB. (
  • Many grains and cereals are also fortified with vitamin B12 and are an important source of this vitamin for vegetarians and vegans. (
  • Choline is referred to as the "memory" vitamin, as it is an important part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • There are a great many uses for this important B vitamin. (
  • All the B vitamins function as coenzymes or cofactors, assisting in the activity of important enzymes and allowing energy-producing reactions to proceed normally. (
  • This article discusses the most important prenatal vitamins and why they are necessary. (
  • It is very important when patients are depressed, and therefore usually have a very poor appetite, that they don't suffer vitamin and mineral lack. (
  • Maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D is important for all stages of life. (
  • What are vitamins, and why are they important? (
  • Vitamins B6 and B12 are also important for healthy plant growth. (
  • Vitamins A and D also cooperate to regulate the production of certain vitamin K-dependent proteins. (
  • While vitamin D2 is also considered to be good, vitamin D3 helps with better absorption of calcium in the plant stems. (
  • To boost absorption of these vitamins, eat your veggies with some olive oil or raw organic butter. (