A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
40] Li, S. F., Jacob, J., Feng, J. & Kulkarni, M. (2008). Vitamin deficien- cies in acutely intoxicated patients in the ED. Am ...
Read chapter 5 Vitamin K: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of ... Older subjects have been found to be more resistant to vitamin K deficien- cy than younger adults (Ferland et al., 1993). The ... µg/day of vitamin K 31â 50 years 90 µg/day of vitamin K 51â 70 years 90 µg/day of vitamin K , 70 years 90 µg/day of vitamin ... µg/day of vitamin K 19â 30 years 90 µg/day of vitamin K 31â 50 years 90 µg/day of vitamin K INTAKE OF VITAMIN K Food Sources ...
Although the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and wound healing has not been clearly established, vitamin D has ... Vitamin D is necessary to promote calcium absorption, bone growth, and bone remodeling. ... www.todayswoundclinic.com/articles/addressing-vitamin-d-deficien.... Accessed September 22, 2018.. 3. Institute of Medicine ... Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not commonly found in foods. Good sources of vitamin D include fortified cereal, ...
Surveillance dxa lesser degrees of vitamin deficien- cies (glossitis and cheilosis) is common. Elite athletes may still be 6 ...
Greetings drs.May you please kindly help me with list of foods that have vitamin B12 or with more vitamin b-12? Thanks ... Links: 1) http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/vitamin_b12_deficien ... Read More ... But check the label to make sure that all eight b vitamins are included: vitamin b1 (thiamine) vitamin b2 (riboflavin) vitamin ... Vitamin D2 is made by plants; vitamin D3 is made by human skin when exposed to sunlight.Foods may be fortified w ... Read More ...
Read chapter 4 Vitamin A: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of ... Iron deficien- cy in young rats alters the distribution of vitamin A between plasma and liver and between hepatic retinol and ... µg RAE/day of vitamin A 51â 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A , 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A The RDA for vitamin ... VITAMIN A 117 RDA for Pregnancy 14â 18 years 750 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 19â 30 years 770 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 31â 50 ...
http://nutrientjournal.com/zinc-deficien...ne-levels/. You should also take a B complex vitamin by the way M. ...
However, there is evidence that metformin can decrease the absorption of vitamin B12, thereby leading to a B12 deficien... Read ... February 15, 2012 at 1:17 pm 3 · Comment · Like Tags: vitamins metformin supplements questions and answers expert alternative ... Im not sure which vitamins youre taking, so I cant accurately answer your question. ...
Pre-na-tal vit-a-mins are your insur-ance against defi-cien-cies of these essen-tial min-er-als. ... vitamins & minerals. August 28, 2009. Pregnancy Pathway, Pregnancy - Nutrition dancingthrupregnancy News, nutrition, pregnancy ... baby household cleansers body trust labor pain pregnancy complications medicine postpartum fertility dilation vitamins & ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Study will look at baseline Vitamin D levels, calcium, albumin, liver enzymes, testosterone, osteocalcin, ... or a placebo for 6 months in UAE citizens with evidence of vitamin D deficien... ... Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) ... Calcium-binding Protein, Vitamin D-dependent. A protein that plays a fundamental role in the Vitamin D mediated transport of ...
Our bodys vitamins, minerals and trace elements needs are constantly increasing as the foods we eat are becoming more deficien ... Biological Serumtherapy replenishes vitamins and minerals quickly and efficiently at a cellular level and different combination ...
... www.vitamindcouncil.org/health/deficiency/am-i-vitamin-d-deficien... ... Vitamin D. Submitted by Cheryl on July 20, 2013 - 21:43. Great article on vitamin D. I read Dr. Holicks book The Vitamin D ... Vitamin D3. Submitted by Colleen on February 22, 2017 - 15:37. Hi Tomas,. Vitamin K2 is helpful to the absorption of Vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D2 has a totally different molucular structure then vitamin D3 so vit D2 cannot be converted to vit D3 in the body. ...
"Interaction of Ethanol with Vitamin A, Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... postulated to be due to defective synthesis of RBP in the liver.6 Alcoholic cirrhosis is often associated with zinc deficien~y ... Interaction of Ethanol with Vitamin A. Interaction of Ethanol with Vitamin A Leo, Maria Anna; Lieber, Charles S. 1983-01-01 00: ... Vitamin A and carotene. XIII. The vitamin A reserve of the adult human being in health and disease ...
USA, 94:2551-2556, 1997). In addition, transgenic MRP8-PMLRARA mice exhibited a skin phenotype characteristic of vitamin A ... Studies of vitamin A metabolism in mouse model systems.. *M E Gottesman, L Quadro, W S Blaner ...
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder that results in the inability to recycle the vitamin, ... Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder that results in the inability to recycle the vitamin, ...
Earlier work of Melinda Beck established that nutritional deficien-cies of either selenium or vitamin E set the stage for the ... Earlier work of Melinda Beck established that nutritional deficien-cies of either selenium or vitamin E set the stage for the ... Both selenium and vitamin E act as antioxi-dants and a deficiency puts stress on the bodys immune system. The study will also ... Both selenium and vitamin E act as antioxi-dants and a deficiency puts stress on the bodys immune system. The study will also ...
25 percent were vitamin D deficient. Cardiovascular disease occurred in 303 participants (11.8 percent) in the vitamin D group ... High Dose Vitamin D Does Not Prevent Cardiovascular Disease. Author SimaPublished on April 7, 2017. March 27, 2018. Leave a ... Author SimaCategories cardiovascular health, nutritionTags cardiovascular disease, Vitamin D Post navigation. Previous article: ... However, the vitamin D levels in the blood soon reached levels (about 51.725 ng/mL) that many view as a desirable "protective" ...
How To Deal With Vitamin D Deficien.. Huda Shaikh 1 to 3 years ...
How To Deal With Vitamin D Deficien.. Huda Shaikh 1 to 3 years ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency: Has your eye been uncontrollably twitching? It could be a deficien. ... Vitamin D supplements warning: What is the best type of vitamin D to take?. ... The powerful vitamin supplement to protect against dry skin [RESEARCH]. Best supplements for hair: Two pills to increase hair ... Best supplements for the over 50s: Why you need vitamin B12 and D [ANALYSIS] ...
2. A Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont Is a Potential Vitamin Source for the Lone Star Tick ... It is unclear how this deficien .... DOI:. 10.1093/gbe/evv016. PubMed:. 25618142. PubMed Central:. PMC4994718. http://dx.doi. ... Blood-feeding insects (Class Insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in ... vitamins. Abstract:. ... Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the United States. It ...
Infection with Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is implicated in iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies without any etiologies. Our ... Patients and Methods:Were selected, patients with iron deficien. View complete article: PDF , Full-text ...
"το κείμενο με τίτλο Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies in Afghanistan σχετίζετε με ... Such vitamin and mineral. deficien. cies contribute to a vicious cycle of poor health and diminished productivity. which traps ... Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water. -. soluble vitamin that has a number of biological functions.. Vitamin C plays. a. critical ... Vitamin A. Vitamin A helps to form and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous. membranes and skin. It also ...
One drop a day may help avoid vitamin D deficien... (as of October 24, 2020 - More infoProduct prices and availability are ... Mommys Bliss - Vitamin D Organic Drops - 0.11 FL OZ Bottle (Bottle Color May Vary) Vitamin D Drops for Infants: Vitamin D ... Mommys Bliss organic, liquid Vitamin D drops are safe for newborns, and pediatrician recommended. ...
Oesophageal strictures and vitamin k deficien- cies/dysfunctions in the valve with fingers. Patients may also be used in the ...
  • Despite great collaborative efforts of many whose infants had died during the first year governmental and nongovernmental agen- of life as compared with mothers whose cies, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is still one infants had survived [ 12 ]. (who.int)
  • Surveillance dxa lesser degrees of vitamin deficien- cies (glossitis and cheilosis) is common. (goodbelly.com)
  • Oesophageal strictures and vitamin k deficien- cies/dysfunctions in the valve with fingers. (supersupport.me)
  • As the toxic metals are eliminated, the underlying vital mineral deficien-cies become apparent. (arltma.com)
  • Weak or stressed adrenal glands may be due to fatigue, nutritional deficien-cies, stress, fast-paced lifestyles, negative emotions such as worry and fear and exces-sive toxic substances in the body. (nutritionalbalancinglifestyle.com)
  • K deficien- cies/dysfunctions in extranodal lymphomas cause of patients progress to the preceding the right ventricle. (qcl.me)
  • Individuals with t-cell deficien-cies frequently develop around the brain present congenitally or may be normal, and neutropenia absolute neutrophil count /l none to very cold temperatures injures cells in the arm. (projectathena.org)
  • Men begin to experience these unpleasant hormone deficien-cies between the ages of 30 and 45. (antiageinstitute.com)
  • pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and diets that are low in animal products place women at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. (who.int)
  • Causes of vitamin B12 deficiencies are multifactorial and associated with many health problems. (who.int)
  • Vitamin B12 and folate are essential of B12 deficiencies as they are in a state of high micronutrients required for the synthesis of DNA, cellular turnover and increased overall dietary protein, and lipids, in a series of cellular reactions requirements especially vitamin B12. (who.int)
  • The mutation can come about when the host is deficient in either selenium or vitamin E. The unsettling part is that once mutated the virus can go on to attack people with no nutritional deficiencies. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is implicated in iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies without any etiologies. (annexpublishers.com)
  • The chart below reviews the findings in vitamin deficiencies and the one below that shows the amount of time it takes to become deficient in various vitamins. (everydayebm.org)
  • This has to do with copper imbalance, vitamin deficiencies such as vitamin C, and a need for substances such as bioflavinoids. (nutritionalbalancinglifestyle.com)
  • Marginal deficiencies of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6 and vitamin C : prevalence and functional consequences in man / Eric Jan van der Beek. (who.int)
  • Regarding the environmental causes, the strongest seems to be pregnancy infections, but may also include vitamin A deficiencies in the mother, exposure to X-rays, the careless use of some solvents or Thalidomide. (behance.net)
  • Deficiencies of Vitamin K have been linked to: heavy menstrual bleeding, anemia, easy bruising, nosebleeds, hematuria (blood in the urine), bleeding gums and osteoporosis. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • While the mean values of all the haematological indices were slightly lower in the vitamin A deficient group, this was not significant. (who.int)
  • If you work indoors and do not get some exposure to sunlight on a regular basis (free of wearing sunscreens and makeup), it's quite possible that you are compromising your health by being deficient in vitamin D. (drbenkim.com)
  • Vitamins as well as trace elements like zinc can be deficient in the alcoholic population. (everydayebm.org)
  • Several people were so deficient that they were given 50,000 IU's once a month until their Vitamin D levels were within a normal range. (blogspot.com)
  • Subjects were divided into four categories according to the result of vitamin D as follows: the optimal, adequate, insufficient, and deficient. (rmsjournal.org)
  • Diets deficient in both vitamin A and beta-carotene can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • https://cleverhthemag.com/2018/01/31/statin-drugs-c oq10-and-vitamin-d/) The Public Must Be Warned of Statin Drug Dangers. (herbalyzer.com)
  • According to recent national surveys, Palestinians are facing a double burden of malnutrition and very low levels of essential minerals and vitamins. (who.int)
  • Selected vitamins, minerals, and functional consequences of maternal malnutrition / volume editor, Artemis P. Simopoulos. (who.int)
  • Vitamin D made available to the body through sun exposure, food, and supplements is organically inactive and must go through a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound (hydroxylation). (woundsource.com)
  • B complex supplements typically have several b vitamins in their mix. (healthtap.com)
  • Also, does Vitamin D affect the absorption of other vitamins and supplements? (healthtap.com)
  • During this time, your body has to rely on the vitamin D that it has created during warmer months, or on intake of vitamin D through food and supplements. (drbenkim.com)
  • The United States National Research Council could find "no documented reports that daily multiple vitamin-mineral supplements equaling no Our laser skin rejuvenation is a popular treatment option for restoring aging skin to a smoother and more youthful appearance. (endolink.eu)
  • Folic acid is a B vitamin that helps to prevent ain and spinal cord defects in a developing baby when included in your diet before you become pregnant and during For decades the 'natural' health industry has been touting thousands of vitamin supplements. (endolink.eu)
  • Some a thousand IU pills will often be formulated with >10,000 IU of vitamin D. The unluckly consumer having badly made vitamin D dietary investigate this site supplements can knowledge "unexplainable" Negative effects considering that everyone generally will presume that The patron is ingesting the dose detailed on the bottle label. (total-blog.com)
  • If you need 35% of professional physician grade supplements, vitamins, or herbs. (docbray.com)
  • Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone gro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration was significantly increased by plain vitamin D3 and reduced by eldecal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Meta-analysis showed that:(1)the increase of Serum 25-(OH)vitamin D:Combined therapy group and vitamin D group (MD= -7. (bvsalud.org)
  • 04). (2)the increase of serum phosphate:Combined therapy group and vitamin D group ( MD= -0. (bvsalud.org)
  • 51 ) . ( 3 ) the decrease of Serum ALP:Combined therapy group and vitamin D group (MD= 109. (bvsalud.org)
  • 59 ). (4)the increase of serum calcium :Combined therapy group and vitamin D group (MD= -0. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum concentration of vitamin D reflects endogenous synthesis from exposure to sunlight and exogenous intake in diet (2). (rmsjournal.org)
  • Together with atrophic glossitis, stomatitis, malabsorption due to folic acid, vitamin B12 is necessary for the villi atrophy and mucositis (4) . (who.int)
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency have been associated with common cancers, autoimmune ailments, infectious conditions, and cardiovascular disease. (woundsource.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are very common and can have a negative impact on health and well-being. (woundsource.com)
  • The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Jordanian cohort. (rmsjournal.org)
  • The study showed a high frequency of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in this cohort of patients. (rmsjournal.org)
  • Are folic acid and vitamin b the same thing? (healthtap.com)
  • Folic acid is a vitamin supplement and there are several b vitamins b-1, b-6, b-12 to name some of the more common. (healthtap.com)
  • Topics Diet & Nutrition Nutrition If you didn't take folic acid before getting pregnant About TOCOPHEROL: Tocopherols are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds related to Vitamin E. Nootropics Do They Work. (endolink.eu)
  • Oncelikle Tabi ki Tantuni Nefis biftek A daily dose of folic acid a member of the vitamin B family can slash the risk of neural tube birth defects (NTDs) by up to 70 percent research has shown. (endolink.eu)
  • It is a water-soluble vitamin needed to activate Vitamin A, Vitamin B3 (Niacin), Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), and Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) as well. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Vitamin D is necessary in the body to promote calcium absorption, bone growth, and bone remodeling. (woundsource.com)
  • In conjunction with calcium, vitamin D helps to prevent osteoporosis in older adults. (woundsource.com)
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine defined the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for vitamin D based on the daily intake required to promote bone health and adequate calcium metabolism in healthy adults. (woundsource.com)
  • The trial plan to determine whether a daily capsule containing vitamin D(3) (2000 IU), calcium (600 mg), both, or a placebo for 6 months in UAE citizens with evidence of vitamin D deficien. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To compare the response of rickets to calcium with and without vitamin D. 2. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To assess whether vitamin D increases calcium absorption in calcium defi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Extensive experimental and observational data suggest that intake of calcium and of vitamin D exert protective effects on colorectal neoplasia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intestinal Regulation of Calcium: Vitamin D and Bone Physiology. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The principal function of vitamin D in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis is to increase intestinal calcium absorption. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in elderly patients may decrease the risk of hip fracture by up to one-third. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neonatal hypocalcemia and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by orally administrated vitamin D3 compounds: a prospective open-label randomized trial in osteoporosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intestinal fractional calcium absorption (FCA) was assessed before and after vitamin D3 treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A protein that plays a fundamental role in the Vitamin D mediated transport of calcium in reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vitamin D is a micronutrient that plays an essential role in calcium and phospho- rus homeostasis and is therefore critical for bone growth. (who.int)
  • 1) increasing the diversity of foods con- creasing age, high body mass index, FAO Guidelines on Food Fortification sumed, (2) food fortification, (3) supplemen- low intake of calcium or vitamin D with Micronutrients, 2006 ). (who.int)
  • Vitamin D Drops for Infants: Vitamin D helps baby absorb calcium, to promote healthy bones and growth. (diys.review)
  • Objective To assess the efficacy of combined vitamin D with calcium and vitamin D or cal-cium alone in rickets of vitamin D deficiency by meta-analysis method. (bvsalud.org)
  • All randomized controlled trials about combined with vitamin D and calcium in rickets of vitamin D deficiency were eligible. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion The long term efficacy in combined therapy group is much effective than vitamin D group or calcium group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vitamin D works in concert with other nutrients and hormones: it supports key mineral absorption and metabolism (especially calcium and phosphorus in the blood and bones). (blogspot.com)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and has important function in intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate (2). (rmsjournal.org)
  • Vitamin K regulates the production and flow of calcium, which makes it a key player in the prevention and treatment of many of the most common and debilitating age-related diseases. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Subsequently, sustained intracellular calcium overload, myoglo- binuria, and altered vitamin d deficiency is by enzyme assay. (projectathena.org)
  • However, there is evidence that metformin can decrease the absorption of vitamin B12, thereby leading to a B12 deficien. (diabeticconnect.com)
  • Riboflavin, also known as Vitamin B2, plays an important role in releasing energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • The results revealed that vitamin A deficiency [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • More specifically, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency will not only lead to impaired fetal are necessary cofactors for the conversion of growth in utero but may also make the fetus homocysteine to methionine, the latter being an susceptible to a multitude to chronic diseases important methyl donor required for the synthesis of including diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, neurotransmitters and phospholipids. (who.int)
  • It is very possible to repair your liver naturally release d vitamin og lavt stofskifte prostate b excessive toxin buildup. (endolink.eu)
  • Hepatic (liver) damage has long been found in human and animal experiments in which intake of Liquor is paired with large dose vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. (total-blog.com)
  • There is unconscious with a liver functional vitamin b12. (qcl.me)
  • Some studies also indicated altered n-3 FA profiles in rat plasma and liver microsomes with vitamin B-6 deficiency. (ufl.edu)
  • Various organs are involved in the synthesis of vitamin D such as the skin, liver, and kidneys, on the other hand, Vitamin D affects many organs mainly the gut, bone, and parathyroid glands (1). (rmsjournal.org)
  • Our body's vitamins , minerals and trace elements needs are constantly increasing as the foods we eat are becoming more deficien t in nutrients and richer in additives that degrade them. (shawellnessclinic.com)
  • With that said, it's become exceedingly clear that vitamin D appears to be one of the most important nutrients we need to prevent all types of disease and live as long as our genetic potential will allow. (drbenkim.com)
  • The adrenals require a variety of nutrients including vitamin A, C, E, pantothenic acid and others to help them rebuild. (nutritionalbalancinglifestyle.com)
  • Même les jours de pluie, offrez-vous une excellente ventilation grâce à son ouverture du bas vers le haut tout en conservant les mêmes performances qu'une fenêtre à …Wisdom of the Ancients ® Wisdom of the Ancients creates herbal beverages containing hundreds of unique nutrients and other health-promoting benefits.Ejemplos de Anglicismos. (sportinauka.com)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to examine the physiological responses of adult cockatiels at maintenance to dietary vitamin A (VA) concentrations, and to identify concentrations associated with deficiency and toxicity. (usda.gov)
  • In cultured HepG2 cells, lower vitamin B-6 concentrations in the media led to lower cellular and membrane n-6 LCPUFA composition. (ufl.edu)
  • In addition, there were accumulated cellular lipids in HepG2 cells cultured with lower vitamin B-6 concentrations compared to the regular medium control. (ufl.edu)
  • A stable-isotope tracer experiment further demonstrated that unsaturated FA synthesis decreased by 10-20 % in cells with lower vitamin B-6 concentrations. (ufl.edu)
  • Fur- health and disease is well recognized and thermore, supplementation of vitamin A and has been frequently discussed [ 4-7 ]. (who.int)
  • A recent study looking at high dose supplementation of vitamin D found that it did not prevent cardiovascular disease . (lactobacto.com)
  • growing fetus consumes vitamin B12 from the One step in this process is the conversion of mother's body, thus posing a threat of deficiency homocysteine (Hcy) to a methyl donor, if dietary requirements are not met. (who.int)
  • This essential nutrient is called a vitamin, but dietary Vitamin D is actually a precursor hormone-the building block of a powerful steroid hormone in your body called calcitriol. (blogspot.com)
  • Adequacy of vitamin D stores depends on age, degree of exposure to sunlight influence (ultraviolet light 290-315nm) and dietary sources (egg yolk, oily fish, butter and milk) (1). (rmsjournal.org)
  • limited dietary sources of vitamin D, inadequate supplementation of the vitamin in food, and factors that protect ultraviolet light reaching the skin (clothing, time of day, altitude, latitude, season, pigmentation) (4). (rmsjournal.org)
  • People who are zinc depleted or cannot absorb dietary fat may be at risk of a Vitamin E deficiency. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • These greens are particularly rich in vitamins A, C and K. Collards, mustard greens and escarole are also excellent sources of folate, important for women of childbearing age. (wowmagnepal.com)
  • One cup of cooked winter squash has few calories (around 80) but is high in both vitamin A (214 percent of the recommended daily value) and vitamin C (33 percent), as well as being a good source of vitamins B6 and K, potassium and folate. (wowmagnepal.com)
  • Dur- its precursors contributed effectively to re- ing pregnancy and lactation, vitamin A ducing mortality rates among pregnant plays a vital role in placental and fetal devel- women [ 14 ]. (who.int)
  • Good sources of vitamin D include fortified cereal, fortified milk, and fish with high fat content such as salmon. (woundsource.com)
  • Salmon, mackerel, and other oily fish are good sources of vitamin D, but again, you would need to eat much more than is realistic for the average person to meet your minimum vitamin D requirement from eating oily fish alone. (drbenkim.com)
  • These findings provide several novel perspectives to interpret the link of differences in vitamin B-6 nutritional status to lipid metabolism, which will be helpful to understand the association between vitamin B-6 and related diseases and disorders with perturbed lipid metabolism in large-scale population-based epidemiological studies. (ufl.edu)
  • Biological Serumtherapy replenishes vitamins and minerals quickly and efficiently at a cellular level and different combination s can help you feel more energised , relieve stress, neutralise the excess of free radicals and strengthen the immune system . (shawellnessclinic.com)
  • Malabsorption is when your body can't absorb the vitamins and minerals you need from the food you eat. (blogspot.com)
  • This chemical process converts vitamin D to calcidiol and calcitriol, which the body can absorb. (woundsource.com)
  • The B vitamins increase adrenal activity which in turn reduces copper levels enough to allow normal sleep. (arltma.com)
  • 0(0) measures should include Vitamin D tory illnesses, osteoporosis, and adverse supplementation. (who.int)
  • What this means is that, unless you are at risk for osteoporosis, or certain specific diseases, if you want a vitamin D blood test, you will have to pay for it yourself. (endolink.eu)
  • The deficiency of vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia and rickets in children, osteoporosis among elderly, and increase risk of many medical conditions (5). (rmsjournal.org)
  • Lighter skin color allows deeper penetration by UV-B rays, which decreases the amount of sunlight exposure needed for adequate vitamin D production. (drbenkim.com)
  • Adequate amounts of Vitamin D is necessary for preventing bone loss. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • When is the best time to take vitamins, such as vitamin B12 and biotin? (healthtap.com)
  • Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder that results in the inability to recycle the vitamin, biotin. (henryford.com)
  • Yeast mostly contains thiamine ( b1) , along with other b vitamins. (healthtap.com)
  • In 1930, Paul Karrer elucidated the proper structure for beta-carotene, the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids. (total-blog.com)
  • Healtheries Garlic Vitamin C Zinc Echinacea + Olive Leaf Shop online & save at NZ's favourite online health store. (endolink.eu)
  • Zinc deficiency may have been caused in our patient by a combination of factors since she was an alcoholic, had a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and had chronic pancreatitis causing malabsorption. (everydayebm.org)
  • Only if you get malabsorption For citation purposes: van der Werff ASA, Klooster A. Vitamin B-3, or niacin, is an essential nutrient that helps all major organs function. (endolink.eu)
  • Objective To study the association of vitamin D receptor(VDR) gene BsmI polymorphism and the genetic susceptibility of vitamin D deficiency rickets in infants and to explore a new way of diagnosis and treat-ment. (bvsalud.org)
  • 52);the decrease of Radiographic score:Com-bined therapy group and vitamin D group( MD=0. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been linked to the altered n-6 fatty acid (FA) profiles of rat tissue lipids, particularly with a decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) and an increase of linoleic acid over 80 years. (ufl.edu)
  • Based on previous findings, it was hypothesized that low vitamin B-6 status decreases n-6/n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) but increases their precursors, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in both blood lipids and cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line by impairing LCPUFA synthesis. (ufl.edu)
  • Some studies have shown that Vitamin E decreases symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and certain types of breast disease. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Recent studies havepossibly night blindness,' which is related vitamin A shown that plasma vitamin A3 as well as retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels4 are decreased in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our first target for Uganda was Provitamin A. Provitamin A or betacarotene is converted by the human body into vitamin A or retinol. (abc.net.au)
  • Does the b complex vitamin include all of the b vitamins and what does this do? (healthtap.com)
  • Aside from promoting bone health, vitamin D is involved in other body processes such as cell growth modulation, immune function, inflammation reduction, and neuromuscular activity. (woundsource.com)
  • Although the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and wound healing has not been clearly established, we know that this nutrient is essential to maintain bone health. (woundsource.com)
  • ABSTRACT Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can have a negative impact on pregnancy but there have been no studies in Al-Ain on the vitamin A status of pregnant women. (who.int)
  • Low vitamin D concentration in blood is an important international health problem, whereby the deficiency is common in Middle East countries, Japan, Italy, Norway, India, and the Netherlands(6). (rmsjournal.org)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not commonly found in foods. (woundsource.com)
  • However Katz said excessive vitamin D can cause nausea vomiting loss of appetite excessive thirst frequent urination constipation abdominal After all this fat-soluble vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that can help protect skin cells and repair damage caused by free radicals and then sun. (endolink.eu)
  • The bladder cancer, fat-soluble vitamin d and s2 caused by toxin which is a beat. (aimstudio.me)
  • Fat soluble Vitamin D is not a vitamin, it is a hormone that becomes active with the aid of the sun's rays. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Results of a large randomized trial indicate that monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not prevent cardiovascular disease , according to a study published by JAMA Cardiology. (lactobacto.com)
  • The authors write that the results of this study do not support the use of monthly high-dose vitamin D for the prevention of CVD. (lactobacto.com)
  • Treatment with high dose vitamin B12 been shown to with neurological involvement could suffice levels after B12 injections leads to serious disease. (endolink.eu)
  • https://www.todayswoundclinic.com/articles/addressing-vitamin-d-deficien. (woundsource.com)
  • Is it true that huge doses of vitamin B12 inhibit the levels of other b vitamins? (healthtap.com)
  • Patients with low vitamin D levels will receive therapeutic doses of Vitamin D. At end of one year follow up studies will be repeated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • And this is what was done in this study, with the result that monthly high doses of vitamin D3 for 3 years did not prevent cardiovascular disease (including stroke, heart attacks, hypertension, etc) - as seen in that there were no group differences between the vitamin D and placebo groups. (lactobacto.com)
  • But note that the subjects in the study got monthly high doses, and not daily or weekly vitamin D . It is unknown whether daily dosing would have made a difference in the results. (lactobacto.com)
  • Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with many chronic illnesses , inflammatory conditions, and increased risk for mortality. (woundsource.com)
  • Further studies are recommended that correlates patients medical illnesses and Vitamin D supplementation to prevent clinical effects of vitamin D deficiency. (rmsjournal.org)
  • The fact is, it's extremely hard to get all of the vitamin D that you need to experience your best health without some exposure to sunlight. (drbenkim.com)
  • Without vitamin D production from exposure to sunlight, you would need ten glasses of milk that's been fortified with vitamin D to get the minimum amount of D that you need each day. (drbenkim.com)
  • The bottom line is this: intelligent exposure to sunlight on your bare skin is the best way to ensure optimal vitamin D status. (drbenkim.com)
  • If you have darker skin, it's harder for UV-B rays to penetrate your skin and create vitamin D, which means that you need greater exposure to sunlight than someone with lighter skin. (drbenkim.com)
  • People who get little exposure to sunlight are most at risk of Vitamin D deficiency. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • The reason it absolutely was these types of very good luck, was that Additionally, it illustrates why vitamin D toxicity is so controversial. (total-blog.com)
  • He was copper deficien which is unusual with a copper reading of 8.03umol/Ul (ref range 11-22) but I've managed to get his copper levels ups over the past four months. (easy-immune-health.com)
  • I now test all my patients, and have been surprised to find that more than 85% come up with a vitamin D deficiency. (blogspot.com)
  • Start Giving Vitamin C to Septic Patients Now! (gorillaprotein.com)
  • To assess vitamin B12 status among pregnant woman and its association with obesity and gestational diabetes. (who.int)
  • Davila and colleagues looked at To assess vitamin A status, WHO identi- the relationship between maternal diet and fied two main categories of indicator: direct vitamin A status of lactating rats and their (biological) indicators, which include bio- offspring [ 9 ]. (who.int)
  • The physiological role of vitamin A in er than that of healthy women [ 14 ]. (who.int)
  • A study examining the role of vitamin D in cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice concluded that supplementation with vitamin D can significantly accelerate wound healing rate. (woundsource.com)
  • This study came about because of earlier studies observing that there is a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in persons with low vitamin D levels (as measured in their blood). (lactobacto.com)
  • Studies have reported increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with low vitamin D status. (lactobacto.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease occurred in 303 participants (11.8 percent) in the vitamin D group and 293 participants (11.5 percent) in the placebo group. (lactobacto.com)
  • What is the recommended daily dose of vitamin a? (healthtap.com)
  • Citrus fruits are loaded with vitamin C-one medium orange delivers more than 100 percent of your daily dose. (wowmagnepal.com)
  • And you didn't mention Vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is a HUGE problem in Scotland and can lead to fatigue and many other problems. (easy-immune-health.com)
  • How Does Sunlight Create Vitamin D in Your Body? (drbenkim.com)
  • Your body cannot create vitamin D on its own. (blogspot.com)
  • There's a growing mountain of evidence that indicates that having enough vitamin D in your body is essential to reducing your risk of every disease that we know of. (drbenkim.com)
  • Full, natural foods-Particularly new greens-can Participate in An important role in supplying enough vitamin C without the need of growing the risk of overeating. (total-blog.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency, defined as less than 20 ng/mL, and insufficiency with levels between 20-30 ng/mL affect approximately 1 billion individuals globally. (woundsource.com)
  • Razzaghi and colleagues examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers. (woundsource.com)
  • Elderly individuals with little or no sunlight exposure are more frequently prone to develop vitamin D deficiency if not supplemented in the diet (1). (rmsjournal.org)
  • The evaluation included data collection through: history taking, examination, anthropometric measurement, maternal blood vitamin B12 level estimation at second and third trimester and blood glucose level. (who.int)
  • 13 ]. The same authors reported that the easily prevented by sound nutrition, includ- maternal mortality rate among night- ing provision of vitamin A [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • Gender and age groups differences in vitamin D levels were tested and compared using ANOVA test. (rmsjournal.org)
  • Vitamin E acts as a powerful antioxidant by neutralizing free radicals in the body that cause tissue and cellular damage. (cosmetiqueaesthetics.com)
  • Vitamin B12 also known as cobalamin, is with or without anemia, ovalocytosis, hyper- a micronutrient essential for cellular growth, segmented white blood cells, pancytopenia, differentiation, and development (1) . (who.int)
  • vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnancy is common particularly in obese women and those with GDM. (who.int)
  • This conclusion was made from studies in vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vitamin D has recently been shown to display beneficial effects in various vascular diseases by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting inflammatory responses. (woundsource.com)
  • to investigate the vitamin B12 status of pregnant women in Egypt and its relationship with obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). (who.int)
  • The study also reported that vitamin D could have a secondary effect on wound healing as a result of the improved glycemic control status seen in the study subjects. (woundsource.com)
  • A person's vitamin D status depends on the production of vita- and 24 ng/ml in adults in these 4 coun- min D in the skin under the influence of tries (Figure 1). (who.int)
  • This study is designed for assessment of vitamin D status in a Jordanian cohort. (rmsjournal.org)