A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Coloration of the skin.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Breaks in bones.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Diseases of BONES.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A clinical study in which participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

Vitamin D status in different subgroups of British Asians. (1/3711)

To assess the effect of religious dietary practices and social customs on the vitamin D status of Asian immigrants, we kept records of the dietary intake and time spent out of doors of 81 Ugandan Asian men, women, and girls (9-19 years old). Sera were analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3), and 28% of the subjects were found to have levels below the lower limit of normal. The (vegetarian) Hindus had the lowest dietary intakes, least time out of doors, and lowest serum 25-OHD3. The Goan (Roman Catholic) Asians, despite more pigmentation, had 25-OHD3 levels similar to those found among indigenous British people and had the most satisfactory vitamin D intakes. Among Asians, whose exposure to sunlight may be limited, dietary vitamin D becomes the major determinant of serum 25-OHD3.  (+info)

Postoperative tetany in Graves disease: important role of vitamin D metabolites. (2/3711)

OBJECTIVE: To test the authors' hypothesis of the causal mechanism(s) of postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies by the authors suggested that postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease occurs during the period of bone restoration and resulted from continuation of a calcium flux into bone concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism induced by surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate sequential changes in serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and other electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and bone metabolic markers in 109 consecutive patients with Graves disease who underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. RESULTS: Preoperative serum iPTH levels negatively correlated with ionized calcium levels and positively correlated with 1,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD. After the operation, there was a significant decline in levels of ionized calcium, magnesium, and iPTH. Serum iPTH was not detected in 15 patients after surgery. Four of these 15 patients, and 1 patient whose iPTH level was below normal, developed tetany. Preoperative serum ionized calcium levels were significantly lower, and iPTH levels were higher, in the 5 patients with tetany than in the 11 patients who did not develop tetany despite undetectable iPTH levels. The tetany group had significantly lower serum 25OHD levels and higher 1,25(OH)2D levels, and had increased 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD as an index of the renal 25OHD-1-hydroxylase activity than those in the nontetany group. These results suggest that patients with a high serum level of iPTH as a result of low serum calcium levels (secondary hyperparathyroidism) are susceptible to tetany under conditions of hypoparathyroid function after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative tetany occurs in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by a relative deficiency in calcium and vitamin D because of their increased demand for bone restoration after preoperative medical therapy concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism after surgery. Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be recommended before and/or after surgery for patients in whom postoperative tetany is expected to develop.  (+info)

Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. (3/3711)

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism are known to be present, and several factors could contribute to the abnormalities. METHODS: We measured serum levels of three vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D, 24, 25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D, and analyzed factors affecting their levels in 76 nondialyzed patients with CRF (serum creatinine> 1.6 and < 9.0 mg/dl), 37 of whom had diabetes mellitus (DM-CRF) and 39 of whom were nondiabetic (nonDM-CRF). RESULTS: Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; r = 0.429; P < 0.0001), and levels of 24,25(OH)2D were weakly correlated with CCr (r = 0.252, P < 0.05); no correlation was noted for 25(OH)D. Serum levels of all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly and positively correlated with serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in age, sex, estimated CCr, calcium and phosphate between DM-CRF and nonDM-CRF, all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly lower in DM-CRF than in nonDM-CRF. To analyze factors influencing vitamin D metabolite levels, we performed multiple regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and independently associated with serum albumin, presence of DM and serum phosphate (R2 = 0.599; P < 0.0001). 24,25(OH)2D levels were significantly and strongly associated with 25(OH)D (beta = 0.772; R2 = 0.446; P < 0.0001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were significantly associated only with estimated CCr (R2 = 0. 409; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia and the presence of DM independently affect serum 25(OH)D levels, probably via diabetic nephropathy and poor nutritional status associated with diabetes, and that 25(OH)D is actively catalyzed to 24,25(OH)2D in CRF, probably largely via extrarenal 24-hydroxylase. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly affected by the degree of renal failure. Thus, this study indicates that patients with CRF, particularly those with DM, should receive supplements containing the active form of vitamin D prior to dialysis.  (+info)

An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. (4/3711)

Steroid hormones may enter cells by diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, we demonstrate here that some steroid hormones are taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of steroid-carrier complexes. We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin. Endocytosis is required to preserve 25-(OH) vitamin D3 and to deliver to the cells the precursor for generation of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, a regulator of the calcium metabolism. Megalin-/- mice are unable to retrieve the steroid from the glomerular filtrate and develop vitamin D deficiency and bone disease.  (+info)

Regulation of vitamin D action. (5/3711)

The control of gene transcription by vitamin D compounds is initiated by binding to the VDR, which enhances the receptor's ability to heterodimerize to RXR, interact with response elements in target genes and attract components of the transcriptional initiation complex. A number of factors are capable of influencing this process, including (i) the rate of uptake and catabolism of the ligand, (ii) the nature of the conformational change induced by a specific ligand, (iii) the cellular content of the VDR, (iv) post-translational modifications of the VDR and (v) the availability of other transcriptional components. Vitamin D analogues may affect these factors differently to 1,25(OH)2D3 to produce unique biological profiles that can be exploited for therapeutic use.  (+info)

Effectiveness of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation on blood pressure reduction in a pseudohypoparathyroidism patient with high renin activity. (6/3711)

A 42-year-old man had biochemical and somatic abnormalities compatible with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PsHP) and also had high plasma renin activity (PRA). After 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation the systolic/diastolic blood pressure, assessed by 24-hour non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, was reduced from 145/96 mm Hg to 128/85 mm Hg with normalization of the serum calcium level and its related hormones, as well as decreased PRA. Calcitriol supplementation successfully reduced the blood pressure in this patient with PsHP and a high PRA, suggesting that calcium-related hormones and/or the renin-angiotensin system were involved in lowering the blood pressure.  (+info)

Diet, genetic susceptibility and human cancer etiology. (7/3711)

There is evidence that high penetrance hereditary genes cause a number of relatively uncommon tumors in the familial setting, whereas common cancers are influenced by multiple loci that alter susceptibility to cancer and other conditions. The latter category of genes are involved in the metabolism of carcinogens (activation, detoxification) as well as those that interact with dietary exposure. This paper will consider some of the basic principles in studying susceptibility genes and provide a few examples in which they interact with dietary components.  (+info)

Topical psoriasis therapy. (8/3711)

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum vitamin D concentrations and unexplained elevation in ALT among US adults. AU - Liangpunsakul, Suthat. AU - Chalasani, Naga. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Background: Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods: A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results: Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on inflammation and nuclear factor kappa-B activity in overweight/obese adults. T2 - A randomized placebo-controlled trial. AU - Mousa, Aya. AU - Naderpoor, Negar. AU - Johnson, Josphin. AU - Sourris, Karly. AU - De Courten, Maximilian P.J.. AU - Wilson, Kirsty. AU - Scragg, Robert. AU - Plebanski, Magdalena. AU - De Courten, Barbora. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - In-vitro studies suggest that vitamin D reduces inflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activity. Yet, no trials have examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on NFκB activity in-vivo in humans. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial (RCT) examining effects of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers and NFκB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Sixty-five overweight/obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤ 50 nmol/L) adults were randomized to a single 100,000 IU bolus followed by 4,000 IU daily ...
Background: Hydroxymethylglutaryl‑coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are antihyperlipidemic drugs with an established efficacy in stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques and preventing atherogenesis and reducing cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on serum Vitamin D status in dyslipidemic patients as Vitamin D status has an impact on monocyte/macrophage function and may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. Methods: Selected individuals (n = 102) were treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day), or matching placebo in a randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled, crossover trial. Each treatment period (with simvastatin or placebo) lasted for 30 days and was separated by a 2‑week washout phase. Serum Vitamin D concentration was assessed pre‑ and post‑treatment. Results: Seventy‑seven completed the trial, noncompliance with the study protocol and drug intolerance or relocation were the causes for drop‑out. No significant ...
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have considered the dietary influence of vitamin D intake on bone mineral density (BMD). Numerous studies have examined the association between VDR polymorphism and BMD, but no previous study has examined the joint influence of dietary vitamin D intake and VDR polymorphism on BMD. METHODS: We therefore conducted a study in 230 men aged 41-76 years of age. BMD was measured with DXA. A second bone scan was performed on average 2.7 years after the first investigation. Dietary habits were assessed by 14 dietary 24-h recall interviews. The polyadenosine (A) VDR genotypes were determined. RESULTS: Dietary vitamin D intake was associated with BMD at all sites, also after multivariate adjustment. Those in the highest quintile of intake had 9% higher femoral neck BMD (p = 0.004), 6% higher BMD at the lumbar spine (p = 0.06) and 5% higher total body BMD (p = 0.003) compared to men in the lowest quintile of dietary vitamin D intake. However, the positive association between ...
Vitamin D is a fundamentally important hormone involved in calcium absorption, bone mineralization and parathyroid hormone production. Vitamin D deficiency may result in a myriad of diseases, such as osteomalacia, rickets and has more recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes. Accurate determination of serum vitamin D levels is, therefore, paramount when assessing an individual for related pathologies against an appropriate reference range for interpretation. The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin D status between healthy Caucasian and healthy Asian populations of Peterborough, taking into account seasonal serum vitamin D variation. In addition, we evaluated whether a reference range for serum vitamin D of the local population should be race and/or seasonal specific. Using a Chromsystems high-pressure liquid chromatography vitamin D2/D3 methodology upon Agilent 1100 hardware, serum vitamin D status was assessed in 200 subjects of varying age, gender and ethnicity using ...
BACKGROUND:Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but the effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of vascular function associated with major adverse cardiovascular events is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a systematic review and individual participant meta-analysis to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, central blood pressure, microvascular function, and reactive hyperemia index. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov were searched until the end of 2016 without language restrictions. Placebo-controlled randomized trials of at least 4 weeks duration were included. Individual participant data were sought from investigators on included trials. Trial-level meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models; individual participant meta-analyses used a 2-stage
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Markers of Vascular Function. T2 - A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Meta-Analysis. AU - Beveridge, Louise A.. AU - Khan, Faisel. AU - Struthers, Allan D.. AU - Armitage, Jane. AU - Barchetta, Ilaria. AU - Bressendorff, Iain. AU - Cavallo, Maria Gisella. AU - Clarke, Robert. AU - Dalan, Rinkoo. AU - Dreyer, Gavin. AU - Gepner, Adam D.. AU - Forouhi, Nita G.. AU - Harris, Ryan A.. AU - Hitman, Graham A.. AU - Larsen, Thomas. AU - Khadgawat, Rajesh. AU - Marckmann, Peter. AU - Mose, Frank H.. AU - Pilz, Stefan. AU - Scholze, Alexandra. AU - Shargorodsky, Marina. AU - Sokol, Seth I.. AU - Stricker, Hans. AU - Zoccali, Carmine. AU - Witham, Miles D.. PY - 2018/5/30. Y1 - 2018/5/30. N2 - Background Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but the effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of vascular function associated with major adverse cardiovascular events is ...
A recent study has found a further link between low vitamin D levels and premenopausal breast cancer.The study, by researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, examined 1,200 healthy women and found that those whose serum vitamin D levels were low during the three-month period just before diagnosis had approximately three times the risk of breast cancer as women in the highest vitamin D group. Several previous studies have shown that low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with a higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine profile in patients with multiple sclerosis following vitamin D supplementation. AU - Mahon, B. D.. AU - Gordon, S. A.. AU - Cruz, J.. AU - Cosman, F.. AU - Cantorna, M. T.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were randomized, in a double blind design, and placed into either a vitamin D supplemented group or a placebo control group. As expected, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased significantly following 6 month vitamin D supplementation (17±6 ng/ml at baseline to 28±8 ng/ml at 6 months). Vitamin D supplementation also significantly increased serum transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels from 230±21 pg/ml at baseline to 295±40 pg/ml 6 months later. Placebo treatment had no effect on serum TGF-β1 levels. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-13 were not different following vitamin D supplementation. IL-2 mRNA levels decreased following vitamin D supplementation but the differences did not ...
Vitamin D can be made in the skin by exposure to sunlight and can be found in certain foods. Vitamin D levels are alarmingly low in many North American children. Several health issues have been linked with low vitamin D. These include colds caused by viruses and asthma attacks. However, no study has determined whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of these conditions in young children where they are most common and most severe.. The goals of this study are to determine whether wintertime high dose vitamin D supplementation of preschoolers can prevent colds and asthma attacks. The investigators also aim to work out how much money would be saved by the health care system and society if preschoolers were routinely supplemented with Vitamin D during the winter. The investigators believe that preschoolers receiving high dose vitamin D supplementation during the wintertime will be less likely to have colds, asthma attacks, and low vitamin D levels and will be less likely to use the ...
Vitamin D deficiency is common world wide. 25 OH vitamin D level is the best indicator of vitamin D status. Vitamin D supplements are available as vitamin D2 or D3, in small daily or large weekly/monthly doses. Controversy continues on the relative potency of vitamin D2 compared to D3 and of daily compared to weekly or monthly doses, in increasing/maintaining total 25 OH vitamin D level.. The investigators plan to conduct a controlled trial to compare the effect of various vitamin D supplements on 25 OH vitamin D levels in healthy adults with starting 25 OH vitamin D level between 20 to 50 nmol/L. ...
The present study used a systematic review approach to identify relevant randomised control trials (RCT) with vitamin D and then apply meta-regression to explore the most appropriate model of the vitamin D intake-serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) relationship to underpin setting reference intake values. Methods included an updated structured search on Ovid MEDLINE; rigorous inclusion/exclusion criteria; data extraction; and meta-regression (using different model constructs). In particular, priority was given to data from winter-based RCT performed at latitudes ,49•58°N (n 12). A combined weighted linear model meta-regression analyses of natural log (Ln) total vitamin D intake (i.e. diet and supplemental vitamin D) versus achieved serum 25(OH)D in winter (that used by the North American Dietary Reference Intake Committee) produced a curvilinear relationship (mean (95% lower CI) serum 25(OH)D (nmol/l) = 9•2 (8•5) Ln (total vitamin D)). Use of non-transformed total vitamin D intake data ...
Falls in the elderly, as well as fall-related adverse outcomes such as low trauma bone fractures, are events that could be prevented. Epidemiological studies conducted over the past 15 years provide an increasing number of arguments in favor of an action of vitamin D on muscles and CNS. Vitamin D improves postural balance, propulsion and also executive functions and navigation abilities among older adults. Vitamin D supplementation thus not only determines gait performance, but also prevents the occurrence of falls and their complications among older adults. Mixed data regarding the absence of effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation are mainly due to the fact that some confounders were not taken into account, but also to the baseline serum vitamin D concentration on initiation of treatment, as a low serum vitamin D concentration appears to be associated with better efficacy. The prescription of at least 800 IU of vitamin D daily in insufficient elderly subjects is a simple intervention ...
BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese children, 8-18 years of age, with ... read more vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were drawn for the assessment of vitamin D. Vitamin D-insufficient/-deficient children (,50 nmol/l) were supplemented, using a high loading dose of 25,000 IU weekly, and measured again 9 weeks later. Vitamin D supplementation was considered effective and tolerable when an increase to vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D ,50 nmol/l) was reached in ,75% without side effects nor reaching toxic levels. RESULTS: In total, 109 children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 3.0, 34.2% boys, 90.8% obese) received vitamin D supplementation. In 84.4% of the children, the vitamin D status improved from insufficiency/deficiency ...
Results We studied 117 Participants, 62 females and 55 males, age was 71 (5) years, of who 61 received 3,750 IU of vitamin D, and 55 received 600 IU/day. Vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphisms distribution was comparable in both arms. Daily vitamin D intake excluding provided supplements was 7.59 (1.21) mcg and 8.53 (1.36) mcg from the 24 h recall, and food frequency questionnaires, respectively (p was NS between the two arms). Calories, calcium, protein, carbohydrate and fat mean intake was also similar across both arms. The high-dose group achieved significantly higher 25OH-vitamin D serum levels at twelve months 34.9 (9.3) ng/ml compared to low-dose, 21.9 (6.1) ng/ml (p,0.0001). Difference between arms remained significant adjusting for gender, baseline BMI, Fok, Bsml and Taq genetic polymorphism, baseline serum vitamin D and dietary intake of vitamin D, calcium, calories, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. None of these dietary intake measures was found to have significant contribution to ...
In this study, data were available with 451 kidney stone cases and 482 controls for the analysis. This work provided convincing evidence that serum vitamin D level in kidney stone patients was significantly higher than that in non-kidney stone controls. The associations were also significant both in Europe and in Asia populations.. In our study, significant between-study heterogeneity was found between serum vitamin D levels and kidney stone risk. Previous paper [21] had reported that heterogeneity is common in the meta-analyses. To explore the potential sources of between-study heterogeneity is therefore an essential component of meta-analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity might have arisen from publication year, study design and geographic locations. Therefore, we used meta-regression to explore the causes of heterogeneity by covariates. However, no covariate had significant impact on the high between-study heterogeneity among those mentioned above. Considering the pooled meta-analysis was ...
This study was designed to assess the beneficial effects of high-dose (cholecalciferol) vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive 50-000 IU vitamin D supplements (n=30) or receive placebo (n=30) every 2 weeks from 20 to 32 weeks of gestation. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline study and 12 weeks after the intervention to quantify relevant variables. Newborns anthropometric measurements were determined. Pregnant women who received cholecalciferol supplements had significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (+17.92±2.28 vs. +0.27±3.19-ng/ml, p,0.001) compared with the placebo. The administration of cholecalciferol supplements, compared with the ...
Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common during pregnancy. Our aim was to identify whether antenatal vitamin D₃ supplementation affects iron status (via hepcidin suppression) and/or inflammation. Using a subset of the UK multicenter Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS)-a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713; EudraCT2007-001716-23)-we performed a secondary laboratory analysis. Women with blood samples from early and late pregnancy (vitamin D₃ (1000 IU/day from ~14 weeks gestation n = 93; placebo n = 102) who gave birth in the springtime (March⁻May) were selected as we anticipated seeing the greatest treatment group difference in change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration. Outcomes were hepcidin, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein concentration in late pregnancy (25OHD concentration was measured previously). By late pregnancy, 25OHD concentration increased by 17 nmol/L in the vitamin D₃ group and decreased by 11 nmol/L in
Background and Objective: Low Vitamin D levels have been implicated as contributing to statin myalgia, but studies on the relationship between Vitamin D and statin-associated muscle side effects (SAMS) have produced discrepant results. We examined the influence of baseline and change in Vitamin D levels in patients with self-reported statin myalgia who developed muscle symptoms during a statin-placebo cross-over trial.. Methods: Statin myalgia was verified in 120 patients with prior statin muscle complaints using an 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover trial of simvastatin (SIMVA) 20 mg/d and placebo. Anthropometrics, medical histories, demographics and serologic data (including 25 (OH)Vitamin D) were measured at each phase of the trial.. Results: Forty three (35.8%) patients met the study criteria for myalgia, experiencing muscle pain on SIMVA but not placebo. Serum Vitamin D levels (mean ± standard deviation) prior to simvastatin treatment were not different between patients who did ...
Combining results from 12 studies of vitamin D intake and 7 studies of circulating 25(OH)D, high compared with low dietary vitamin D intake was associated with an 11% marginally decreased risk of colorectal adenomas and high versus low circulating 25(OH)D with a statistically significant 30% decreased risk.. The inverse association with colorectal adenomas was similar for dietary intake compared with total vitamin D intake (OR, 0.90 versus 0.89), whereas no association with supplemental vitamin D intake was found (OR, 1.0). That total intake did not have a stronger association compared with dietary sources alone was unexpected given that dietary sources of vitamin D are uncommon, and in some populations, supplements are an important source of total vitamin D intake. Furthermore, supplemental sources of vitamin D may contain folate and other micronutrients that could enhance an inverse relation between supplemental vitamin D and adenomas (36, 37).. The lack of association with supplemental ...
What is the optimal vitamin D level?. As already mentioned, different sources recommend different vitamin D levels - currently there is no clear opinion. Official bodies, such as the German Nutrition Society, recommend a vitamin D level of 20 ng/ml. While the Institute of Medicine considers a level of 20 ng/ml to be sufficient, the minimum vitamin D level recommended by the Vitamin D Council is 40 ng/ml. The Grassroots Health initiative recommends a level of 40-60 ng/ml. Dr. Raimund von Helden is convinced that an optimal vitamin D level is between 50-90 ng/ml.. It can now be assumed that the average value should be around 30 - 80 ng/ml. However, the optimal value for a vitamin D level is above 50 ng/ml in almost all studies.. The vitamin d rapid self-test from kiweno interprets vitamin D values as follows:. 0-10 ng/ml - severe deficiency. 11-30 ng/ml - deficiency. 31-100 ng/ml - optimal supply. , 100 ng/ml - Overdose. Vitamin D filling up and maintenance. In the case of a severe deficiency, we ...
Increasing evidence suggests a possible interaction between vitamin D and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We aimed to investigate effects of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 (primary outcome) and calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations (secondary outcome). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial-a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) conducted from 2011 to 2014 at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Two-hundred subjects with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/mL were randomized to either receive 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. A total of 175 participants (mean ± standard deviation age, 60 ± 11 years; 49% women) with available IGF-1 concentrations were included in the present analysis. At baseline, IGF-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with 1,25(OH)2D (r = 0.21; p = 0.005) but not with 25(OH)D (r = −0.008; p = 0.91). In the RCT, vitamin D had no significant effect
Recent findings suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has consequences for the offsprings bone health in later life. To investigate whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency affects fetal femur growth in ways similar to those seen in childhood rickets and study the timing during gestation of any effect of maternal vitamin D status, we studied 424 pregnant women within a prospective longitudinal study of maternal nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy (Southampton Womens Survey). Using high-resolution 3D ultrasound, we measured fetal femur length and distal metaphyseal cross-sectional area, together with the ratio of femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area to femur length (femoral splaying index). Lower maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D concentration was not related to fetal femur length but was associated with greater femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area and a higher femoral splaying index at 19 weeks gestation [r = -0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0
Other studies, however, posted no significant change on bone mineral density upon taking vitamin D supplements, researchers highlighted.. Most healthy adults do not need vitamin D supplements studys lead researcher, Professor Ian Reid from the University of Aucklands Bone Research Group said. Our data suggest that the targeting of low-dose vitamin D supplements only to individuals who are likely to be deficient could free up substantial resources that could be better used elsewhere in health care, the researchers wrote in an article published online October 11 in the Lancet.. This systematic review provides very little evidence of an overall benefit of vitamin D supplementation on bone density. Continuing widespread use of vitamin D for osteoporosis prevention in community-dwelling adults without specific risk factors for vitamin D deficiency seems inappropriate, he added.. The researchers recommend that such supplements should be prescribed only to people who have very low levels of ...
Vitamin D deficiency is a global epidemic and has been linked to chronic diseases, with research finding a higher prevalence of these diseases in those who are deficient in vitamin D. Previous research has also shown that vitamin D supplementation helps reduce the risk of influenza. Viral infections often occur in the winter when vitamin D levels are the lowest and supplementation is often required in order to reach normal concentrations.. In a review published two weeks ago in Nutrients, researchers investigated vitamin Ds potential effect in helping to reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections. According to this review, a vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as chronic disease. An observational study in Connecticut which included 198 healthy adults in the fall and winter of 2009 through 2010 demonstrated a reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infections in those with a vitamin D insufficiency. Only 17% of ...
BACKGROUND: Reports on the dose response to vitamin D are conflicting, and most data were derived from white men and women.. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to oral vitamin D(3) supplementation in an African American population.. DESIGN: Healthy black postmenopausal women (n = 208) participated in a vitamin D(3) supplementation trial for a period of 3 y. Analyses were done in the vitamin D supplementation arm (n = 104) to quantify the response in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at a steady state vitamin D input. The participants received 20 microg/d (800 IU) oral vitamin D(3) for the initial 2 y and 50 microg/d (2000 IU) for the third year.. RESULTS: Supplementation with 20 microg/d (800 IU/d) vitamin D(3) raised the mean serum 25(OH)D concentration from a baseline of 46.9 +/- 20.6 nmol/L to 71.4 +/- 21.5 nmol/L at 3 mo. The mean (+/-SD) concentration of serum 25(OH)D was 87.3 +/- 27.0 nmol/L 3 mo after supplementation ...
Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin - because we can usually get it from the suns ultraviolet rays; it supports bone development and is needed for calcium and vitamin C absorption, and it supports the nervous system. Vitamin D plays a dual role as both a vitamin and a hormone that stimulates the body to absorb calcium. Natural Factors Vitamin D3 is derived from sheep wool lanolin.Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol from animal sources). Vitamin D3 is the form found in fish oils and eggs, and is produced by sunlight on human skin. Natural Factors Vitamin D3 is derived from sheep wool lanolin. Vitamin D plays a dual role as both a vitamin and a hormone that stimulates the body to absorb calcium. Vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus are needed to keep bones strong. Without vitamin D even a diet adequate in calcium will not help because the body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. People with low vitamin D levels tend to have soft, thin bones, predisposing them to fractures, especially hip
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D˂25nmol/L) is extremely common in western-dwelling South Asians but evidence regarding vitamin D supplement usage in this group is very limited. This work identifies demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictors associated with vitamin D supplement use.. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline vitamin D supplement use data.. Setting: UK Biobank cohort.. Subjects: In total, n 8024 South Asians (Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani), aged 40-69 years.. Results: Twenty-three % of men and 39% of women (P˂0.001) [22% of Bangladeshis, 32% of Indians, 25% of Pakistanis (P˂0.001)] took a vitamin D containing supplement. Median vitamin D intakes from diet were low at 1.0-3.0 micrograms per day, being highest in Bangladeshis and lowest in Indians (P˂0.001). Logistic regression modelling showed that females had a higher odds of vitamin D supplement use than males (odds ratio (OR) = 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79 to 2.28). A lower ...
What Is It?. Vitamin D 3 enhances calcium absorption and retention, a key nutritional role in supporting healthy bones, and may play a potential role in cardiovascular, colon and cellular health. Vitamin D levels have been shown to decline with age, due primarily to a reduction in either absorption or metabolism by the liver. Decreased exposure to sunlight, a vegetarian diet, or a low intake of vitamin D fortified foods also play a role in inadequate vitamin D levels.*. Uses For Vitamin D 3. Bone Health: Vitamin D promotes intestinal calcium and phosphorous absorption and reduces urinary calcium loss, essential mechanisms for maintaining proper calcium levels in the body and for healthy bone composition. Clinical studies involving vitamin D supplementation suggest the importance of vitamin D in addition to calcium for bone health. Vitamin D supplementation alone may also support bone health.*. Cardiovascular Support: Vitamin D may also provide cardiovascular support for some individuals, which ...
What Is It?. Vitamin D 3 enhances calcium absorption and retention, a key nutritional role in supporting healthy bones, and may play a potential role in cardiovascular, colon and cellular health. Vitamin D levels have been shown to decline with age, due primarily to a reduction in either absorption or metabolism by the liver. Decreased exposure to sunlight, a vegetarian diet, or a low intake of vitamin D fortified foods also play a role in inadequate vitamin D levels.*. Uses For Vitamin D 3. Bone Health: Vitamin D promotes intestinal calcium and phosphorous absorption and reduces urinary calcium loss, essential mechanisms for maintaining proper calcium levels in the body and for healthy bone composition. Clinical studies involving vitamin D supplementation suggest the importance of vitamin D in addition to calcium for bone health. Vitamin D supplementation alone may also support bone health.*. Cardiovascular Support: Vitamin D may also provide cardiovascular support for some individuals, which ...
Jarrow Formulas Vitamin D3 2500IU 100 Softgels Vitamin D3 Promotes Calcium and Bone Metabolism Immune Function Vitamin D3 WHAT DOES VITAMIN D3 DO? Jarrow FORMULAS Vitamin D3 provides cholecalciferol, the most bioavailable form of vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is converted by the kidneys into the hormone calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 enhances calcium and phosphorous absorption, stimulates the synthesis of osteocalcin (an important structural protein in bone), and is involved in proper cell differentiation and immune response. Keep out of the reach of children. Suggested Usage For adults, take 1 softgel every other day with a meal or as directed by your qualified health care consultant. NOTE: Individuals consuming more than 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D should periodically obtain a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D measurement. If you have a medical condition (especially kidney stones or dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism,
Abstract: Vitamin D clearance is an important and often overlooked aspect of vitamin D biology that has relevant implications for the clinical assessment and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. The circulating concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most widely accepted measure of vitamin D status, and vitamin D supplements are often prescribed and titrated based on 25(OH)D concentration. However, circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D are necessarily determined by both 25(OH)D production and 25(OH)D clearance. Therefore, 25(OH)D clearance likely plays an important role in the assessment of vitamin D status and the response to vitamin D supplementation. Our preliminary data suggest that the serum concentration of 24,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] may be a useful biomarker of 25(OH)D clearance that reflects tissue-level vitamin D activity and helps guide vitamin D assessment and treatment. Our parent study, funded by R01DK099199, aims to define 25(OH)D clearance in the ...
Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture1 and fracture in childhood.2 Vitamin D supplementation in childhood may be a clinical strategy to maximise peak bone mass in children and, in turn, improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk in adulthood. However, the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for improving bone density in children is unclear. Therefore, Winzenberg and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for improving paediatric bone mineral density, including how supplement dose and baseline vitamin D status may impact the outcome.. ...
Effects of low vitamin D level On Body - Vitamin D is crucial for strong and healthy bone and also the teeth. Lacking the recommended amounts in...
Vitamin D deficiency can lead to musculoskeletal diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia, but vitamin D supplementation may also prevent extraskeletal diseases such as respiratory tract infections, asthma exacerbations, pregnancy complications and premature deaths. Vitamin D has a unique metabolism as it is mainly obtained through synthesis in the skin under the influence of sunlight (i.e., ultraviolet-B radiation) whereas intake by nutrition traditionally plays a relatively minor role. Dietary guidelines for vitamin D are based on a consensus that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations are used to assess vitamin D status, with the recommended target concentrations ranging from ≥25 to ≥50 nmol/L (≥10-≥20 ng/mL), corresponding to a daily vitamin D intake of 10 to 20 μg (400-800 international units). Most populations fail to meet these recommended dietary vitamin D requirements. In Europe, 25(OH)D concentrations ,30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) and ,50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) are present in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does vitamin D protect against DNA damage?. AU - Nair-Shalliker, Visalini. AU - Armstrong, Bruce K.. AU - Fenech, Michael. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - Vitamin D is a secosteroid best known for its role in maintaining bone and muscle health. Adequate levels of vitamin D may also be beneficial in maintaining DNA integrity. This role of vitamin D can be divided into a primary function that prevents damage from DNA and a secondary function that regulates the growth rate of cells. The potential for vitamin D to reduce oxidative damage to DNA in a human has been suggested by clinical trial where vitamin D supplementation reduced 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative damage, in colorectal epithelial crypt cells. Studies in animal models and in different cell types have also shown marked reduction in oxidative stress damage and chromosomal aberrations, prevention of telomere shortening and inhibition of telomerase activity following treatment with vitamin D. The ...
Supplementation of the diet with vitamins is a common occurrence and there is debate over whether increased vitamin A intake might promote skeletal fragility. Some studies have suggested that increased vitamin A intake may decrease BMD and promote hip fracture; however, other studies have not shown increased bone loss or increased fracture risk, and in some instances, protection from bone loss by vitamin A has been suggested. Vitamin D plays a major role in calcium absorption and mineral homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency is common and some studies have suggested that he risk of osteoporosis and fracture may increase when increased vitamin A intake occurs in individuals with low vitamin D levels. It is possible that an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture might exist for increased vitamin A intake and/or increased intake in the face of low vitamin D, but it appears that additional in vivo animal studies and studies in humans to confirm or dispel these possibilities will be necessary before ...
Vitamin D is actually a hormone, and along with thyroid hormone, is one of the two hormones every cell in your body needs. It regulates hundreds of different pathways throughout the body.. Bone density. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in preventing breakdown of bones and increasing the strength of the skeletal system.. Mood regulation. Low vitamin D is linked to a 14 percent increase depression and a 50 percent increase in suicide rates. Increasing vitamin D intake can help improve anxiety and depression.. Brain health. Vitamin Ds biologically active form has shown neuroprotective effects including the clearance of amyloid plaques common to Alzheimers Disease. Associations have also been noted between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and dementia.. Reduced cancer risk. Optimal vitamin D levels are associated with lower rates of cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, and pancreas.. Sleep quality. Adequate vitamin D is associated with improved sleep.. Immune regulation. Vitamin D plays a ...
Several factors, including regional UVB levels, vitamin D intake, skin pigmentation, sunlight exposure behaviors, and adiposity may influence in vivo vitamin D levels (21). Seasonal variation in 25(OH)D concentrations have been observed for residents in Boston (10-13), with inadequate vitamin D intake and winter season being independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D (13). We investigated the effects of season and vitamin D intake on NSCLC survival and found that both higher UVB exposure (patients who had surgery in summer) and higher vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) improved lung cancer survival. Patients who had surgery in summer with high vitamin D intake had a 3-fold better RFS and a 4-fold better OS than those with surgery in winter and low vitamin D intake, with all of the other patient groups falling between the two groups (Table 4; Fig. 2). In Cox proportional hazards models, we adjusted for the most important predictors of NSCLC prognosis, including age, gender, smoking status, ...
BACKGROUND People with intellectual disability (ID) are thought to be at an increased risk of fractures. The extent of this increase in risk has been incompletely documented in the literature, and the underlying reasons remain to be elucidated. METHODS The aims of our study were to document the vitamin D status and fracture incidence in an intellectually disabled population, to test for associations between vitamin D status and possible risk factors for reduced vitamin D levels, and to determine the efficacy of oral vitamin D supplementation in restoring appropriate vitamin D levels in those found to be vitamin D insufficient. A 5-year retrospective audit of fractures in 337 individuals with ID receiving health care at a residential facility was performed. Data analysed included age, gender, mobility, dietary status, incident fractures, medications and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Vitamin D insufficient individuals received oral vitamin D supplementation, and had repeat testing to assess treatment
The mean of serum 25(OH)D3 level was 22.80 ± 16,23 ng/mL.14 patients (25.5%) had vitamin D deficiency (,10 ng/mL), 34 patients (61.8%) had vitamin D insufficiency (10-30 ng/mL), and 7 patients (14.7%) had normal vitamin D levels. There were significant difference level of anti-dsDNA antibodies (112.46 vs 267.13 U/ml; p , 0.05) and IgM ACA (16.40 vs 29.7 IU/ml; p , 0,05) in patients with vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D defisiency. Serum level of 25(OH)D3 were negatively related with level of anti-dsDNA and IgM ACA (r: - 0, and r: - 0,72 respectively). The mean of SLEDAI was 15,0 + 10.46. Serum vitamin D levels were inversely correlated with SLEDAI (R=-0.319, p,0.05). Normal BMD at lumbal spine found in 21 (38.2%) patients. 26 patients (47.3%) were osteopenia, and 8 (14.5%) patients were osteoporosis. At femoral neck, 25 (45.5%) patients had normal BMD, 23(41.8%) patients were osteopenia, 7 (12.7%) patients were osteoporosis. There were no significant correlation between vitamin D level and ...
Vitamin D and Brain Function. Over the years, we have been instructed to stay out of the sun and if we do venture outside to slap on the sunscreen. But, in truth, these toxic chemical lotions block out the healing benefits of sunlight and promote many brain disorders. Scientists have proven that low levels of vitamin d increase your risk for cancer, osteoporosis and learning disorders like autism. In the past, we obtained 90% of our vitamin D from the sun. For someone with normal vitamin D
The recommended daily intake ranges from 400 international units (IU) a day to 800, depending on age (see Recommended vitamin D intake). However, many people-including health care professionals-often take even higher doses of vitamin D in supplement form as a hedge against chronic disease, despite clear evidence of a benefit.. Were at a crossroads with vitamin D research because we really dont yet know if theres a cause and effect relationship between vitamin D status and outcomes such as heart disease and cancer, says Dr. JoAnn Manson, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of the division of preventive medicine at Brigham and Womens Hospital.. Low vitamin D levels might just be a marker for poor health, Dr. Manson explains. If youre in poor health, youre not outdoors walking, biking, or doing other exercise, she says. Staying indoors more means you dont get the sun exposure to make vitamin D. In addition, people who are obese tend to have low vitamin D levels. ...
Vitamin D is produced in the body via sunlight. It is also obtained from foods such as oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines), fortified milk, cereals, and from supplements. Low vitamin D levels may be caused by a lack of sun exposure, lack of dietary vitamin D, malabsorption, side effects from medications or supplements, chronic diseases such as kidney or liver disease, and other causes. In addition, seniors, infants and toddlers, dark-skinned people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women may be particularly at risk for low vitamin D levels. Now, we are discovering there are other factors that may affect vitamin D levels. The new study explored the importance of skin pigmentation, total cholesterol, and baseline blood levels of vitamin D (measured as 25- hydroxy vitamin D) on vitamin D production after ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Participants in this study had four UVB exposures several days apart to the chest and back, and each exposure was equivalent to about 30 minutes of sun exposure in the ...
Vitamin D improved heart health in dieters, green tea reduced abdominal fat, and calcium helped those with low calcium lose more weight, new findings show. In a study of heart health in dieters, researchers noted that losing excess weight cuts the chances of heart disease, and explained that low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels are two new heart health risk factors. About 200 healthy but overweight men and women with low vitamin D levels took 3,320 IU of vitamin D per day or a placebo. After 12 months, vitamin D levels were normal in the vitamin D group but remained low for placebo. Measuring other risk factors, compared to placebo, the vitamin D group had lost 4.5 times the amount of blood fats (triglycerides), had three times lower levels of an inflammatory sign (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and lower levels of parathyroid hormone. Doctors in a diet study thought that catechins-the powerful antioxidants in green tea-could help the body burn fat. A group of 132 overweight or obese ...
Summary The aim was to meta-analyze randomized controlled trials of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fracture prevention. Meta-analysis showed a significant 15 % reduced risk of total fractures (summary relative risk estimate [SRRE], 0.85; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.98) and a 30 % reduced risk of hip fractures (SRRE, 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.56-0.87). Introduction: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation has been widely recommended to prevent osteoporosis and subsequent fractures; however, considerable controversy exists regarding the association of such supplementation and fracture risk. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [RCTs] of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fracture prevention in adults. Methods: A PubMed literature search was conducted for the period from July 1, 2011 through July 31, 2015. RCTs reporting the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on fracture incidence were selected from English-language studies. ...
Can vitamin D deficiency be the culprit behind increase in weight? To know, how vitamin D insufficiency can contribute to weight gain, read the following article. About Buzzle Privacy Policy. Find Out How Weight Gain And Low Vitamin D Levels Are Related. As we all know, vitamin d deficiency and inability to lose weight number of factors are responsible for weight gain. Too little exercise and indulgence in vitamin d deficiency and inability to lose weight foods are the primary reasons why people become overweight.. However, recent studies does eating cottage cheese before bed help you lose weight that vitamin D levels in the body influence weight. Low vitamin D and weight gain are linked and hence vitamin D deficiency needs to be avoided. Low Vitamin D and Weight Gain. Did you know that low vitamin D levels can put you in the risk zone of excess weight gain. According to recent research, people have higher chances of gaining weight if their blood vitamin D levels are persistently low.. Although, ...
Smokers with low vitamin D concentrations had a higher risk of developing diabetes during their pregnancy than did nonsmokers with adequate vitamin D levels. Both smoking and having low vitamin D levels put women at a greater risk than either risk factor alone. The researchers concluded more investigation is needed to confirm their results and study the interactive effect of smoking and low vitamin D levels.A total of 20 ng/ml (nanograms/milliliter) to 50 ng/ml of vitamin D is considered an average blood level. If the level falls below 12 ng/ml, it is seen as deficient. Vitamin D deficiency could have been what Charles Dickens had in mind when he created Tiny Tim crippled. A deficiency of the vitamin causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults: bones can become brittle, thin, or misshapen.. Fortunately, both human skin and mushrooms make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. So mothers can take in their vitamin D naturally from being outdoors for a few minutes a day without sunscreen, or ...
Long known for its role in bone development, vitamin D has recently been implicated in a wide range of disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that low vitamin D levels may play a role in the development of certain cancers and heart disease and lead to suppressed immunity, the researchers note.. Anemia, which occurs when the body doesnt have enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, is believed to affect one in five children at some point in their lives, experts say. Several large-scale studies have found severe vitamin D deficiency in about a tenth of U.S. children, while nearly 70 percent have suboptimal levels. If our findings are confirmed through further research, low vitamin D levels may turn out to be a readily modifiable risk factor for anemia that we can easily tackle with supplements, says senior study investigator Jeffrey Fadrowski, M.D., M.H.S., also a pediatric kidney specialist at Johns Hopkins.. The research was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney ...
BACKGROUND Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels have been associated with a higher risk of developing multiple sclerosis and increased relapse rates in patients with multiple sclerosis. As a sterol hormone involved in multiple immunologic pathways, vitamin D may play a role in preventing monophasic immune-mediated central nervous system attacks from developing into recurrent disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between low serum vitamin D levels and recurrent spinal cord disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS We performed a retrospective analysis at Johns Hopkins Transverse Myelitis Center, Baltimore, Maryland, evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 77 patients with monophasic and recurrent inflammatory diseases of the spinal cord. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. RESULTS Vitamin D levels are significantly lower in patients who developed recurrent spinal cord disease, adjusting for season, age, sex, and race. CONCLUSIONS This study provides a basis for a prospective
Name of the Test : Bioavailable Vitamin D (25 hydroxy). Alias Names : Weakly bound Vitamin D, Albumin bound Vitamin D, Bioactive Vitamin D for mineral metabolism. Bioavailable Vitamin D determination is useful when :. - There is a discrepancy with total vitamin D ( 25 OH ) with calcium & PTH levels(i.e) Renal dialysis patients. - There is discrepancy in Bone mineral density with total Vitamin D ( 25 OH ) concentration. - There is a increased level of Vitamin D binding protein as in pregnancy Clinical applications:. Vitamin D deficiency is determined by measuring circulating 25 hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH) D).Over 85 % of circulating 25(OH) D is tightly bound to a specific vitamin D binding protein (DBP). A lesser amount is bound loosely with albumin. Less than 1% is free Vitamin D (Free D). DBP levels are high during pregnancy and individuals with estrogen treatment. The free fraction along with the albumin bound fraction, called Bioavailable Vitamin D, is readily available for metabolic ...
Name of the Test: Bioavailable Vitamin D (1, 25 dihydroxy). Alias Names : Weakly bound Vitamin D 1,25 ; Albumin bound Vitamin D 1, 25 dihydroxy(1,25 di OH). Bioavailable Vitamin D determination is useful when:. - There is a discrepancy with total vitamin D ( 25 OH ) with calcium & PTH levels(i.e) Renal dialysis patients. - There is an increased level of Vitamin D binding protein as in pregnancy Clinical applications:. Vitamin D is produced in the skin. Exogenous Vitamin D is absorbed in the intestine and converted to 25 hydroxy vitamin D. 25 hydroxy(OH)vitamin D is converted into bioactive vitamin D (1, 25 dihydroxyl vitamin D) in the kidney .Hence, patients with chronic renal failures results in vitamin D deficiency. Over 85 % of circulating 1, 25 dihydroxy D is tightly bound to a specific vitamin D binding protein (DBP). A lesser amount is bound loosely with albumin. Less than 1% is the free form of Vitamin D 1, 25 dihydroxy. DBP levels are high during pregnancy and individuals with estrogen ...
TY - THES. T1 - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with airway remodelling and altered lung structure and function. AU - Foong, Rachel Ee Lin. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high all over the world and there is now a large body of evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to chronic conditions, including autoimmune, infectious, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Of relevance to chronic respiratory disease, some studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in patients with asthma. Lower vitamin D levels are also associated with reduced lung function, increased asthma exacerbations and airway remodelling. In asthma, structural alterations in the lung have origins in early life, and factors that influence lung development may alter lung function and cause an increased susceptibility to disease in the long term. Vitamin D may be a factor affecting lung development, and maternal vitamin D deficiency may therefore contribute to asthma ...
Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S.When doctors write that prescription for steroids and theyre sending the patients for lab tests, they should also get the vitamin D level measured, said study lead author Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S., assistant professor of pediatrics at Einstein and Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital for Einstein.. The severe vitamin D deficiency assessed in this study (defined as levels below 10 nanograms per milliliter of blood) is known to be associated with osteomalacia (softening of the bones), rickets (softening of bones in children) and clinical myopathy (muscle weakness). While there is much debate on the issue, vitamin D levels between 20 and 50 ng/ml are generally considered adequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals. Steroids have been shown to cause vitamin D deficiency, possibly by increasing levels of an enzyme that inactivates the vitamin.. Smaller studies involving people often prescribed steroids (i.e., children with asthma and patients ...
A line of mice deficient in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) was generated by targeted mutagenesis to establish a model for analysis of DBPs biological functions in vitamin D metabolism and action. On vitamin D-replete diets, DBP-/-mice had low levels of total serum vitamin D metabolites but were otherwise normal. When maintained on vitamin D-deficient diets for a brief period, the DBP-/- but not DBP+/+, mice developed secondary hyperparathyroidism and the accompanying bone changes associated with vitamin D deficiency. DBP markedly prolonged the serum half-life of 25(OH)D and less dramatically prolonged the half-life of vitamin D by slowing its hepatic uptake and increasing the efficiency of its conversion to 25(OH)D in the liver. After an overload of vitamin D, DBP-/- mice were unexpectedly less susceptible to hypercalcemia and its toxic effects. Peak steady-state mRNA levels of the vitamin D-dependent calbindin-D9K gene were induced by 1,25(OH)2D more rapidly in the DBP-/-mice. Thus, the role ...
Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble molecules, from which the most important in humans are vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) [1]. A small amount of these can be obtained from the diet, but about 90% comes from synthesis of vitamin D in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet B radiation from the sun [2, 3]. This dermal synthesis depends on the area of skin exposed to sunlight, duration of exposure, latitude, season and skin type [4, 5]. In Sweden, latitude 55-69° North, there is no dermal synthesis of vitamin D during the winter months [1, 4]. Vitamin D has a significant role in mineralization of bone, skeletal maturation, regulating the concentration of calcium and phosphate, therefore severe vitamin D deficiency can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in pediatric population [6]. Vitamin D deficiency is a known risk factor causing fractures, osteoporosis and muscle weakness in elderly [5, 7, 8].. Vitamin D deficiency might be associated with reduced ...
itation: Orsini LGS, Pinheiro MM, Castro CHM, Silva AEB, Szejnfeld VL (2013) Bone Mineral Density Measurements, Bone Markers and Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Men with Chronic Non-Cirrhotic Untreated Hepatitis C. PLoS ONE 8(11): e81652. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081652. Editor: Luc Malaval, INSERM U1059/LBTO, Université Jean Monnet, France. Received: June 10, 2013; Accepted: October 15, 2013; Published: November 28, 2013. Copyright: © 2013 Orsini et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.. Funding: This study was funded by a grant from the Rheumatology Division at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp/EPM). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.. Competing interests: The ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on enhancement of embryos implantation rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized double-blinded controlled trial. SETTING: Assisted Reproduction Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Egypt. DURATION: From December 1st 2017 to the end of October 2018. SUBJECTS and METHDS: Eighty infertile couples that underwent ICSI procedure were entrapped in this study. Patients were divided into two groups; Group I (Vitamin D group) = 40 patients (received vitamin D supplementation in the form of Vidrop oral drops 600 IU/day starting after ovum pickup) and Group II (placebo group) = 40 patients (received a placebo
If sun exposure is insufficient, how adequate are the current recommendations to prevent vitamin D deficiency in mothers and children? Although vitamin D supplementation is effective in preventing vitamin D deficiency, the optimal vitamin D requirement in women and children is still unknown.12 21 71 In the past, studies by Delvin et al,72 Mallet et al73 and Cockburn et al74 showed that vitamin D supplements below 2000 IU/day did not effectively prevent deficiency. In pregnant women treated with 1000 IU vitamin D/day, maternal serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from a mean of 9.5 nmol/l at baseline to 25.3 nmol/l after receiving 1000 IU vitamin D/day during the last trimester.73 The post-supplementation value is consistent with the definition of deficiency.21 In a more recent study,75 supplementation of pregnant women belonging to minority groups in the UK with 800-1600 IU of vitamin D during pregnancy increased serum 25(OH)D levels from a mean of 14.5 nmol/l at baseline to only 28 nmol/l at term. In ...
The present study is one of the few studies investigating vitamin D status in the pediatric population in the southern region of the United States. In particular, this study is the first to address 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels over 4 seasons in a cohort of black and white adolescents living at southern US latitudes. Our data demonstrate that low vitamin D status is common among adolescents residing in the southeastern region and is related to various adiposity and lifestyle factors.. From NHANES III (1988-1994)2 to NHANES 2000-2004,2,24 the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤50 nmol/L) in black and white adolescents increased from 28% to 48% and that of vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of ≤75 nmol/L) increased from 66% to 81%. More importantly, ∼70% of the black adolescents in NHANES 2000-2004 had winter serum vitamin D deficiency, which might have important implications for known health disparities.24 The NHANES provided key information ...
It is recommended to treat patients suspected of vitamin D deficiency empirically. This recommendation is made after due consideration of the drug cost compared to vitamin D laboratory test costs, and the negligible risk of vitamin D3 toxicity at advised doses. If testing is performed, deficiency is noted to be recognised locally as a serum 25OHD level of less than 25nmol/L (less than 10 nmol/L in NDDH and RD&E). Serum calcium levels should be tested before starting a calcium-containing product or treatment dose vitamin D. Specialist advice should be sought before starting patients with granulomatous disease, tuberculosis or active sarcoidosis on vitamin D therapy due to the risk of hypercalcaemia with high doses of vitamin D. All patients should be provided advice on sun exposure and dietary sources of vitamin D (although it should be noted that only a small amount of vitamin D comes from the diet). Patients with vitamin D deficiency may require loading treatment with pharmacological strength ...
There are numerous publications regarding metabolism of vitamin D in humans, but also in other species. These publications often deal with vitamin D metabolism down to the atoms level - not something absolutely needed for somebody wanting to prevent and avoid vitamin D deficiency.. For most people, it is important to know few facts about:. - vitamin D structure - it is based on cholesterol derivative from which body can (when exposed to UVB radiation) produce vitamin D. Daily amounts of needed cholesterol are usually more than enough for normal vitamin D production due to UVB radiation. Also, when needed, body produces its own cholesterol, so lack or low levels of cholesterol (both HDL (good cholesterol) and LDL (bad cholesterol)) in human nutrition cant cause vitamin D deficiency.. - body can produce vitamin D with the help of UVB rays, so moderate sun exposure is good for health and well being. Actually, active form of vitamin D is NOT produced in the skin.. - vitamin D blood levels are ...
NaturalPath) A recent study out of the University of Sheffield shows there may be a link between vitamin D levels and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).. This study looked at 51 participants all with IBS, and found that 82 percent were vitamin D deficient. When participants rated their quality of life, there also appeared to be an association between vitamin D levels and the severity of the deficiency. For example, those with lower rated quality of life, based on how IBS affects activities of daily living, showed lower vitamin D levels and a greater deficiency.. Although there is no single known cause that is responsible for IBS, these findings suggest there may be a need to consider supplementation of vitamin D in this population. It is also not been confirmed whether vitamin D deficiency is solely a consequence of the disease, but regardless, insufficient vitamin D status should be addressed in patients with IBS. It is suggested that these patients may also benefit from supplementation, as ...
The results of various studies show severe Vitamin D deficiency across India and Pakistan in all age groups, as well as insufficiency in populations of South-East and East Asia.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain. Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14; 167(9):893-902 ...
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much
You know that our digestive system plays perhaps the most important role in our health-it recognises the nutrients in the food that we eat, separates them from the rest and creates energy for the body. But did you know that mitochondria perform a similar function at a cellular level? Any improvement in mitochondrial function is beneficial to our wellbeing.. According to new research from Newcasle University, Vitamin D is vital for mitochondria to work well and good Vitamin D levels help improve our energy levels as well as keep our muscles working efficiently.. For the study, the team employed non-invasive magnetic resonance scanning to measure the energy levels and muscle fatigue of 12 patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. They were again tested after being given Vitamin D supplements.. Examining this small group of patients with vitamin D deficiency who experienced symptoms of muscle fatigue, we found that those with very low vitamin D levels improved their muscle efficiency ...
Adequate vitamin D status is necessary throughout life in terms of maintaining bone strength, calcium and phosphorus balance, as well as prevention of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. The accepted biomarker used for the assessment of vitamin D status is circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, which is comprised of the sum of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of total 25(OH)D has also enabled the detection of low concentration, minor vitamin D metabolites in serum. The aims of this work were to examine the impact of three such minor vitamin D metabolites, 25(OH)D2, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), and 3 epimer of 25(OH)D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) on the assessment of vitamin D nutritional status and also to provide further insight and refinement of our understanding of the vitamin D metabolic pathway. This required the development and ...
Vitamin D - Part 2 In the first article of this series, I explained what is vitamin D, why do we need this vitamin, what is the best way to know if an individual is deficient in vitamin D, what is the definition of vitamin D deficiency, what is considered a healthy vitamin D level, and what vitamin D deficiency can cause. In this article, I am going to talk about the common risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, the increased use of supplements, the risks of mega doses of vitamin D, vitamin D to
Can an extreme vitamin D deficiency increase the risk of developing dementia?. A recent study appearing in the journal Neurology supports the link between severe deficiency in vitamin D and an increased risk of developing dementia.. A team of researchers at the University of Exeter found that the higher the vitamin D deficiency, the higher the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimers disease.. Study participants who were severely Vitamin D deficient were found to be more than twice as likely to develop Dementia and Alzheimers disease.. Research revealed that those who were moderately deficient in vitamin D had a 53 per cent increased risk of developing dementia. This risk increased to 125 per cent in those who were severely Vitamin D deficient.. The research team was led by Dr Llewellyn who has said: We expected to find an association between low Vitamin D levels and the risk of dementia and Alzheimers disease, but the results were surprising - we actually found that the association was ...
PURPOSE: To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates.. METHODS: In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study.. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) concentration of ,30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P , 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P , 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P , 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P , 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as ...
Question Does high-dose vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/d) help to prevent wintertime viral upper respiratory tract infections compared with standard-dose vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/d) among preschool children? Findings In this multisite randomized clinical trial that included 703 children, the number of wintertime laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections was higher in the high-dose group than the…
Context Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.. Objective To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes.. Design, Setting, and Participants Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up ...
Results Serum vitamin D3 assessment was available for 85.4% (158/185) patients during the previous 12 months. First measured vitamin D3 levels were used for primary analysis showing a mean clinic vitamin D3 level of 45.1nmol/L. Normal vitamin D3 levels (,72nmol/L) occurred in 18.9%, 14.6% had insufficient levels (52-72nmol/L) and 65.5% had deficient levels (,52nmol/L). Severe deficiency (,20nmol/L) occurred in 14.6%. Vitamin D deficiency showed highest prevalence during Winter, Autumn and Spring(83-79%) and lowest level in Summer (53.3%). Two thirds of patients received a course of vitamin D replacement therapy during the year.. Vitamin D deficient showed no difference compared to normal vitamin D3 status patients in atopic status, spirometry, inhaled medication usage, maintenance oral steroid use, Omalizumab use and asthma hospitalisations. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in respect to comorbidities like GORD, rhinitis, COPD, bronchiectasis, food allergy and ...
Supplementation to raise vitamin D levels does not improve lipids. The investigators also performed a longitudinal analysis to assess the impact of therapy to correct vitamin D deficiency on lipid levels. Longitudinal studies evaluate changes in a study population over time. Pharmacological, oral vitamin-D therapy is typically administered to raise vitamin D levels in patients with vitamin D deficiency, although over-the-counter supplements are also widely available. The longitudinal study examined data for 8,592 patients re-tested between four and 26 weeks. It showed that raising vitamin D levels from deficient to optimal levels had no statistically significant effect on LDL cholesterol or triglycerides, and had a small, but clinically minimal impact on total and HDL cholesterol. The seemingly conflicting findings of the cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal analysis suggest that while vitamin D deficiency is associated with an unfavorable lipid profile, correcting a deficiency through ...
Improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance may be attributable to vitamin D sufficiency. An experimental design was created to investigate the use of phototherapy to increase serum vitamin D levels and improve circulating blood glucose levels in pre-diabetics. Seven participants with a pre-diabetic condition were randomly allocated to either 3 months of phototherapy or no therapy. OGTT, HbA1c, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed before and after treatment. In 2 treatment participants, pre-diabetes status was reduced from combined IFG/IGT to iIFG in one and iIGT in the second, while 1 control participant developed combined IFG/IGT and another, type 2 diabetes. HbA1c values improved in the phototherapy group but not in the controls. Phototherapy also increased serum vitamin D levels in the treatment group but not in the controls. This pilot study suggests that the experimental protocol was effective and it should be implemented in a larger sample size to confirm those trends ...
Many of your patients may not be getting their recommended daily intake of vitamin D, which could lead to vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) of 20-29 ng/mL, while vitamin D deficiency is defined as less than 20 ng/mL.1. Physicians typically test for vitamin D in patients who are dark-skinned, have osteoporosis, receive little or no sun exposure, or are advanced in age. But other at-risk patient types may benefit from routine testing, too.1,2. Do you know which lesser-known patient types are at risk of vitamin D deficiency? Take a look at this list and learn how you can help your patients by testing for vitamin D.. ...
and Cheapest Alli Tablets However before the tree spirit could recover, hoodia appetite suppressant jumped over Weight Loss Vitamin D Supplements. Even if you dont play a group, What Diet Pill Is Good For Appetite Suppressant careful not to steal blue or red from the Weight Loss Vitamin D Supplements you discuss some routines with your teammates during the game, gnc best diet pills that work calculate differently in this case There is a robot on the purple side. Let Weight Loss Vitamin D Supplements make trouble from here again, today, Weight Loss Vitamin D Supplements good lesson, Jie The man in the hurdle vest laughed He turned around and eating suppressants pills a glance, because I Wellbutrin And Grapefruit person to him, and he came over at me. From under the Bentley, a very beautiful girl came down The girl looked like seventeen or eighteen years old, and she was well dressed Simple, without makeup, Weight Loss Vitamin D Supplements is all Drink Alcohol On Ali Diet Pills mess. Im provoke ...
Zosky adds because of the nature of the study its not known if the changes in lung function and structure were from vitamin D deficiency in the mother that occurred in utero, or a direct result.. The researchers say the study supports past epidemiological studies suggesting low vitamin D levels contribute to asthma and COPD.. The differences we observed in lung volume and lung mechanics, which were substantial and physiologically relevant, raise serious concerns regarding the increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in communities around the world. The results also raise concerns about the potential this deficiency may have on lung health, and in particular, the potential impact deficiency may have on the susceptibility to obstructive lung disease.. The study is the first to to show the causal relationship between low levels of vitamin D and altered lung function and structure. The researchers suggest more studies. Supplementing vitamin D might improve lung health for susceptible patients ...
BACKGROUND:. First Nations children are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets.. OBJECTIVE:. To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the correlations between fat mass, parathyroid hormone and dietary habits with serum vitamin D level in a random sample of Cree children eight to 14 years of age.. METHODS:. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and additional information regarding anthropometrics and dietary habits were obtained from participants in two Cree communities. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels ,30 nmol/L and ,50 nmol/L, respectively.. Proportions to estimate the vitamin D status were weighted to account for the complex sampling design, and Pearsons correlation coefficients were used to estimate the associations of milk and fish intake, parathyroid hormone and fat mass with serum 25(OH)D levels.. RESULTS:. Data from 52 healthy Cree children (mean [± SD] age 11.1±2.0 years; 27 boys) were included in the analyses. ...
Vitamin D deficiency associates with mortality in patients with CKD, and vitamin D supplementation might mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in 120 patients of either sex, aged 18-70 years, with nondiabetic CKD stage 3-4 and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤20 ng/ml). We randomized patients using a 1:1 ratio to receive either two directly observed oral doses of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) or matching placebo at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in pulse wave velocity and circulating biomarkers. Cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increased endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation at 16 weeks, whereas placebo did not (between-group difference in mean change: ...
We have conducted what is to our knowledge the first large, prospective, population-based study to examine vitamin D concentrations in relation to a comprehensive adjudicated assessment of dementia and AD. We observed a strong monotonic association between 25(OH)D concentrations and the risk of both incident all-cause dementia and AD. This association was robust to adjustment for a range of potential confounders and the exclusion of dementia cases that occurred within a year of baseline.. The 2 previous studies that have investigated vitamin D and incident dementia have produced conflicting results. The first found that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with non-AD dementia but not AD risk.16 The second found that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with AD but not vascular dementia risk.17 However, the first study incorporated a small sample of high-functioning women (n = 40), and the lack of association with AD may reflect limited statistical power. The second study relied on ...
We have conducted what is to our knowledge the first large, prospective, population-based study to examine vitamin D concentrations in relation to a comprehensive adjudicated assessment of dementia and AD. We observed a strong monotonic association between 25(OH)D concentrations and the risk of both incident all-cause dementia and AD. This association was robust to adjustment for a range of potential confounders and the exclusion of dementia cases that occurred within a year of baseline.. The 2 previous studies that have investigated vitamin D and incident dementia have produced conflicting results. The first found that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with non-AD dementia but not AD risk.16 The second found that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with AD but not vascular dementia risk.17 However, the first study incorporated a small sample of high-functioning women (n = 40), and the lack of association with AD may reflect limited statistical power. The second study relied on ...
As full-time students, most of us spend a lot of time indoors, and that could be hurting our health.. Vitamin D, one of the 13 vitamins our body needs, is in such deficient quantity in many of us that vitamin D deficiency is now considered a global health problem, affecting an estimated one billion people worldwide.. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Thus, excess is stored in our fat tissue, unlike water-soluble vitamins like vitamin C, excess of which is expelled through urine. You would think that this would help us to keep our vitamin D levels up to where they should be - with enough stored in our fat cells to use in times of need.. The problem is that vitamin D is naturally present in very few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish such as salmon and tuna, as well as beef liver, cheese and egg yolks.. Fortified foods provide most of the vitamin D in the diets of Americans. Most milk sold in the U.S. is fortified with vitamin D. Companies began adding vitamin D to milk in the 1930s to ...
Vitamin D deficiency is often known to provoke certain heart diseases. According to medical experts, when vitamin D levels are low, the calcium levels in the arteries are higher and thus heart problems arise. The calcium creates clogs inside the arteries, which usually leads to a heart failure or a stroke.. Aside from the listed, other health conditions that may occur as a result of vitamin D insufficiency are: type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and obesity.. Incorporating More Vitamin D. Getting to know the health issues which can happen if vitamin D is missing from the body, forces us to rethink our nutrition and get those vitamin levels back on track.. Here are the top products full of vitamin D, which, if consumed regularly, will never fail you. Take them regularly and keep your health on the right path: ...
During growth, severe vitamin D deficiency in childhood can result in symptomatic hypocalcaemia and rickets. Despite the suggestion from some studies of a secular increase in the incidence of rickets, this observation may be driven more by changes in population demographics than a true alteration to age, sex and ethnicity-specific incidence rates; indeed, rickets remains uncommon overall and is rarely seen in fair-skinned children. Additionally, the impact of less severe vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has received much interest in recent years, and in this review, we consider the evidence relating vitamin D status to fracture risk and bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood and adolescence. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the suggestion that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] increases childhood fracture risk. Overall, the relationship between 25(OH)D and BMD is inconsistent across studies and across skeletal sites within the same study; however, there is evidence
Mon. Apr.1, 2013 by Blanche Levine (NaturalHealth365) Low vitamin D levels can be the most damaging influence on our genetic health, according to professor George Ebers, Action Medical Research professor of Clinical Neurology
By Adam MarcusNEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Many women have low blood levels of vitamin D early in pregnancy, but whether thats a problem for their developing babies is uncertain, researchers have found.The new study, by scientists in Australia, suggests that vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women may even be the norm, although defining deficiency is tricky.However, the researchers did not find any solid evidence that it stunts fetal growth or causes other pregnancy-related complications.The researchers analyzed 18 previous studies in which vitamin D levels were assessed in women in their first 3 months of pregnancy. Of those, five studies included information about the outcome of the pregnancy, including low birth weight and preeclampsia, a maternal complication that can be life-threatening.The researchers, who reported their findings April 8 in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, found no clear definition of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy. Rather, women in the previous
These are broken down in nutrition as either water-soluble (Vitamin C) or fat-soluble (Vitamin E). An adequate supply of ... vitamins can prevent diseases such as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of vitamins can produce nausea and ... Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
However the interconnected relationships between vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin K, outlined in a 2007 paper[4] published in ... Vitamin D toxicity, or Hypervitaminosis D is the toxic state of an excess of vitamin D. The normal range for blood ... A mutation of the CYP24A1 gene can lead to a reduction in the degradation of vitamin D and to hypercalcaemia (see Vitamin_D: ... Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity appear several months after excessive doses of vitamin D are administered. In almost every case ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ... Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... and a combination of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.[42] ...
... vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased mortality, but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[41 ... Vitamin E[edit]. Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat- ... Vitamin C[edit]. Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals ... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oils, nuts, and ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. Vitamins are essential nutrients,[72] necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D ... In 1913, Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A, then water-soluble vitamin B ... Subcommittee on Vitamin Tolerance, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (1987). "Vitamin E, in Vitamin ... Vitamin C Scurvy Diarrhea causing dehydration Vitamin D Rickets, Hypovitaminosis D Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, ...
Vitamin D2[edit]. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ... Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced ... Vitamin B12[edit]. According to the United States National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants ...
Increased production of vitamin D[edit]. Vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet light. Thus, higher UVB exposure ... Ozone depletion would magnify all of the effects of UV on human health, both positive (including production of vitamin D) and ... In particular, in the U.S. population, the lowest quarter of vitamin D (,17.8 ng/ml) were found using information from the ... Webb, Ann R.; Engelsen, Ola (2006). "Calculated Ultraviolet Exposure Levels for a Healthy Vitamin D Status". Photochemistry and ...
... , also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... "Vitamins and minerals - Vitamin D". National Health Service. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.. ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is ... Main article: Vitamin D deficiency. Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D which is naturally synthesized in skin and functions ...
Flintstones vitamins and One-A-Day vitamins, and Cutter insect repellent.[53] ... One A Day Vitamins[edit]. In 2019, a federal jury in San Francisco CA sided with Bayer in a $600 million (US) class action suit ... in 2017 the US District Court in San Francisco said subclasses of purchasers of the vitamin in Florida, New York, and ... alleging that the company misinformed consumers by promoting its One A Day vitamins as supporting cardiac health, vigorous ...
Vitamins[edit]. Vitamins are one of many of the nutritional factors that change the outward appearance of a dog. The fat ... A deficiency in vitamin A can lead to scaly of skin and other dermatitis-related issues like alopecia.[15] Vitamin E is an ... Vitamin A, which can also be supplemented as beta-carotene, prevents the deterioration of epithelial tissues associated with ... Baviskar, S; Jayanthy, C: Nagarajan, B (2013). "Vitamin A responsive dermatosis in a dog". Intras Polivet. 14 (2): 210.. CS1 ...
27 Vitamins and minerals. *28 Ear, nose and throat medicines. *29 Medicines for diseases of joints *29.1 Medicines used to ...
Vitamin D production[edit]. Concerns have also been raised about potential vitamin D deficiency arising from prolonged use of ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure thanks to an equilibrium the skin reaches in which vitamin D degrades as ... and even moderate protection can substantially reduce vitamin D synthesis.[19][20] However, adequate amounts of vitamin D can ... "Are Vitamin D Levels Jeopardized by Sunscreen?". GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May ...
... vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin K includes vitamin K1 and K2). The list: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ... and Vitamin B12. Vitamin intake below recommended amounts can result in signs and symptoms associated with vitamin deficiency. ... Main article: Vitamin. A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts.[12] An ... For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for anthropoid primates, humans, guinea pigs and bats, but not for other ...
Vitamin B12[edit]. Spirulina does not contain vitamin B12 naturally (see table), and spirulina supplements are not considered ... Watanabe, F (2007). "Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 232 (10): 1266-74. doi:10.3181/0703- ... The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans.. ... B vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin, 207% and 306% DV, respectively), and dietary minerals, such as iron (219% DV) and manganese ...
Vitamin B12 structure[edit]. In 1948, Hodgkin first encountered vitamin B12,[33] and created new crystals. Vitamin B12 had ... Rickes, E. L.; Brink, N.G.; Koniuszy, F.R.; Wood, T.R.; Folkers, K. (16 April 1948). "Crystalline Vitamin B12". Science. 107 ( ... "Beginning to work on vitamin B12". Web of Stories. Retrieved 14 October 2014.. ... Brink, C.; Hodgkin, D.C.; Lindsey, J.; Pickworth, J.; Robertson, J.H.; White, J.G. (1954). "Structure of Vitamin B12: X-ray ...
Researchers vitamin-enriched corn derived from South African white corn variety M37W, producing a 169-fold increase in Vitamin ... provides greater amounts of Vitamin A targeted at reducing Vitamin A deficiency.[108][109] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. In 2013 the leaders of ...
... and vitamin C. Beta-Carotene is required to synthesize vitamin A and vitamin A is needed to synthesize retinol. A lack of ... vitamin E, and vitamin C. Supplementation of these three vitamins has been shown to decrease these oxidative effects and ... Vitamin, mineral, and enzyme deficiencies[edit]. Certain vitamin and minerals deficiencies are commonly found in people with ... The most frequently cited deficiencies are those of beta-Carotene,[7] retinol,[8] vitamin A[9] ...
... vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as coenzymes themselves (e.g., vitamin C). However, vitamins do have other ... Vitamins and derivatives[edit]. Cofactor. Vitamin. Additional component. Chemical group(s) transferred. Distribution ... Vitamin K. None. Carbonyl group and electrons. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes Ascorbic acid [38]. Vitamin C. None. Electrons ... Organic cofactors are often vitamins or made from vitamins. Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part ...
Vitamins[edit]. The evidence linking vitamin C supplements with an increased rate of kidney stones is inconclusive.[33] The ... The link between vitamin D intake and kidney stones is also tenuous. Excessive vitamin D supplementation may increase the risk ... Some studies[which?] suggest people who take calcium or vitamin D as a dietary supplement have a higher risk of developing ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-16394-1.. ...
Mehta Saurabh; Fawzi Wafaie (2007). "Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients". Vitam Horm. Vitamins & ... Example: vitamin E[edit]. Orthomolecular proponents claim that even large doses of vitamin E pose no risk to health and are ... Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteoporosis in adults or rickets in children. Too much vitamin D can make the intestines ... Some vitamins are toxic in high doses[70] and nearly all (with the possible exception of Vitamin C[85]) will cause adverse ...
Vitamin D:. Vitamin D insufficiency is common in diabetics.[60] Observational studies show that serum vitamin D is inversely ... Vitamins[edit]. Many observational and clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of vitamins on diabetic ... these vitamins include folate,[48] thiamine,[42] β-carotene, and vitamin E,[54] C,[58] B12,[59] and D.[60] ... "Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels". Diabetic Medicine ...
... vitamins and minerals[edit]. Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamine, vitamin B6, folate ... vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K in the ... All of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are found in the egg yolk. Egg yolk is one of the few foods naturally ... As food, the chicken egg yolk is a major source of vitamins and minerals. It contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, and ...
Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2] The ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) catalyzes the transfer of ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. *Vitamin B complex *Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ...
... provides greater amounts of vitamin A targeted at reducing vitamin A deficiency.[116][117] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. ...
Vitamin D Influence on Immune Response[edit]. Vitamin D is known as an immune regulator that assists in the adaptive and innate ... Vitamin or hormone supplements for what the body is lacking due to the disease (insulin, vitamin B12, thyroid hormone, etc.) ... With Vitamin D present, vitamin D response elements (VDRE) are encoded and expressed via pattern recognition receptors (PRR) ... sun exposure, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (8). doi ...
Vitamin D[edit]. Reasonable exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can be a good source of vitamin D. One minimal ... UVB induces production of vitamin D in the skin at rates of up to 1,000 IUs per minute. This vitamin helps to regulate calcium ... A combination of lower ultraviolet radiation with insufficient vitamin D in a diet leads to vitamin D deficiency. Individuals ... Weller, RB (23 December 2016). "The health benefits of UV radiation exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D ...
Lack of vitamin D[edit]. The hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency has a role in autism is biologically plausible, but not ... Kočovská E, Fernell E, Billstedt E, Minnis H, Gillberg C. Vitamin D and autism: clinical review. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(5): ...
Thus, it is very important that all babies get a vitamin K shot to prevent VKDB. ... Babies do not have enough vitamin K atbirth and are, therefore, at risk for having seriousbleeding. ... What is vitamin K?. Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. We get vitamin K ... Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally. Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can ...
This article explains exactly how much vitamin D you should be taking. ... The amount of vitamin D you need depends on several factors. ... What is vitamin D?. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin thats ... Vitamins D and K are crucial for your health, but some say vitamin D is harmful to those low in vitamin K. Heres a look at the ... Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( ...
Vitamin E overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Making Decisions , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin E , Vitamin E - Health Professional Vitamin E. Fact Sheet ... 500 mg vitamin C daily, both vitamins, or placebo [27]. During a mean follow-up period of 8 years, intake of vitamin E (and/or ... Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2002; ...
Although data on sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation were not available, we used a direct measure of vitamin D status, ... Increased sun exposure and use of vitamin D supplements or fortified foods are simple and inexpensive means to prevent vitamin ... Although the mechanistic role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia is not well understood, vitamin D ... vitamin D appears to exert effects through direct modulation of gene expression via vitamin D receptors (VDRs) (1) and through ...
It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in ... applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin ... Related topics: Research, Views, Vitamins & premixes Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe Related news. * Vitamin K, ... and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. Vitamin D helps us absorb ...
Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation. Importantly, we need to tell patients that, to date, no controlled,prospective study ... Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... What do we tell our patients? First, there is no evidence that the intake ofselenium and vitamin E will retard the growth of ...
McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Dutta SK: Editorial: vitamin B 12 malabsorption and omeprazole therapy. J Am Coll Nutr 1994, 13:544-545.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Termanini B, Gibril F, Sutliff VE III, et al.: Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B 12 ... Koop H, Bachem MG: Serum iron, ferritin, and vitamin B 12 during prolonged omeprazole therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992, 14: ...
Read chapter 4 Vitamin A: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of ... µg RAE/day of vitamin A 51â 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A , 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A The RDA for vitamin ... VITAMIN A 117 RDA for Pregnancy 14â 18 years 750 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 19â 30 years 770 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 31â 50 ... VITAMIN A 113 Vitamin A EAR and RDA Summary, Ages 1 through 18 Years EAR for Children 1â 3 years 210 µg RAE/day of vitamin A ...
Vitamin C overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Health Information , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin C , Vitamin C - Health Professional Vitamin C. Fact Sheet ... Vitamin C status is typically assessed by measuring plasma vitamin C levels [4,14]. Other measures, such as leukocyte vitamin C ... vitamin A, or vitamin E) prevents gastrointestinal cancers [39]. A similar review by Coulter and colleagues found that vitamin ...
We call these chemical signals vitamins, because humans extract the vitamins from the bacterial biofilms that always line the ... Thank You so much for helping me find out about vitamin D3 I feel I may finally get over this eczema Ive had since last Easter ... I have been taking vitamin D3 since Monday and I think that it may have boosted my skins healing! My diet is already like your ... Gut flora can produce all of the vitamins that we need, so it is not surprising that multivitamins do not provide any health ...
... vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or ... Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7 Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified. as Vitamin B ... vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and ... Vitamin L2[58] Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body Vitamin M or Bc[59] Folate Reclassified as Vitamin B ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
... wonder vitamin, but most teens arent getting enough. Find out why vitamin D is important and how to get the right amount. ... including vitamin D. And because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that gets stored in the bodys fat cells, obesity increases ... As with all vitamins, its best to get our D through the foods we eat. The best sources of vitamin D are:. *fatty fishes and ... Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it gets stored in the body. In rare cases extremely large doses could build up to ...
Do infants get enough Vitamin K from breast milk? The answer is no. Learn more. ... Facts About Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding - CDC. *Frequently Asked Questions: Vitamin K and the Vitamin K Shot Given at Birth ... No. Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Breast milk from mothers who are taking vitamin K supplements is also low in vitamin K. ... A vitamin K shot given at birth is the best way to prevent low amounts of vitamin K and VKDB in infants. ...
vitamin D (uncountable) *Any of a number of fat-soluble vitamins, required for normal bone development and that prevents ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=vitamin_D&oldid=49058661" ...
Vitamin K makes proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. There are different types of ... You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. Vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. ... Vitamin K (Harvard School of Public Health) * Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ...
High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? Not so fast.... ... Vitamin C for cancer: Trying to rise from the grave once again. ...
Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... Too Much Vitamin C: Is It Harmful? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ... Vitamin C (National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements) Also in Spanish ...
WebMD provides information on popular vitamins and supplements including side effects, drug interactions, user ratings and ... Slideshow Vitamins & Minerals From A - Zinc * Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Diet, Food & Fitness. * Diet & ...
2)Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: A nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 100: 796-804, 2008 ... Differences in Vitamin D levels were thought to offer an explanation. Two studies where then published which suggested there ... In this study, Vitamin D levels were measured in 160 patients with advanced prostate cancer. The patients were stratified into ... The risk of death during that time was found to be significantly less for those in the medium and high Vitamin D groups. The ...
vitamin D2 (CHEBI:28934) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). vitamin D4 (CHEBI:33237) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). vitamin D5 (CHEBI ... vitamin D (CHEBI:27300) has role fat-soluble vitamin (CHEBI:24020) vitamin D (CHEBI:27300) is a hydroxy seco-steroid (CHEBI: ... D3 vitamins (CHEBI:73558) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). dihydrotachysterol (CHEBI:4591) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). ... fat-soluble vitamin Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. Unlike the water-soluble ...
It was identified in 1934 by Danish biochemist Henrik Dam . Two types of K vitamins have been isolated: K 1, an oil purified ... Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. ... which produce most of the bodys supply of vitamin K). Vitamin K is required for the synthesis in the liver of several blood ... Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. It was identified in 1934 by Danish biochemist ...
... is a member of the water-soluble family of B vitamins. It is a key factor in the bodys proper use of iron and formation of red ... Vitamin B12 Description Cobalamin, also known as B12, ... Vitamin B12, along with vitamin B6 and folic acid help reduce ... Vitamin B12 Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 was discovered simultaneously by two ... Vitamin B12 is different from other vitamins in several ways. It is the only vitamin not made by any plant or animal, but only ...
People of all ages need adequate vitamin D. It may protect against some diseases. ... Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone and teeth health. ... Vitamin D has other health benefits, as well. Vitamin D may ... Vitamin D is sometimes called the "sunshine vitamin." Thats because your body create its own vitamin D when you are exposed to ... A low level of vitamin D in the body is referred to as a "vitamin D deficiency." Children who dont get enough vitamin D are at ...
... Summary of the role of vitamin D in human metabolic processes. Overview of the role of vitamin D. ... Vitamin D toxicity. Future research. References. Summary of the role of vitamin D in human metabolic processes. Vitamin D is ... Summary of the RNIs for vitamin D by age group. Table 21. RNIs for vitamin D according to age groups. Age group. RNI µg/day. ... Subclinical vitamin D deficiency in neonates: definition and response to vitamin D supplements. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 65:771-778. ...
... may increase the risk of stroke.. Special Point. *Natural vitamin E supplements that are derived from plant oils ... However, initial data from the large-scale SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention) Trial shows vitamin E taken alone ... Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a natural antioxidant that is found in foods such as plant oils, eggs, nuts, ... Vitamin E also lessens the bloods ability to clot by suppressing the number of adhesion molecules on the lining of the blood ...
... and vitamin K work together to help keep the rate of bone production and breakdown in balance. Low vitamin K levels ... The relationship between vitamin D and bone metabolism is more complicated than you might guess. As a hormone, vitamin D acts ... As vitamin D research has expanded in scope, researchers have been less certain about optimal amounts of vitamin D necessary to ... Then, theres vitamin D. Vitamin D is a nutrient particularly dependent on specific foods and food groups. Youll have to ...
Vitamin D biochemistry, RAS and ARDS. Summary of findings in this section. *Chronic Vitamin D deficiency induces lung fibrosis ... Vitamin D and comorbidities associated with covid-19 case fatalities. Summary of findings in this section. *Vitamin D is causal ... Vitamin D acts to rebalance RAS and attenuates lung injury.. *Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute respiratory ... Vitamin D deficiency occurs during winter since Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during summer exposure to UVB rays. ...
What causes vitamin B12 deficiency?. Foods containing vitamin B12 are … ... Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell ... This review presents a concise summary of the most up to date evidence on how to diagnose and manage vitamin B12 deficiency. ... Vitamin B12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences ...
What are the lessons that can be learned from the high rate of Vitamin D deficiency through out the world? What are the ... Table 1 demonstrates how easy it is to become deficient in this vitamin. For example, just getting older can reduce vitamin D ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where ...
  • In that case, you may need to rely on your diet (or supplements) for vitamin D as well as on vitamin D that's stored in body fat ( 15 ). (healthline.com)
  • Therefore, there is little justification for the use of vitamin D supplements to maintain or improve musculoskeletal health, and clinical guidelines should reflect these findings. (nutraingredients.com)
  • To conclude that we should stop researching vitamin D supplements and that they are of no value for bone health does a disservice to consumers, many of whom are at risk of insufficiency and deficiency for significant portions of the year. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Some may now decide against exploring vitamin D-containing supplements to fill nutrient gaps. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Many of these studies do not assess baseline levels (to be fair, the vitamin D studies in the new meta-analysis did), or don't fully discuss how many people actually took the supplements (compliance). (nutraingredients.com)
  • For information on vitamin C and COVID-19, see Dietary Supplements in the Time of COVID-19 . (nih.gov)
  • [ citation needed ] This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements , including multivitamins , to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems with vitamin D toxicity happen when people take supplements with megadoses of the vitamin or lots of different supplements containing the vitamin. (kidshealth.org)
  • No. Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Breast milk from mothers who are taking vitamin K supplements is also low in vitamin K. (cdc.gov)
  • You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, which can be obtained from sun exposure, food and supplements. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • You can get Vitamin D from certain foods, sunlight, and dietary supplements. (familydoctor.org)
  • Breast milk only has a small amount of vitamin D. Talk to your family doctor before giving older children vitamin supplements. (familydoctor.org)
  • Are there any side effects to vitamin D dietary supplements? (familydoctor.org)
  • Tocopherol esters, present in processed foods and vitamin supplements, must be hydrolysed in the small intestine before absorption. (fao.org)
  • Large population-based studies in Finland found that taking vitamin E supplements reduced the risk of prostate and colorectal cancers in male smokers. (mskcc.org)
  • Several clinical trials have shown that vitamin E supplements may be helpful in preventing LDL oxidation in patients with diabetes, which may help prevent progression to atherosclerosis. (mskcc.org)
  • Breastfed infants may need to receive drops containing vitamin D from one month of age if their mother has not taken vitamin D supplements throughout pregnancy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • There are many different types of vitamin D supplements available, which are in different forms such as tablets, capsules or drops. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Evidence strongly suggests Vitamin D supplements could be effective in preventing Covid-19, and play a key role in treating patients if added to existing treatment plans, especially if this is done early in the disease progression. (google.com)
  • If you are able to get exposure to natural sunlight then your body will synthesize Vitamin D and you are less likely to need supplements to maintain healthy levels. (google.com)
  • This disease is essentially the result of depleted calcium, but calcium supplements alone will not prevent it since vitamin D is required to properly absorb and utilize calcium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Oral supplements of vitamin D are not effective for psoriasis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are very few foods in nature that contain vitamin D, but this new science-based vitamin D analysis from ARS will advance the analytical values of foods and supplements that were previously unavailable. (usda.gov)
  • By 10 years of age (double figures) nutritional intake should include approximately 1,000 mg of calcium a day total (from diet and supplements) and close to 1,000 IU of vitamin D (from diet and supplements after blood testing) for the rest of one's life, regardless of gender. (medscape.com)
  • Healthy individuals who eat plenty of fruits and vegetables each day rarely need vitamin C supplements. (osu.edu)
  • If you do take a supplement or multivitamin, you should not consume more than 2,000 mg/day of vitamin C from foods and supplements. (osu.edu)
  • Although vitamin C is a popular remedy for the common cold, research shows that vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk. (osu.edu)
  • Based upon vitamins and supplements sales since 5/23/14 combined with estimates of outreach. (walgreens.com)
  • To manage this deficiency, vitamin A supplements can be taken orally or, if the symptoms are rigorous, parenteral administration can be tried. (newsmax.com)
  • Don't believe the hype: vitamin D supplements unlikely to prevent chest infections. (constantcontact.com)
  • The team at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences in Oslo argued vitamin supplements were readily taken and available, but were unsure if they affected athletic ability. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Dr Goran Paulsen, one of the researchers, said: 'Our results show that vitamin C and E supplements blunted the endurance-training-induced increase of mitochondrial proteins, which are needed to improve muscular endurance. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Our results indicate that high dosages of vitamin C and E, as commonly found in supplements, should be used with caution, especially if you are undertaking endurance training. (bbc.co.uk)
  • While vitamin and mineral supplements may not enhance your performance, a deficiency is likely to damage it. (eatright.org)
  • Vitamin E oil is distinct from vitamin E supplements because it is applied directly to the skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin E supplements may prevent coronary heart disease , support immune function, prevent inflammation , promote eye health, and lower the risk of cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some research suggests that vitamin E supplements may promote wound healing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A 2013 study found that mice given supplements containing vitamin E were less likely to develop skin cancer , even when exposed to large quantities of ultraviolet light. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These results prompted some supporters of vitamin E oil and supplements to claim that it can prevent skin cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One study found that oral vitamin E supplements could produce significant improvements in eczema symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For these reasons, taking high-potency vitamin supplements does not guarantee that all of the included nutrients will enter one's system. (faqs.org)
  • Such millimolar concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved in humans by i.v. infusion but not by diet or supplements ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • A study by the National Eye Institute , however, did find that an intake of 500 mg per day of vitamin C, along with beta-carotene, vitamin E and zinc supplements, slowed the progression of advanced age-related macular degeneration by about 25 percent. (livescience.com)
  • A study by Johns Hopkins found that vitamin C has a "modest" effect on lowering high blood pressure and does not currently suggest supplements as a treatment option. (livescience.com)
  • We believe there is no justification for more trials of vitamin D supplements with musculoskeletal outcomes because there is no longer equipoise about the effects of vitamin D on these outcomes. (indiatimes.com)
  • however, in vitamin supplements, pyridoxine is the form used because it is the least expensive to produce commercially. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin D supplements can be used to help treat inherited disorders resulting from an inability to absorb or process vitamin D, such as familial hypophosphatemia. (drugs.com)
  • Vitamin D supplements are used to treat adults with severe vitamin D deficiency, resulting in loss of bone mineral content, bone pain, muscle weakness and soft bones (osteomalacia). (drugs.com)
  • If you don't get enough vitamin D through sunlight or dietary sources, you might need vitamin D supplements. (drugs.com)
  • However, taking too much vitamin D in the form of supplements can be harmful. (drugs.com)
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements doesn't appear to offer the same benefit. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements won't prevent the common cold. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, there's some evidence that when people who regularly take vitamin C supplements get a cold, the illness lasts fewer days and symptoms are less severe. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements in combination with other vitamins and minerals seems to prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from worsening. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, people with gastrointestinal conditions and some types of cancer might be susceptible to vitamin C deficiency and benefit from the use of oral supplements. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking vitamin C supplements also might have other protective benefits. (mayoclinic.org)
  • When taken at appropriate doses, oral vitamin C supplements are generally considered safe. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Long-term use of oral vitamin C supplements over 2,000 milligrams a day increases the risk of significant side effects. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Tell your doctor that you're taking vitamin C supplements before having any medical tests. (mayoclinic.org)
  • WATCH Are Vitamin Supplements Necessary? (go.com)
  • I had already asked my patients to stop their vitamin supplements four to five years ago, with the exception of those with a deficiency of vitamin D, ... pregnant patients [who should get] folate and prenatal multivitamins, or those with cognitive impairment, when I would recommend a vitamin B complex," Albert Levy, MD, a primary care physician in New York, said in an email to MedPage Today and ABC News. (go.com)
  • The researchers called their findings striking, but said more information is needed before recommending that people take vitamin B12 supplements to guard against the loss of brain volume and possibly prevent declines in thinking and memory. (reuters.com)
  • The study, published in the journal Neurology, did not look at whether taking vitamin B12 supplements would slow the rate of brain shrinkage, Smith said. (reuters.com)
  • They added that current vitamin supplements for pregnant women might not contain sufficient levels of Vitamin B3. (yahoo.com)
  • Buddha Do vitamin supplements ensure good health? (medindia.net)
  • Calcium and vitamin supplements are taken to provide the body with the ''required'' nutrients. (medindia.net)
  • Our standards can be used in quality control analysis of vitamin-based dietary supplements, fortified foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations, or the diagnostic testing of vitamin deficiencies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Maternal intake of vitamin D from supplements was significantly linked to CB vitamin D levels whereas dietary vitamin D had no influence. (chiro.org)
  • Vitamin E is a vital nutrient for good health, and it's found in a wide variety of foods and supplements. (livescience.com)
  • Most people are able to get enough vitamin E from a healthy diet and do not need supplements. (livescience.com)
  • Some people may be sensitive to vitamin E supplements, according to the Mayo Clinic. (livescience.com)
  • Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements , diet , or exposure to sunlight. (medicinenet.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with vitamin k-injection? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do vitamin supplements really do any good? (slate.com)
  • Data from 81 RCTs totaling almost 54,000 participants indicated that vitamin D supplementation did not significantly impact fracture, falls, or bone mineral density. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "Vitamin D supplementation did not have meaningful effects on fracture, falls, or bone mineral density, and future trials are unlikely to alter these conclusions," ​wrote the authors, affiliated with the University of Auckland (NZ) and the University of Aberdeen (UK). (nutraingredients.com)
  • Infants who receive the vitamin K shot do not require further supplementation. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on lung, urinary tract, pancreas, mouth or stomach cancer risks. (mskcc.org)
  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute respiratory tract infection. (google.com)
  • The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN, 2016) does not recommend routine monitoring of serum vitamin D levels during long-term supplementation with vitamin D. Furthermore, expert opinion in the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group 2017 ( NOG 2017 ) is that routine monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels is unnecessary for people on long-term maintenance doses of vitamin D (up to 2000 IU a day). (google.com)
  • Why increase a person's risk for melanoma just to improve vitamin D levels, when supplementation is generally simplistic and cost effective? (medscape.com)
  • the responsible recommendation lies in proper sun protection and potential vitamin D supplementation. (medscape.com)
  • Osteomalacia and rickets are also effectively prevented and treated through adequate vitamin D supplementation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If this is the cause of the hearing loss , it is possible that supplementation of vitamin D can act to reverse the situation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a four-week randomised controlled trial evaluating vitamin C and E supplementation among female athletes, supplementation reduced markers of oxidative stress compared with a placebo tablet and reduced muscle damage markers associated with aerobic exercise. (bbc.co.uk)
  • However, the research on these benefits is varied, and vitamin E supplementation is not right for everyone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The fact that patients with a healthy weight derived a much greater benefit - a 38% reduced risk for metastatic cancer and death compared to 17% overall - suggests your body weight may play a significant role in whether vitamin D supplementation will provide you with the anticancer benefits you seek. (lewrockwell.com)
  • To assess whether vitamin D supplementation might improve survival in these patients, they reviewed the findings of seven trials, three of which included patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer from the outset and four population trials that reported survival in incident cases. (lewrockwell.com)
  • You may have seen recent news claiming vitamin D supplementation fails to prevent osteoporosis, fractures or falls. (indiatimes.com)
  • Now personally, I owe my interest in vitamin D supplementation to my good friend Dr William Grant of SunArc. (indiatimes.com)
  • Effects of Vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. (indiatimes.com)
  • More studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of certain cancers. (drugs.com)
  • However, more studies are needed to determine the benefits of vitamin D supplementation for cognitive health. (drugs.com)
  • Research suggests that long-term vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of multiple sclerosis. (drugs.com)
  • Prenatal vitamins and folic acid supplementation are also on that list. (go.com)
  • Study after study has shown that the majority of Americans are deficient in vitamin D, and the supplement study flood included more positive findings for folic acid supplementation around the time of conception. (go.com)
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate whether vitamin supplementation is effective in migraine patients in general, and whether patients with mild deficiency are more likely to benefit from supplementation,' says Suzanne Hagler , MD, a Headache Medicine fellow in the division of Neurology at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and lead author of the study. (prnewswire.com)
  • Many were put on preventive migraine medications and received vitamin supplementation, if levels were low. (prnewswire.com)
  • The long-term safety of high-dose supplementation with vitamin D has been backed up by trial data from a four-year study, say researchers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of infants being small for gestational age and improve growth during infancy, according to a meta-analysis published this week. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued its latest recommendations on vitamin D, calcium supplementation and interventions to prevent falls in which it partially acknowledges that clinical decisions should be patient and situation specific. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Data supporting supplementation of humans with vitamin E. Nutrition 1991;121:424 29. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Many different factors can contribute to problems with this conversion, including: a person's inherited genetic tendencies, digestive problems, bacterial imbalances in the digestive tract, excessive use of alcohol, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals, imbalanced intake of vitamin A and vitamin D as a result of high-dose supplementation, and the use of certain over-the-counter and/or prescription medications. (whfoods.org)
  • Longitudinal studies may also be required to ex amine the effects of fat-restricted diets as well as vitamin D and K2 supplementation on the progression and man agement of the scoliosis curves. (chiro.org)
  • Vitamin D helps us absorb calcium while vitamin K helps 'fix' calcium in our bones (and keeping calcium out of our arteries). (nutraingredients.com)
  • Vitamin E is found naturally in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
  • l -ascorbic acid , is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people who eat foods rich in vitamin D, who get normal sun exposure, and who take a 600 IU supplement will not get toxic buildup of vitamin D in their bodies. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you are a senior, a vegetarian or vegan, a nursing mother, or a pregnant woman, talk to your doctor about whether you should take a vitamin D supplement. (familydoctor.org)
  • If you breastfeed your baby, your doctor may prescribe a vitamin D supplement. (familydoctor.org)
  • You also can get vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement. (familydoctor.org)
  • In addition to diet , you may need to take a supplement of vitamin B12. (familydoctor.org)
  • Do I need a vitamin D supplement? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The Department of the Health recommends that these groups of people should take a vitamin D supplement daily. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • All pregnant and breastfeeding women should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. This will help to ensure the mother's requirements for vitamin D are met and build adequate stores of vitamin D in the unborn baby for use during the first six months of life. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • All babies and young children aged 6 months to 5 years should take a daily supplement containing vitamin D in the form of vitamin drops. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People aged 65 years and over and people not exposed to much sun should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People with dark skin, such as people of African, African Caribbean and south Asian origin should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People who are not in the any of the groups mentioned above may take a vitamin D supplement daily, but this should not be more that 25 micrograms (1000 units) daily. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Young people with known Vitamin D deficiency and those older than 60 and should supplement with 2,000iu/d during winter. (google.com)
  • To get enough vitamin D, children often need to take a multivitamin with vitamin D or a vitamin D supplement. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your baby drinks only breast milk or gets less than 32 ounces of formula each day, ask your health care provider about giving your baby a vitamin D supplement. (kidshealth.org)
  • Your health care provider can talk to you about whether your child needs a vitamin D supplement. (kidshealth.org)
  • Giving your child a daily supplement or a multivitamin with vitamin D is the easiest way to do this. (kidshealth.org)
  • For these conditions, the vitamin is given in conjunction with a phosphate supplement to aid in absorption. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is difficult today, however, to find a calcium supplement without vitamin D in it. (medscape.com)
  • Some research does suggest that the length of a cold might be reduced slightly by taking a vitamin C supplement. (osu.edu)
  • Vitamin A also helps supplement her daily diet of cassava, bananas and fish, which are high in calories but lack the vitamin A she needs to grow up healthy. (walgreens.com)
  • Treatment for dry, itchy skin by taking a vitamin A supplement may help the skin bounce back to health easily and quickly. (newsmax.com)
  • When there is a lot of vitamin B2 in the diet (or in a supplement), your urine turns bright yellow to show you it is there. (whfoods.com)
  • Taking some types of vitamin supplement may make it harder to train for big endurance events like marathons, researchers in Norway suggest. (bbc.co.uk)
  • However, if they have a hectic training schedule, particularly for those doing endurance training who are not able to eat as well as they should, a multivitamin and mineral supplement provides a method of ensuring that the intakes of these essential nutrients, including vitamin C and E, follow recommended guidelines. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Folk wisdom has long suggested that vitamin E, applied to the skin, taken as a supplement, or both, might treat scars, or prevent them from forming in the first place. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • I looked over their supplement facts, and No, centrum does not chelate their vitamins and minerals. (answers.com)
  • If you want a looking for a high quality multivitamin supplement that does chelate most of their vitamins and minerals, check out Multissentials Complete Wellness Formula, the best multivitamin supplement i have found this far. (answers.com)
  • Go here for more information: http://www.biossential.com/best-multi-vitamin/natural-multivitamin-supplement.htm Hope this helps! (answers.com)
  • Often, doctors will suggest a vitamin C supplement to smokers to prevent or cure a deficiency. (livescience.com)
  • An estimated 40 percent of men and 38 percent of women are getting insufficient amounts of vitamin C. If you're not eating your fruits and veggies, it's a good idea to supplement," said Dr. Brian Dixon, an expert in molecular and cellular biology and executive director of Health and Science Education at USANA Health Sciences . (livescience.com)
  • Ask your doctor if you need a calcium and vitamin D supplement to prevent or treat osteoporosis. (drugs.com)
  • Are you currently taking a Vitamin D supplement? (healthy.net)
  • In one small study of adults age 60 years and older being treated for dementia, researchers found that taking a vitamin D supplement helped improve cognitive function. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Starting a vitamin C supplement only after you develop a cold is of no help. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Here's a sample of the supplement headlines over recent weeks: B12 deficiency leads to cognitive decline, vitamin D helps fight off tuberculosis, vitamin E ups the risk of prostate cancer, calcium won't improve outcomes for Mom or baby. (go.com)
  • Taking a common vitamin supplement could significantly reduce the number of miscarriages and birth defects worldwide, Australian scientists said Thursday, in what they described as a major breakthrough in pregnancy research. (yahoo.com)
  • The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that deficiency in a key molecule among pregnant women stopped embryos and babies' organs from developing correctly in the womb, but could be treated by taking the dietary supplement vitamin B3, also known as niacin. (yahoo.com)
  • With Vitamin B3 -- found in meat and vegetables -- needed to make NAD, they tested the effect of taking the supplement on developing mice embryos that had similar NAD deficiencies as human ones, and found a significant change. (yahoo.com)
  • Breastfed infants up to 12 months should receive a daily vitamin D supplement according to a report by the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) that details feeding in the first year of life. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, is a condition that occurs when the baby does not have enough Vitamin K. (cdc.gov)
  • Without enough vitamin K, your baby has a chance of bleeding into his or her intestines, and brain, which can lead to brain damage and even death. (cdc.gov)
  • The intestine of the newborn baby has very little bacteria so they do not make enough vitamin K on their own. (cdc.gov)
  • Without enough vitamin K, blood cannot clot well. (cdc.gov)
  • Babies do not have enough vitamin K at birth and are, therefore, at risk for having serious bleeding. (cdc.gov)
  • Research done in adults suggests that getting enough vitamin D may help lower the chances of developing heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious diseases like diabetes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Where we live makes a difference, too: If you live in northern U.S. and Canada, it's possible you're not getting the UV exposure required for your body to make enough vitamin D. (kidshealth.org)
  • Experts recommend eating vitamin D-rich foods as the best way to get enough vitamin D. But many of the best foods - like fatty fish and oil - are not the most popular. (kidshealth.org)
  • Do infants get enough Vitamin K from breast milk? (cdc.gov)
  • If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are concerned that you are not getting enough vitamin D, talk to your doctor. (familydoctor.org)
  • Children who don't get enough vitamin D are at risk for rickets. (familydoctor.org)
  • Adults who do not get enough vitamin D are at risk for osteomalacia (weak bones), osteoporosis (thin bones), and muscle weakness. (familydoctor.org)
  • Talk to your doctor to make sure you're getting enough vitamin B12. (familydoctor.org)
  • Am I getting enough vitamin B12? (familydoctor.org)
  • It's hard to get enough vitamin D from the sun, though. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Can I Help My Child Get Enough Vitamin D? (kidshealth.org)
  • Health care providers might order a blood test if they think a health problem is keeping a child from getting enough vitamin D. If doctors don't think your child has a health problem, there's no need for a blood test. (kidshealth.org)
  • Got (Enough) Vitamin D? (usda.gov)
  • How Can We Get Enough Vitamin C? (osu.edu)
  • In the United States, healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely do not get enough vitamin C. (osu.edu)
  • Many older adults don't get regular exposure to sunlight and have trouble absorbing vitamin D. If your doctor suspects you're not getting enough vitamin D, a simple blood test can check the levels of this vitamin in your blood. (drugs.com)
  • Studies suggest that people who get enough vitamin D and calcium in their diets can slow bone mineral loss, help prevent osteoporosis and reduce bone fractures. (drugs.com)
  • Most people get enough vitamin C from a balanced diet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • What can happen if I don't get enough vitamin E? (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • [7] Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness, although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the water-soluble vitamins, these are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thiamine or vitamin B1 belongs to the group of water-soluble vitamins, and is required to carry out several vital processes within the body. (buzzle.com)
  • Vitamin B refers to a group of eight water-soluble vitamins that are essential for the healthy functioning of the human body. (buzzle.com)
  • Overview of water-soluble vitamins. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We offer a full range of fat- and water-soluble vitamins for use in various chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other analytical applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin E is stored in the body, and excess is not washed out through the urinary tract, as does happen with water-soluble vitamins, according to Georgia Highlands College . (livescience.com)
  • In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite that, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. (healthline.com)
  • Governments mandated addition of vitamins to staple foods such as flour or milk, referred to as food fortification , to prevent deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these people, prescription vitamin B12 shots can treat some deficiencies. (familydoctor.org)
  • In this context, it might seem odd that deficiency of vitamin B1 is among the more common nutrient deficiencies in the U.S. (whfoods.com)
  • Scroll down to know the causes and symptoms of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. (buzzle.com)
  • The body actually stores vitamin B12, so any deficiencies may take several years to develop. (healthy.net)
  • CINCINNATI , June 10, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A high percentage of children, teens and young adults with migraines appear to have mild deficiencies in vitamin D, riboflavin and coenzyme Q10 - a vitamin-like substance found in every cell of the body that is used to produce energy for cell growth and maintenance. (prnewswire.com)
  • Previous studies have indicated that certain vitamins and vitamin deficiencies may be important in the migraine process. (prnewswire.com)
  • Deficiencies of vitamin E have been linked to heart disease. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • This is only a partial list of factors that help determine the amount of vitamin D a person needs. (healthline.com)
  • The amount of vitamin D your body needs can vary depending on your weight, your genes, your skin color, whether you have any chronic conditions, and even where you live and how much sun exposure you get. (familydoctor.org)
  • Your body needs a certain amount of vitamin B12 to stay healthy. (familydoctor.org)
  • Check the nutrition fact label for the amount of vitamin B12. (familydoctor.org)
  • The needed amount of vitamin D is expressed as an Adequate Intake (AI) rather than an Required Daily Amount (RDA). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The amount of vitamin C you need each day depends on your age and gender. (osu.edu)
  • The amount of vitamin C added to each product will vary. (osu.edu)
  • Next to each food name, you'll find the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition, the calories contained in the serving, the amount of vitamin B1 contained in one serving size of the food, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. (whfoods.com)
  • Sunbeds of course can be used to make vitamin D. It has been one of the ways that we have measured the amount of vitamin D that the skin has the capacity to make," stated Dr. Reinhold Vieth, a professor at the University of Toronto in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology. (prweb.com)
  • Smoking cigarettes can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are more prone to a deficiency, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center . (livescience.com)
  • The amount of vitamin D your skin makes depends on many factors, including the time of day, season, latitude and your skin pigmentation. (drugs.com)
  • The recommended daily amount of vitamin D is 400 international units (IU) for children up to age 12 months, 600 IU for people ages 1 to 70 years, and 800 IU for people over 70 years. (drugs.com)
  • The recommended daily amount of vitamin C for adult men is 90 milligrams and for adult women is 75 milligrams. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are four important variables that collectively determine the amount of vitamin D3 that will be photochemically produced by an exposure of skin to sunlight (Norman and Henry, 2007). (dsm.com)
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can lead to serious bleeding problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Significant amounts of vitamin D can also be made in your skin when exposed to UV rays from sunlight. (healthline.com)
  • People who are overweight or have obesity may also need higher amounts of vitamin D ( 27 , 28 ). (healthline.com)
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K stored in their bodies, which can lead to serious bleeding problems like vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). (cdc.gov)
  • A diet containing adequate amounts of vitamin E is important in maintaining general health, and may prevent against some forms of cancer. (mskcc.org)
  • As vitamin D research has expanded in scope, researchers have been less certain about optimal amounts of vitamin D necessary to prevent unwanted problems in these many body systems. (whfoods.com)
  • Relatively large amounts of vitamin C are required-for instance, an adult man is said to need about 70 mg (1 mg = 0.001 gram) per day. (britannica.com)
  • Hair follicles require certain amounts of vitamin A to carry on their constant function of regeneration and growth. (newsmax.com)
  • Very small amounts of vitamin B1 are found in virtually all foods, and many commonly eaten foods contain substantial amounts. (whfoods.com)
  • In earlier times, humans consumed large amounts of vitamin C in their fresh and wholesome native diet, as apes (another species that does not make vitamin C) still do. (healthy.net)
  • Some people taking massive amounts of vitamin E have reported experiencing fatigue, nausea and diarrhea. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • An insufficiently studied area receiving much attention is the long-term effect of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. (springer.com)
  • In addition to its biosynthetic and antioxidant functions, vitamin C plays an important role in immune function [ 4 ] and improves the absorption of nonheme iron [ 5 ], the form of iron present in plant-based foods. (nih.gov)
  • The intestinal absorption of vitamin C is regulated by at least one specific dose-dependent, active transporter [ 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of pernicious anemia, intake may be appropriate but absorption is poor due to a lack of normal stomach substance, called intrinsic factor, that facilitates absorption of vitamin B 12 . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Absorption of vitamin E from the intestine depends on adequate pancreatic function, biliary secretion, and micelle formation. (fao.org)
  • There is some debate about how this occurs, with some scientists believing that vitamin B2 is necessary to mobilize iron from storage to incorporate into cells, and others believing that vitamin B2 deficiency impairs iron absorption. (whfoods.com)
  • Research 6 published in 2010 found that dietary fructose inhibits intestinal calcium absorption, thereby inducing vitamin D insufficiency in people with chronic kidney disease. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The anticonvulsants phenobarbital and phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) increase the breakdown of vitamin D and reduce calcium absorption. (drugs.com)
  • Vitamin C is also used to increase iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking vitamin C can increase your absorption of aluminum from medications containing aluminum, such as phosphate binders. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin D has a role in the proper absorption of calcium and phosphorous , is essential in normal cell growth , and is needed for a healthy nervous system as calcium is vital for normal nerve impulses and muscle contractions. (everything2.com)
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in developed countries but is an issue among the elderly due to problems in vitamin absorption and among vegetarians whose dietary intake may be low, the researchers said. (reuters.com)
  • However, considering that sufficient vitamin D is usually produced by daily exposure to sunlight, it is not surprising that the body has not evolved a more efficient mechanism for dietary vitamin D absorption (Collins and Norman, 1991). (dsm.com)
  • Vitamin D metabolism in ruminants begins prior to absorption in that rumen microbes are capable of degrading vitamin D to inactive metabolites (Sommerfeldt et al. (dsm.com)
  • Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. (wikipedia.org)
  • bBut for vitamins and minerals, it is important to assess the totality of the evidence. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Early studies on vitamin D and disease often focused on prevention of rickets (a disease involving bone formation related to deficiency of vitamin D and bone-related minerals). (whfoods.com)
  • This fact sheet is one in a series containing information to help you select foods that provide adequate daily amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fi ber. (osu.edu)
  • Although they might be fortified with vitamin C, they lack the other vitamins and minerals that fruits and vegetables supply. (osu.edu)
  • Walgreens' partnership with Vitamin Angels is providing millions of children with life- changing vitamins and minerals. (walgreens.com)
  • Vitamins and minerals, also known as micronutrients, are crucial for a variety of activities in the body such as turning food into energy and keeping bones healthy. (eatright.org)
  • The following vitamins and minerals often are taken for performance enhancement or to make up for missing nutrients on a restricted diet. (eatright.org)
  • Others contain mostly vitamins and minerals--sometimes in heavy dosages. (latimes.com)
  • He said the company's products, which contain no ephedrine, are regularly tested for purity and dosage, offer a balance of vitamins and minerals, and are distributed at some military bases, fire and police departments. (latimes.com)
  • Uptime makes a variety of preparations, none with ephedrine, which contain vitamins, minerals and herbs. (latimes.com)
  • Long-term effects of lack of vitamins and minerals can prove to be life-threatening. (buzzle.com)
  • Alpha tocopherol is the most common and most potent form of the vitamin," said Elizabeth Somer, registered dietitian and author of "The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals" (HarperTorch, 1993). (livescience.com)
  • Individual vitamins and minerals haven't fared much better under scientific scrutiny , with research debunking some of the reputed benefits of vitamin B6, calcium, niacin, and others. (slate.com)
  • These observations make a certain intuitive sense, since vitamins and minerals play an important role in the replication of healthy cells-why shouldn't they be doing the same for cancerous cells? (slate.com)
  • The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies have found that oxidized vitamin C, or dehydroascorbic acid, enters cells via some facilitated glucose transporters and is then reduced internally to ascorbic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Results from pharmacokinetic studies indicate that oral doses of 1.25 g/day ascorbic acid produce mean peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 135 micromol/L, which are about two times higher than those produced by consuming 200-300 mg/day ascorbic acid from vitamin C-rich foods [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin C , also called ascorbic acid , water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. (britannica.com)
  • Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, has many uses in the human body. (osu.edu)
  • Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is important to many functions in the body. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is a very important essential nutrient-that is, we must obtain it from diet. (healthy.net)
  • Ascorbic acid was not isolated from lemons until 1932, though the scourge of scurvy, the vitamin C deficiency disease, has been present for thousands of years. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a vitamin your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This tech tip reports the results of a series of dechlorination tests using two forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate. (fed.us)
  • Intake recommendations for vitamin E and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Some health conditions, like cystic fibrosis or inflammatory bowel disease , affect how well the body absorbs nutrients, including vitamin D. And because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that gets stored in the body's fat cells, obesity increases a person's risk for vitamin D deficiency. (kidshealth.org)
  • You may need even more than 600 IU if you have darker skin, live in areas with limited sunshine, have a condition that affects how well your body absorbs nutrients, or if tests show you have low vitamin D levels. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D is one of the most intensely studied yet widely debated nutrients in health research over the past decades. (whfoods.com)
  • Of the World's Healthiest Foods, we list one excellent, two very good, and three good sources of vitamin D. Needless to say, this is a much shorter list than we see with other nutrients and will present a challenge to the goal of meeting needs with diet alone. (whfoods.com)
  • Luckily, however, unlike other nutrients, vitamin D is a nutrient that we have the opportunity to increase by increasing our exposure to sunlight, and for some people, this combination of diet-plus-sunlight might provide an acceptable amount of this vitamin. (whfoods.com)
  • Deficiency of vitamin A can have a harsh effect on the health of nails, as this vitamin provides the body nutrients and proteins for development. (newsmax.com)
  • Vitamin B1 is among the nutrients most prone to destruction by our modern food production system. (whfoods.com)
  • Additionally, vitamin B2 plays a role in the chemistry of other nutrients involved in energy production, including folate and vitamin B6 . (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin B2 is one of many nutrients required to recycle glutathione, which is one of the most important antioxidants in the human body. (whfoods.com)
  • In addition to leafy greens, which are rich sources of a wide array of nutrients, we see other Brassica vegetables (including broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts), peppers, root vegetables, and squash on the list of vitamin B2-rich foods. (whfoods.com)
  • For vitamin D to be most effective, other nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K need to be available. (constantcontact.com)
  • These vitamins help to break down food from bigger nutrients, such as carbohydrates and fatty acids, into smaller units that the body can use to turn food into fuel. (eatright.org)
  • Chelation of individual nutrients is rather expensive, so most cheaper mult … ivitamins do not use cheleated vitamins due to the costs associated with doing do. (answers.com)
  • When nature's most powerful vitamins and nutrients are boosted with modern science, the result is deeply nourished, supple skin with a dewy glow. (sephora.com)
  • Vitamins are very important nutrients for the body. (medindia.net)
  • Vitamin A is a broad group of related nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Most carotenoid forms of vitamin A function as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Vitamins-with their promise to bridge the gap between the nutrients our bodies need and those they get-have always seemed reassuringly simple: Just pop a multivitamin and let your body soak in those extra nutrients. (slate.com)
  • It's often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" and is made in your skin when exposed to sunlight. (healthline.com)
  • That's because your body create its own vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. (familydoctor.org)
  • During some times of the year, especially in northern states, there may not be enough of the right sunlight to make vitamin D. This is true even if you are outside all day. (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin D, a seco-steroid, can either be made in the skin from a cholesterol-like precursor (7-dehydrocholesterol) by exposure to sunlight or can be provided pre-formed in the diet ( 1 ). (fao.org)
  • First is the long-known fact that human skin cells can make vitamin D from sunlight. (whfoods.com)
  • In other words, even though we know that our skin cells can make this preliminary form of vitamin D from sunlight, it is not easy for us to predict how much will get made. (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin D (or cholecalciferol) is produced in the skin, when it is exposed to sunlight, but as we get precious few glimpses of the sun during the cold, winter months, we are unlikely to meet our needs for vitamin D. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Most people should be able to get all the vitamin D they need by exposing themselves to enough sunlight and eating a healthy balanced diet. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Thus, wearing sunscreen, and sun-protective clothing, or avoiding sunlight all have the ability to result in lower blood levels of vitamin D. However, no clinician should recommend trading one condition for another, and it is a concern that some clinicians advise regular sun exposure several times a week. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body in the presence of sunlight, as opposed to being required in the diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is due to a difficulty in quantifying the amount of the vitamin that is produced by the body with exposure to sunlight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exposure to sunlight is the primary method of obtaining vitamin D. In clear summer weather, approximately ten minutes per day in the sun will produce adequate amounts, even when only the face is exposed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin D can only be made by the body when sunlight falls on skin unprotected by sunscreen. (abc.net.au)
  • Most of the vitamin D used by our bodies is made by our skin when it's exposed to sunlight. (abc.net.au)
  • We've known for the best part of a century that sunlight makes vitamin D and that means healthy bones. (abc.net.au)
  • I think we've always thought that it couldn't happen in Australia - we're too sunny a country but people in institutions often don't get sunlight for various reasons and if you don't get some sunlight you don't make vitamin D and we don't get it much in our food any more so for that reason it's quite common. (abc.net.au)
  • The good news is that there are many benefits to sunlight besides making vitamin D. Vitamin D is made by a narrow band of the sun's radiation and there are many other regions in that visible light that produce all kinds of good effects. (prweb.com)
  • Vitamin D can be absorbed from exposure to sunlight, however, the season, time of day, cloud coverage, as well as an individual's geographic location and skin color all can affect how well vitamin D is absorbed from ultraviolet light. (eatright.org)
  • Vitamin D is also known as the sunshine vitamin, as it can be synthesized by living organisms with the help of sunlight. (buzzle.com)
  • A 10 - 15 minutes exposure to sunlight is enough to synthesize the daily requirement of vitamin D (200 IU). (buzzle.com)
  • This article talks about the development of rickets in adults, which is a disease that develops because of the deficiency of vitamin D and inadequate exposure to sunlight. (buzzle.com)
  • Vitamin B6 is stable in acid, somewhat less stable in alkali, and is fairly easily destroyed with ultraviolet light, such as sunlight, and during the processing of food. (healthy.net)
  • Your body also makes vitamin D when direct sunlight converts a chemical in your skin into an active form of the vitamin (calciferol). (drugs.com)
  • Many older adults don't get regular exposure to sunlight and have trouble absorbing vitamin D, so taking a multivitamin with vitamin D will likely help improve bone health. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It is the only vitamin that can be made in the body through sunlight action. (everything2.com)
  • Some medical sources deem vitamin D to be a hormone rather than a vitamin, as it is produced by all vertebrate species exposed to sunlight. (everything2.com)
  • Exposure to sunlight is one of the main sources of vitamin D. Ultraviolet radiation is what stimulates the body to create vitamin D. Babies under 12 months of age have been shown to have vitamin D stored in their bodies from when they were in the womb . (everything2.com)
  • Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity . (medicinenet.com)
  • Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. (nih.gov)
  • The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin E is 15 milligrams (or 22.4 International Units, or IU) for people over age 14, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin E' is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds with distinctive antioxidant activities [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to its activities as an antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in immune function and, as shown primarily by in vitro studies of cells, cell signaling, regulation of gene expression, and other metabolic processes [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant [ 3 ] and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) [ 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a causal role. (nih.gov)
  • [3] Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent ) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C is an antioxidant . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant defence system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. (fao.org)
  • Vitamin E is an example of a phenolic antioxidant. (fao.org)
  • Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a natural antioxidant that is found in foods such as plant oils, eggs, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and whole grains. (mskcc.org)
  • Well-known for its role in vision, vitamin A also may act as an antioxidant. (eatright.org)
  • Vitamin E is not a single vitamin, but rather a group of fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many supporters of vitamin E oil argue that it is a potent antioxidant, but research on its benefits is mixed . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin E oil's potential benefits derive from two key features: its antioxidant properties, which could fight inflammation and slow the effects of free radicals, and its moisturizing properties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin C is a vital antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals that we are exposed to in the environment such as air pollution, cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light from the sun," said Dr. Sherry Ross, OB/GYN and Women's Health Expert at Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California. (livescience.com)
  • An antioxidant, vitamin C might help protect your cells against the effects of free radicals - molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In its role as an antioxidant, vitamin E helps neutralize unstable particles called free radicals which damage cell membranes. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • As a fat-soluble nutrient, vitamin E functions mainly as an antioxidant, which means it helps protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals. (livescience.com)
  • Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( 28 ). (healthline.com)
  • When certain wavelengths of ultraviolet B (UVB) light from the sun land on our skin cells, a molecule in our skin cells called 7-dehydrocholesterol can be converted into a preliminary form of vitamin D called cholecalciferol. (whfoods.com)
  • This second transfer allows our kidney cells to take 25(OH)D and convert it into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1,25(OH)D. It's this more complicated form of vitamin D that is active as a regulator of certain immune system activities. (whfoods.com)
  • In studies among more than 25,000 people during the early 1990s, researchers found that high doses of beta carotene--the plant form of vitamin A--appeared to increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers. (latimes.com)
  • An advanced form of vitamin C is combined with a proprietary energy complex to recharge skin's battery while targeting damaged skin for accelerated improvement of a dry, tired, uneven complexion. (sephora.com)
  • Phytonadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K that is chemically identically to the naturally occurring vitamin K. Vitamin K is found in many foods from both plant and animal sources. (medicinenet.com)
  • Warfarin inhibits vitamin K reductase, the enzyme responsible for reducing vitamin K. The reduced form of vitamin K is used by the liver to make blood clotting factors. (medicinenet.com)
  • As a result, blood and cellular concentrations of other forms of vitamin E are lower than those of alpha-tocopherol and have been the subjects of less research [ 3 , 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • To estimate the a-TE of mixed diet containing natural forms of vitamin E, the number of milligrams of b-tocopherol should be multiplied by 0.5, g-tocopherol by 0.1, and a-tocotrienol by 0.3. (fao.org)
  • There are two major forms of vitamin D: D 2 or ergocalciferol and D 3 or cholecarciferol. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are many chemical forms of vitamin D, which have varying amounts of biological activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some metabolic diseases are responsive to treatment with specific doses and forms of vitamin D. These include Fanconi syndrome and familial hypophosphatemia, both of which result in low levels of phosphate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A rich and restorative eye cream featuring eight peptides, five forms of vitamin C, and cucumber extract for visibly firmer, brighter-looking skin. (sephora.com)
  • Power Five C Vitamin Complex: A complex of five forms of vitamin C that work together to balance uneven tone and visibly firm. (sephora.com)
  • The two most prominent forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). (dsm.com)
  • Important note: we want to make it clear that we added up all forms of vitamin A (including carotenoids like beta-carotene) when we created the list of vitamin A-rich foods below. (whfoods.org)
  • Here is a summary chart showing basic relationships between the forms of vitamin A. (whfoods.org)
  • Once a food has been consumed, these carotenoid forms of vitamin A may be converted by the body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (whfoods.org)
  • As you can see in the chart above, there are two basic forms of vitamin A: retinoids (found in animal foods) and carotenoids (found in plant foods). (whfoods.org)
  • Yet even if we are not faced with any of these special conditions, each of us needs retinoid forms of vitamin A. (whfoods.org)
  • Like the retinoid forms of vitamin A, the carotenoid forms also provide us with unique health benefits. (whfoods.org)
  • At first glance, it looks like we need to eat both animal and plant foods in order to get both retinoid and carotenoid forms of vitamin A. In some instances, that is true. (whfoods.org)
  • In the bodies of many individuals, carotenoid forms of vitamin A can be effectively converted into retinoid forms, therefore providing the physiological functionality noted above. (whfoods.org)
  • Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are three carotenoid forms of vitamin A that can be converted by our body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (whfoods.org)
  • We use this phrase-"under certain conditions"-to refer to the fact that the bodies of many individuals may not be well equipped to convert carotenoid forms of vitamin A into retinoid forms. (whfoods.org)
  • If you are a person who avoids animal foods and you are trying to obtain more retinoid forms of vitamin A by consuming plant foods that are high in carotenoids, you might get a very large amount of carotenoids yet still be unable to convert these carotenoid forms of vitamin A into the retinoid form that is also required by the body for proper physiological functioning. (whfoods.org)
  • Vitamin D is crucial for bone health and immune system function. (healthline.com)
  • Almost every cell in your body has a receptor for vitamin D. It's essential to many processes, including bone health, immune system function, and can help protect against cancer ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (healthline.com)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a generally accepted indicator of vitamin D status, is inversely associated with adiposity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, and blood pressure along with its classic role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism ( 1 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin D alone may not directly boost our bone mineral density, although some RCTs do show a benefit. (nutraingredients.com)
  • They also work together, and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. (nutraingredients.com)
  • And when it comes to vitamin D and bone health, the totality of the evidence strongly says it helps. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Vitamin D plays a part in the bone-building process by helping the body to absorb calcium. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D is required to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate, that are in turn needed for the normal mineralisation of bone, muscle contraction, nerve conduction, and general cellular function in all cells of the body. (fao.org)
  • This active form regulates the transcription of a number of vitamin D-dependent genes coding for calcium-transporting proteins and bone matrix proteins. (fao.org)
  • This property may explain the actions of vitamin D in bone resorption, intestinal calcium transport, and skin. (fao.org)
  • This ligand-receptor complex binds to a specific vitamin D-responsive element and, with associated transcription factors (e.g., retinoid X receptor), enhances transcription of mRNAs which code for calcium-transporting proteins, bone matrix proteins, or cell cycle-regulating proteins ( 5 ). (fao.org)
  • Recent studies on vitamin D and disease have focused on many health problems not specific to bone, including problems involving our immune, cardiovascular, and blood sugar regulating systems. (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to softening or malformation of bone. (whfoods.com)
  • Individuals with low vitamin D levels are at risk of developing health problems linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as osteomalacia , which causes bone pain and tenderness. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Vitamin D is important not only to the maintenance of proper bone density, but to the many calcium-driven neurologic and cellular functions, as well as normal growth and development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Occurring in children with vitamin D deficiency, this is caused by failure of mineralization of bone, leading to soft, pliable and eventually deformed bones. (news-medical.net)
  • Immune function needs a regular supply of vitamin D, bone function does not. (constantcontact.com)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in calcium metabolism and bone growth. (buzzle.com)
  • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to bone and joint pain, muscle pain, weakening and softening of bones, etc. (buzzle.com)
  • Bone pain is one of the vitamin D deficiency symptoms in women. (buzzle.com)
  • That's because your body can only absorb calcium, the primary component of bone, when vitamin D is present. (drugs.com)
  • Taking a multivitamin with vitamin D may help improve bone health. (drugs.com)
  • Scurvy (hemorrages, loose teeth, gingivitis (bad breath), bone disease), bleeding gums, increased chance for infection, colds or respiratory infections can be unpleasant consequences of vitamin C deficiency. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Breastfed babies are low in vitamin K for several weeks until they start eating regular foods, usually at 4-6 months, and until the normal intestinal bacteria start making vitamin K. (cdc.gov)
  • Two types of K vitamins have been isolated: K 1 , an oil purified from alfalfa concentrates, and K 2 , synthesized by the normal intestinal bacteria. (infoplease.com)
  • The best sources are leafy green vegetables, such as cabbage and spinach, and intestinal bacteria (which produce most of the body's supply of vitamin K). Vitamin K is required for the synthesis in the liver of several blood clotting factors, including prothrombin. (infoplease.com)
  • Intestinal bacteria produce some Vitamin K2, although the degree to which bacteria-produced intestinal K2 is absorbed appears to be under debate. (metafilter.com)
  • Vitamin D from the diet is absorbed from the intestinal tract, and is more likely to be absorbed from the ileal portion in greatest amounts due to the longer retention time of food in the distal portion of the intestine (Norman and DeLuca, 1963). (dsm.com)
  • Vitamin D is absorbed from the intestinal tract in association with fats, as are all the fat-soluble vitamins. (dsm.com)
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of good vitamin B2 sources that would fit this description include spinach , beet greens , and broccoli , among others. (whfoods.com)
  • Sunflower seeds and green, leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli also contain vitamin E. (livescience.com)
  • Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, widespread connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 6-9 ]. (nih.gov)
  • The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g [ 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, since without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy , a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. (britannica.com)
  • First isolated in 1928, vitamin C was identified as the curative agent for scurvy in 1932. (britannica.com)
  • An extreme lack of vitamin C for long periods of time can cause scurvy. (livescience.com)
  • Other cultures of the world discovered their own sources of vitamin C. Powdered rose hips, acerola cherries, or spruce needles were consumed regularly, usually as teas, to prevent the scurvy disease. (healthy.net)
  • Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease characterized by anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing (scurvy). (mayoclinic.org)
  • As well, certain vitamins are established treatments for a host of diseases, from vitamin C in scurvy to B12 in pernicious anemia. (go.com)
  • During the early 20th century, diseases like scurvy and rickets were common until researchers began to isolate compounds in food-which became known as vitamins-that could altogether cure these ailments. (slate.com)
  • Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) depend on the liver, which takes up the nutrient after the various forms are absorbed from the small intestine. (nih.gov)
  • [2] Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D is an important nutrient. (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient for your body. (familydoctor.org)
  • Since vitamin D was first recommended as an essential nutrient for the U.S. public in 1943, recommendation levels for this nutrient have varied. (whfoods.com)
  • Although vitamin D is also available from dietary sources such as oily fish, eggs and fortified cereals, nutritional research suggests that daily requirements for this key nutrient cannot be met through diet alone. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Vitamin D is a nutrient that helps the body take in calcium from the foods that we eat. (kidshealth.org)
  • This report also reveals a single nutrient, thiamine (thii-ah-meen) vitamin B1, by virtue of its ability to facilitate the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin (the red oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells), as the antidote to eye, nerve, heart, brain and lung disorders. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Because of the central role of vitamin B1 to energy metabolism, deficiency of this nutrient impairs nearly every important function in the body. (whfoods.com)
  • That said, vitamin D tends to be lower in obese people in general, for the fact that it's a fat-soluble nutrient and when you're obese, the vitamin D ends up being "volumetrically diluted. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Vitamin D is a nutrient your body needs for building and maintaining healthy bones. (drugs.com)
  • A powerful two-step peel packed with super-nutrient vitamin C to exfoliate, brighten, and moisturize skin. (sephora.com)
  • Powered by super-nutrient vitamin C, this clarifying two-step peel gently polishes skin as it fades dark spots and discoloration. (sephora.com)
  • A recent mainstream press article that calls vitamin D research into question is a low blow that hinges on an attack on a prominent researcher's character rather than a sober assessment of the science behind the nutrient, experts say. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The term "vitamin A" makes it sound like there is one particular nutrient called "vitamin A," but that is not true. (whfoods.org)
  • A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists are investigating whether, by limiting free-radical production and possibly through other mechanisms, vitamin E might help prevent or delay the chronic diseases associated with free radicals. (nih.gov)
  • The major biologic role of vitamin E is to protect PUFAs and other components of cell membranes and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation by free radicals. (fao.org)
  • The major function of vitamin E is to act as a free-radical scavenger, meaning that it neutralizes free radicals and protects cells from their damaging effects. (mskcc.org)
  • Vitamin C may also prevent cancer by blocking the damage made by free radicals. (livescience.com)
  • The action of at least one chemotherapeutic drug, tamoxifen, appears to be improved with small added doses of vitamin D. Tamoxifen is commonly used to treat ovarian, uterine, and breast cancers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A new study suggests giving some cancer patients high doses of vitamin C intravenously - as opposed to orally - alongside conventional chemotherapy, may help kill cancer cells and also reduce some of its toxic side effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They all underwent conventional chemotherapy with paclitaxel or carboplatin, but some also received high doses of vitamin C intravenously. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate … Obese people need higher loading doses of vitamin D to achieve the same serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as normal weight. (lewrockwell.com)
  • 1 ) show that i.p. injection of "pharmacologic doses" of vitamin C decreases the growth and weight of human, rat, and murine tumor xenografts in athymic, nude mice. (pnas.org)
  • Research shows that most people taking high doses of Vitamin C still get the common cold just as often as those who don't take high doses. (livescience.com)
  • High doses of vitamin C might reduce your response to this anticoagulant. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Deficiency of vitamin A may cause trouble in meting out the protein requirement, resulting in hangnails and weak nails. (newsmax.com)
  • Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets (in children), osteomalacia, and osteoporosis (in adults). (buzzle.com)
  • Some people have low vitamin B12 levels due to folate deficiency. (medhelp.org)
  • I suggest you get a complete Iron profile blood work, which includes MCV, Serum B12, MMA, serum folate, and RBC folate so you can see if you are really deficient in any vitamin Bs or not. (medhelp.org)
  • Dr. Hagler's study drew from a database that included patients with migraines who, according to Headache Center practice, had baseline blood levels checked for vitamin D, riboflavin, coenzyme Q10 and folate, all of which were implicated in migraines, to some degree, by previous and sometimes conflicting studies. (prnewswire.com)
  • For example, crimini mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin B2, and many leafy green vegetables also end up as good to excellent sources, as well. (whfoods.com)
  • The following conditions also make it hard to absorb vitamin B12. (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium , a building block for strong bones. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from plant foods. (osu.edu)
  • Pregnancy, absorb this important vitamin. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In children, a severe vitamin D deficiency can cause delays in growth and rickets, a disease where the bones become soft. (healthline.com)
  • Rickets has been around for centuries, but its roots as a symptom of vitamin D deficiency began only in the 17th century, when Francis Glisson published his findings on the disease and proposed that it was a disease of the rich rather than the poor. (news-medical.net)
  • Mellanby and McCollum pioneered the discovery of vitamin D as the effective agent in cod liver oil which prevented and treated rickets, which led to the addition of this vitamin to milk and other foods as a means of fortification against this disfiguring disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Rickets and osteomalacia are the classical deficiency diseases caused by inadequate vitamin D. (news-medical.net)
  • A deficiency in vitamin D can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. (everything2.com)
  • Some of the benefits of Vitamin D are the prevention of rickets , promotion growth and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones, maintainance of the cardiovascular system including regulation of the heart beat , support of the nervous system - particularly the transmission of nerve impulses , increases a person's ability to withstand pain , relief of muscle spasms , and the relief of menstrual cramps. (everything2.com)
  • Effective treatment of rickets by rubbing cod liver oil on the skin, indicates that vitamin D can be absorbed through the skin. (dsm.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets , cancer , cardiovascular disease , severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. (medicinenet.com)
  • Other roles of cobalamin include working with pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 and folic acid to reduce harmful homocysteine levels, participating in the metabolization of food, and keeping the immune system operating smoothly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a very important B vitamin, especially for women. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin B6 is actually three related compounds, all of which are found in food--pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. (healthy.net)
  • whole wheat flour contains nearly 0.5 mg. of pyridoxine (wheat germ and wheat flakes have much more), while refined wheat flour has almost none, and even whole wheat bread has lost nearly all of its vitamin B6. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that's involved in many essential body functions. (healthline.com)
  • Any excess vitamin D is stored in your body fat for later use. (healthline.com)
  • Oral vitamin C produces tissue and plasma concentrations that the body tightly controls. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D is needed for a healthy immune system - helping the body to fight off infections and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. (kidshealth.org)
  • When the sun's ultraviolet rays penetrate bare skin, it sets off a process in the body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it gets stored in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As this was a prospective study and showed a strong dose response it adds considerable strength to the body of data on Vitamin D. We now have similar effects demonstrated in all four of the most common and dangerous forms of cancer: prostate, breast, colon and lung cancer. (constantcontact.com)
  • Vitamin D is biologically inactive and converted into the biologically active calcitriol via double hydroxylation in the body. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Depending on where you live, you might only need 10 minutes of sunshine 3 to 4 times a week to help your body create the vitamin D it needs. (familydoctor.org)
  • A low level of vitamin D in the body is referred to as a "vitamin D deficiency. (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin D also modulates the transcription of cell cycle proteins, that decrease cell proliferation and increase cell differentiation of a number of specialised cells of the body (e.g., osteoclastic precursors, enterocytes, keratinocytes, etc. (fao.org)
  • The research debate over vitamin D has focused partly on its roles in the body, and more recently on its optimal levels in the body and on the relationship of those levels to dietary intake. (whfoods.com)
  • For example, just getting older can reduce vitamin D levels because the mechanisms needed to synthesize its structure from cholesterol become less efficient through time, as is the case with most intrinsic synthesizing methods in the human body. (medscape.com)
  • As carotenoids such as beta-carotene are converted to vitamin A in the body, researchers have attempted to establish how much of the carotenoids in the diet are equal to a certain amount of retinol. (news-medical.net)
  • Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is arguably the only vitamin that gives you a visual cue as to its passage through your body. (whfoods.com)
  • Vit A is one of 4 vitamins (A,D,E,K) that can be toxic as it is fat soluble and gets stored in your body if you take an overdose. (news24.com)
  • For example, one study 8 , 9 found that for every 10% increase in body-mass index, there's a 4.2% reduction in blood levels of vitamin D. According to the authors of that particular study, obesity may in fact be a causal factor in the development of vitamin D deficiency. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The body uses vitamin C in many different ways. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin C is needed by the body to form collagen. (livescience.com)
  • According to the NIH, the body also uses vitamin C to make skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamins are organic substances essential for the normal functioning of the body. (buzzle.com)
  • Since the body does not produce most of these vitamins, it is important we provide them to our bodies through the food we eat. (buzzle.com)
  • Vitamin D is useful for our body in many ways. (buzzle.com)
  • Although our body can prepare vitamin D on its own, its levels are found to be low in some people. (buzzle.com)
  • This vitamin, is indeed one of the most vital vitamins our body needs. (buzzle.com)
  • Sulfa antibiotics increase elimination of vitamin C from the body by two to three times. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin D also regulates many other cellular functions in your body. (drugs.com)
  • Taking vitamin D might affect the way your body processes this cholesterol drug. (drugs.com)
  • It was later found that a mucoprotein enzyme produced by the stomach (by the parietal cells that also make hydrochloric acid) was also needed for vitamin B12 to be absorbed into the body from the intestines. (healthy.net)
  • Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin D is fat-soluble in the body. (everything2.com)
  • Vitamins are organic molecules and essential micronutrients required in small quantities for the proper functioning of body metabolism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Infants, people with fat malabsorption and abetalipoproteinemia (a condition that prevents the body from completely absorbing certain dietary fats) are more likely to have vitamin E deficiency. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin E plays an important role in the production of hormone-like substances called prostaglandins, which are responsible for regulating a variety of body processes, such as blood pressure and muscle contraction. (livescience.com)
  • During the past few years, study after study has raised doubts about what, if any, good vitamins actually do a body. (slate.com)
  • Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D provides a hormone-like function, regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, calcium and vitamin D build bones and keep them strong. (kidshealth.org)
  • Kids need vitamin D to build strong bones . (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D also helps bones heal after an injury or surgery. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is essential for strong teeth and bones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Osteomalacia refers to the softening of the bones that occurs in adults that are vitamin D deficient. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many older adults are deficient in vitamin D. This can affect hearing by causing poor function of the small bones in the ear that transmit sound. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It also uses this vitamin to repair and maintain cartilage, bones and teeth, to heal wounds and to form scar tissue. (livescience.com)
  • Some of the low vitamin D symptoms in women are weak bones, fatigue and blurred vision. (buzzle.com)
  • Isn't vitamin D only important for healthy bones? (buzzle.com)
  • Without vitamin D your bones can become soft, thin and brittle. (drugs.com)
  • Vitamin D is necessary for building and maintaining healthy bones. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin C maintains collagen, a protein necessary for the formation of skin, ligaments and bones. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Below is the daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 in micrograms (mcg). (familydoctor.org)
  • A few population-based studies have suggested that high intake of vitamin E in the diet is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. (mskcc.org)
  • Finally, recommended daily intake of vitamin D is controversial because scientists aren't certain about the relationship between blood levels of this vitamin and disease risk. (whfoods.com)
  • Fortification of some foods and beverages have not solved the vitamin D deficiency problem, and recent studies suggest that the regular intake of vitamin D may increase blood levels greater than weekly or monthly oral intakes of equivalent doses (Chel, Wijnhoven, Smit, Ooms, & Lips, 2008). (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency can result from insufficient intake of vitamin A rich foods, a liver disorder, or fat malabsorption. (newsmax.com)
  • Ask your healthcare provider about the benefits of Vitamin K before your delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • Health benefits of vitamin C that have been proposed but not scientifically proven include a lower risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and cataracts," said Ross. (livescience.com)
  • The medical community is split over the benefits of vitamin C on the heart. (livescience.com)
  • Findings on the benefits of vitamin D for cancer prevention are mixed. (drugs.com)
  • There are some specific immune, inflammatory, genetic, and reproductive-related benefits of vitamin A that can only be obtained from the retinoid forms of the vitamin. (whfoods.org)
  • High levels of vitamin C (millimolar concentrations) are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain. (nih.gov)
  • Coumarin derivatives, used in medicine to prevent blood coagulation in certain cases, act by antagonizing the action of vitamin K. In the deficiency state an abnormal length of time is needed for the blood to clot, and there may be hemorrhaging in various tissues. (infoplease.com)
  • Other tissues (e.g., skin) are directly affected by exogenous administration of vitamin D, though the physiologic significance of these effects is poorly understood. (fao.org)
  • What we've discovered is that, because of its pharmacokinetic differences, intravenous vitamin C, as opposed to oral vitamin C, kills some cancer cells without harming normal tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reason for such wide range is due to vitamin B12 are in our tissues plus in the blood so it is difficult to have a true reading. (medhelp.org)
  • Retrieved on June 18, 2021 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Vitamin-A-History.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biological activity [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • That's because there are very few foods that contain vitamin D. Foods that naturally contain vitamin D include fatty fish, fish oil, eggs, cheese, and butter. (familydoctor.org)
  • The term vitamin E refers to a family of eight naturally occurring homologues that are synthesised by plants from homogentisic acid. (fao.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is found naturally in some foods and is added to other fortified foods. (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin D is a steroid hormone naturally produces in the skin in summer exposure to UVB light. (google.com)
  • Very few foods have vitamin D naturally. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin D isn't naturally found in many foods, but you can get it from fortified milk, fortified cereal, and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines. (drugs.com)
  • Cobalamin is the naturally occurring vitamin B12. (healthy.net)
  • What Are Good Sources of Vitamin C? (osu.edu)
  • Many of the World's Healthiest vegetables rank as good sources of vitamin B1. (whfoods.com)
  • Very good sources of vitamin B1 in the seeds group include sunflower seeds and flax seeds. (whfoods.com)
  • If you look at the chart below, you'll see milk and yogurt represented as good sources of vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • Other good sources of vitamin C include tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Nuts such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts are good sources of vitamin E. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin E comes from a family of eight antioxidants. (buzzle.com)
  • There is concern that use of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, during chemotherapy might reduce the drug's effect. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It is one of three vitamins which also act as antioxidants. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Vitamin C is one of several antioxidants shown to play a key role in the prevention of many types of cancers. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • The news on antioxidants, the darlings of the vitamin menagerie, is even more troubling. (slate.com)
  • Many reactions, including the conversion of tryptophan to niacin and arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 require vitamin B6. (healthy.net)
  • Taking vitamin C with niacin, which might benefit people with high cholesterol, could reduce niacin's effect. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Thanks to the meals provided at her preschool, as well as multivitamins, vitamin A and deworming treatments provided by Vitamin Angels, Ana Estela now plays with vibrancy and smiles , even participating in her school's traditional dance group. (walgreens.com)
  • Multivitamins is a contraction of "Multiple Vitamins" and they are exactly that. (answers.com)
  • The one that garnered particular attention reported an increased risk of death in postmenopausal women taking multivitamins, as well as vitamin B6, folic acid, iron, magnesium, zinc, and copper. (go.com)
  • [15] [16] Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits , kiwifruit , broccoli , Brussels sprouts , raw bell peppers , and strawberries . (wikipedia.org)
  • K-vitamintilskud fremmer ogs det generelle knoglestofskifte hos aktive kvinder og forbedrer knoglegeometri og -styrke hos kvinder, der har overst et overgangsalderen.K1 vitamin findes prim rt i m rkegr nne gr ntsager som gr nk l, spinat, broccoli, avocado og i ganske sm m ngder i kornprodukter, k d, lever, nyre, mejeriprodukter og frugt som vindruer. (constantcontact.com)
  • If your vitamin B12 level is a little low, you might not have any symptoms. (familydoctor.org)
  • orthomol symptoms of vitamin d deficiency where I can read about it? (usda.gov)
  • At least one study has linked topical vitamin E to a reduction in psoriasis symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Explained below are a few causes and symptoms occurring due to the deficiency of this vital vitamin. (buzzle.com)
  • Keep reading this article to get details about the symptoms and treatment for vitamin D deficiency. (buzzle.com)
  • Today, vitamin D deficiency symptoms in men are discussed with a lot of interest. (buzzle.com)
  • Bring back the sunshine in your life with the sunshine vitamin D to nip the vitamin D deficiency symptoms in the bud. (buzzle.com)
  • This Buzzle write-up lists out the functions of each of these B vitamins, along with the symptoms of. (buzzle.com)
  • To be on the safer side, go through various symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. (buzzle.com)
  • Previous research suggested that among people with the joint disorder, those with higher levels of vitamin D in their blood tended to have a slower progression of symptoms. (reuters.com)
  • Use this simple tool to calculate your daily vitamin requirement and get to know more about its functions, sources and deficiency symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • The aim of the present analysis is to investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and self-reported current symptoms of pain in a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 2070 adults aged = 65 years living in the community in England in 2005. (chiro.org)
  • What were your symptoms associated with a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency? (medicinenet.com)
  • Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to the sun. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the video, Dr. Robert Heaney, John A Creighton University Professor Emeritus, addresses a question on the natural way to make vitamin D, "The most natural way to make vitamin D is to expose our skin to the sun particularly around midday when the intensity of the sun's rays will be at their maximum, particularly in the summertime. (prweb.com)
  • Another important question addressed in the video is, can sunbeds be used to make vitamin D, especially in winter? (prweb.com)
  • The small amount of UVB is all it takes to make vitamin D in your skin. (prweb.com)
  • During spring/summer the best time to make vitamin D is between 10 am and 2 pm. (prweb.com)
  • Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (and humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen , a protein important in the formation of connective tissue and in wound healing. (britannica.com)
  • C+ Collagen Deep Cream features 3-O vitamin C technology that quickly absorbs into skin to correct the appearance of dark spots and wrinkles while helping prevent the formation of future damage. (sephora.com)
  • Carrot seed oil balances dry or chapped skin, while helping fight age spots and sun damage, and vitamin C the formula's star multitasker visibly reduces dark spots and dullness, lightens skin, and jump-starts the natural collagen production process. (sephora.com)
  • The FNB's vitamin E recommendations are for alpha-tocopherol alone, the only form maintained in plasma. (nih.gov)
  • Also known as tocopherol or alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Up to 42% of the American adult population has low vitamin D levels, which can cause health problems ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (healthline.com)
  • D3 is the more powerful of the two types and raises vitamin D levels almost twice as much as D2 ( 6 , 7 ). (healthline.com)
  • However, if you live far north or south of the equator, your vitamin D levels may fluctuate depending on the season. (healthline.com)
  • In the same study, individuals who were vitamin D deficient needed 5,000 IU to reach blood levels above 30 ng/ml. (healthline.com)
  • Studies in postmenopausal women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml found that ingesting 800-2,000 IU raised blood levels above 20 ng/ml. (healthline.com)
  • All things considered, a daily vitamin D intake of 1,000-4,000 IU, or 25-100 micrograms, should be enough to ensure optimal blood levels in most people. (healthline.com)
  • What are the optimal blood levels of vitamin D? (healthline.com)
  • Relatively low levels of vitamin C (micromolar concentrations) are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva [ 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in Vitamin D levels were thought to offer an explanation. (constantcontact.com)
  • Two studies where then published which suggested there was no association between Vitamin D levels and prostate cancer. (constantcontact.com)
  • But somewhat concerning was a suggestion that very high levels of Vitamin D were associated with an increased risk of aggressive disease. (constantcontact.com)
  • Then in early 2009 The British Journal of Cancer published some very positive findings showing high Vitamin D levels had a very positive effect on the risk of death from prostate cancer. (constantcontact.com)
  • In this study, Vitamin D levels were measured in 160 patients with advanced prostate cancer. (constantcontact.com)
  • 20ng/ml), medium (20-32ng/ml) or high (>32ng/ml) Vitamin D levels. (constantcontact.com)
  • This is almost a seven fold increase in the risk of death in those with low compared to high vitamin D levels. (constantcontact.com)
  • After noting a prostate cancer patient PSA levels had dropped after the patient's wife had given him Vitamin D, Waxman started a small trial to study the effect in advanced prostate cancer. (constantcontact.com)
  • These two trials strongly suggest that at the very least, no prostate cancer patient should be left in a state of Vitamin D insufficiency and all patients should talk to their physician and ensure they have their levels checked. (constantcontact.com)
  • 1) Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case control study in the nordic countries. (constantcontact.com)
  • Most people with low vitamin B12 levels don't get enough from food sources. (familydoctor.org)
  • The 2012 results of an ongoing survey carried out by the Department of Health and the Food Standards Agency revealed that a quarter of the people who took part had low levels of vitamin D in their blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It has become difficult to identify a population of individuals that has sufficient blood levels of vitamin D. Why are so many people vitamin D deficient? (medscape.com)
  • Low levels of vitamin D are also found in individuals with larger amounts of belly fat or visceral obesity (Aasheim, Hofso, Hjelmesaeth, Birkeland, & Bohmer, 2008). (medscape.com)
  • Numerous theories abound as to why this is the case, such as hemodilution from greater blood volumes or the finding that adipose tissue is a greater storage site for vitamin D. Higher cholesterol levels may be associated with lower vitamin D blood levels, and conversely, cholesterol-lowering medications, such as statins, may increase vitamin D synthesis (Perez-Castrillon et al. (medscape.com)
  • The lack of reliable dietary sources that contain consistently higher levels of vitamin D has been an issue. (medscape.com)
  • however, it has not been substantiated through recent research demonstrating low blood levels of vitamin D in individuals residing in Florida and southern Arizona (Jacobs et al. (medscape.com)
  • 2005). Perhaps regular sun avoidance, aging, and obesity are independently or synergistically involved in lowering vitamin D levels in some of these geographic areas. (medscape.com)
  • The data suggests that those with low levels of sun exposure needed additional vitamin D to reach a target blood level of 50 nanomoles of vitamin D per liter of plasma. (usda.gov)
  • Even more amazing, one expert believes 25 per cent of breast cancer deaths could be avoided if the women had maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life. (abc.net.au)
  • In Europe it's estimated that 25% of women that die of breast cancer may not have died of breast cancer if they would have maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life and have had some sun exposure. (abc.net.au)
  • We think now that being able to maintain adequate vitamin D levels may be important for decreasing your risk of getting prostate cancer and breast cancer and colon cancer. (abc.net.au)
  • After a month, the patients blood pressure had returned to normal and their blood levels of vitamin D had doubled. (abc.net.au)
  • Glucose tolerance is restored when vitamin D levels return to normal. (springer.com)
  • The following table contains fruits and vegetables with high levels of vitamin C. (osu.edu)
  • People with a history of kidney stones should avoid high levels of vitamin C. (osu.edu)
  • The following table shows the levels of the vitamin associated with health risks. (news-medical.net)
  • Today we want to make you aware of a paper from Europe that challenged the age old myth that there is a U or J-shaped curve with respect to vitamin D at physiological levels - meaning that vitamin D helps conditions up to a point, but then if you have too much it makes the condition worse or increases the risk. (constantcontact.com)
  • Are results reported by vitamin D levels, instead of or in addition to dosage groups? (constantcontact.com)
  • We would love to publish some of the ways which testing and raising your vitamin D levels has made a change in your life. (constantcontact.com)
  • In this case, the authors standardized individual participant vitamin D levels from eight independent studies for their analysis on vitamin D and mortality. (constantcontact.com)
  • As shown in table 3 of the paper, there was a continued decrease in cardiovascular death as vitamin D levels increased. (constantcontact.com)
  • On the other side are vitamin D advocates, scientists and doctors who believe that sensible, non-burning sun exposure helps you achieve adequate vitamin D levels, which reduces your risk of a number of serious diseases without increasing your risk of skin cancer. (prweb.com)
  • Seminar attendees heard from Dr. Robert Heaney and Dr. Michael Holick, featured in the video, and other experts on the importance of sun exposure for maintaining optimal levels of vitamin D necessary for human health. (prweb.com)
  • Although some research suggests high activity levels in athletes may increase their vitamin and mineral needs, there are no official guidelines for micronutrient recommendations specific to athletes at this time, so individualized guidance is needed. (eatright.org)
  • What Causes Low Vitamin D Levels? (buzzle.com)
  • a diet that includes foods with high levels of vitamin C can provide several grams or more per day. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin C blood levels of smokers are much lower than those of nonsmokers given the same intakes. (healthy.net)
  • Research shows that low levels of vitamin D in the blood are associated with cognitive decline. (drugs.com)
  • Taking vitamin D and aluminum-containing phosphate binders, which may be used to treat high serum phosphate levels in people with chronic kidney disease, might cause harmful levels of aluminum in people with kidney failure in the long term. (drugs.com)
  • Taking vitamin D and aluminum-containing phosphate binders long term might cause harmful levels of aluminum in people with kidney failure. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Some studies also suggest that people who have higher levels of vitamin C in their diets have a lower risk of developing cataracts. (mayoclinic.org)
  • High levels of vitamin C might interfere with the results of certain tests, such as stool tests for occult blood or glucose screening tests. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking vitamin C with oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy might increase your estrogen levels. (mayoclinic.org)
  • McAlindon, however, disagreed, saying that while it's possible the higher levels of vitamin D in the blood could help knee pain, so far the results don't support that idea. (reuters.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Having higher vitamin B12 levels may protect against brain shrinkage in elderly people, according to a study published on Monday. (reuters.com)
  • In the study led by David Smith and Anna Vogiatzoglou of the University of Oxford in Britain, people in the upper third of vitamin B12 levels were six times less likely to experience brain shrinkage than those in the lowest third. (reuters.com)
  • The study involved 107 healthy people ages 61 to 87 who underwent scans to measure brain volume and gave blood samples to assess vitamin B12 levels once a year for up to five years. (reuters.com)
  • All of those in the study had vitamin B12 levels classified in what is considered the normal range, the researchers said. (reuters.com)
  • Smith said another study from Oxford that came out last year showed that lower vitamin B12 levels - but still within the normal range - were linked to cognitive impairment and a higher risk of later cognitive decline. (reuters.com)
  • A separate study led by Harvard University scientists in the journal Nature Genetics showed that common variations of a gene called FUT2 influence B12 vitamin levels in the blood. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers said the next step was to develop a test to measure NAD levels to identify which women were most at risk from having a baby with a birth defect, and to then ensure they had sufficient Vitamin B3. (yahoo.com)
  • Children with coeliac disease may benefit from routine evaluation of their vitamin A and D levels as they tend to lack both, say researchers in Turkey. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • People with extremely low blood levels of vitamin E may be also be at higher risk for cancer. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Although lower vitamin D levels are correlated with the Cobb angle, the relationship between vitamin D and AIS may not be casual. (chiro.org)
  • They found that those individuals with vitamin D levels BELOW 50 (nanomoles per liter) experienced a 53 percent increased risk for all-cause dementia, and a 69 percent increased risk for Alzheimer s disease. (chiro.org)
  • Particular advantages of the present study were the presence of directly measured vitamin D levels and a large and nationally representative sample. (chiro.org)
  • However, this activation requires sufficient levels of vitamin D to be effective. (chiro.org)
  • A 2015 study by the Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics of the Qingdao University Medical College found that vitamin E intake and high serum-tocopherol levels were linked to a decreased risk of age-related cataracts. (livescience.com)
  • This trait means that vitamin E can accumulate to toxic levels over time, so it's possible to overdose on this vitamin. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin D Mode: Free roam the levels and find the exit. (steampowered.com)
  • A study from the early 1990's found a possible link between getting vitamin K and developing childhood cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of death during that time was found to be significantly less for those in the medium and high Vitamin D groups. (constantcontact.com)
  • Another trial in patients with head and neck cancers found that patients who received vitamin E had a higher rate of second primary cancers compared with those on placebo, and that vitamin E may interfere with radiation therapy. (mskcc.org)
  • A review of the various factors that can cause vitamin D deficiency are found in Table 1 (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). (medscape.com)
  • It is of interest that the highest concentration of vitamin D is found in some heart-healthy fish, so patients can get "two for the price of one" by consuming fish high in omega-3 and vitamin D, such as salmon. (medscape.com)
  • They found giving infused vitamin C together with carboplatin and paclitaxel - two conventional chemotherapy drugs - stopped ovarian cancer in the lab and also reduced toxic side effects of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, although complementary and alternative therapy doctors continued to use it to combat cancer, conventional oncologists abandoned its use after clinical trials of orally administered vitamin C found it was ineffective against cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers found that, compared with the patients who did not receive vitamin C in addition to conventional chemotherapy, the toxic effects of the therapy tended to be less in the patients given vitamin C. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In another experiment, the researchers found vitamin C killed cancer cells in mice with ovarian cancer, but only at concentrations that can be achieved if given intravenously. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When they looked at what was happening at the molecular level, they found vitamin C in the fluid surrounding tumor cells acts as a "pro-oxidant," spurring formation of hydrogen peroxide, which kills cancer cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • On further investigation of this path, the researchers found a number of mechanisms through which, acting as a pro-oxidant, vitamin C induced cell death in ovarian cancer cells, including promoting damage to their DNA, without affecting healthy tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin C is found in the vegetables and fruits groups of MyPlate. (osu.edu)
  • The earliest clues to be discovered that led to the identification of Vitamin A and its deficiency date back as far as 1819, when a physiologist called Magendie found that malnourished dogs tended to develop corneal ulcers and their risk of death was increased. (news-medical.net)
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble substance, and is therefore found in few foods of plant origin. (news-medical.net)
  • Marginal vitamin B2 status has been found to impair the ability to make red blood cells, leading to a condition called anemia. (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin K2 is found in fermented products, organ meats, and high-fat dairy products or eggs from animals fed on green grass and plants. (metafilter.com)
  • Vitamin E is found in many moisturizers, and the oil may be used as a moisturizer to prevent or treat dry, flaking skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, studies on humans have not found any skin cancer prevention benefits associated with vitamin E. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The VITAL study itself, which followed patients for an average of 5.3 years, found no statistical difference in overall cancer rates among those who took vitamin D3, but there was a reduction in cancer-related deaths, which is what prompted this secondary analysis. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The history of vitamin B12 deficiency goes back to almost hundred years, when it was found that it causes pernicious anemia. (buzzle.com)
  • C also stands for citrus, where this vitamin is found. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin B12 is found in significant amounts only in the animal protein foods. (healthy.net)
  • Found in North West Florida Vitamin P plays a big role in making sure you and all your friends are always having a great time. (urbandictionary.com)
  • A vitamin C price fixing case that has found its way into the US Supreme Court could have wide ranging effects for the price of other vitamins and ingredients as well, experts say. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils (most notably wheat germ oil), sweet potatoes, avocados, nuts, sunflower seeds and soybeans. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • However, little 7-dehydrocholesterol is found in the skin of cats and dogs (and likely other carnivores), and therefore little vitamin D3 is produced in the skin (How et al. (dsm.com)
  • Also, a 2015 study published by the U.S. National Library of Medicine found that vitamin E aids in muscle repair after exercise, said Somer. (livescience.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns, whether breastfed or formula fed, receive a one-time intramuscular shot of vitamin K 1 (phytonadione) at a dose of 0.5 to 1.0 milligrams shortly after birth (this is usually given during the birth hospitalization). (cdc.gov)
  • An oral dose of vitamin K is not recommended. (cdc.gov)
  • High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? (scienceblogs.com)
  • A clinical trial in prostate cancer is being conduced in Canada using a dose of 40,000IU Vitamin D3 per day. (constantcontact.com)
  • The dose of vitamin D required for these groups is outlined below. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A slightly higher dose of vitamin D, even as little as a total of 700 IU for those over age 65, can significantly reduce age-related fractures when taken with 500 mg of calcium per day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He told the BBC: 'The bottom line is studies show changes in the ability to adapt to exercise could be impaired by high-dose vitamins, but until there are studies showing them affecting athletic performance people shouldn't be worried. (bbc.co.uk)
  • First, it is stated that there was no difference between high-dose vitamin D and low dose vitamin D. What defines high-dose and low dose? (indiatimes.com)
  • What would be the ideal dose of vitamin D? (indiatimes.com)
  • I was wondering if you think that Vitamin B12 is needed and what kind and what dose would you recommend. (medhelp.org)
  • Prolintane is often referred to as Vitamin P and can go for as much as $20 dollars per 40mg dose. (urbandictionary.com)
  • For the new study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, he and his colleagues randomly assigned 156 of their patients with knee osteoarthritis to take a daily dose of vitamin D or a vitamin-free placebo for two years. (reuters.com)
  • It has been reported that only 50% of an oral dose of vitamin D is absorbed. (dsm.com)
  • [5] Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with all vitamins, it's best to get our D through the foods we eat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people get very little vitamin D from the foods they eat. (familydoctor.org)
  • There are also foods and drinks that have been fortified with vitamin D, such as milk, milk alternatives, some brands of orange juice, and some vitamin-fortified breakfast cereals. (familydoctor.org)
  • Babies and toddlers who are given non-milk food products or foods that are not fortified with vitamin D. (familydoctor.org)
  • You can prevent a vitamin B12 deficiency by eating foods rich in B12. (familydoctor.org)
  • What foods should I eat to get more vitamin B12? (familydoctor.org)
  • What foods can I eat that are high in vitamin B12 if I'm vegetarian or vegan? (familydoctor.org)
  • Adding vitamin D to foods is called "fortifying. (kidshealth.org)
  • In order to consume more of the vitamin, known to reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other health conditions to which African-Americans already have a higher predisposition, diets must be rich in foods containing vitamin D. It's important to read the nutritional labels on sources of vitamin D such as milk and fruit juices to determine the amount supplied. (usda.gov)
  • Because vitamin C is easily destroyed by reactions with oxygen , especially in neutral or alkaline solution or at elevated temperatures, it is difficult to preserve in foods. (britannica.com)
  • Eating a variety of foods containing vitamin C is the best way to get enough each day. (osu.edu)
  • Vitamin C can be lost from foods during preparation, cooking or storage. (osu.edu)
  • Yet there is a very simple reason for this high risk of deficiency despite the widespread availability of vitamin B1 in foods, and that reason is food processing. (whfoods.com)
  • At each step along the way, from storage though refining up through cooking, we lose a big portion of the vitamin B1 content of foods. (whfoods.com)
  • For these reasons, vitamin B1 makes a good case study for the wisdom of the World's Healthiest Foods approach of minimal processing and low impact cooking techniques. (whfoods.com)
  • Of the foods listed on our site, we have one excellent source of vitamin B1 (asparagus), 10 very good sources, and 39 good sources. (whfoods.com)
  • All of the World's Healthiest Foods, with the exceptions of a few spices and sweeteners, contain at least some vitamin B1. (whfoods.com)
  • Below are some further details about vitamin B1 and the World's Healthiest Foods. (whfoods.com)
  • The following chart shows the World's Healthiest Foods that are either an excellent, very good, or good source of vitamin B1. (whfoods.com)
  • The World's Healthiest Foods are generally very rich in vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • In fact, well over half of the foods profiled on our site contain at least 5% of the Dietary Recommended Intake (DRI) for vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • We rate five of our foods as excellent sources of vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • In terms of food groups, we see almost all of them containing foods that are contributors to vitamin B2 nutrition. (whfoods.com)
  • Involved in nearly 100 metabolic pathways, vitamin B6 is essential to the breakdown of foods. (eatright.org)
  • Fortified foods including breakfast cereals, nutritional yeast and plant-based meat alternatives provide vitamin B12. (eatright.org)
  • The best women's mufti-vitamins are those that are derived from whole foods. (answers.com)
  • Vitamin C is one of the least stable vitamins, and cooking can destroy much of this water-soluble vitamin from foods. (healthy.net)
  • Many foods contain vitamin C, and many important functions are mediated by it as well. (healthy.net)
  • The mineral copper, in the water or in the cookware, diminishes vitamin C content of foods. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin B6 in its several forms is widely available in nature, though not many foods have very high amounts. (healthy.net)
  • Since it is lost in cooking and in the refining or processing of foods, it is not the easiest B vitamin to obtain in sufficient amounts from the diet, especially if we eat much processed food, as it is not one of the vitamins replaced in "enriched" flour products such as cereals and pastries. (healthy.net)
  • People living in the higher latitudes (areas more than 52 degrees) are not exposed to enough UV radiation in the winter months for sufficient vitamin D production, and so fortified foods are necessary. (everything2.com)
  • Smith said that could be achieved by eating plenty of foods that are a good source of vitamin B12 such as milk and other dairy products, fish, meat and fortified breakfast cereals. (reuters.com)
  • Anyone needing to focus on vitamin A benefits related to eye health (for example, prevention of age-related macular degeneration) would need to develop a meal plan that not only included foods that were rich in vitamin A, but more specifically, rich in these two specific carotenoid forms of the vitamin. (whfoods.org)
  • Read the food nutrition labels to learn if the products you choose are sources of vitamin D. (familydoctor.org)
  • Citrus fruits and fresh vegetables are the best dietary sources of the vitamin. (britannica.com)
  • Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources of vegetable (vitamin D 2 , also known as ergocalciferol) or animal origin (vitamin D 3 , also known as cholecalciferol). (springer.com)
  • Human and cows' milk are poor sources of vitamin D. In many parts of the world, especially North America, fluid and dried milk, as well as some margarines, butter and cereals are supplemented with vitamin D. However, the real vitamin D content is frequently quite different from the labelling standard and often insufficient to reach the daily requirements for vitamin D (400-600 IU/day). (springer.com)
  • As a rule of thumb, legumes and vegetables are the richest whole food sources of vitamin B1. (whfoods.com)
  • We would encourage you, though, to explore other sources of vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • Some sources consider fish eggs to also be a good source of vitamin K2. (metafilter.com)
  • Citrus fruits are excellent sources of vitamin C. (livescience.com)
  • Dietary sources of vitamin C include many fruits and vegetables. (livescience.com)
  • Both are superb sources of ongoing vitamin D research. (indiatimes.com)
  • The best sources of vitamin B6 are meats, particularly organ meats, such as liver, and the whole grains, especially wheat. (healthy.net)
  • Each pad delivers a powerful punch of kakadu plum, one of the richest natural vitamin C sources known on Earth. (sephora.com)
  • What are the Sources of Vitamin F? (medindia.net)
  • Good dietary sources of vitamin E include nuts, such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, and vegetable oils, such as sunflower, wheat germ, safflower, corn and soybean oils, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). (livescience.com)
  • Including sources of vitamin E in your diet brings many benefits. (livescience.com)
  • If the tests show you are deficient in vitamin B12 injections work the best. (medhelp.org)
  • Can you take prenatal vitamins with multi vitamin? (answers.com)
  • But the prenatal vitamin space targeting expectant mothers has been slow to innovate in this area, according to prenatal. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • the liver metabolizes and excretes the other vitamin E forms [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Deficiency occurs in hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant, in liver damage, and in cases where the vitamin is not absorbed properly by the intestine. (infoplease.com)
  • It is now firmly established that vitamin D 3 is metabolised first in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D or calcidiol) ( 2 ) and subsequently in the kidneys to 1,25-(OH) 2 D ( 3 ) to produce a biologically active hormone. (fao.org)
  • In short: the role of our liver cells and kidney cells in creating fully active vitamin D adds further complications when researchers try to predict vitamin D status. (whfoods.com)
  • associated with a lack of vitamin K, which is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver cells. (britannica.com)
  • it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency … Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. (lewrockwell.com)
  • People with Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis or an inability to secrete bile from the liver into the digestive tract may need to take water-soluble, supplementalforms of vitamin E to avoid digestive problems, according to the NIH. (livescience.com)
  • Vitamin K is necessary for the production of clotting factors in the liver including active prothrombin (factory II), proconvertin (factor VII), plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX), and Stuart factor (factor X). The FDA approved phytonadione 1940. (medicinenet.com)
  • Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Because vitamin D can be made in the skin, it should not strictly be called a vitamin, and some nutritional texts refer to the substance as a prohormone and to the two forms as cholecalciferol (D 3 ) or ergocalciferol (D 2 ). (fao.org)
  • Originally, recommended intake for vitamin D by the National Academy of Sciences was approximately 200 IU (5 micrograms of cholecalciferol). (whfoods.com)
  • Second is our knowledge that cholecalciferol from our skin cells is not the same as fully active vitamin D. Fully active vitamin D requires two additional steps. (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is likely when the serum level of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol drops below 30 nmol/L. This is the inactive storage form of the vitamin. (news-medical.net)
  • The cholecalciferol formed by the UV irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is removed from the skin into the circulatory system by the blood transport protein for vitamin D, the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) (Norman and Henry, 2007) then becomes immediately available for further metabolism (Imawari et al. (dsm.com)
  • Many types of vegetables are rich in vitamin B2. (whfoods.com)
  • Our Ginger Yogurt with Fruit is quite rich in vitamin B2, providing almost 40% of the RDA. (whfoods.com)
  • Oral vitamin K is not consistently absorbed through the stomach and intestines, and it does not provide adequate amounts for the breastfed infant. (cdc.gov)
  • Maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D is important for all stages of life. (familydoctor.org)
  • Adults 70 years old and younger need 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day. (familydoctor.org)
  • Adults over the age of 70 need 800 IUs of vitamin D a day. (familydoctor.org)
  • The current recommended daily allowance of vitamin D for U.S. children and adults (1 - 70 yr of age) is 600 international units. (usda.gov)
  • I would estimate minimum 25% of adults in the United States, Europe and probably even in Australia are vitamin D deficient. (abc.net.au)
  • The primary message [of our study] is that vitamin D may reduce the chance of developing metastatic or fatal cancer among adults without a diagnosis of cancer,' study co-author Dr. Paulette Chandler told UPI. (lewrockwell.com)
  • For most adults, the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D is 600 to 800 IU. (reuters.com)
  • To improve the innate immune system of AD patients, we studied immune stimulation of macrophages by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3(1,25D3) in combination with curcuminoids. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Scientists think that vitamin E also inhibits a molecule called protein kinase C, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in smooth muscle, platelets, and monocytes (a type of immune cell). (mskcc.org)
  • The vitamin also helps in stimulating the immune system . (britannica.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and receptors for its activated form-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells. (springer.com)
  • Together, we're providing vitamin A to children unable to obtain sufficient amounts from their diet to help prevent blindness and strengthen the immune system. (walgreens.com)
  • In addition to providing cell protection, vitamin E is vital to a functioning immune system. (livescience.com)
  • 2)Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: A nested case-control study. (constantcontact.com)
  • Vitamin D is involved in many of your body's functions. (healthline.com)
  • However, African-Americans have more melanin in their skin, resulting in the reduction of the body's ability to make the vitamin from sun exposure. (usda.gov)
  • Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Anything that blocks UV rays (such as sunscreen or smog ) can block the body's production of vitamin D. (everything2.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is common in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, and a low 25(OH)D level is significantly associated with an increased risk of having metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, little is known regarding whether vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in the heightened prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other metabolic disorders among Asian individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The study, published in JAMA Network Open, is a secondary analysis of the VITAL Study 4 which, in part, sought to determine whether taking 2,000 IUs of vitamin D per day would reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease or stroke in people who did not have a prior history of these diseases. (lewrockwell.com)
  • For this reason, Dr. Pauling and others feel that our bodies need somewhere between 2,000 and 9,000 mg. of vitamin C daily. (healthy.net)
  • The vitamin D doses started at 2,000 international units (IU) per day and were increased to as high as 8,000 IU daily in some patients. (reuters.com)
  • Cobalamin, also known as B 12 , is a member of the water-soluble family of B vitamins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Generally a balanced B-complex vitamin is preferable to taking high doses of cobalamin unless there is a specific indication for it, such as megaloblastic anemia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin B 12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences. (bmj.com)
  • We searched PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "vitamin B 12 deficiency" and "cobalamin deficiency", and hand selected the most relevant and appropriate articles. (bmj.com)
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is named the "red vitamin," as it is a red crystalline compound. (healthy.net)
  • Approximately 70%-90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30-180 mg/day. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin-E-replete endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels are better able to resist blood-cell components adhering to this surface. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin E also increases the expression of two enzymes that suppress arachidonic acid metabolism, thereby increasing the release of prostacyclin from the endothelium, which, in turn, dilates blood vessels and inhibits platelet aggregation [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin K is needed to form blood clots and to stop bleeding. (cdc.gov)
  • If you take blood thinners , you need to be careful about how much vitamin K you get. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. (infoplease.com)
  • Both can be derived from the synthetic compound menadione (sometimes called vitamin K 3 ), a yellow crystalline solid that is as potent in its ability to promote blood clotting as the natural vitamins. (infoplease.com)
  • Your doctor may want to test your level of vitamin D. This can be done through a blood test (inserting a small needle into your vein and taking a sample of blood to send to a lab). (familydoctor.org)
  • Vitamin E is transported in the blood by the plasma lipoproteins and erythrocytes. (fao.org)
  • The 1,25-(OH) 2 D, like all vitamin D metabolites, is present in the blood complexed to vitamin D binding protein, a specific a-globulin. (fao.org)
  • Vitamin E also lessens the blood's ability to clot by suppressing the number of adhesion molecules on the lining of the blood vessel walls. (mskcc.org)
  • In addition, vitamin E causes the release of prostacyclin, which itself dilates the blood vessels and inhibits blood clotting. (mskcc.org)
  • However, as stated previously, the exact determination of minimum vitamin D intake should come from a blood test given in the fall or winter. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin K deficiency causes impaired clotting of the blood and internal bleeding, even without injury. (britannica.com)
  • The "red vitamin" is very important to the blood. (healthy.net)
  • Vitamin B12 helps in the formation of red blood cells and is important for the maintenance of the central nervous system. (reuters.com)
  • Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, the Netherlands, measured vitamin B 6 in the blood of 11 men who spent successive three-week periods drinking water, red wine, Dutch gin (genever) or lager with meals. (newscientist.com)
  • In addition, vitamin E plays an important function in the formation of red blood cells and the use of vitamin K. Some studies have shown that vitamin E may raise one's resistance to infectious diseases and protect against cataracts. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • This study investigated vitamin D exposure in umbilical cord blood (CB) and allergy risk in the first year of life. (chiro.org)
  • Vitamin K plays a crucial role in blood coagulation and the formation of blood clots . (medicinenet.com)
  • Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some juices and ready-to-eat cereals have vitamin C added. (osu.edu)
  • Because of ethnic differences in vitamin D metabolism and its nutritional status indicated by previous studies ( 3 , 13 ), it is not clear whether the findings from western populations could be extrapolated directly to Asian individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism [ 1 , 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers ) that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B 12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell metabolism, thus a deficiency may lead to disruption of DNA and cell metabolism and thus have serious clinical consequences. (bmj.com)
  • Vitamin B2, like the other B vitamins, is involved in energy metabolism. (whfoods.com)
  • A variety of vitamins are needed in metabolism. (eatright.org)
  • Production and metabolism of vitamin D (both D2 and D3) that is necessary to activate the target organs are illustrated in Figure 3-1. (dsm.com)
  • By itself vitamin D is biologically inactive and must be converted to a hormonal form in a two-step process before it can function as the hormone 1,25-(OH)2 D3. (dsm.com)
  • Although excess vitamin C will mostly be eliminated in urine, high doses can cause headaches, diarrhea, frequent urination and nausea. (osu.edu)
  • Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining good health. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to impair insulin synthesis and secretion in humans and in animal models of diabetes, suggesting a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • This review provides an overview of the data available on the role of vitamin D in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and discusses possible applications of the molecule or its synthetic analogues [ 9 , 10 ] in clinical disease. (springer.com)
  • In fact, you could easily make the case that vitamin B1 plays the most critical role of all, acting as the gate keeper between the less efficient step of early carbohydrate breakdown and the very energy-rich Krebs' cycle and electron transport chain. (whfoods.com)
  • In addition to its role in energy production, vitamin B1 plays a key role in the structure and integrity of the cells of the brain. (whfoods.com)
  • Like all the B vitamins, vitamin B2 plays a key role in energy production. (whfoods.com)
  • Vitamin K2, a fat-soluble vitamin also known as menaquinone, was long thought to be a different version of the more commonly known Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, best known for its role in clotting). (metafilter.com)
  • Early research suggests that vitamin D might play a role in cognitive health. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Further studies are required to determine whether vitamin D definitely plays a casual role in the etiopathogenesis of AIS and whether vitamin D deficiency is related to the tethering of the nerve roots and postural control dysfunctions observed in some AIS subjects. (chiro.org)
  • Insufficient vitamin D is also connected to osteoporosis. (drugs.com)
  • Insufficient vitamin D is also connected to osteoporosis and some types of cancer. (mayoclinic.org)