Alcoholic Neuropathy: A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U2 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U2 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the branch point, which associates with a heat- and RNAase-sensitive factor in an early step of splicing.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Pyridoxal Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Schilling Test: A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.CobamidesProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Transcription Factor RelB: A transcription factor that takes part in the NF-kappa-B complex by interacting with NF-KAPPA B P50 SUBUNIT or NF-KAPPA B P52 SUBUNIT. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION that is involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the rel gene (GENES, REL). They are expressed predominately in hematopoietic cells and may play a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Rel frequently combines with other related proteins (NF-KAPPA B, I-kappa B, relA) to form heterodimers that regulate transcription. Rearrangement or overexpression of c-rel can cause tumorigenesis.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. (1/700)

BACKGROUND: In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration issued a regulation requiring all enriched grain products to be fortified with folic acid to reduce the risk of neural-tube defects in newborns. Fortification (140 microg per 100 g) began in 1996, and the process was essentially complete by mid-1997. METHODS: To assess the effect of folic acid fortification on folate status, we measured plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations (a sensitive marker of folate status) using blood samples from the fifth examination (January 1991 to December 1994) of the Framingham Offspring Study cohort for baseline values and the sixth examination (January 1995 to August 1998) for follow-up values. We divided the cohort into two groups on the basis of the date of their follow-up examination: the study group consisted of 350 subjects who were seen after fortification (September 1997 to March 1998), and the control group consisted of 756 subjects who were seen before fortification (January 1995 to September 1996). RESULTS: Among the subjects in the study group who did not use vitamin supplements, the mean folate concentrations increased from 4.6 to 10.0 ng per milliliter (11 to 23 nmol per liter) (P<0.001) from the baseline visit to the follow-up visit, and the prevalence of low folate concentrations (<3 ng per milliliter [7 nmol per liter]) decreased from 22.0 to 1.7 percent (P< 0.001). The mean total homocysteine concentration decreased from 10.1 to 9.4 micromol per liter during this period (P<0.001), and the prevalence of high homocysteine concentrations (>13 micromol per liter) decreased from 18.7 to 9.8 percent (P<0.001). In the control group, there were no statistically significant changes in concentrations of folate or homocysteine. CONCLUSIONS: The fortification of enriched grain products with folic acid was associated with a substantial improvement in folate status in a population of middle-aged and older adults.  (+info)

Impaired anticoagulant response to infusion of thrombin in atherosclerotic monkeys associated with acquired defects in the protein C system. (2/700)

To examine the effects of atherosclerosis on the protein C anticoagulant pathway in vivo, we measured anticoagulant responses to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or activated protein C (APC) in cynomolgus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were fed either a control diet (n=18) or an atherogenic diet (n=12) that produces both hypercholesterolemia and moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A third group (n=8) was fed an atherogenic diet for 15 months, and then fed the atherogenic diet supplemented with B vitamins for 6 months to correct the hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. The plasma homocyst(e)ine level was higher in monkeys fed the atherogenic diet (9.6+/-1.0 micromol/L) than in monkeys fed the control diet (3.7+/-0.2 micromol/L) or the atherogenic diet with B vitamins (3.6+/-0.2 micromol/L) (P<0.001). Infusion of thrombin produced a much greater prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time in monkeys fed the control diet (52+/-10 seconds) than in monkeys fed the atherogenic diet either with (24+/-4 seconds) or without (27+/-5 seconds) supplemental B vitamins (P<0.02). Thrombin-dependent generation of circulating APC was higher in control (294+/-17 U/mL) than in atherosclerotic (240+/-14 U/mL) monkeys (P<0.05), although levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, D-dimer, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were similar in each group. Injection of human APC produced a similar prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time in control (31+/-3 seconds) and atherosclerotic (29+/-2 seconds) monkeys. These findings provide evidence for impaired anticoagulation, due partly to decreased formation of APC, in atherosclerosis. The blunted anticoagulant response to thrombin in hypercholesterolemic monkeys was not corrected by supplementation with B vitamins.  (+info)

Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. (3/700)

Some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome say they benefit from taking vitamin supplements. We assessed functional status for the B vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine in 12 vitamin-untreated CFS patients and in 18 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Vitamin-dependent activities--aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for pyridoxine, glutathione reductase (GTR) for riboflavin, transketolase (TK) for thiamine--were measured in erythrocyte haemolysates before and after in-vitro addition of the relevant vitamin. For all three enzymes basal activity (U/g Hb) was lower in CFS patients than in controls: AST 2.84 (SD 0.62) vs 4.61 (1.43), P < 0.001; GTR 6.13 (1.89) vs 7.42 (1.25), P < 0.04; TK 0.50 (0.13) vs 0.60 (0.07), P < 0.04. This was also true of activated values: AST 4.91 (0.54) vs 7.89 (2.11), P < 0.001; GTR 8.29 (1.60) vs 10.0 (1.80), P < 0.001; TK 0.56 (0.19) vs 0.66 (0.08), P < 0.07. The activation ratios, however, did not differ between the groups. These data provide preliminary evidence of reduced functional B vitamin status, particularly of pyridoxine, in CFS patients.  (+info)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone increases hydrolysis of B-6 vitamers in swine adrenal glands. (4/700)

Shipping stress is an economic problem because of its effect on meat quality. Because shipping increases plasma cortisol and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate interacts with steroid hormones, we examined the interaction between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and vitamin B-6 metabolism in pigs. Six crossbred pigs with ear vein catheters received 50 IU of porcine ACTH intravenously at 3-h intervals from 0800 to 2100 h on d 1-3 and 100 IU intramuscularly at 0800, 1400 and 2000 h on d 6 and 7. Controls received saline. ACTH had no effect on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in adrenal tissue but decreased pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate from 6.1 +/- 0.7 to 4.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/g (P < 0.05). Adrenal pyridoxal and pyridoxamine concentrations were 0.4 +/- 0.1 nmol/g in controls and 1.1 +/- 0.3 and 1.3 +/- 0.5 nmol/g, respectively, in ACTH-treated pigs (P < 0.01). Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate phosphatase activity [median (25-75 percentile value)] at pH 7.4 in adrenal tissue was 66.6 (47.8-75.5) nmol/(g. min) in the controls and 764 (626-771) in the ACTH-treated pigs (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in pyridoxal kinase activity. However, kinase activity in the adrenals was about twice as high as in other tissues. These data suggest an active turnover of vitamin B-6 in adrenal tissue.  (+info)

A survey of the current clinical practice of psychiatrists and accident and emergency specialists in the United Kingdom concerning vitamin supplementation for chronic alcohol misusers. (5/700)

Although it is well known that B-vitamin deficiencies directly affecting the brain are common in alcohol misuse, no concise guidelines on the use of vitamin supplements in alcohol misusers currently exist in the UK. The purpose of this study was to assess current practice and opinion among UK physicians. Questionnaires were completed by a total of 427 physicians comprising Accident and Emergency (A&E) specialists and psychiatrists, with a response rate of 25%. The main findings were that vitamin deficiency was perceived as being uncommon amongst alcohol misusers (<25%) and there was no consensus as to which B vitamins are beneficial in treatment or the best method of administration of B-vitamin supplementation. The majority of psychiatrists favoured oral administration for prophylaxis against the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol misusers and parenteral therapy in patients with signs of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Whilst only just over half the A&E specialists expressed a preference, most favoured parenteral therapy in both cases. Most respondents did not currently have a unit policy/protocol on the management of vitamin supplementation in chronic alcohol misusers. Overall, the findings suggest that there is wide variation in current practice and highlight the need for guidelines in this area.  (+info)

Alzheimer disease: protective factors. (6/700)

Approximately 6-8% of all persons aged >65 y have Alzheimer disease and the prevalence of the disease is increasing. Any intervention strategy aimed at decreasing risks or delaying the onset of the disease will therefore have a substantial effect on health care costs. Nutrition seems to be one of the factors that may play a protective role in Alzheimer disease. Many studies suggest that oxidative stress and the accumulation of free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Several studies have shown the existence of a correlation between cognitive skills and the serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and, more recently, homocysteine. However, nutritional factors have to be studied not alone but with the other factors related to Alzheimer disease: genetics, estrogen, antiinflammatory drug use, and socioeconomic variables. The objective of this article was to review recent studies in this field.  (+info)

Nutrients and HIV: part two--vitamins A and E, zinc, B-vitamins, and magnesium. (7/700)

There is compelling evidence that micronutrient deficiencies can profoundly affect immunity; micronutrient deficiencies are widely seen in HIV, even in asymptomatic patients. Direct relationships have been found between deficiencies of specific nutrients, such as vitamins A and B12, and a decline in CD4 counts. Deficiencies appear to influence vertical transmission (vitamin A) and may affect progression to AIDS (vitamin A, B12, zinc). Correction of deficiencies has been shown to affect symptoms and disease manifestation (AIDS dementia complex and B12; diarrhea, weight loss, and zinc), and certain micronutrients have demonstrated a direct anti-viral effect in vitro (vitamin E and zinc). The previous article in this series focused on selenium and beta carotene deficiencies in HIV/AIDS. This literature review elucidates how deficiencies of the micronutrients zinc, magnesium, vitamins A, E, and specific B vitamins relate to HIV symptomology and progression, and clearly illustrates the need for nutritional supplementation in HIV disease.  (+info)

Correlation between plasma total homocysteine and copper in patients with peripheral vascular disease. (8/700)

BACKGROUND: Increased concentrations of both plasma total homocysteine and copper are separately associated with cardiovascular disease. Correlations between plasma total homocysteine, trace elements, and vitamins in patients with peripheral vascular disease have not been investigated. METHODS: The concentrations of trace elements in plasma were determined by the multielement analytical technique of total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Plasma total homocysteine was determined by HPLC. RESULTS: In the univariate and multivariate regression analyses, copper was positively correlated with plasma total homocysteine in all subjects (coefficient +/- SE, 0.347 +/- 0.113; P = 0.0026 and coefficient +/- SE, 0.422 +/- 0.108; P = 0.0002, respectively), and in patients with peripheral vascular disease (coefficient +/- SE, 0.370 +/- 0.150; P = 0.016; and coefficient +/- SE, 0.490 +/- 0.151; P = 0.0025, respectively). Correlation between copper and plasma total homocysteine was not detected in healthy control subjects. The concentration of calcium in plasma (67.5 vs 80. 8 microg/g) was significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects (P = 0.02). When the patients were divided into groups, the patients with suprainguinal lesions had significantly higher copper concentrations (P = 0.04) and significantly lower selenium and calcium concentrations (P = 0.01 and 0.008, respectively) than the healthy subjects. Patients had higher concentrations of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance than the healthy subjects (P <0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The concentrations of plasma total homocysteine and alpha-tocopherol were significantly higher, and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and beta-carotene were lower in the patients than the healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the atherogenicity of homocysteine may be related to copper-dependent interactions.  (+info)

  • Vitamin B-12, or methylcobalamin, has long been studied for its relationship to Alzheimer's disease, dementia and general cognitive decline, the National Institutes of Health says. (livestrong.com)
  • The roles of the B vitamins in the body are varied, and deficiencies can cause serious problems. (livestrong.com)
  • B vitamins serve as coenzymes, which are biochemical cofactors that are necessary for a wide range of chemical reactions in the body. (nowfoods.com)
  • The "coenzyme" form of a B vitamin refers to its biologically active form in the human body. (nowfoods.com)
  • Synthetic/inorganic sources of B-vitamins are not absorbed and digested by the body. (dherbs.com)
  • This powerful B vitamin combination formula supplies B vitamins in their most bioavailable (coenzymated) forms, so the body does not have to convert (phosphorylate) them in order to be used in biochemical reactions. (alimillerrd.com)
  • We've fostered long-standing relationships with the world's top ingredient suppliers, and we source only premium quality ingredients for all NOW products, including our vitamin line. (nowfoods.com)
  • Side effects of vitamin B-12 include primarily neurological manifestations such as numbness or tingling in the right arm or right side of the face, anxiety attacks and heart palpitations. (livestrong.com)