A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)
Irradiation directly from the sun.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 1.4.3.5.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
An infant during the first month after birth.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A neuropathy due to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY or to excessive NITROUS OXIDE inhalation. It is associated with overproduction of the myelinolytic TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Financial assistance for the impoverished elderly through public funding of programs, services, and individual income supplements.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B-12, and folate in elderly women. (1/560)

BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is 1 of the 4 most prevalent chronic conditions in the elderly. However, the biological basis of age-related hearing loss is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that age-related hearing loss may be associated with poor vitamin B-12 and folate status. DESIGN: A thorough audiometric assessment was conducted in 55 healthy women aged 60-71 y. Hearing function was determined by the average of pure-tone air conduction thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz and was categorized into 2 groups for logistic regression analyses: normal hearing (<20 dB hearing level; n = 44) and impaired hearing (> or = 20 dB hearing level; n = 11). RESULTS: Mean age was the same (65 y) for the normal hearing and impaired hearing groups. Pure-tone averages were inversely correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.58, P = 0.0001) and red cell folate (r = -0.37, P = 0.01). Women with impaired hearing had 38% lower serum vitamin B-12 (236 compared with 380 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.008) and 31% lower red cell folate (425 compared with 619 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.02) than women with normal hearing. Among participants who did not take supplements containing vitamin B-12 or folate, women with impaired hearing had 48% lower serum vitamin B-12 (156 compared with 302 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0007) and 43% lower red cell folate (288 compared with 502 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.001) than women with normal hearing. CONCLUSION: Poor vitamin B-12 and folate status may be associated with age-related auditory dysfunction.  (+info)

Ambulatory management of common forms of anemia. (2/560)

Anemia is a prevalent condition with a variety of underlying causes. Once the etiology has been established, many forms of anemia can be easily managed by the family physician. Iron deficiency, the most common form of anemia, may be treated orally or, rarely, parenterally. Vitamin B12 deficiency has traditionally been treated with intramuscular injections, although oral and intranasal preparations are also available. The treatment of folate deficiency is straightforward, relying on oral supplements. Folic acid supplementation is also recommended for women of child-bearing age to reduce their risk of neural tube defects. Current research focuses on folate's role in reducing the risk of premature cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. (3/560)

BACKGROUND: Cobalamin deficiency has been described in children consuming macrobiotic diets. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether moderate consumption of animal products is sufficient for achieving normal cobalamin function in 73 adolescents who had received a macrobiotic diet until 6 y of age and had then switched to a lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian, or omnivorous diet (macrobiotic adolescents). DESIGN: Hematologic indexes and serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA), total homocysteine (tHcy), and folate were measured. Current consumption frequency of animal products and cobalamin intake from dairy products were assessed by questionnaire. Data from 94 age-matched adolescents who received an omnivorous diet from birth were used as a reference. RESULTS: Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower and concentrations of MMA and folate and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly higher in macrobiotic adolescents than in control adolescents: of macrobiotic adolescents, 21% had abnormal MMA concentrations (>0.41 micromol/L), 37% had abnormal cobalamin concentrations (<218 pmol/L), 10% had abnormal tHcy concentrations (> 12.8 micromol/L), and 15% had abnormal MCV (> 89 fL). In macrobiotic adolescents, dairy products (200 g milk or yogurt and 22 g cheese/d) supplied on average 0.95 microg cobalamin/d; additionally, these adolescents consumed fish, meat, or chicken 2-3 times/wk. In girls, meat consumption contributed more to cobalamin status than the consumption of dairy products, whereas in boys these food groups were equally important. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of the formerly strict macrobiotic adolescents still had impaired cobalamin function. Thus, moderate consumption of animal products is not sufficient for restoring normal cobalamin status in subjects with inadequate cobalamin intake during the early years of life.  (+info)

Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment. (4/560)

It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity.  (+info)

Blood folate and vitamin B12: United States, 1988-94. (5/560)

OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12 distributions for persons 4 years and over, by sociodemographic variables. METHODS: The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-94), provides information on the health and nutritional status of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. The analytic sample included 23,378 participants with serum folate data, 23,082 with RBC folate data, and 11,851 with serum vitamin B12 data. RESULTS: The mean serum and RBC folate concentrations are 7.2 and 196 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), respectively, and the mean serum vitamin B12 concentration is 518 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). Non-Hispanic white people have higher mean serum and RBC folate concentrations than non-Hispanic black or Mexican American people. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations are lowest for older adults, and non-Hispanic black people have higher serum B12 concentrations than non-Hispanic white individuals. Only approximately 3 percent of the population has a serum B12 concentration less than 200 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate folate status may be more prevalent among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American people. Data also suggest a modest prevalence of low serum B12 concentrations. Future assessments of folate and vitamin B12 status will be important to evaluate the impact of a recently enacted fortification policy.  (+info)

Use of vitamin B12 injections among elderly patients by primary care practitioners in Ontario. (6/560)

BACKGROUND: Excess use of parenteral vitamin B12 has been reported from audits of clinical practices. The authors assessed the use of vitamin B12 injections in patients aged 65 years and over in Ontario. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted that included all elderly people covered by the Ontario Health Insurance Plan who received insured services from general practitioners or family physicians (GP/FPs). For each practice the proportion of elderly patients who received regular vitamin B12 injections between July 1996 and June 1997 was calculated. The frequency of injections was determined for each patient receiving regular B12 replacement. RESULTS: Of the 1,196,748 elderly patients (mean age 74.8 [standard deviation 6.8], 58.0% female) treated by 14,177 GP/FPs, 23,651 (2.0%) received regular B12 injections. The rate of B12 injections per patient, standardized for age and sex, varied between practices (range 0%-48.6%). Although no authoritative sources support the practice, 3303 (19.8%) of the 16,707 patients receiving long-term parenteral therapy had, on average, overly frequent injections (more than 1 injection every 4 weeks). For 76 (12.3%) of the 617 practices with 10 or more patients receiving regular vitamin B12 injections, the mean injection frequency was greater than once every 4 weeks. The proportion of patients in these 617 practices who received overly frequent injections varied extensively (0%-100%). INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that some primary care physicians in Ontario administer unnecessary vitamin B12 injections to elderly patients.  (+info)

Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in Seventh-day Adventist ministers in Australia. (7/560)

As part of the Adventist Ministers' Health Study, a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1992, 1994, and 1997, the serum vitamin B-12 status of 340 Australian Seventh-day Adventist ministers was assessed in 1997. The ministers in the study participated voluntarily. Of this group, 245 were either lactoovovegetarians or vegans who were not taking vitamin B-12 supplements. Their mean vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L (range: 58-538 pmol/L), 53% of whom had values below the reference range for the method used (171-850 pmol/L) and 73% of whom had values <221 pmol/L, the lower limit recommended by Herbert. Dual-isotope Schillings test results in 36 lactoovovegetarians with abnormally low vitamin B-12 concentrations indicated that dietary deficiency was the cause in 70% of cases. Data from the dietary questionnaires supported dietary deficiency as the cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in this population of lactoovovegetarians and vegans, 56 (23%) of whom consumed sufficient servings of vitamin B-12-containing foods to obtain the minimum daily maintenance allowance of the vitamin (1 microg).  (+info)

Cellular import of cobalamin (Vitamin B-12). (8/560)

Recent studies have isolated and characterized human gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and transcobalamin II (TC II) genes, whose products mediate the import of cobalamin (Cbl; Vitamin B-12) across cellular plasma membranes. Analyses of cDNA and genomic clones of IF and TC II have provided some important insights into their sites of expression, structure and function. IF and TC II genes contain the same number, size and position of exons, and four of their eight intron-exon boundaries are identical. In addition, they share high homology in certain regions that are localized to different exons, indicating that IF and TC II may have evolved from a common ancestral gene. Both IF and TC II mediate transmembrane transport of Cbl via their respective receptors that function as oligomers in the plasma membrane. IF-mediated import of Cbl is limited to the apical membranes of epithelial cells; it occurs via a multipurpose receptor recently termed "cubilin," and the imported Cbl is usually exported out of these cells bound to endogenous TC II. On the other hand, TC II-mediated Cbl import occurs in all cells, including epithelial cells via a specific receptor, and the Cbl imported is usually retained, converted to its coenzyme forms, methyl-Cbl and 5'-deoxyadenosyl-Cbl, and utilized.  (+info)

Evidence regarding the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 in patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l is lacking. We compared the effectiveness of one-month oral vitamin B12 supplementation in patients with a subtle vitamin B12 deficiency to that of a placebo. This multicentre (13 general practices, two nursing homes, and one primary care center in western Switzerland), parallel, randomised, controlled, closed-label, observer-blind trial included 50 patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l who were randomized to receive either oral vitamin B12 (1000 μg daily, N = 26) or placebo (N = 24) for four weeks. The institutions pharmacist used simple randomisation to generate a table and allocate treatments. The primary outcome was the change in serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels after one month of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in total homocysteine and serum vitamin B12 levels. Blood samples were centralised for analysis and adherence to treatment was
Neurological presentations and therapeutic responses to cobalamin deficiency, Min-Chien Tu, Chung-Ping Lo, Ching-Feng Huang, Yen-Hsuan Hsu, Tzu-Lan Wang
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine1, 2. Vitamin B6 performs a wide variety of functions in your body and is essential for your good health. For example, vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 is also essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nervous and immune systems need vitamin B6 to function efficiently,3-6 and Vitamin B6 is also needed for the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (a vitamin)1, 7.. Hemoglobin within red blood cells carries oxygen to tissues. Your body needs vitamin B6 to make hemoglobin. Vitamin B6 also helps increase the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobin. A vitamin B6 deficiency can result in a form of anemia1 that is similar to iron deficiency anemia. An immune response is a broad term that describes a variety of biochemical changes that occur in an effort to fight off infections. Calories, protein, vitamins, and ...
Light micrograph (LM) of Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) crystals. Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. It is also essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nervous and immune systems need vitamin B6 to function efficiently, and it is also needed for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin (Vitamin B3). Vitamin B6 deficiency can result in pyroluria. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a soluble and heat stable factor in B complex vitamins. Like the other B vitamins, it supports energy production by aiding in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Vitamin B2 is also required for red blood cell formation and respiration, antibody production, and for regulating human growth and reproduction. Riboflavin also helps in the prevention or treatment of many types of eye disorders, including some cases of cataracts. Magnification: x25 when shortest axis printed - Stock Image F017/4026
Vitamin B12 is one of the most popular vitamin supplements. Because it is relatively cheap and carries a ton of benefits with it, you may want to consider taking more vitamin B12 on a regular basis. However, there are some things to keep in mind when taking vitamin B12 as a supplement. For instance, vitamin B12 is not dissolved as well by the body in pill form as it is when its placed directly under the tongue and allowed to dissolve into your blood stream. There are also different types of vitamin B12 out there.. You should try to take methyl vitamin B12 because its known to be better for you and more likely to help raise the vitamin B12 in your body. By taking vitamin B12 more often, there are a variety of benefits that you will receive. Here are some of the ways that vitamin B12 can help you and your body.. Helps Produce DNA in Your Body. Your DNA is what makes you unique and individual from any other person. DNA also provides the genes that lay within each and every one of your cells. ...
DOPPELHERZ Vitamin B12 Tabletten - Günstig und schnell Ab 20€ Gratis Versand Natürlich bestelle ich hier!.. DOPPELHERZ Vitamin B12 Plus system Trinkampullen: Order drugs for cheap with versandApo. No delivery costs from 20 € on, price comparison, toll free hotline.28 FOOD FORTIFICATION WITH VITAMIN B12 Teo Quay, Yvonne Lamers Food, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia.. Solution for injection. Active substance: Cyanocobalamin. 10 ampoules each containing 1 ml. Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor of enzymes in the mitochondria and is.Vitamin B12 is chemically perceived as the largest and most complex vitamin. This water-soluble vitamin is microbiologically produced in the digestive tract of.INTRODUCTION. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the patient with suspected vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) or folate deficiency will be reviewed here.In cases of verified intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12,. Vitamin B 12 Sanum is injected. ...
A 12-month-old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dogs general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck ...
Neurotransmitters: Vitamin B 6 is a cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, GABA, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Affecting alertness, cognition , memory and mood. Mood : Vitamin B 6 helps increase brain serotonin and dopamine levels.. Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group of essential nutrients. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in ATC code: A11HA02. Vitamin-B6-Mangel. Bei unzureichender Versorgung mit Pyridoxin kann es früh zu einem Vitamin-B6-Mangel kommen. Schon nach etwa zwei bis sechs Wochen sind die Pyridoxin-Speicher des menschlichen Körpers gänzlich erschöpft, weil Vitamin B6 aufgrund seiner Wasserlöslichkeit nur kurzzeitig im Körper gespeichert werden kann.. Top 11 Vitamin B6 Benefits 1. Maintains Healthy Blood Vessels. Vitamin B6 is needed to regulate levels of a compound called ...
New studies link vitamin B12 to normal brain size and healthy mental function, and link inflammation to mental decline. In a study of brain size, doctors explained that the brain can shrink (atrophy) and as it does, risk for Alzheimers disease and other mental decline rises. Researchers measured blood levels of vitamin B12 in 107 men and women, aged 61 to 87, who functioned well physically and mentally. They found that those with low vitamin B12 levels were six times more likely to have brain atrophy than were those with higher vitamin B12 levels. Doctors noted that, Many factors that affect brain health were thought to be out of our control, but this study suggests that by simply adjusting our diets to consume more vitamin B12, we may be able to prevent brain shrinkage and perhaps save our memory. In a mental health study, researchers measured vitamin B12 blood levels in more than 1,600 older adults and followed up for 10 years. Mental function declined in some younger participants but ...
For the seven-year study, researchers took blood samples from 271 Finnish people age 65 to 79 who did not have dementia at the start of the study. During that time, 17 people developed Alzheimers disease. Blood samples were tested for levels for homocysteine, an amino acid associated with vitamin B12, and for levels of the active portion of the vitamin, called holotranscobalamin. Too much homocysteine in the blood has been linked to negative effects on the brain, such as stroke. However, higher levels of vitamin B12 can lower homocysteine.. The study found that for each micromolar increase in the concentration of homocysteine, the risk of Alzheimers disease increased by 16 percent, whereas each picomolar increase in concentration of the active form of vitamin B12 reduced risk by two percent. The results stayed the same after taking into account other factors, such as age, gender, education, smoking status, blood pressure and body mass index. The addition of folate did not appear to raise or ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs when the intake of vitamin B12 is insufficient-which is found only in animal source foods or in fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also be caused by poor absorption or excessive loss of the vitamin. A severe deficiency of vitamin B12, which is required for the synthesis of red blood cells, results in megaloblastic
Vitamin B12 is necessary for the body in various ways. It supports various vital functions inside the body. Here are some reasons why vitamin B12 should be an essential part of your diet. Also, know symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency and foods rich in vitamin B12.
Vitamin B3 is also known as Niacin. Vitamin B3 is a water soluble nutrient. It is another important member of the B-complex family. Vitamin B3 facilitates the processes involved in metabolizing fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Vitamin B3 is found in a large variety of foods in small amounts. However, large amounts of vitamin B3 can be found in meat and dairy products.
As the symptoms of B12 deficiency are non-specific, diagnosis becomes difficult without proper testing. If your doctor suspects vitamin B12 deficiency, he or she may recommend testing of serum vitamin B12 levels, complete blood count (CBC) and periph
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Vitamin B12 properly maintains your nervous system and helps to keep nerve cells healthy. This in turn keeps your brain functioning the way it should. B vitamins also assist in the production and regulation of DNA, which is present in every cell in your body. Since this nutrient is also a very strong antioxidant, it helps fight off free radicals which can lead to cancer. It is important that your body gets some vitamin B12 every day. It helps metabolize the food you eat so you can utilize it for energy. It does this by helping turn the carbohydrates in your food to glucose. When glucose is released into your system, it gives you energy. Many people who struggle with fatigue and low energy often have a vitamin B12 deficiency ...
Vitamin B 12 helps to maintain a healthy digestive system. It improves the Cholesterol level which protects from Heart Disease and High Blood Pressure. Vitamin B 12 improves the health and growth of the Hair. It keeps the Hair soft and shiny. It repairs the cells which make the Skin flawless and slows down the ageing process. Vitamin B 12 treats Alzheimer and Dementia by decreasing the bodys ability to metabolize neurotransmitters. It reduces Fatigue and gives relief from Stress. Vitamin B 12 helps the body to absorb Folic Acid which boosts the Metabolism. It also helps to prevent cancer ...
Multivitamin, plus Vitamin B6 tablets and Vitamin B12 injections. Multivitamin + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B6: As in Arm 1, one multivitamin pill will be taken orally, daily starting on the first day of chemotherapy and continuing for no more than 30 days past the cumulative chemotherapy dose (until the next cycle starts).. The patient will also take the following, starting on the first day of chemotherapy:. ...
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Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin and is a water-soluble vitamin. B12 is part of the B group of vitamins which is necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes and a healthy liver, while vitamin B12 itself will help in maintaining red blood cells and healthy nerve cells while also ensuring a proper immune function, while also assisting in the production of DNA.. B12 is found in animal foods such as fish, dairy products, eggs and various types of meat. This is the reason why vegetarians can be prone to a B12 deficiency. There are a number of effects which a B12 deficiency can lead to and some of these are outside of the fitness realm, such as vision problems and mood swings and disturbances.. When it comes to fitness, there are a number of reasons why a B12 deficiency can have an effect. Symptoms include muscle weakness, fatigue and shaky movements. The reason for this is because B12 will assist your body in converting carbohydrates into glucose, which the body will use to give you energy. So even ...
Active methylcobalamin form of vitamin B12. All B vitamins help the body convert food into fuel which produces energy. Vitamin B 12 is an important vitamin for maintaining healthy nerve cells and aids in the production of DNA and RNA. Vitamin B12 works with folic acid to help make red blood cells. Older adults may be
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One of the benefits I noted above was that Vitamin B enhances nervous system function - that could be a problem for some people. In order to have vitamin B6 dreams you need to take about 75mg of the vitamin. Vitamin B6 is usually sold in 2mg doses for a reason; you are not supposed to overload your system with it! An overdose of B6 can cause a temporary deadening of certain nerves such as the proprioceptory nerves; causing a feeling of disembodiment - this is not a function of lucid dreaming and is NOT a good thing!. The best choice would be to get something that contains the ingredients you want in a dosage that has been verified and recommended. For this reason, Lucidia might have the lucid dreaming vitamins and/or that will benefit your lucid dreaming adventures, without having to put yourself in jeopardy of going to sleep and never waking up. . . Click Here If you want to gain a deeper understanding of your dreams, or start a journey of self discovery through your own personal dream analysis ...
Results. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (,191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors ...
Vitamin B12 is part of the Vitamin B complex. It is considered to be a Painkilling vitamin. It helps DNA production, cardiovascular support, and energy metabolism. In this post, learn more about Vitamin B12, its functions, causes of deficiencies, as well as foods and other sources so you can better incorporate B12 into your life.. Vitamin B12 is a very important marker to monitor, especially if you havent been leading the best lifestyle or you have known chronic health issues.. Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin [1].. It contributes to the successful synthesis of DNA, the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the production of energy [2].. The liver is the main site of storage of vitamin B12 in the human body [3]. Humans can obtain vitamin B from dietary sources, fortified foods, and supplements [4, 5, 6].. It can take the form of cyano-, hydroxyl, methyl, and deoxy adenosyl-cobalamin [7].. Cyanocobalamin, the most stable and unnatural form of ...
Think you might have a vitamin B12 deficiency? These are the best foods to eat for vitamin B12. Fill your plate with these vitamin B12-rich foods for
Dietary Supplement. Supports energy metabolism & nervous system health. Balanced health. Vitamin B6 is important for fat and amino acid metabolism and facilitates the release of glycogen for energy production. Vitamin B6 is important for fat and amino acid metabolism and facilitates the release of glycogen for energy production. Vitamin B6 helps convert food into energy, promotes healthy nerves and muscles, and enhances the immune system. No artificial colors or flavors, no sugar, no wheat, no preservatives, dairy free. This TopCare product is laboratory tested to guarantee its highest quality. Your total satisfaction is guaranteed. Questions? 1-888-423-0139. (These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.). ...
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Vitamin B6 supports a healthy immune system, heart health, and plays a part in memory and mental performance. Try these top 10 Vitamin B6 foods today!
Vitamina b1 o que é? Benefícios da Vitamina b1? As Deficiências da vitamina b1 e Alimentos Ricos em Vitamina b1 confira essa ANALISE COMPLETA! ( Vitamin b1: what is it? What are the benefits? The lack of VITAMIN b1 and foods high in vitamin b1. Check it out)
Sometimes our body is not able to absorb the Vitamin well, mainly because of defective absorption in the digestive system. This can happen with a person suffering from anemia, Crohns disease, bacteria growth in intestine and or due to worms.It is rare for young people to be deficient in Vitamin B 12 and more likely for older people to be mildly deficient. This may be because their diet is not sufficiently healthy or because they have depleted production of stomach acids which the body needs to absorb Vitamin B 12. However, it is rather difficult to identify a vitamin deficiency as the symptoms dont present themselves duringthe early stages. ...
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Sneid on vitamin b12 binding capacityunsat: Very few. Unsaturated plant fats may help increase HDL a little, as will small amounts of alcohol. Vitamin d is made in your skin in response to light exposure. It is found in many foods, such as dairy products, but most are supplemented. Vitamin B12 is in most animal derived products, but is hard to be deficient in unless you have chronic stomach or intestinal problems or prior GI surgery.
The serum B12 test is still widely used as thé test to confirm or rule out a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, a normal value cannot rule out a B12 deficiency.
In January, I wrote 2 articles on Vitamin B12 Deficiency Debate and Why is Vitamin B12 the Scapegoat. Mitch Pellecchia of VitaCost.com submitted this artic
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Vitamin B12 deficiency is a condition that needs to be treated promptly to avoid the development of serious complications, such as depression and dementia.. Lacking an adequate amount of red blood cells in the body can be due to a deficiency in vitamin B12.. The duty of red blood cells is very important as they carry oxygen to the different body tissues and at the same time remove the carbon dioxide from them.. Not having enough red blood cells to do all the work can make a person feel fatigued and suffer from shortness of breath.. ...
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If you are not getting enough vitamin B12 (also known as Cobalamin) then your health may be in trouble as Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in your overall h A global lifestyle platform for digital storytelling, premiering exclusive daily content. We are a curated destination for the culturally curious, a point of reference for leaders in media and style, and a platform committed to all things living.
What are the ingredients of BioPharmX™ Vitamin B12?. Each tablet contains 10.5mg of pure certified and premium pharmaceutical grade Cyanocobalamin, providing 1000mcg of Vitamin B12 (40,000% NRV). This is the MAXIMUM dosage available from just one tablet, you simply cannot find better elsewhere!
The primary biologically active forms of vitamin B2 are flavin-mono-nucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD). In the cell metabolism they acts as hydrogen-conveying coenzymes and contribute to a normal energy metabolism, reduction in tiredness and fatigue and the normal function of the nervous system. The vitamin also contributes to the maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes and the red blood cells. Vitamin B2 is also a biologically active antioxidant system contributing towards protecting the cells against oxidative stress. It also supports normal vision ...
Vitamin B12 plays an integral role in the functioning of many of the bodys systems. We have provided tips on how to treat your vitamin B12 deficiency. Learn more
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Best way to absorb vitamin b12 - Whats the best way to get vitamin b12? Meat, supplements. The best dietary source of B12 is, surprisingly, clams. Beef liver is another good source, though I would only eat this if organic. Salmon & other fish, beef, dairy & eggs are also good sources. Many grains & cereals are fortified with b12. The most reliable vegan source is nutritional yeast but I advise vegans to take a B12 supp. See http://ods. Od.Nih. Gov/factsheets/vitaminb12-healthprofessional/.
Vitamin B3 Nicotinamide supplement that provides 500mg of nicotinamide vitamin B3 per vegetarian capsule. Order 120 capsules online today.
Buy VITAMIN B12 500mcg - 100 tabs Online.Vitamin B12 supplementAllows to maintain a correct supply of this micronutrientEssential for vegetarians and vegansInvolved in a high number of physiological processes
Vitamin B12 Increased Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
People take vitamin B12 injections due to their inability to absorb the essential nutrient from foods or dietary supplements. An estimated 1.5 to 15 percent of Americans suffer from vitamin B12...
Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... Twelve-step groups *Al-Anon/Alateen. *Alcoholics Anonymous (AA):. *Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency[edit]. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal-recessive ... Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ...
Vitamin deficiency. B vitamins. *B1: Beriberi / Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Wernicke's encephalopathy ... 27 (12): 2948-53. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.12.2948. PMID 15562212.. *^ a b c Poehlman, Eric T. (1998). "Abdominal Obesity: The ... 12 (6): 962-971. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.118. PMID 15229336.. *^ Hirosumi J, Tuncman G, Chang L, Gorgun CZ, Uysal KT, Maeda K, ... Retrieved 2010-12-22.. *^ Arciero, PJ; Gentile, CL (August 16, 2006). "resistance". International Journal of Sport Nutrition ...
"Vitamin Deficiency Anemia". Mayo Clinic. Pirklbauer M (July 2020). "Hemodialysis treatment in patients with severe electrolyte ... Folate deficiency can occur in some patients having hemodialysis. Although a dyalisate fluid, which is a solution containing ... 30 (12): 828-32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-02. Kolff WJ, Berk HT, ter Welle M, van der Ley AJ, van Dijk EC, ... 14 (12): 3251-63. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000096373.13406.94. PMID 14638924. Macleod AM, Campbell M, Cody JD, Daly C, Donaldson C, ...
Thakkar, K.; Billa, G. (2015-01-01). "Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency-methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?- ... Vitamin B12. References[edit]. *^ L. R. McDowell. Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. Booksgoogle.com. Retrieved 28 January ... vitamin B12 deficiency). Methylcobalamin is also used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and as a ... Methylcobalamin is equivalent physiologically to vitamin B12,[citation needed] and can be used to prevent or treat pathology ...
Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the diet. A long-term deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to ... "Vitamin B12 deficiency" (PDF). BMJ. 349: g5226. doi:10.1136/bmj.g5226. PMID 25189324. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 ... Atrophic gastritis, particularly in the elderly, will cause an inability to absorb B12 and can lead to deficiencies such as ... In pernicious anemia, autoantibodies directed against parietal cells or intrinsic factor cause a reduction in vitamin B12 ...
Vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine deficiency) was reported to cause seizures, especially in alcoholics. Vitamin B6 depletion ( ... pyridoxine deficiency) was reported to be associated with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Vitamin B12 deficiency was reported to ... Yavuz, Halûk (2008). "Vitamin B12 deficiency and seizures". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 50 (9): 720. doi: ... Kumar, S (2004). "Recurrent seizures: an unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Neurology India. 52 (1): 122-3. PMID ...
... deficiency of the vitamin is very serious leading to anemia and irreversible nerve damage.[94] ... vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at ... Vitamin D2[edit]. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ...
Vitamin D deficiency and oxidative stress are 2 examples.) Kekki1978 (talk) 12:51, 25 September 2018 (UTC). The CDC stated that ... "Our clinical experience at Kennedy Krieger Institute over the last 15F years has shown that a deficiency of mitochondrial ... soupvector (talk) 12:43, 6 December 2017 (UTC). Proposal: Add mitochondrial dysfunction sub-section to vaccine section. What is ...
In some cases, gray hair may be caused by thyroid deficiencies, Waardenburg syndrome or a vitamin B12 deficiency.[10] At some ... There are no special diets, nutritional supplements, vitamins, nor proteins that have been proven to slow, stop, or in any way ... Juangbhanich C, Nitidanhaprabhas P, Sirimachan S, Areekul S, Tanphaichitr VS (June 1991). "Vitamin B12 deficiency: report of a ... Aguh, Crystal; Okoye, Ginette (2016-12-06). Fundamentals of Ethnic Hair: The Dermatologist's Perspective. Springer. ISBN ...
"Vitamins and Minerals". National Institute on Aging. Retrieved 2020-05-12. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition ... Wada Osamu (2004). "What are Trace Elements? Their deficiency and excess states" (PDF). med.or.jp. JMAJ, Vol. 47, No. 8. ... as a component of vitamin B12) Iron Fluorine Iodine List of macronutrients List of phytochemicals in food Nutrient Nutrition ... Gernand, A. D; Schulze, K. J; Stewart, C. P; West Jr, K. P; Christian, P (2016). "Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy ...
274-8. Grant, William B.; Pilz, Stefan (June 2011). "Vitamin D deficiency contributed to Mozart's death". Medical Problems of ... it was suggested that Vitamin D deficiency could have played a role in Mozart's underlying medical conditions leading to his ... 12-14. Deutsch 1965, p. 418 The original French, given by Slonimsky 1960, p. 17, is "temps doux et brouillard frequent". ... 46 (1): 12-21. doi:10.1093/mq/XLVI.1.12. Stafford, William (1991). The Mozart Myths: A critical reassessment. Stanford, ...
... specifically vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency. Loss of micronutrients may also be a cause. Copper deficiency ... Due to the lack of available radioactive Vitamin B12, the Schilling test is now largely a historical artifact.[citation needed] ... Vitamin B12 is one necessary prosthetic group to the enzyme methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase. Vitamin B12 deficiency is but one ... The gold standard for the diagnosis of Vitamin B12 deficiency is a low blood level of Vitamin B12. A low level of blood Vitamin ...
Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can be extremely serious and lead to megaloblastic anemia, ... Main article: iron deficiency. In several studies, vegetarians were not found to suffer from iron (Fe) deficiency more than ... Further information: Iodine deficiency. One study reported a "potential danger of [iodine] (I) deficiency disorders due to ... "Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children". Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 29 (2 Suppl): S126 ...
... usually folic acid deficiency; in one case Vitamin B12 deficiency and in one case Vitamin C deficiency. Some cases were ... Work done twelve years later found that the serum phenobarbital 0.111 mg/100 mL for every mg/kg of primidone ingested. Authors ... Additionally, a coagulation defect resembling Vitamin K deficiency has been observed in newborns of mothers taking primidone. ... Kidd, Patrick; David L. Mollin (October 26, 1957). "Megaloblastic Anaemia and Vitamin-B12 Deficiency After Anticonvulsant ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency), folic acid deficiency and copper deficiency. Marrow or blood is examined under light microscopy, as ... However, GATA2 deficiency-induced AML may first appear in children or adults. The first clue to a diagnosis of AML is typically ... Dokal IS, Cox TM, Galton DA (May 1990). "Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia". BMJ. 300 (6734): 1263-4. ... GATA2 deficiency. This disease is associated with a highly variable set of disorders including an exceedingly high risk of ...
"Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Israeli Medical Association Journal. 3: ... 12 (1): 35-51. ISSN 0894-878X. PMID 10082332.. *^ Chopra, Amit; Tye, Susannah J.; Lee, Kendall H.; Sampson, Shirlene; Matsumoto ... 12 (1): 35-51. PMID 10082332.. *^ MANJI, HUSSEINI K; QUIROZ, JORGE A; PAYNE, JENNIFER L; SINGH, JASKARAN; LOPES, BARBARA P; ... 141 (12): 1602-1604. doi:10.1176/ajp.141.12.1602. PMID 6439057.. *^ Giannini AJ, Taraszewski R, Loiselle RH (1987). "Verapamil ...
ISBN 0-397-51690-8, ISBN 978-0-397-51690-2. 446 pages Vitamin K Deficiency eMedicine. Author: Pankaj Patel, MD. Coauthor(s): ... XI and XII. The analysis of both tests thus helps to diagnose certain disorders. Blood transfusion involves the transfer of ... Vitamins (K, P and C) are essential in case of obstruction to walls of blood vessels. Also, vitamin K is required for the ... Acquired causes of coagulopathy include anticoagulation with warfarin, liver failure, vitamin K deficiency and disseminated ...
Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ... Vitamin D deficiency (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 2007, 357 (3): 266-81 [2012-09-01]. PMID 17634462. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. (原始內容 ... A: 維生素A缺乏症(英語:Vitamin A deficiency)/比奧斑(英語:Bitot's spots) ... Hereditary pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets in a Pakistani infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1973, 48 (10): 814-6. ...
Vitamin E deficiency may play a role in the development of CPRA. It is characterized by accumulation of pigment spots in the ... Norwegian Elkhound - Night blindness by six weeks old, blind by twelve to eighteen months old. This is caused by an abnormal ... Davidson M, Geoly F, Gilger B, McLellan G, Whitley W (1998). "Retinal degeneration associated with vitamin E deficiency in ... Retrieved 2019-12-21. Article on PRA Article on Cataracts. ...
A potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency" (PDF). Food and Nutrition Bulletin. The United Nations University ... Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ R. Birabwa; P.J.A. van Asten; I.N. Alou; G. Taulya (2010). "Got Matooke (Musa spp.) for Christmas ... Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ Linda Nordling (October 1, 2010). "Uganda prepares to plant transgenic bananas". Nature. doi: ... Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ Lois Englberger; Ian Darnton-Hill; Terry Coyne; Maureen H. Fitzgerald; Geoffrey C. Marks (2003). " ...
Not having enough vitamin B-12 (vitamin B-12 deficiency) can also cause mania and psychosis.[13][14] ... Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y (2005). "Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency". The Internet Journal of ... "Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Israeli Medical Association Journal. 3: ... Some doctors use the mnemonic E-MANIC to remember the possible medical causes of mania:[12] ...
Higher doses and prolonged use are associated with increased incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency, and some researchers ... Andrès E, Noel E, Goichot B (October 2002). "Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 ( ... Gilligan MA (February 2002). "Metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 (4): 484-5. doi:10.1001 ... Ting RZ, Szeto CC, Chan MH, Ma KK, Chow KM (October 2006). "Risk factors of vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients receiving ...
"Vitamin D Deficiency and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review". Nutrients. 10 (4): 478. doi:10.3390/ ... Studies have determined that there may be a connection between antenatal and postpartum depression in women with lower vitamin ... 123 (12): 1973-1982. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.13891. ISSN 1470-0328. PMC 5096244. PMID 26786413. Andrade C (2018). "Prenatal ... Aghajafari, Fariba; Letourneau, Nicole; Mahinpey, Newsha; Cosic, Nela; Giesbrecht, Gerald (2018-04-12). " ...
Occult blood loss and/or iron deficiency. *Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency ... Retrieved 2011-12-22.. *^ Jelkmann W, Lundby C (Sep 2011). "Blood doping and its detection" (PDF). Blood. 118 (9): 2395-404. ... ESAs may fail to achieve an adequate therapeutic response when one or more of the following is present:[12] ... "A lifetime ban: Does the time fit the crime?" Velo News, 12/16/13 ...
Hypersegmentation is not normal but occurs in some disorders, most notably vitamin B12 deficiency. This is noted in a manual ... In alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, the important neutrophil enzyme elastase is not adequately inhibited by alpha 1-antitrypsin ... 480 (7375): 109-12. Bibcode:2011Natur.480..109Y. doi:10.1038/nature10632. PMC 3228893. PMID 22101434.. ... When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood ...
Wilkins, C. H.; Sheline, Y. I.; Roe, C. M.; Birge, S. J.; Morris, J. C. (2006). "Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Low ... An alternative to using bright lights is to take vitamin D supplements.[45][46][47][48] However, studies did not show a link ... Another explanation is that vitamin D levels are too low when people do not get enough Ultraviolet-B on their skin. ... "Vitamin D May Not Be The Answer To Feeling SAD". sciencedaily.com (March 2009) ...
Mayo Clinic staff (March 4, 2011). "Vitamin deficiency anemia". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Mayo Clinic ... "Folate-deficiency anemia". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 31 January 2010. ... Hall, C. A. (November 1975). "Transcobalamins I and II as natural transport proteins of vitamin B12". J. Clin. Invest. 56 (5): ... Griffin JH, Evatt B, Zimmerman TS, Kleiss AJ, Wideman C (1981). "Deficiency of protein C in congenital thrombotic disease". J. ...
Long-term exposure to nitrous oxide may cause vitamin B12 deficiency. It inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B12 by ... Vitamin B12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide ... Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, including sensory neuropathy, myelopathy and encephalopathy, may occur within days or weeks ... This can cause serious neurotoxicity if the user has preexisting vitamin B12 deficiency. Nitrous oxide at 75% by volume reduces ...
Among domestic animals, the White Leghorn chicken is markedly more resistant to vitamin B1 deficiency than other breeds; on a ... Lamoreux, Wilfred F.; Hutt, Frederick B. (February 15, 1939). "Breed differences in resistance to a deficiency in vitamin B1 in ... 282 (1): 6-12. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00711.x. Huxley 1942, p. 417 Huskins, C. Leonard (1930). "The origin of Spartina ... 12: 285-304. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.12.100183.001441. Endler 1986, pp. 33-51 Sober 1984, p. 210 Futuyma 1986, p. 552 Fisher ...
While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 ... Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[60 ... Vitamin D supplementation to people with type 2 diabetes may improve markers of insulin resistance and HbA1c.[119] ... Testosterone deficiency is also associated with type 2 diabetes.[48][49] Eating disorders may also interact with type 2 ...
Piot concluded that Belgian nuns had inadvertently started the epidemic by giving unnecessary vitamin injections to pregnant ... It is recommended that survivors of EVD wear condoms for at least twelve months after initial infection or until the semen of a ... clotting factor deficiencies/platelet disorders, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, ... 978-0-12-370200-5. .. *^ a b c d e f g h Funk DJ, Kumar A (November 2014). "Ebola virus disease: an update for ...
Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ... Researchers are investigating methods to increase the skin's production of retinoic acid to address this deficiency.[10] A ... acne generally improves between eight and twelve weeks after starting therapy.[15] ... Brescoll J, Daveluy S (February 2015). "A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology ( ...
Vitamin C and vitamin K deficiency. *Von Willebrand's disease. *Hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome), a rare ... Chronic liver disease-cirrhosis causes deficiency of factor II, VII, IX,& X ... 139 (12): 1279-84. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.5220. PMID 24136624.. *^ Folz, BJ; Kanne, M; Werner, JA (November 2008). "[Current ... Some use gauze and others use balloons.[12] Posterior packing can be achieved by using a Foley catheter, blowing up the balloon ...
Vitamin K deficiency *Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. *HDN *ABO. *Anti-Kell ... "Retrieved 2007-07-12.. *^ American Academy of Pediatrics. Chlamydia trachomatis. In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on ...
Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) d) Control of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) e) Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA ... iron and vitamin A deficiency. Each type of malnutrition wrecks its own particular havoc on the human body, and to make matters ... Micro-nutrient deficiencies are widespread, with almost half of pregnant women and children under five, as well as 35 percent ... These include high coverage of semiannual vitamin A supplementation and deworming; CB-IMCI; high rates of full child ...
Some sources state that deficiencies of vitamin A or pyridoxine are also linked. There is limited evidence that a diet high in ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. ... p. 12. ISBN 9789350252147. Gow, Neil (8 May 2002). "Candida albicans - a fungal Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". Mycologist. 16 (01). ...
... sclera which later proved to be a manifestation of hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency following fava bean consumption. ... "Narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation increases the serum level of vitamin D3in patients with neurofibromatosis 1". The Journal ... Retrieved on 2013-12-23. *↑ Mathew K.G. (2008) Medicine: Prep Manual for Undergraduates, 3/e, Elsevier India, ISBN 8131211541, ...
A: Vitamin A deficiency *Bitot's spots. *C: Scurvy. *D: Vitamin D deficiency *Rickets ... The deficiency may be genetic. Among children without growth hormone deficiency, short stature may be caused by Turner syndrome ... Human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency may occur at any time during infancy or childhood, with the most obvious sign being a ... About half of them do not have growth hormone deficiency, and consequently benefited very little, if at all, from the hormone ...
Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of vitamin C which is necessary for the synthesis of collagen. ...
Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press. 18 May 1976. pp. 682-. ISBN 978-0-08-086630-7.. ... Eberhard Nieschlag; Hermann M. Behre; Susan Nieschlag (26 July 2012). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution. Cambridge ... "Comparison of the Hershberger assay and androgen receptor binding assay of twelve chemicals". Toxicology. 195 (2-3): 177-86. ... 12 (2): 285-99. doi:10.1517/14728214.12.2.285. PMID 17604502.. *^ a b Akaza H (Jan 2011). "Combined androgen blockade for ...
St Claire MB, Kennett MJ, Besch-Williford CL (July 2004). "Vitamin A toxicity and vitamin E deficiency in a rabbit colony". ... Vitamin A is fat-soluble and high levels have been reported affect metabolism of the other fat-soluble vitamins D,[23] E, and K ... Vitamin K prevents hypoprothrombinemia in rats and can sometimes control the increase in plasma/cell ratios of vitamin A.[49] ... Cod liver oil is particularly high in vitamin A.. *Medications - at high doses of vitamin A - are often used on long-term basis ...
"Benzopyrene and Vitamin A deficiency". Researcher links cigarettes, vitamin A and emphysema. Retrieved March 5, 2005.. ... A link between vitamin A deficiency and emphysema in smokers was described in 2005 to be due to BaP, which induces vitamin A ... deficiency in rats.[16] A 1996 study provided molecular evidence linking components in tobacco smoke to lung cancer. BaP was ... Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ...
Xerophthalmia, often due to vitamin A deficiency, is estimated to affect 5 million children each year; 500,000 develop active ... vitamin A deficiency, or meningitis.[41] If left untreated during childhood, amblyopia is currently incurable in adulthood ... Bionic Eye Opens New World Of Sight For Blind Archived 2015-04-12 at the Wayback Machine by Jon Hamilton. All Things Considered ... Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.. ...
selenium deficiency selenosis Cobalt none NE; NE Trace Required in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are ... Micronutrient deficiency. References[edit]. *^ a b c Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Heber, David (2013). Handbook of ... IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum ... zinc deficiency zinc toxicity Manganese 00002.3002.3 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, ...
B vitamins have moderate to rich content (19 to 48% DV). ... "Diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency". American Family ... V. faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair ...
A: 维生素A缺乏症(英语:Vitamin A deficiency)/比奥斑(英语:Bitot's spots) ... 某些生理或心理疾病以及治疗它们的药物會增加患者罹患肥胖症的風險。生理疾病包括上述的罕见遗传病,以及一些先天或後天疾病,比如甲状腺功能低下、库欣综合征、生长激素缺乏症(英
In the Southeastern United States, nickel deficiency in C. illinoinensis produces a disorder called mouse-ear in trees ... and B vitamins. Their fat content consists principally of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (57% of total fat), ... The leaves are alternate, 30-45 cm (12-18 in) long, and pinnate with 9-17 leaflets, each leaflet 5-12 cm (2.0-4.7 in) long and ... fertilized with urea.[26] Similarly, zinc deficiency causes rosetting of the leaves. Various other disorders are documented, ...
Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients (Meta-analysis). 2015, 7 ... 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency. ... 多囊卵巢綜合症目前並無特效藥[5]。治療則包括減重和運動等轉變生活型態的方式[11][10],避孕藥物也許對於調整經期、抑制多餘的毛髮生長和青春痘有所幫助。二甲双胍和抗雄性激
A K-vitamin hiány vagy a warfarin (és hasonló gyógyszerek) inaktív X-es faktor termelődéshez vezetnek. A warfarinos kezelés ... Cooper DN, Millar DS, Wacey A, et al. (1997). „Inherited factor X deficiency: molecular genetics and pathophysiology". Thromb. ... XII) · Fibrinstabilizáló faktor (XIII) · von Willebrand faktor (vWF) ... Marchetti G, Castaman G, Pinotti M, et al. (1995). „Molecular bases of CRM+ factor X deficiency: a frequent mutation (Ser334Pro ...
Such results can be seen in peoples with liver disease, PAI-1 deficiency or alpha 2-antiplasmin deficiency. Similar results are ... Antithrombin (inhibits II, IX, X, XI, XII). *Protein C (inhibits V, VIII)/Protein S (cofactor for protein C) ... Vitamin K antagonists. (inhibit II, VII, IX, X). *Coumarins: Acenocoumarol. *Coumatetralyl. *Dicoumarol ...
Deficiency diseases[edit]. Citrus plants can also develop a deficiency condition called chlorosis, characterized by yellowing ... They are also good sources of vitamin C. The content of vitamin C in the fruit depends on the species, variety, and mode of ... doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.773.12. hdl:10400.1/2788.. *^ a b c d e Janick, Jules (2005). "Citrus". Purdue University Tropical ... Fruits produced with organic agriculture have been shown to contain more vitamin C than those produced with conventional ...
Deficiency of plasmalogens causes profound abnormalities in the myelination of nerve cells, which is one reason why many ... such as vitamins A and K. Skin disorders are features of genetic disorders affecting peroxisome function as a result. ... Peroxisomes also play a role in the production of bile acids important for the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, ... 160 (12): 1507-16. doi:10.1078/0176-1617-01008. PMID 14717445.. *. Corpas FJ, Barroso JB (2014). "Functional implications of ...
... the only clearly inherited risk factor is alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT).[60] This risk is particularly high if someone ... In those with low levels of vitamin D, supplementation reduces the risk of exacerbations.[156] ... Retrieved 2019-12-26.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Pirozzi C, Scholand MB (July 2012). "Smoking cessation and environmental ... 12: CD012620. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012620.pub2. PMC 6517098. PMID 30521694.. *^ a b Cave AC, Hurst MM (May 2011). "The use of ...
A deficiency is responsible for pentosuria. The insufficiency of L-xylulose reductase activity causes an inborn error of ... Vitamin K epoxide reductase. *Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-insensitive). 1.1.5: quinone/similar acceptor. *Malate ...
In cases of Keratomalacia, where the corneal ulceration is due to a deficiency of Vitamin A, supplementation of the Vitamin A ... In developing countries, children afflicted by Vitamin A deficiency are at high risk for corneal ulcer and may become blind in ... Proper nutrition, including protein intake and Vitamin C are usually advised. ... MD, Timothy Root, (2007-12-17). "What's the difference between a corneal abrasion and an ulcer? - TimRoot.com". TimRoot.com. ...
... sometimes becoming terminal Vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to blindness or a weakened immune system Iodine deficiency, ... Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), also known as protein-calorie malnutrition Iron deficiency: nutritional anaemia which can ... which can lead to serious mental or physical complaints Foliate deficiency can lead to insufficient birth weight or congenital ... Infant mortality in Kerala is 12 per thousand live births, but in Assam it is 56. According to World Bank, the total ...
... deficiency states (low levels of vitamin D, B2, B12, folic acid),[7] gastrointestinal diseases (celiac disease, non-celiac ... 12 (6): 1273-1280. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.659.5717 . doi:10.1037/a0029016.. *^ Plant, Ashby E.; Devine, Patricia G. (2003). "The ... 10 (12): e0143427. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1043427M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143427 . PMC 4674054 . PMID 26649946.. ... Retrieved 2008-01-12.. *^ a b Jeronimus B.F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J. (2016). "Neuroticism's prospective association ...
Vitamin K deficiency *Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. *HDN *ABO. *Anti-Kell ... 38 (12): 552-559. doi:10.1542/pir.2017-0002. PMID 29196510.. *^ Crocetti, Michael; Barone, Michael A.; Oski, Frank A. (2004). ... 12 (12): CD001970. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001970.pub5. PMID 25436902.. *^ Heird, WC; Gomez, MR (June 1994). "Total parenteral ...
... vitamin D for general overall health is under close scrutiny at the moment with some researchers claiming vitamin D deficiency ... Wimalawansa SJ, Razzaque DM, Al-Daghri NM (December 2017). "Calcium and Vitamin D in Human Health: Hype or Real?". The Journal ... 2008). "Chapter 9: Puberty & Fertility". Testosterone Deficiency in Men. Oxford Endocrinology Library. ISBN 978-0199545131. .. ... Some people with KS/CHH will have their levels checked and may be prescribed extra vitamin D tablets or injections to try to ...
Vitamin B-12 is found only in foods of animal origin. Dietary B-12 is freed from food protein by pepsin in the acid gastric ... Further testing showed that his vitamin B-12 was low: 90 pmol/l (reference range 160-800 pmol/l). Folate, ferritin, thyroid ... In the small intestine, haptocorrin is degraded by pancreatic enzymes; vitamin B-12 is released and binds with intrinsic factor ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency. BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c2305 (Published 01 June 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010; ...
The article examines its benefits and the health problems that accompany a deficiency of vitamin B-12. ... The vitamin is found in many animal products such as poultry, beef, eggs, and dairy products. ... Vitamin B-12 is an essential vitamin necessary for healthy nerve tissue, brain function, and red blood cell production. ... www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Anaemia-vitamin-B12-and-folate-deficiency/Pages/Causes.aspx. Vitamin B12 dietary supplement fact sheet. ( ...
Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. BMJ 1990; 300 :1263 ... Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia.. BMJ 1990; 300 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.300.6734.1263 ( ...
Vitamin B-12 is an essential vitamin required for healthy blood cells and nerves. Dietary animal products, such as fish and ... poultry, are the main source of B-12, providing significantly larger amounts than the daily requirement of two to three ... deficiencies due to diet are rare except in strict, long-term vegans. Other causes include malabsorption, deficiency of a ... Deficiencies arise in strict vegetarian or vegan diets and in those who are unable to absorb dietary sources. Symptoms of B-12 ...
If you become deficient in this vitamin, you can experience many adverse effects, including tremors, numbness or muscle ... Vitamin B-12 is essential for keeping your nervous system and nerve cells healthy. ... Symptoms of a Deficiency. A severe deficiency of vitamin B-12 is rare, though a mild one is common. Even a mild deficiency can ... Risks of a Deficiency. Vitamin B-12 occurs naturally in animal foods alone, so if you do not eat these or supplement your diet ...
With this condition, your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells because of a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B ... It is another B vitamin. Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia ... Inability to absorb vitamin B-12 . Surgery that removes or bypasses the end of the small intestine may be one reason that B-12 ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. It is caused by:. * Lack of ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... Surprising Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Besides the causes listed above, other sources of vitamin B12 deficiency include: ... What to Do If You Suspect You Have a B12 Deficiency. Blood tests for vitamin B12 deficiency arent as clear cut or helpful as ...
... say researchers behind a new study showing heart failure among the elderly is strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency. ... More trials are needed to test vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of heart disease, ... Related tags: Vitamin d deficiency, Vitamin d, Heart More trials are needed to test vitamin D supplementation for the ... Vitamin D deficiency presented a higher risk factor for HF than obesity or heart arrhythmia in a study of 137 elderly Brazilian ...
The importance of vitamin D has been in the news more and more over the recent years. From flu to obesity prevention, we cant ... Vitamin D is a key ingredient in our health, and covering our bodies with toxic crap to block out what is natural and has been ... By smothering her daughter in factor-50 sun screen she deprived the youngster of vitamin D, which is produced by the body as a ... said Tyler was one of a growing number of children found to be suffering from the condition or associated vitamin deficiencies ...
... deficiency) of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack ( ... With this condition, your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells because of a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B ... It is another B vitamin. Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia ...
Do you suffer B-Complex Vitamin deficiency? The answer is likely YES! Thats because vitamin B-Complex may be THE ONE vitamin ... In fact, these synthetic "vitamins" are known to cause, in some cases, the EXACT symptoms and conditions as a deficiency of the ... This is only a partial list related to B-Complex deficiency! As you can clearly see, B-Complex Deficiency has widespread ... Thiamine deficiency contributes to irregular heartbeat, peripheral neuropathy and heart failure. B-6 deficiencies cause burning ...
Symptoms Of Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D Foods & Benefits. Symptoms of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults. Fatigue or Weakness. ... Symptoms Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Children. Now let us discuss the major symptoms of deficiency of vitamin D. First let us ... If there is a deficiency in the vitamins then it leads to various diseases. These vitamin deficiency symptoms are very ... Vitamin D deficiency is mostly found in vegetarians. Vitamin D is rich in eggs, meat, dairy, and fish. Add these food items in ...
Meaning of vitamin b 12 deficiency. What does vitamin b 12 deficiency mean? Information and translations of vitamin b 12 ... deficiency in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of vitamin b 12 deficiency in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since ...
"The vitamin isnt getting absorbed.". According to the OP 16% of Americans have a vitamin B12 deficiency, however: only ±0.5% ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12 It is important to determine if there is a deficiency and if that deficiency is related to ... Sigh.. vitamin B12 is in more places than meat. Vegetarians only have a slight increased risk for B12 deficiency, vegans do ... Sigh.. vitamin B12 is in more places than meat. Vegetarians only have a slight increased risk for B12 deficiency, vegans do ...
... Schneede, Jörn Umeå University, Faculty ...
... deficiency than individuals not taking PPI, and whether cyanocobalamin nasal spray would improve their vitamin B(1 … ... for more than 12 months were more likely to have vitamin B(12) ... Vitamin B(12) deficiency is linked with long-term use of proton ... deficiency than individuals not taking PPI, and whether cyanocobalamin nasal spray would improve their vitamin B(12) status. ... Serum samples from all subjects were analyzed for vitamin B(12) and serum methylmalonic acid (sMMA) at baseline and the end of ...
Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B, ... However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B12 was not previously ... Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B12 ... We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in ...
5 In other instances deficiency of other vitamins or minerals has been implicated, though the therapeutic response to ... 1997) Vitamin B12 deficiency: a cause of abnormal movements in infants. Pediatrics 99:255-256. ... 1962) Vitamin B12 deficiency in Indian infants-a clinical syndrome. Lancet ii:903-906. ... 1997) Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietry vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Arch Dis Child 77:137-139. ...
Effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on enzymatic pathways; Cnversion of homocysteine to methionine and the conversion of ... Examines the clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment in patients presenting with vitamin B12 deficiency- ... Clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment in patients presenting with vitamin B-12 deficiency-related ... Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved ...
Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health nutrition problem in India. It contributes to a sizeable proportion of ... Vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines: a study of xerophthalmia in Cebu. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31: 360-68. ... Reddy V. Vitamin A deficiency and blindness in Indian children. Indian I Med Res 1978;68(suppl):26-37. ... This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary intervention programme to control vitamin A deficiency in 7-12- ...
Gurmukh Singh answered: Depends on diet: If you are a vegetarian, you could develop B12 deficiency. Alcohol alone can cause ... Does a vitamin D deficiency have any role to play in peripheral neuropathy? ... Can laproscopic surgery on the right shoulder result in vitamin deficiency, fibromyslgia snd peripheral neuropathy? ... Are there any stds that have cause vitamin deficiency and peripheral neuropathy? ...
The original price for Vitamin B 12 test price is 420. This discounted test is special price for UPto75.com customers. Test ... your Vitamin B-12 deficiency today. Download the Vitamin B12 Test Coupon today. ... Vitamin B12 Price with Home Sample Collection - Rs.420. ... Vitamin Profile: Vitamin D Total, Vitamin B-12, Calcium, TSH, ... You may also be interested in these Vitamin Tests:. Vitamin D (Total) - Rs.350 + Sample Preparation Charge of Rs.100. Vitamin D ...
You might want to get tested for B12 deficiency. ... Deficiency occurred more often in women than men.. Is it ... Acid Reflux Pills Linked to Vitamin B-12 Deficiency. By Robert Stone 1 year ago 7 minute read 626 Views ... Risk of deficiency in babies is higher in new mothers with a vegetarian diet. Newborns in this category should be tested by a ... Consider this list of foods that are rich in vitamin B-12.. Dont feel like youre being scolded if youre deficient in B-12. ...
Deficiency of vitamin 12 and what is the treatment of ED ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Chest ... I am of 46 years old man, height 6 .2 weight :82 KG I am normal but having deficiency of Vitamin 12 & also cholestrol is on ... My Physician advised for Eldervit 12 Inj & Rozucare 10 mg tablet. My ECG , BP etc are normal. However, I am feeling pain on my ... Treatment and cure for vitamin b12 deficiency. *What is the treatment for vitamin b12 deficiency ...
... deficiency of vitamin B-12, over weight since childhood,, Ask a Doctor about Thyroid, Online doctor patient chat conversation ... Thyroid tests show TSH level is 0.03, T3 level 184 and T4 level 13.50, deficiency of vitamin B-12, over weight since childhood, ... Thyroid tests show TSH level is 0.03, T3 level 184 and T4 level 13.50, deficiency of vitamin B-12, over weight since childhood ... Suggest treatment for vitiligo, fatigue and acne caused by vitamin B12 deficiency ...
We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 ... Hematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of ... The patients anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy, with ... Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of ...
Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, ... Low vitamin B-12 is associated with more pronounced metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency when folate is elevated than ... Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, ... These data should be considered when assessing the potential costs, risks, and benefits of folic acid and vitamin B-12 ...
Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled ... Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency Academic Article ... Improved testing for vitamin B12 deficiency: correcting MMA for eGFR reduces the number of patients classified as vitamin B12 ... Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with ...
Vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome in psychogenic nutrition disorder (this journal 48,225-7, 1977)]. by Roland Suchenwirth ... Comment on the paper by P. Godt and M. Kochen: Vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome in psychogenic nutrition disorder (this ...
Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... Twelve-step groups *Al-Anon/Alateen. *Alcoholics Anonymous (AA):. *Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency[edit]. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal-recessive ... Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ...
  • More trials are needed to test vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of heart disease, say researchers behind a new study showing heart failure among the elderly is strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency. (nutraingredients.com)
  • These results are consistent with an earlier study reported by NutraIngredients ​ which found an association between vitamin D supplementation and lower risk of heart failure. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "The low cost of its supplementation and the possibility of preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases point to the need for more studies on the supplementation with vitamin D in prospective cohort, so that the conduct of supplementation is implanted with a solid base of evidence," ​they wrote. (nutraingredients.com)
  • We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B 12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and genome integrity biomarkers in elderly individuals with low vitamin B 12 status. (nih.gov)
  • 5 In other instances deficiency of other vitamins or minerals has been implicated, though the therapeutic response to supplementation has been poor. (bmj.com)
  • It sometimes helps to take vitamin C along with oral iron supplementation to encourage better absorption of the iron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin D supplementation in these patients can exert significant benefits on clinically relevant outcomes such as fractures," said Pilz. (medindia.net)
  • Treatment for B 12 deficiency is B 12 supplementation. (dummies.com)
  • [8] If no reversible cause is found - or when found it cannot be eliminated - lifelong vitamin B 12 supplementation is usually recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • I find Vitamin B-12 supplementation very valuable in the treatment of neurological disorders, even when there is not a frank deficiency, especially when they are aggravated by stress. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • Who is at risk for developing Vitamin B-12 Deficiency and should consider Supplementation? (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • Vitamin E can be consumed through both dietary means and supplementation. (myprotein.com)
  • Given the lack of rays in the UK for swathes of the year, current NHS advice recommends supplementation of 10 micrograms of vitamin D during the autumn and winter, and all year round if you are from an African, African-Caribbean or south Asian background. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • A new study has linked vitamin D and a reduction of chronic pain, lending to voices calling for increased fortification or supplementation of the nutrient in diets. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vitamin D supplementation should further consider additional factors, such as phosphates, parathormone, renin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of the complicated process involved in digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin B-12, supplementation may be important for those with digestive concerns that may lead to B-12 malabsorption. (puritan.com)
  • The current recommendation replaces the previous recommendation of a minimum daily intake of 200 IU/day of vitamin D supplementation beginning in the first 2 months after birth and continuing through adolescence. (aappublications.org)
  • Vitamin B supplementation was effective in reducing serum homocysteine levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As the developing foetus is totally reliant on the mother's vitamin D stores, our findings suggest that ensuring pregnant women have adequate levels of vitamin D may result in the prevention of some schizophrenia cases, in a manner comparable to the role folate supplementation has played in the prevention of spina bifida. (edu.au)
  • Eating real food is usually your best bet, but sometimes supplementation may be advisable, especially if you're already experiencing signs of deficiency. (mercola.com)
  • [ 3 ] Biannual vitamin A supplementation is a cost-effective and high-impact child survival intervention in countries such as Mozambique. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency remains preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. (medscape.com)
  • When vitamin K supplementation is given after the birth for early-onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding, it may be too late to prevent this disease, especially if vitamin K supplementation was not provided during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Other causes include malabsorption, deficiency of a factor essential to the absorption of B-12, known as intrinsic factor and infestation with tapeworms. (livestrong.com)
  • Your intestines may also be unable to absorb B-12 if you have a malabsorption condition like a tapeworm infection. (livestrong.com)
  • It was judged that this macrocytic anemia was induced by vitamin B 12 deficiency caused by malabsorption following the ileocecal resection for Crohn's disease. (go.jp)
  • This condition usually results from a dietary deficiency but may also be due to an inability to absorb (malabsorption) folic acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency due to malabsorption and inadequate intake is a public health issue worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Food-cobalamin malabsorption, which has only recently been identified as a significant cause of cobalamin deficiency among elderly people, is characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or a deficiency of intestinal cobalamin transport proteins or both. (cmaj.ca)
  • We review the epidemiology and causes of cobalamin deficiency in elderly people, with an emphasis on food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome. (cmaj.ca)
  • 2. King CE, Leibach J, Toskes PP. Clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to malabsorption of protein-bound vitamin B12. (cmaj.ca)
  • Daily long-term use (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption or a deficiency of cyanocobalamin. (nih.gov)
  • Common causes of B 12 deficiency include malabsorption syndromes (such as celiac sprue or tropical sprue), any prior intestinal surgeries (including gastric bypass and other stomach surgeries), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Diphyllobothrium latum infection, pancreatic insufficiency, and pernicious anemia. (dummies.com)
  • Any type of bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the bowel can cause malabsorption of key nutrients, including B 12 . (dummies.com)
  • Common causes of folic acid deficiency include the malabsorption syndromes, including celiac disease (celiac sprue) and tropical sprue. (dummies.com)
  • Folic acid deficiency can be caused by malabsorption, excessive alcohol intake, and certain medications, such as methotrexate used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or phenytoin sodium (Dilantin) and other seizure medications. (dummies.com)
  • When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin E deficiency is caused mainly due to a low-fat diet, low weight at birth and fat malabsorption - an abnormality in the way the gastrointestinal tract absorbs nutrients. (getgrowfit.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 Malabsorption Syndrome-An Often Misdiagnosed Medical Condition. (hubpages.com)
  • Eating a variety of foods high in vitamin B-12 can in itself help prevent B-12 malabsorption syndrome. (hubpages.com)
  • Well one good reason that I can give you off the top of my head, is that many doctors today, are not readily, or even thoroughly trained in areas of nutrition and/or related vitamin deficiencies issues, often overlooked as a real vitamin deficiency disorder problem, just like that associated with vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. (hubpages.com)
  • Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia). (uhhospitals.org)
  • This type of B-12 deficiency anemia is called pernicious anemia. (uhhospitals.org)
  • In one study , 56 percent of patients suffering from pernicious anemia (extreme B12 deficiency) had H. pylori bacterial infections in their stomachs. (mercola.com)
  • We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B 12 deficiency (serum vitamin B 12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sheela Krishnaswamy, renowned diet, nutrition and wellness consultant based in Bangalore says: "Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes a different form of anemia which is known as pernicious anemia. (genamet.com)
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency can be caused in cases if vitamin B12 is not absorbed from the food properly, pernicious anemia, improper absorption due to post surgical treatment and insufficient intake of Vitamin B12 in the diet. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • In case, the cause of deficiency of Vitamin B12 is pernicious anemia, parenteral administration of Vitamin B12 is preferred. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • A B-12 deficiency is also a concern for the elderly population and people with other conditions such as Pernicious Anemia, Crohn's, Graves' Disease and Lupus. (celiaccorner.com)
  • To assess for pernicious anemia as a cause of B 12 deficiency, you'd order antiparietal cell antibodies and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies lab tests. (dummies.com)
  • The main type of vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia is pernicious anemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • On Tuesday, a California cardiologist advanced what he said was a fresh theory to explain some of her behavior: She suffered from a deficiency of vitamin B-12, probably caused by an ailment called "pernicious anemia. (blogspot.com)
  • Thus mega doses of oral vitamin B-12 may be appropriate in the treatment of pernicious anemia in a reliable patient. (ispub.com)
  • liver, certain fish and cheeses for example, to name a few of many, are really essential in maintaining health and avoiding pernicious anemia, which can also be a direct result of a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (hubpages.com)
  • If you are over the age of 50, you should meet this RDA by eating fortified foods or taking supplements, since your body may not fully absorb the B-12 found in animal foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Depending on the cause of your vitamin B-12 deficiency, you may need to take vitamin B-12 supplements for the rest of your life. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Treatment may include vitamin B-12 supplements. (uhhospitals.org)
  • After being given B-12 supplements, their symptoms and laryngeal, bronchial, and cough thresholds significantly improved. (mercola.com)
  • Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. (definitions.net)
  • Vitamin B12 intramuscular injections versus oral supplements: a budget impact analysis. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The dietary supplements are clubbed beneath the name, Vitamin B Complicated. (vitaminecapsules.net)
  • Calcium and vitamin supplements are taken to provide the body with the ''required'' nutrients. (medindia.net)
  • Cyanocobalamine is used in most supplements because it is readily converted to active forms of vitamin B-12 in the body. (medindia.net)
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements notes that "people with vitamin A deficiency … tend to have low iron status, which can lead to anemia. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • One 2013 meta-analysis published in the journal Nutrients concluded that vitamin A supplements can both prevent iron deficiency anemia and reverse it. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Do Vitamin Supplements Work? (rumble.com)
  • One way to combat Vitamin B12 deficiency is to take supplements. (low-histamine.com)
  • However, most Vitamin B12 supplements are in the form of cyanocobalamin rather than methylcobalamin. (low-histamine.com)
  • People diagnosed with a B-12 deficiency can replace it with either oral supplements or if a more potent form is required, by injection. (celiaccorner.com)
  • [9] Vitamin B 12 deficiency is preventable with supplements containing the vitamin: this is recommended in pregnant vegetarians and vegans , and not harmful in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplements and food are the other 2 ways on which you can get vitamin D. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • Studies examining the consumption of vitamins have shown that 11.3% of people take vitamin E supplements containing up to 400IU (5). (myprotein.com)
  • However, experts have warned that this does *not* mean Vitamin D supplements alone will protect you from COVID-19. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Vitamin K2 as MK-7 supplements are truly changing the face of global health, benefiting old and young alike. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vitamin D3, "the sunshine vitamin," is synthetized in the human epidermis via ultraviolet irradiation, or it may be consumed in the form of oily fish or supplements. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, Vitamin B-12 has become one of the most popular nutritional supplements, and that popularity has expanded to consumer products. (puritan.com)
  • Your body can't make Vitamin B-12 on its own, so it is important to consume it through foods or supplements. (puritan.com)
  • In the worst cases, supplements cannot remedy the deficiency and eating great amounts of meat, cheese and eggs leads to no result. (hubpages.com)
  • But often, nutrition-conscious vegans and their families are the ones who pay attention to their B12 level and use supplements to avoid experiencing potential deficiencies. (hubpages.com)
  • Certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce psychiatric symptoms in some people with schizophrenia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The next step is to conduct randomised clinical trials of vitamin D supplements in pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient, in order to examine the impact on child brain development and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. (edu.au)
  • Deficiency of vitamin B-12 can lead to neurological difficulties and anemia . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms of B-12 deficiency include anemia and nervous tissue dysfunction. (livestrong.com)
  • The hallmark of B-12 deficiency is a condition known as megaloblastic anemia. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells because of a lack of vitamin B-12. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Who is at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia? (uhhospitals.org)
  • What are the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia? (uhhospitals.org)
  • The symptoms of vitamin B-12 anemia may look like other blood conditions or health problems. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur together and can be hard to tell apart. (uhhospitals.org)
  • A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. (definitions.net)
  • Intravenous administration of vitamin B 12 rapidly improved macrocytic anemia. (go.jp)
  • Macrocytic anemia due to vitamin B 12 deficiency should be kept in mind in patients with Crohn's disease after an ileocecal resection. (go.jp)
  • Deficiency of Vitamin B-12 leads to fatigue, anemia, depression, weight loss, numbness and tingling of the feet and hands, Slow reflexes, dementia and weight loss. (upto75.com)
  • The patient's anemia, myelopathy and psychiatric condition responded well to parenteral vitamin B 12 replacement therapy, with significant improvement seen within weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The onset of iron deficiency anemia is gradual and may not have early symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Folic acid deficiency anemia is the most common type of megaloblastic anemia, arising from a problem with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cells of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Its deficiency would cause anemia. (vitaminecapsules.net)
  • Not getting enough vitamin B-12 can even lead to serious, irreversible consequences such as anemia and nerve damage. (healthyfocus.org)
  • A mild vitamin B-12 deficiency may not display any symptoms, however, a severe vitamin B-12 deficiency may lead irreversible damage, such as anemia. (healthyfocus.org)
  • The deficiency of Vitamin B12 results in macrocytic anemia (size of red blood cells larger than normal). (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Megaloblastic anemia occurs due to acquired deficiency of Vitamin B12 . (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Low levels of Vitamin B12 may be seen in anemia, hyperthyroidism (high levels of thyroid), worm infection etc. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • If you get diagnosed with anemia-or a red blood cell deficiency-and you're not sure what the root cause is, you should consider getting your vitamin A levels checked. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • However, if you discover that a deficiency is the cause of your anemia, there are ways to get better. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • That's because, as with a vitamin A deficiency, having a vitamin B deficiency can lead to anemia, which reduces the number of healthy red blood cells in the body and disrupts the flow of oxygen to the brain. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Well, according to WebMD , anemia brought on by a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause this symptom. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • If left untreated, anemia can lead to some serious complications, so make sure to stay on top of your vitamin B intake. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Clinically, vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. (frontiersin.org)
  • [4] In mild deficiency a person may feel tired and have a reduced number of red blood cells (anemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] A mild deficiency may not cause any discernible symptoms, but as the deficiency becomes more significant, symptoms of anemia may result, such as weakness, fatigue, light-headedness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing and pale color to the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riboflavin deficiency also causes anemia with red blood cells that are normal in size and hemoglobin content, but reduced in number. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is distinct from anemia caused by deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson TC, Krauss MJ, Debaun MR et al (2012) Vitamin D deficiency and comorbidities in children with sickle cell anemia. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is mostly found in vegetarians. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Vegetarians only have a slight increased risk for B12 deficiency, vegans do have a high risk. (physicsforums.com)
  • Only a small number of cases have been described from developed countries, occurring solely in vitamin B-12 deficient exclusively breast fed infants, whose mothers had unrecognised pernicious anaemia or who were strict vegetarians. (bmj.com)
  • Nor does it occur in plants, which is why vegans and vegetarians are typically at higher risk of deficiency. (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • When asked about the alternative for those who are vegetarians, he said that apart from milk and milk products one could take Vitamin B-12 injections and also tablets as supplement. (genamet.com)
  • The chances of Vitamin B12 are high in vegetarians as vegetarian foods do not provide complete recovery from the Vitamin B12 deficiency. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Vitamin B 12 Deficiency - Why Vegetarians and Mixed Dieters Are Also Often Affected and what you can do about it! (innonature.shop)
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is no longer a rarity - and not only for vegans, but also for vegetarians and mixed dieters! (innonature.shop)
  • 1)Strict vegetarians and vegans are at high risk for developing a B12 deficiency if they don't eat grains that have been fortified with the vitamin or take a vitamin supplement. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • deficiency is thus common in strict vegetarians (vegans). (ispub.com)
  • Ovolactovegetarians and lacto vegetarians may obtain adequate amounts of the vitamin. (ispub.com)
  • You have probably heard that vegetarians and vegans should supplement with Vitamin B-12. (puritan.com)
  • 1967 ) Megaloblastic anaemia of infancy and vitamin B 12 . (bmj.com)
  • We describe an unusual case of a patient with severe vitamin B 12 deficiency together with profound hematological derangements and florid neuropsychiatric impairment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also review diagnostic and management strategies for cobalamin deficiency. (cmaj.ca)
  • Vitamin B 12 or cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients, 1 but it is often unrecognized or not investigated because the clinical manifestations are subtle. (cmaj.ca)
  • We summarize the current state of knowledge on cobalamin deficiency, with a particular focus on deficiency in elderly people. (cmaj.ca)
  • Cobalamin deficiency is defined in terms of the serum values of cobalamin and of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, 2 components of the cobalamin metabolic pathway. (cmaj.ca)
  • High homocysteine levels (hyperhomocysteinemia) may also be caused by folate or vitamin B 6 deficiencies, and these should be excluded as causes of cobalamin deficiency before a diagnosis is made. (cmaj.ca)
  • The definitions of cobalamin deficiency used in this review are shown in Box 1 . (cmaj.ca)
  • Epidemiological studies show a prevalence of cobalamin deficiency of around 20% (between 5% and 60%, depending on the definition of cobalamin deficiency used in the study) in the general population of industrialized countries. (cmaj.ca)
  • Cobalamin metabolism is complex and requires many processes, any one of which, if not present, may lead to cobalamin deficiency. (cmaj.ca)
  • 4 , 13 , 14 , 15 The causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in Fig. 1 and listed in Table 1 . (cmaj.ca)
  • Causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in blue. (cmaj.ca)
  • particularly those included in the international consensus, and discusses guidelines for the management of H. pylori infection, such as iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, and immune thrombocytopenia. (intechopen.com)
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency , also known as cobalamin deficiency , is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data has shown that cobalamin deficiency may occur in 5% to 40% of the general population. (ispub.com)
  • As the vitamin is highly conserved via the enterohepatic circulation and the liver stores about 3 mg of it, it takes 5 to 10 years for cobalamin deficiency to manifest itself in a previously healthy adult who suddenly stops taking the vitamin in his diet. (ispub.com)
  • Secretion of intrinsic factor (IF) parallels that of hydrochloric acid, thus achlorhydria leads to cobalamin deficiency via reduced IF secretion. (ispub.com)
  • That patients are at risk for developing cobalamin deficiency after gastrectomy is therefore obvious and known. (annals.org)
  • The time from surgery to the onset of cobalamin deficiency varies with the extent of parietal cell ablation and with the inventory of the stored vitamin that is conserved and stockpiled during times of plenty. (annals.org)
  • In this issue, Sumner and colleagues [1] report the results of follow-up screening for cobalamin deficiency in a large series of patients who have had gastrectomy. (annals.org)
  • By using serum vitamin B 12 measurements and newer laboratory assays for metabolites known to accumulate in cobalamin deficiency, Sumner and colleagues report a much higher prevalence of deficiency than that previously noted [2]. (annals.org)
  • First is the clinical implication that cobalamin deficiency may be underdiagnosed. (annals.org)
  • How prevalent is true cobalamin deficiency among patients who have had gastrectomy and in the general population? (annals.org)
  • Hematological manifestations of vitamin B 12 deficiency are typically inversely correlated with the presence and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dietary B-12 is freed from food protein by pepsin in the acid gastric environment and binds to haptocorrin, a protein secreted in saliva. (bmj.com)
  • Dietary animal products, such as fish and poultry, are the main source of B-12, providing significantly larger amounts than the daily requirement of two to three micrograms. (livestrong.com)
  • Deficiencies arise in strict vegetarian or vegan diets and in those who are unable to absorb dietary sources. (livestrong.com)
  • Certain people are at greater risk of developing a B-12 deficiency than others, so it is important to discuss your vitamin consumption with a physician to ensure you meet the recommended dietary allowance. (livestrong.com)
  • Fish, dairy, organ meats, eggs and pork are good dietary sources of this vitamin. (livestrong.com)
  • The efficacy of a dietary intervention programme to control vitamin A deficiency through inexpensive, locally available sources of -carotene was evaluated in 121 children 7-12 years old. (unu.edu)
  • The major cause is inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A [2]. (unu.edu)
  • Hence the most rational method to prevent and control the disorder is to increase the dietary intake of the vitamin. (unu.edu)
  • Therefore, a number of sources should be used in a dietary intervention programme to control vitamin A deficiency. (unu.edu)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary intervention programme to control vitamin A deficiency in 7-12-year-old children through rich but cheap, easily available, and varied local sources of -carotene. (unu.edu)
  • The reason can be an inadequate dietary intake of Vitamin B12 or any problem in the absorption of Vitamin B12 from the intestines. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Recommendations for dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly are higher than any other age group because vitamin D deficiency is extraordinarily prevalent in this population and is considered a causal risk factor for skeletal diseases. (medindia.net)
  • During my time as a nutritionist, I often met people with a vitamin B12 deficiency, regardless of their dietary habits. (innonature.shop)
  • Because there are limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D and adequate sunshine exposure for the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D is not easily determined for a given individual and may increase the risk of skin cancer, the recommendations to ensure adequate vitamin D status have been revised to include all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed and older children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • Dietary vitamin A not absorbed in the intestine is excreted in the feces, and inactivated metabolic derivatives are primarily excreted in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • Key nutrients, including folate, copper and vitamin B-12, are among the causes of neutropenia. (livestrong.com)
  • If you eat an all vegetarian or vegan diet, vitamin B12 is one of the nutrients your body is most likely deficient in. (mercola.com)
  • Stress - tension - anxieties, chemicals in our environment and refined "junk foods" leech our body of healthful nutrients - All leading to B-Complex Deficiency Disorders. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Refined foods leech wholesome nutrients from your body: This is the beginning of B-Complex Deficiency Disorders. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • It isn't uncommon to have deficient levels of certain vitamins and nutrients that the body needs for proper nerve function in the midst of alcoholism, as heavy alcohol use often coincides with a poor diet. (healthline.com)
  • Vitamins are very important nutrients for the body. (medindia.net)
  • When CD is triggered, the small intestinal villi become damaged (flattened) over time and are unable to absorb nutrients properly, resulting in deficiencies, sometimes severe. (celiaccorner.com)
  • Research suggests that even people who adhere to a strict gluten-free diet may continue to have nutritional deficiencies, or develop new ones, primarily because gluten-free packaged products are not fortified with enough healthy vitamins and nutrients. (celiaccorner.com)
  • Vitamin E is a superstar among nutrients. (getgrowfit.com)
  • Your age and certain health conditions (digestive issues and others) can also impact your body's ability to absorb and metabolize nutrients, potentially raising your risk for deficiencies, as can diets that restrict certain foods, such as strict vegan diets. (mercola.com)
  • They also contain other nutrients that many are deficient in, such as vitamin B12 , calcium and choline. (mercola.com)
  • Treatment may include vitamin B-12 shots (injections) or folic acid pills. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Alternatively, high dose, oral vitamin B12 works well and injections are not needed. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 shots are injections that can be prescribed to treat a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (peakperformax.com)
  • Vitamin B12 injections are the most common and effective route to preventing or treating a deficiency. (peakperformax.com)
  • Vitamin B12 injections are also available in the form of cyanocobalamin which can be administered parenterally or via intramuscular route. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Vitamin B12 is also available in the form of gel which can be applied intranasally, which is an alternative to Vitamin B12 injections. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Amino Pharmaceuticals , a privately owned medical practice with clinics in the Colorado area (Brookfield, Denver, and Englewood) offers physician and pharmacy-formulated B-12 injections. (celiaccorner.com)
  • Amino B-12 injections are also available in a variety of stores as well as via their website, saving you both time and the cost of an office visit! (celiaccorner.com)
  • Amino Pharmaceuticals' B-12 injections are made in the USA and are gluten-free and preservative-free. (celiaccorner.com)
  • Visit one of Amino Pharmaceuticals' Colorado clinics or their website to determine if B-12 injections are right for you! (celiaccorner.com)
  • CeliacCorner partnered with Amino Pharmaceuticals to spotlight their B-12 injections. (celiaccorner.com)
  • Intramuscular injections of B 12 can be given, usually once a week. (dummies.com)
  • Is it necessary to periodically monitor the at-risk population with serum vitamin B 12 and metabolite assays, or is it better simply to consign such patients to receiving monthly vitamin B 12 injections? (annals.org)
  • Intramuscular injections are poorly absorbed and are ineffective in delivering sufficient bioavailable vitamin A. Fortification of food with vitamin A is costly, but can be done in wheat, sugar, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is naturally available in meats, but people who do not eat meat, such as vegans, can obtain vitamin B-12 in supplement form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because your body is able to store significant amounts of vitamin B-12, deficiencies due to diet are rare except in strict, long-term vegans. (livestrong.com)
  • One example of why cholesterol is not the major factor in heart disease is seen in vegans who have low blood fats but have vascular disease due to B-12 deficiency. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • I think the risk of B12 deficiency in vegans has been greatly exaggerated. (physicsforums.com)
  • Are more vegans affected by B12 deficiencies than people eating meat? (hubpages.com)
  • This does not mean that vegans cannot experience deficiencies. (hubpages.com)
  • However, in the past, micro-organisms that produce Vitamin B12 were found on fruits and vegetables and vegans were able to take in Vitamin B12 naturally. (hubpages.com)
  • So why are vegans not suffering as much from B12 deficiencies, contrary to the general public opinion? (hubpages.com)
  • There are two reasons why vegans are not the main group suffering from B12 deficiencies. (hubpages.com)
  • Excessive intake of vitamin B-12 has not demonstrated toxic or harmful qualities. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • British health officials now recommend people spend 15 minutes outside during peak sun hours three times a week to prevent vitamin D deficiency, as sunlight is responsible for 90 percent of our vitamin D intake. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • It is rare to see B12 deficiency solely due to decreased intake from foods. (physicsforums.com)
  • You can also increase your intake of certain foods to correct a deficiency naturally. (healthline.com)
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency is a multifactorial condition caused by insufficient intake (nutritional deficiency) as well as acquired or inherited defects that disrupt B 12 absorption, processing and trafficking pathways (functional deficiency). (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study, for example, indicated that the median adult intake of vitamin D in the US is only 230 IU per day, versus the researchers' recommended 2000 IU per day. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Causes are categorized as decreased absorption of vitamin B12 from the stomach or intestines, deficient intake, or increased requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are concerned about your Vitamin B-12 intake, it should be discussed with your personal healthcare provider. (puritan.com)
  • Rickets in infants attributable to inadequate vitamin D intake and decreased exposure to sunlight continues to be reported in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • It is now recommended that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth. (aappublications.org)
  • These revised guidelines for vitamin D intake for healthy infants, children, and adolescents are based on evidence from new clinical trials and the historical precedence of safely giving 400 IU of vitamin D per day in the pediatric and adolescent population. (aappublications.org)
  • This statement is intended to replace a 2003 clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 1 which recommended a daily intake of 200 IU/day of vitamin D for all infants (beginning in the first 2 months after birth), children, and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • The new recommended daily intake of vitamin D is 400 IU/day for all infants, children, and adolescents beginning in the first few days of life. (aappublications.org)
  • Rickets attributable to vitamin D deficiency is known to be a condition that is preventable with adequate nutritional intake of vitamin D. 2 - 6 Despite this knowledge, cases of rickets in infants attributable to inadequate vitamin D intake and decreased exposure to sunlight continue to be reported in the United States and other Western countries, particularly with exclusively breastfed infants and infants with darker skin pigmentation. (aappublications.org)
  • Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency: new guidelines for vitamin D intake. (medscape.com)
  • When vitamin A intake is low, the absorption efficiency remains high, carotenoid cleavage is enhanced, the plasma transport remains at essentially normal levels, recycling and utilization mechanisms become more efficient, and the excretion of metabolites markedly decreases. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, under normal physiological conditions, the function of vitamin A is minimally affected by wide variations of intake. (medscape.com)
  • vitamin B-12 is released and binds with intrinsic factor, which is secreted by gastric parietal cells. (bmj.com)
  • For example, B-12 requires a particular "intrinsic factor" to be present in the stomach for absorption. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • R. Proteins are then broken down in the small intestine and release vitamin B 12 where it bind to intrinsic factor which is secreted by parietal cells in the stomach. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • This intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex is then transported into enterocytes (these are simple columnar epithelial cells, which are body tissues) and enters the circulation where it is bound by a protein known as transcobalamin II. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • B-12 then binds to intrinsic factor, a 50-kd glycoprotein secreted by the gastric parietal cells. (ispub.com)
  • However if you have chronic alcoholism, or vitamin B-12 intrinsic factor-than eating all of the correct foods may not be enough to prevent it. (hubpages.com)
  • If you're not eating a balanced diet, chances are you may be vitamin B-12 deficient. (healthyfocus.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is important for brain function the synthesis of red blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The metabolism of every cell in the body depends on vitamin B-12, as it plays a part in the synthesis of fatty acids and energy production. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (definitions.net)
  • Vitamin B 12 is essential for normal blood synthesis and neurological function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is essential to the functioning of your brain and central nervous system and your DNA synthesis. (healthline.com)
  • Vitamin b12 helps in the synthesis of the myelination process for nerve cells and thus helps in Alzheimer's disease. (peakperformax.com)
  • Vitamins play an equally important part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. (medindia.net)
  • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin, required for DNA synthesis (and ultimately cell division) and for maintaining nerve myelin integrity. (low-histamine.com)
  • The current study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin B 12 levels and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) during adolescence when accelerated myelin synthesis increases the vitamin B 12 need. (aappublications.org)
  • In vitamin B 12 deficiency, myelin synthesis is disrupted and may lead to baroreflex dysfunction, affecting the sympathetic regulation of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system, as observed in demyelinating disorders. (aappublications.org)
  • Deficiency in vitamin D affects inhabitants of colder climates, because sunlight induces synthesis of vitamin D in humans. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The main source of vitamin D for humans is vitamin D 3 through its synthesis in the skin when UV-B in the range of 290 to 315 nm converts 7-dehydrocholesterol into previtamin D 3 . (aappublications.org)
  • F. Cunningham gave a great talk today at the ASM 2012 meeting on the discovery of provitamin A synthesis, Vitamin A deficiency and the creation of Golden Rice. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Haddad JG, Matsuoka LY, Hollis BW, Hu YZ, Wortsman J. Human plasma transport of vitamin D after its endogenous synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • A recent study showed that vitamin B-12 deficiency patients had a higher prevalence of laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. (mercola.com)
  • The Framingham study demonstrated a prevalence of 12% among elderly people living in the community. (cmaj.ca)
  • "…this is the first time that we have established the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among a diverse group of chronic pain patients," ​ said study author, Michael Hooten, medical director and anesthesiologist at the Mayo Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Center. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • What is the global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency? (medscape.com)
  • A greater prevalence of vitamin D deficiency exists in Middle Eastern countries. (medscape.com)
  • Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency with night blindness may have increased during the 2008 world economic crisis and may not have recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. (medscape.com)
  • This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B 12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B 12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B 12 status in various human disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • You can diagnose B 12 deficiency with a simple blood test, namely a B 12 level. (dummies.com)
  • Serum samples from all subjects were analyzed for vitamin B(12) and serum methylmalonic acid (sMMA) at baseline and the end of the 8-week treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate. (mysciencework.com)
  • The limited value of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and holotranscobalamin in the diagnosis of early B12 deficiency. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • [2] Elevated methylmalonic acid levels may also indicate a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. (bmj.com)
  • Dokal I S , Cox T M , Galton D A . Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. (bmj.com)
  • The presence of peripheral sensory-motor symptoms or subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord strongly suggests the presence of a B12 deficiency instead of folate deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B(12) deficiency is linked with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors in institutionalized older adults: could a cyanocobalamin nasal spray be beneficial? (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether institutionalized older individuals taking proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for more than 12 months were more likely to have vitamin B(12) deficiency than individuals not taking PPI, and whether cyanocobalamin nasal spray would improve their vitamin B(12) status. (nih.gov)
  • The findings present more evidence of the importance of adequate vitamin D status in the elderly for cardiovascular benefits as well as bone health. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Among their findings: 12% of the people with a B-12 deficiency had taken PPIs for more than two years compared to 7.2% of those without a deficiency who'd taken PPIs for the same length of time. (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • Findings from this study indicate that vitamin D deficiency requires close oversight in public health during adolescence. (eurospe.org)
  • Our findings show that the vast majority of nursing home residents are severely vitamin D deficient and those with the lowest vitamin D levels are at high risk of mortality," said Dr. Stefan Pilz, MD, of the Medical University of Graz, Austria, and lead author of the study. (medindia.net)
  • Their findings showed that vitamin D levels were below recommended levels in 92.8 percent of the study participants, suggesting that while vitamin D deficiency among frail and elderly populations has been acknowledged for several decades, no effective strategies to treat the deficiencies have been developed and implemented. (medindia.net)
  • In light of our findings, and the existing literature on adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency, there exists now an urgent need for effective strategies to improve vitamin D status in older institutionalized patients. (medindia.net)
  • Incecik F, Hergiiner MO, Altunbasak S, Leblebisatan G. Neurologic findings of nutritional vitamin B-12 deficiency in children. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Carriers were also grouped as low or normal vitamin D. Laboratory findings were similar between low and normal Vit D groups in SS, SB and AS genotypes except a lower IL-12 in SB-low vitamin D compared SB-normal vitamin D group. (springer.com)
  • These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. (springer.com)
  • The first was symptomatic hypocalcemia (including seizures) occurring during periods of rapid growth, with increased metabolic demands, long before any physical findings or radiologic evidence of vitamin D deficiency occurred. (aappublications.org)
  • Vitamin D in Fetal Development: Findings From a Birth Cohort Study. (medscape.com)
  • Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months. (rxlist.com)
  • Sufficient consumption of such Vitamin even helps to manage up with problems related to emphasize and fatigue. (vitaminecapsules.net)
  • If you begin noticing that you are pale, have loss of appetite, headaches, fatigue, numbness, memory loss, disorientation or even constipation and diarrhea, then these may be signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency. (biocornutrition.com)
  • A deficiency in this essential nutrient can lead to an array of health problems, ranging from fatigue to permanent neurological changes. (peakperformax.com)
  • The most common signs and symptoms of a B-12 deficiency can be: Fatigue, decreased cognitive function, general lethargy, constipation, feeling faint, anxiety, and depression or irritability. (peakperformax.com)
  • If you are suffering from a B-12 deficiency, you may notice some unpleasant symptoms such as an irregular heartbeat, extreme fatigue, and a foggy memory. (healthyfocus.org)
  • People who have vitamin D deficiency can have a constant feeling of fatigue and do not have enough energy throughout the day. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • fatigue difficulty thinking memory loss weakness balance issues, difficulty walking strange sensations like numbness and tingling in your hands, feet, or legs can also be due to Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • Telltale signs of omega-3 deficiency include dry, flaky skin, "chicken skin" on the back of your arms, dandruff or dry hair, soft brittle nails, fatigue, menstrual cramps and poor attention span. (mercola.com)
  • These data should be considered when assessing the potential costs, risks, and benefits of folic acid and vitamin B-12 fortification programs. (mysciencework.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 occurs naturally in animal foods alone, so if you do not eat these or supplement your diet with fortified foods, you run the risk of developing a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (livestrong.com)
  • She may suggest you consume a B-complex supplement, since it is typically ill-advised to take one B vitamin and not the others for an extended period. (livestrong.com)
  • In this randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial, 56 subclinically vitamin B 12 -deficient participants received 50 g WPI or 50 g SPI as a control for 8 wk followed by 16-wk washout phase and then cross-over to alternative supplement for next 8 wk. (nih.gov)
  • If you fall under this category, can take a vitamin B-12 supplement or eat foods fortified with the vitamin, such as grains and cereals. (healthyfocus.org)
  • When a deficiency is detected by a health care professional, a supplement is generally recommended until levels return to a normal range. (celiaccorner.com)
  • The good news is its so easy to supplement B-12. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • In October 2020, Health Secretary Matt Hancock confirmed that the government would begin public messaging to advise that people supplement with the vitamin, and that he's agreed to commission fresh research into the hormone's potential benefits for your immunity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The UK government already recommends that people take a low-dose vitamin D supplement over the winter to protect their bone health, but we do not know if this will have effect on COVID-19 or if higher doses might be able to provide protection against the virus. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Vitamin D inadequacy can be easily and inexpensively treated using a prescription supplement, once or twice a week for four to six weeks, according to Hooten. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). (springer.com)
  • Supplement treatment for night blindness includes massive doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU) in the form of retinyl palmitate to be taken by mouth, which is administered two to four times a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient in the body and one of the easiest to take in supplement offer. (puritan.com)
  • In the elderly, it's probably because they don't secrete enough stomach acid to separate the vitamin from the meat proteins that tightly bind it. (physicsforums.com)
  • Secreted gastric acid and pepsin in the stomach allow Vitamin B12 to dissociate from proteins in food. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • B 12 is then bound to R proteins or haptocorrins (vitamin B12 binding protein) which carry Vitamin B 12 into the intestines. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • Naturally the body absorbs Vitamin B12 from proteins such as fish, meat, poultry, and poultry products such as eggs and milk. (peakperformax.com)
  • Once cyanocobalamin is internalized into the ileum, IF is removed from the complex and the vitamin gets bound to transport proteins namely transcobalamin I, II and III and is transported via the portal blood stream to the liver and other body tissues. (ispub.com)
  • Specific tocopherol-binding proteins favor the retention of the most potent vitamin E homologue, RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR-α-T) in man. (wiley.com)
  • Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for γ-glutamyl carboxylase enzymatic activity that catalyses the γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in a subclass of proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X as well as other Gla-proteins (eg, protein C, protein S, protein Z) also depend on the presence of vitamin K for their activity. (medscape.com)
  • Professor McGrath, who holds a prestigious Niels Bohr Professorship at Aarhus University, also led a 2016 Dutch study that found a link between prenatal vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of childhood autism traits. (edu.au)
  • Consider this list of foods that are rich in vitamin B-12 . (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is gleaned through diet, so those not consuming foods rich in vitamin b-12 or have trouble absorbing the vitamin are more likely to suffer a deficiency. (healthyfocus.org)
  • According to a program I heard yesterday, roughly 16% of Americans are deficient in Vitamin B 12 . (physicsforums.com)
  • Is it Dangerous to Be Deficient in Vitamin B-12? (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • People with digestive issues may also be deficient in Vitamin B-12. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency occurs when the body does not receive enough vitamin B-12. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Plants and vegetables contain little of the vitamin, save that contributed by microbial contamination, as occurs in unwashed vegetables. (livestrong.com)
  • Finally, consuming high doses of vitamin B-9 or folic acid can mask the symptoms of a B-12 deficiency until serious neurological damage occurs. (livestrong.com)
  • 5) Older people can suffer from vitamin deficiencys due to the slow down in stomach acid production that often occurs with aging. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • A state of deficiency occurs months before rickets is obvious on physical examination, and the deficiency state may also present with hypocalcemic seizures, 16 - 18 growth failure, lethargy, irritability, and a predisposition to respiratory infections during infancy. (aappublications.org)
  • Deficiency occurs in endemic proportions in developing countries and is considered to be the most common cause of blindness in children throughout the world. (medscape.com)
  • Early-onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding usually occurs during first 24 hours after birth. (medscape.com)
  • Classic vitamin K deficiency bleeding usually occurs after 24 hours after birth but may present as late as the first week of life. (medscape.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness among adolescents, particularly in developing countries. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency is the world's leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, and is critical to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, elderly people's bodies cannot absorb this vitamin as efficiently as those who are younger, increasing their chances of becoming deficient. (livestrong.com)
  • The risk of heart failure (HF) was more than 12 times higher in elderly vitamin D-deficient subjects than in those with adequate status, reported the researchers from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency presented a higher risk factor for HF than obesity or heart arrhythmia in a study of 137 elderly Brazilian cardiac outpatients. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "Based on the evidence presented in this study, which is supported by the literature, the high percentage of elderly individuals with vitamin D deficiency and its consequences for increased risk of HF suggest a need of dosage recommendations for this vitamin, especially in primary healthcare services," ​recommended Porto. (nutraingredients.com)
  • However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B 12 was not previously tested. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of institutionalized elderly female patients are vitamin D deficient and there is an inverse association of vitamin D deficiency and mortality, according to a recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (JCEM). (medindia.net)
  • Treatment involves the daily ingestion of up to 800 IU of vitamin D. The current study examined whether vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for mortality in institutionalized elderly patients. (medindia.net)
  • It is estimated that 15-20% of the elderly in the United States are B 12 deficient ( Allen, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • [1] Governments guidelines on vitamin deficiencies advise certain intakes for healthy people, with specific values for women, men, babies, the elderly, and during pregnancy or breastfeeding . (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of regions have published guidelines defining vitamin deficiencies and advising specific intakes for healthy people, with different recommendations for women, men, infants, the elderly, and during pregnancy and breast feeding including Japan , the European Union , the United States, and Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the symptoms of a deficiency often only occur several years later, at least in the case of adults. (hubpages.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 can be found naturally in animal products, such as fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins and is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products. (mercola.com)
  • But Tucker can only speculate about the reasons for poor absorption of the vitamin from meat among younger adults or why B12 appears to be better absorbed from dairy products than from meats. (physicsforums.com)
  • vitamin B12 is in more places than meat. (physicsforums.com)
  • Animal products like meat and milk products are the rich source of Vitamin B-12. (genamet.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is found primarily in animal products, such as dairy products, meat, and shellfish, so those who abstain from those foods may be most at risk for suffering from a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (healthyfocus.org)
  • To treat Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B12 rich foods in the diet can be included such as fish, red meat, eggs, milk and milk products, legumes, nuts, seeds and soy products. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Because eating meat does not automatically ensure a sufficient supply of vitamin B12. (innonature.shop)
  • B 12 is found in meat, and the Western animal-based diet is built around meat, so unless someone's a vegan, being B 12 deficient due to diet is very hard. (dummies.com)
  • No. Often, an overconsumption of meat and milk products can make the absorption of the vitamin difficult. (hubpages.com)
  • Why don't you first check with them to see if they had also recently ordered a CBC-(Complete Blood Count), which includes a comprehensive test that gives your total levels of serum B-12. (hubpages.com)
  • Getting enough B-12 in your diet helps you make red blood cells, and fights DNA damage in white blood cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Are you Getting Enough B-12? (healthyfocus.org)
  • Well, in addition to getting your levels checked every year at the doctor's office, you can familiarize yourself with these surprising signs of vitamin deficiency. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Too little vitamin C will increase signs of aging such as wrinkles," explains certified nutritionist Ann Ramark . (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Signs of B 12 deficiency include weakness, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, and feeling just awful. (dummies.com)
  • And despite all of the correct things you are doing good and putting into your body, you still may find that when your Complete Blood Count is reviewed by your physician, that it is apparent to him/her that you still are plagued and have all the signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency. (hubpages.com)
  • The answer lies in the fact that sun exposure is only natural way to obtain vitamin D, and we are being frightened out of the sunlight. (nutraingredients.com)
  • By smothering her daughter in factor-50 sun screen she deprived the youngster of vitamin D, which is produced by the body as a reaction to sunlight on the skin. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Vitamin D is naturally obtained from sunlight. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • People should get good exposure to sunlight to avoid vitamin d deficiency, especially during morning hours. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency is the only only vitamin that cannot be obtained from plants or sunlight. (genamet.com)
  • Recent public health warnings that highlight the sunlight-skin cancer link have resulted in a rise in Vitamin D deficiency, in the wake of people's fear of exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays. (medindia.net)
  • The finding is quite worrisome because Vitamin D, produced by the body in response to sunlight, helps protect against cancer and is also thought to be important in helping to prevent bone disease like osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases, asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. (medindia.net)
  • Considering all that, the researchers are seeking a review of the guidelines on sunlight exposure os that it may be ensured that people receive enough vitamin D. (medindia.net)
  • Dr. Bataille feels that people can make enough vitamin D from just 15 minutes exposure to sunlight while wearing a T-shirt, but this would need to be increased for those with dark skin or during the winter months when sunlight is lower. (medindia.net)
  • In the absence of Vitamin D from sunlight, disease increases more than 1000 percent . (naturalblaze.com)
  • And if you are a vegetarian, it is all the more difficult to gain vitamin D. What they repeatedly suggest is exposure to sunlight is the best source of vitamin D. Humans spend less time in the sun today than at any point in human history - which is why more than 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D deficient. (naturalblaze.com)
  • Humans make 90 percent of our vitamin D naturally from sunlight exposure to our skin - specifically, from ultraviolet B exposure to the skin, which naturally initiates the conversion of cholesterol in the skin to vitamin D3. (naturalblaze.com)
  • Sometimes referred to as 'the sunshine vitamin,' as your body synthesises it when sunlight hits your skin, this hormone is understood to be vital for your energy levels and for the normal functioning of your immune system ( hence headlines around a potential link between a lack of it and a heightened chance of contracting Covid-19 ). (womenshealthmag.com)
  • People from Black, Asian and minority ethnic backgrounds are more likely to be deficient in Vitamin D - research has shown that darker skin synthesises Vitamin D from sunlight less efficiently. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Epidermal vitamin A deficiency may result from a deficit of nutritional vitamin A, exposure to sunlight or any UV source, oxidative stress or chronological aging. (medscape.com)
  • Deficiency can result when levels of vitamin B-12 are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The production of red blood cells reduces if vitamin B-12 levels are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • B-12 deficiency can result in low levels of blood cells. (livestrong.com)
  • If this approach fails this new study suggests it would be worthwhile to consider a trial of of optimizing your vitamin B12 levels. (mercola.com)
  • Homocysteine levels are a much better predictor of heart disease than cholesterol, and their levels are improved with adequate B-Complex, especially the pyridoxine (B-6), cobalamin (B-12) and folic acid within it. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • In the study, gastroenterologist and research scientist Dr. Douglas Corley and his team reviewed health records from nearly 26,000 people who had been diagnosed with B-12 deficiency and compared that information to almost 185,000 with sufficient levels of the nutrient. (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • The levels of iPTH, Ca, P, Alb, ALP and FGF23 in subjects who showed vitamin D deficiency were 22.3±8.9 pg/ml (range 4 74 pg/ml), 9.5±0.4 mg/dl (8.3 10.7 mg/dl), 4.7±0.6 mg/dl (3.3 6.1 mg/dl), 4.6±0.3 g/dl (3.5 5.2 g/dl), 918.3±340.1 U/l (200 1834 U/l) and 46.5±58.2 pg/ml (12 740 pg/ml), respectively. (eurospe.org)
  • Treatment goals are to restore normal vitamin B 12 levels. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • These are very effective at raising blood levels of B12 and preventing/reversing a deficiency, as well as for patients who have gastrointestinal issues, as oral routes don't subject the body to affected areas. (peakperformax.com)
  • You can get your Vitamin B12 levels checked by a simple blood test. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • High levels of Vitamin B12 may be seen in kidney failure, diabetes, liver disease etc. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • During the study, the researchers measured vitamin D levels in the blood of 1,414 white women in the UK, and compared the information thus gathered with the subjects' skin type and details about the number of foreign holidays, sunbed use and the number of times they had been sunburnt. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers found that people with the fairest skin and red or blonde hair had the lowest levels of vitamin D. (medindia.net)
  • Indeed a small amount can help to maintain vitamin D levels. (medindia.net)
  • Sunbathing incurs the potential hazard without adding to vitamin D levels. (medindia.net)
  • So what can you do if your vitamin C levels are low? (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Low serum levels of vitamin B 12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B 12 . (frontiersin.org)
  • In their experiments, they showed that low levels of Vitamin D, comparable to levels found in millions of people, failed to inhibit the inflammatory cascade-a series of rapid biochemical events which propagates and matures the inflammatory response. (naturalblaze.com)
  • You may have a suspicion that someone with low-level normal levels of B 12 has B 12 deficiency. (dummies.com)
  • [1] Diagnosis is typically based on blood levels of vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding of gums, reddening, and swelling are more likely to appear in people with lower levels of vitamin D. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • A study has found that the feeling of sadness or depression is more likely to appear in women with low levels of vitamin D. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • You can have increased blood pressure if you are having lower levels of vitamin D. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • Researchers found out that, athletes who have vitamin D deficiency have lower levels of energy and perform less in comparison with other athletes. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • Another sign of having lower levels of vitamin D is the excessive head sweating. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • I also recommend B-12 to some of my patients who are "stress cases" with high anxiety levels that make it impossible for them to relax, especially if they like to drink to excess. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • Similarly, a homocysteine level is the result of B12, folate, and mercury levels and therefore normal homocysteine does not necessarily mean an absence of B12 or folic acid deficiency. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Serum vitamin B 12 , folic acid, and ferritin levels were measured prospectively in addition to other tests. (aappublications.org)
  • 001). In the patient group, children with the POTS pattern had significantly lower vitamin B 12 levels compared with children without the POTS response ( P = .03). (aappublications.org)
  • Historically national surveys find that most western diets provide less than the recommended levels of vitamin E (6,7). (myprotein.com)
  • Also, baseline differences in more females in the vitamin D3 (calcifediol) group plus higher vitamin D levels, could easily confound the results. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • There is also no reason to relate vitamin D levels to outcomes as that is observational and tells us nothing new as we know vitamin D levels are lower in sicker patients - we have known this for decades in many conditions. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Those with a BMI over 30 are more likely to have lower levels of Vitamin D. According to the NHS website , it's thought that the vitamin could get 'trapped' in excess fat tissue, leaving less of it to circulate in the blood. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Is there enough evidence to draw a link between low levels of Vitamin D and COVID-19? (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The study, presented at the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2007 Annual Meeting in San Francisco, found that one in four patients who suffer from chronic pain also have inadequate blood levels of vitamin D. As such, the researchers put forth that the vitamin D deficiency possibly contributed to the patients' ongoing pain. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The researchers recorded their serum vitamin D levels, pain medication (morphine), as well as general health, and found patients lacking sufficient vitamin D also required higher doses of morphine for a longer period of time. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Of these patients, 26 per cent had vitamin D inadequacy and needed almost twice the dose of morphine of the group with adequate vitamin D levels. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • As well, the vitamin D deficient group showed lower levels of physical functioning and poorer overall health. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • However, inadequate levels of vitamin D has long been associated with causing pain and muscle weakness and studies have suggested that pain-related symptoms of vitamin D inadequacy respond poorly to pain medications. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • As such, if a consumer is not getting adequate exposure to the sun for vitamin D and its subsequent impact on their serum 25 (OH)D levels, they should be supplementing with vitamin D. Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Low vitamin D levels favor atherosclerosis enabling vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, formation of foam cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood levels of vitamin B12 below 120-180 pmol/L (170 to 250 pg/mL) in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin E levels, when not maintained, may lead to impaired night vision and sometimes complete blindness. (getgrowfit.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 also helps maintain cellular energy levels by converting food into energy. (puritan.com)
  • You can manage your B-12 levels by eating a nutritious diet, supplementing when necessary, and speaking with your physician when you have concerns. (puritan.com)
  • Lower vitamin B12 levels are associated with increased rates of double incontinence. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The study, led by Professor John McGrath from The University of Queensland and Aarhus University in Denmark, found newborns with vitamin D deficiency had a 44 per cent increased risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia as adults compared to those with normal vitamin D levels. (edu.au)
  • We hypothesised that low vitamin D levels in pregnant women due to a lack of sun exposure during winter months might underlie this risk, and investigated the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia. (edu.au)
  • Normal serum vitamin D levels. (medscape.com)
  • For even more in-depth information about the benefits of each of these vitamins and minerals, and how to optimize your levels, please see the corresponding hyperlinks provided. (mercola.com)
  • This reaction plays a crucial role in the myelin formation associated with neurologic deficits in patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency. (aappublications.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin, like all other B-vitamins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Deficiencies in micronutrients are very common in patients with obesity even before surgery and persist after surgery Vitamin B 12 is a water-soluble B vitamin usually acquired from the diet. (tristatebariatrics.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin which is important for the body to make red blood cells, nerves, DNA and other functions. (respectyourhealth.eu)
  • Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B 12 ) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). (frontiersin.org)
  • Vitamin B 12 (B 12 = Cbl, "cobalamin," the chemical name) is an essential water-soluble micronutrient required by all cells in the body. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it dissolves in water and travels through your bloodstream to get where it needs to go. (puritan.com)
  • So it's not a huge leap from there to see how both of these wildly popular reflux medications may interfere with the body's ability to use vitamin B-12. (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • The problem is, long-term treatment with pantoprazole may also decrease the body's ability to absorb vitamin B-12, resulting in a deficiency of this vitamin. (low-histamine.com)
  • 2) People who have stomach stapling or other form of weight-loss surgery are also more likely to be low in vitamin B12 because the operation interferes with the body's ability to extract vitamin B12 from food. (bodymindwellnesscenter.com)
  • If you suffer any of the symptoms of B-12 deficiency, talk to your health-care provider. (livestrong.com)
  • Do you suffer B-Complex Vitamin deficiency? (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Conclusion: We show that 38% of Japanese 12-year old early adolescents suffer from vitamin D deficiency. (eurospe.org)
  • Your thyroid may be linked to this deficiency as well because many people who suffer from this also have other autoimmune conditions like Crohn's and Celiac disease, Hypothyroidism or Hashimoto's, all of which affect your ability to liberate B12 from your food and absorb it. (biocornutrition.com)
  • Well, Patel notes that "vitamin A deficiency is often found in those who suffer from dry eye. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • Most of the people do not even know that they suffer from vitamin D deficiency. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • As elucidated by Alfred Sommer, even mild, subclinical deficiency can also be a problem, as it may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease likelihood of survival from serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are unable to absorb the B-12 produced in the gut, so you must obtain it in your diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high. (mysciencework.com)
  • Low vitamin B-12 is associated with more pronounced metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency when folate is elevated than when folate is not elevated. (mysciencework.com)
  • It must be noted, however, that hemoglobin decreases naturally (physiologic decrease) in infants by eight to 12 weeks of age, leveling at a normal value of 11 g/dL or better. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thiamine (Vitamine B 1 ) deficiency is especially common in countries that do not require fortification of wheat and maize flour and rice to replace the naturally occurring thiamine content lost to milling , bleaching and other processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin E is a naturally occurring substance which is a collective group of fat-soluble compounds. (myprotein.com)
  • If you become deficient in this vitamin, you can experience many adverse effects, including tremors, numbness or muscle weakness. (livestrong.com)
  • FACT: B-Complex Deficiency is known to create symptoms of numbness, tingling, heart beat irregularities, restless legs, insomnia, sleep disturbances and awaking unrefreshed. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the feet, muscle weakness, and decreased appetite. (healthline.com)
  • In moderate deficiency, soreness of the tongue, apthous ulcers, breathlessness, jaundice, hair fall and severe joint pain (arthralgia) may occur, and the beginning of neurological symptoms, including abnormal sensations such as pins and needles, numbness and tinnitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A deficiency can result in neurological problems like dementia, psychoses and mood swings. (livestrong.com)
  • If there is deficiency, then such people are at the risk of neurological conditions such as Dementia,Alzheimer's, memory disturbance among others. (genamet.com)
  • Dementia and depression have been associated with this deficiency as well, possibly from the under-production of methionine because of the inability to convert homocysteine into this product. (wikipedia.org)
  • People over the age of 14 should consume more than 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin B-12 daily. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adults who are deficient in vitamin D become weak easier than other people. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • I may know at least one, possibly two people, who may have experienced B 12 deficiency. (physicsforums.com)
  • And dosage mattered, with people who took higher doses of either medicine being more likely to develop a deficiency. (naturalhealthsource.com)
  • This is a common deficiency in many people that can become very serious and harmful if not detected, for children as well as adults, as it is a vital nutrient for energy and cognitive health. (biocornutrition.com)
  • Dr Murli further stated: "More and more people are now coming in with mild symptoms of Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (genamet.com)
  • Statistics says that most of people have vitamin B-12 deficiency, though it seems that everyone's typical ration includes necessary food sources of this kind of vitamin. (naturalon.com)
  • Based on their observations, the researchers came to the conclusion that people with fair skin actively avoided sun exposure more, due to their increased sensitivity and so produced less vitamin D. (medindia.net)
  • They, however, said that there might also be a genetic element, meaning that people with fair skin metabolise vitamin D differently. (medindia.net)
  • Often, people who experience chronic pains have vitamin D deficiency. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • Overweight people need more vitamin D due to the fact that this vitamin is known as a fat-soluble vitamin, which is kept in the fat cells. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • People who experience fat absorption, for example, celiac and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, and Crohn's can have vitamin D deficiency. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • 6 000 individuals were included in a study which showed that people who have vitamin D deficiency are more prone to allergies. (greenhealthyplanet.net)
  • Why are some people more likely to be deficient in Vitamin D than others? (womenshealthmag.com)
  • So, rather than being the one key factor in why some people are more likely to contract coronavirus than others, Vitamin D deficiency is one element of a bigger picture that encompasses genetic, social and lifestyle factors. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • People with such a condition typically have difficulty in absorbing vitamin E, as well. (getgrowfit.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health in the United States recommends that people over the age of 14 should consume 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of Vitamin B-12 per day. (puritan.com)
  • Older adults, people who consume excess alcohol, and people who have had bariatric surgery may have trouble absorbing Vitamin B-12 properly. (puritan.com)
  • However some people and even physicians, as I had spoke about earlier in the article, totally forget about vitamin B-12. (hubpages.com)
  • According to many experts, nearly the whole population is affected by a Vitamin B12 deficiency including people adhering to a vegan diet. (hubpages.com)
  • My 12 year old daughter agrees: People don't want T-shirts of glowing plants. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Studies from both the U.S. 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 and the U.K. 7 suggest a majority of people fail to get certain key vitamins and minerals from food alone. (mercola.com)
  • It is needed to absorb vitamin B-12. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Furthermore, not everyone is able to absorb Vitamin B12, even if they eat foods that contain it. (low-histamine.com)
  • 2-4 Since 2010, the FDA has issued various safety warnings regarding the potential effects of long-term use of PPIs: risk of fractures, hypomagnesemia, Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea, vitamin B 12 deficiency, acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus events. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Thiamine deficiency contributes to irregular heartbeat, peripheral neuropathy and heart failure. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • In peripheral arterial disease, vitamin D status was related to the decline of the functional performance, severity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, and arterial aging. (hindawi.com)