A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Financial assistance for the impoverished elderly through public funding of programs, services, and individual income supplements.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A neuropathy due to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY or to excessive NITROUS OXIDE inhalation. It is associated with overproduction of the myelinolytic TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC and
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A subclass of transferases that transfer chemical groups containing a single carbon. These include the METHYLTRANSFERASES, the HYDROXYMETHYL AND FORMYL TRANSFERASES, the CARBOXYL AND CARBAMOYL TRANSFERASES, and the AMIDINOTRANSFERASES. EC 2.1.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/2147)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (2/2147)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to gastrin in patients with pernicious anaemia--a novel antibody. (3/2147)

Autoantibodies arise when there is a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor are found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) and are associated with elevated plasma gastrin. Endogenous gastrin autoantibodies have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies to gastrin. Plasma from 50,000 patients, including more than 2000 with AAG, was tested. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in whole plasma and the presence of autoantibody determined by using a control which omitted assay antibody. The quantity and affinity of gastrin autoantibodies was assessed. Three patients had autoantibodies to gastrin. All three had AAG and pernicious anaemia (PA). The antibodies were of low titre and relatively high affinity. Free circulating plasma gastrin levels were within the normal range, but total gastrin levels were elevated. This is the first description of autoantibodies to endogenous gastrin. The incidence of antibodies to gastrin is low, they are found in association with PA, and they may lead to falsely low measurements of plasma gastrin.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (4/2147)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients. (5/2147)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an established, independent risk factor for vascular disease morbidity and mortality. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T has been shown to result in increased total homocysteine concentrations on the basis of low folate levels caused by a decreased enzyme activity. The effect of this polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate plasma levels in renal transplant patients is unknown. METHODS: We screened 636 kidney graft recipients for the presence of the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. The major determinants of total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations of 63 patients, who were identified to be homozygous for this gene polymorphism compared with heterozygotes (N = 63), and patients with wild-type alleles (N = 63), who were matched for sex, age, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and body mass index, were identified by analysis of covariance. The variables included sex, age, GFR, body mass index, time since transplantation, folate and vitamin B12 levels, the use of azathioprine, and the MTHFR genotype. To investigate the impact of the kidney donor MTHFR genotype on total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations, a similar model was applied in 111 kidney graft recipients with stable graft function, in whom the kidney donor C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism was determined. RESULTS: The allele frequency of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was 0.313 in the whole study population [wild-type (CC), 301; heterozygous (CT), 272; and homozygous mutant (TT), 63 patients, respectively] and showed no difference in the patient subgroups with various renal diseases. The MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism significantly influenced total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations in renal transplant recipients (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Furthermore, a significant influence of the GFR (P = 0.0001), folate levels (P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), body mass index (P = 0.0001), gender (P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.004) on total homocysteine concentrations was observed. The donor MTHFR gene polymorphism had no influence on total homocysteine and folate levels. Geometric mean total homocysteine levels in patients homozygous for the mutant MTHFR allele were 18.6 micromol/liter compared with 14.6 micromol/liter and 14.9 micromol/liter in patients heterozygous for the MTHFR gene polymorphism and those with wild-type alleles (P < 0.05 for TT vs. CT and CC). Geometric mean folate levels were lower in CT and TT patients (11.2 and 10.2 nmol/liter) compared with CC patients (13.6 nmol/liter, P < 0.05 vs. CT and TT). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homozygosity for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene significantly increases total homocysteine concentrations and lowers folate levels in kidney graft recipients, even in patients with excellent renal function (GFR more than median). These findings have important implications for risk evaluation and vitamin intervention therapy in these patients who carry an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is assembled into trimers via a coiled-coil alpha-helix. (6/2147)

A large protein was purified from bovine kidney, using selective extraction with EDTA to solubilize proteins anchored by divalent cation-dependent interactions. An antiserum raised against the purified protein labeled the apical cell surface of the epithelial cells in proximal tubules and the luminal surface of small intestine. Ten peptide sequences, derived from the protein, all matched the recently published sequences for rat (Moestrup, S. K., Kozyraki, R., Kristiansen, M., Kaysen, J. H., Holm Rasmussen, H., Brault, D., Pontillon, F., Goda, F. O., Christensen, E. I., Hammond, T. G., and Verroust, P. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5235-5242) and human cubilin, a receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, identifying the protein as bovine cubilin. In electron microscopy, a three-armed structure was seen, indicating an oligomerization of three identical subunits. This model was supported by the Mr values of about 1,500,000 for the intact protein and 440,000 for its subunits obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation. In a search for a potential assembly domain, we identified a region of heptad repeats in the N-terminal part of the cubilin sequence. Computer-assisted analysis supported the presence of a coiled-coil alpha-helix between amino acids 103 and 132 of the human cubilin sequence and predicted the formation of a triple coiled-coil. We therefore conclude that cubilin forms a noncovalent trimer of identical subunits connected by an N-terminal coiled-coil alpha-helix.  (+info)

The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Met1p and Met8p in sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis. (7/2147)

MET1 and MET8 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be complemented by Salmonella typhimurium cysG, indicating that the genes are involved in the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into sirohaem. In the present study, we have demonstrated complementation of defined cysG mutants of Sal. typhimurium and Escherichia coli, with either MET1 or MET8 cloned in tandem with Pseudomonas denitrificans cobA. The conclusion drawn from these experiments is that MET1 encodes the S-adenosyl-l-methionine uroporphyrinogen III transmethylase activity, and MET8 encodes the dehydrogenase and chelatase activities (all three functions are encoded by Sal. typhimurium and E. coli cysG). MET8 was further cloned into pET14b to allow expression of the protein with an N-terminal His-tag. After purification, the functions of the His-tagged Met8p were studied in vitro by assay with precorrin-2 in the presence of NAD+ and Co2+. The results demonstrated that Met8p acts as a dehydrogenase and chelatase in the biosynthesis of sirohaem. Moreover, despite the fact that S. cerevisiae does not make cobalamins de novo, we have shown also that MET8 is able to complement cobalamin cobaltochelatase mutants and have revealed a subtle difference in the early stages of the anaerobic cobalamin biosynthetic pathways between Sal. typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium.  (+info)

Binding of Cob(II)alamin to the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Identification of dimethylbenzimidazole as the axial ligand. (8/2147)

The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes the reduction of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and uses coenzyme B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), as a cofactor. Use of a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine 5'-triphosphate, and isotopically labeled RTPR and AdoCbl in conjunction with EPR spectroscopy has allowed identification of the lower axial ligand of cob(II)alamin when bound to RTPR. In common with the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes catalyzing irreversible heteroatom migrations and in contrast to the enzymes catalyzing reversible carbon skeleton rearrangements, the dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of the cofactor is not displaced by a protein histidine upon binding to RTPR.  (+info)

Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamins structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]
Synonyms for cyanocobalamin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cyanocobalamin. 3 synonyms for cyanocobalamin: antipernicious anemia factor, cobalamin, vitamin B12. What are synonyms for cyanocobalamin?
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What Is It?. Methylcobalamin is an activated, highly bioavailable form of vitamin B12, which acts as the principal circulating form of cobalamin in the body. It is available in liquid and capsule form.*. Uses For Methylcobalamin. Nervous System Health: In recent studies, methylcobalamin has demonstrated an enhanced ability to support neurological function. This form of vitamin B12 promotes protein synthesis for maintaining healthy nerve cells and myelin. Methylcobalamin may also help to moderate levels of glutamate in the brain, encouraging healthy brain cell activity, as well as memory, mood, and cognitive function. In general, vitamin B12 works with folate to promote DNA and red blood cell health. Additionally, vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for energy metabolism and a vital component of the methionine synthase pathway, which supports healthy homocysteine metabolism and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) production.*. What Is The Source?. Pure Encapsulations methylcobalamin is produced from ...
Cyanocobalamin with NDC 72843-507 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Ubi Pharma Inc.. The generic name of Cyanocobalamin is cyanocobalamin.
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Methylcobalamin Max is a higher concentration of B12 at 10,000 mcg/ml, allowing for subcutaneous administration. Methylcobalamin is the most active form of the B12 family. This is what the body converts Cyanocobalamin into, so it is more readily available to the body.. This form of B12 is better absorbed than Cyanocobalamin because it is more bioavailable. Vitamin B12 is an essential component for proper digestion and absorption of foods and for normal metabolism of carbohydrates, and fat. It aids in maintaining healthy nerve cells and red blood cells and is needed to make DNA. Vitamin B12 is also involved in homocysteine metabolism and plays a critical role in proper energy metabolism, immune function, and nerve function. Several disorders have recently been linked to possible vitamin B12 deficiencies. Methylcobalamin also interacts differently with certain neurotransmitters within the brain and appears to be helpful in treating Autism.. *** This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, ...
Vitamin B12 can be obtained through its synthesis by intestinal flora, from animal-based or fortified foods, or from supplementation. Unlike most other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B12 (4 to 6 mg) is bound to a protein and stored in the liver as Methylcobalamin or 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. These are the coenzyme forms of B12 that are active in human metabolism. Reserve stores of B12 can become depleted due to poor dietary intake without supplementation, lack of intrinsic factor, or poor intestinal absorption. Many vitamin B12 supplements on the market contain cyanocobalamin. The liver is able to convert a small amount of cyanocobalamin to Methylcobalamin; however, Methylcobalamin is the preferred form since it is the bioactive form and therefore better utilized. In a research study, tissue retention of cobalamin was greater when using the methyl- form versus the cyano- form. This was exemplified by the fact that urinary excretion of Methylcobalamin was one-third less that of cyanocobalamin
A 1973 study suggests that once absorbed, MeCbl may be retained in the body better than CNCbl (1).. A 2011 clinical trial from Korea found that 1,500 µg/day of MeCbl was effective at raising vitamin B12 levels, reducing or eliminating neurological symptoms of B12 deficiency, and lowering homocysteine levels (5). This trial was done on people who had a gastrectomy and, therefore, had vitamin B12 malabsorption, indicating that for most people 1,500 µg/day would be more than enough. There was no comparison group receiving CNCbl.. I am unaware of any clinical trials testing the various forms of vitamin B12 against each other among the general population and most people seem to do well using CNCbl.. Some people with chronic fatigue report getting more relief from AdoCbl than either MeCbl or CNCbl (more info), while other people report feeling better only when taking both AdoCbl and MeCbl. Its possible this could be a real effect, but could also be due to a placebo effect or taking more B12 and ...
B vitamins are involved in a large and important group of metabolic functions in the human body. They must be replaced on a daily basis because they are water soluble, and therefore do not build up a reserve in the body. The easiest and best way to get what your body needs is to take a B-Complex supplement like Pathway B-Complex 50. Pathways formula contains the full complement of B-complex vitamins as well as coenzyme forms. B vitamins work as a team and should always be taken together in specific ratios like those found in this formula.. This supplement contains the full complement of the B-complex vitamins. Vitamins B-1, B-2, and B-6 and folate do not function properly in the body until they are made into their coenzyme forms by the addition of phosphate. Because this process does not always occur efficiently, B-Complex-50 includes the coenzyme forms of these B vitamins.**. B-Complex includes Vitamin B-1 as thiamin (hydrochloride) HCl and thiamin diphosphate (cocarboxylase), Vitamin B-2 as ...
Active Coenzyme Form of Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of Vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12...
Cyanocobalamin - Is it really true that cyanocobalamin can be used as a sex stimulus? Only if it is low. Cyanocobalamin is also known as vitamin b12. While it can boost energy in some people, generally, if it is not low to begin with, it will likely have little effect.
Active Coenzyme Form of Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of Vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12...
Methylcobalamin is a more predominant and active form of Vitamin B-12. Regular Vitamin B-12 supplements must be converted in the body to Methylcobalamin before they can provide any benefits - taking Methylcobalamin allows you to bypass this step for quicker absorption. B-12 may not be as readily absorbable as you age, so older adults may especially benefit from taking a Methylcobalamin supplement. This biologically active form of B-12 promotes heart health and energy metabolism. Our vegetarian-friendly microlozenges supply you with a high-potency source of B-12.. ...
Notice the use of methylcobalamin (Me-B12) both to lower homocysteine and to increase the serum B12 level. Dr. Bredesen is getting results in preventing and reversing dementia, and hes using methylcobalamin as part of his treatment strategy. Why would I use a form of B12 that is tightly bound together, i.e., cyanocobalamin, when methylcobalamin appears to help prevent dementia ...
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a progressive decline in vitamin B-12 status. Overt vitamin B-12 deficiency causes neurologic disturbances in peripheral and central motor and sensory systems, but the public health impact for neurologic disease of moderately low vitamin B-12 status in older people is unclear. Evidence from observational studies is limited by heterogeneity in the definition of vitamin B-12 status and imprecise measures of nerve function. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether vitamin B-12 status is associated with electrophysiologic indexes of peripheral or central neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with moderately low vitamin B-12 status. DESIGN: We used a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function study conducted in Southeast England. This trial investigated the effectiveness of vitamin B-12 supplementation on electrophysiologic indexes of neurologic function in asymptomatic older people (mean age: 80 y) with
Methylcobalamin is the only form of vitamin B-12 found in the brain. The liver is unable to convert the common form of B-12, cyanocobalamin, into an ample supply of methylcobalamin. Sublingual Methylcobalamin supports a healthy brain and spinal cord.
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The subcellular distribution of vitamin B12 was studied during its absorption in the guinea-pig ileum. Animals were fed either (57Co) or (58Co) cyanocobalamin and killed two or four hours later. At two hours labelled cyanocobalamin was concentrated in brush border and lysosomal fractions of ileal homogenates, with some remaining in the sample layer. In contrast, at four hours labelled cyanocobalamin was concentrated predominantly in the cytosol with much smaller peaks in the brush border and lysosomal fractions. These findings are consistent with vitamin B12 absorption by receptor-mediated endocytosis. It is suggested that, after binding at the brush border, vitamin B12 is first sequestrated within lysosomes, and then released into the cytosol, from where it leaves the cell to enter the portal blood.
All three types are considered `Vitamin B12`, they are NOT all the same and using the right one can be a critical decision. Cyanocobalamin is probably the most commonly used in the medical world and is often given as `B12 Shots` in a doctors office for those with certain medical conditions. But cyanocobalamin is actually the WORST choice, despite the fact that doctors in the US are more likely to prescribe it over any other form. Not only does cyanocobalamin require a higher dosage for the same effectiveness of hydroxycobalamin, but it is Entirely Ineffective for several different conditions related to vitamin B12 deficiency. As such, it has been suggested repeatedly by several researchers, starting with Dr. AG Freeman in 1970, that cyanocobalamin should be removed from the market. While Great Britain followed through with researcher recommendations and removed the inferior product, doctors in the the United States have no such restrictions and still use cyanocobalamin routinely ...
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What makes Natures Bounty® B-12 methylcobalamin so special? Methylcobalamin is the advanced, active form of vitamin B-12 that is preconverted.* View Natures Bounty Quick Dissolve Methylcobalamin B-12 - 1,000 mcg (60 Quick Dissolve Tablets)
Vitamin B-12, a family of compounds called cobalamins, is one of eight essential B-complex vitamins. Foods or dietary supplements might contain several types of cobalamins, but your body converts dietary B-12 into two active forms -- methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin -- and uses these forms to maintain ...
Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12 in the
There are many vitamins and nutrients that the body needs to function and stay healthy. Sometimes we dont get enough of a particular nutrient and we become deficient. Some deficiencies are more serious than others. One vitamin that has a great impact on neurological health is vitamin B-12. A deficiency in vitamin B-12 can lead to different neurological and psychological problems.. There is no downplaying the importance of the proper functioning and development of the brain and nerve cells and vitamin B-12 is essential to the process. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is not very common among young adults, but older people are more prone to this condition.. They key is to avoid the condition and its possible consequences in the first place. Eating the right foods is a good way to ensure that you are getting all the B-12 that your body requires. So, what are some good food sources of vitamin B-12?. Clams are a rich source of vitamin B-12, in fact, clams have the highest concentration of B-12 of any food. ...
Vitamin B-12) We have previously described 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and unusual vitamin B12 deficiency. We have therefore studied vitamin B12 metabolism in 29 consecutive cases of MS, 17 neurological controls, and 31 normal subjects. Patients with MS had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 levels and significantly higher unsaturated R-binder capacities than neurological and normal controls, and they were significantly macrocytic compared with normal controls. Nine patients with MS had serum vitamin B12 levels less than 147 pmol/L and, in the absence of anemia, this subgroup was significantly macrocytic and had significantly lower red blood cell folate levels than neurological and normal controls. Nine patients with MS had raised plasma unsaturated R-binder capacities, including three patients with very high values. There is a significant association between MS and disturbed vitamin B12 metabolism. Vitamin B12 deficiency should always be looked for in patients with MS. The ...
Vitamin B6 Articles: Get information on Vitamin B6. Read articles and learn about all the facts related to Vitamin B6 from our health website Onlymyhealth.com.
Vegetarians and vegans are not the only ones who can develop a Vitamin B12 deficiency. Whether youre young or old; a Paleo, gluten-free, or raw foods enthusiast, you too can suffer from this. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, one in every 31 adults in the US, age 51 or older, is deficient in vitamin B12.. What is B12?. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin required for many reactions in your body as well as for the health of your nerves, red blood cells, and DNA. Its most important role is as a methyl group donor, which is a crucial step in many of our main detoxification pathways.. B12 has many forms, and the most common are cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin (methyl-B12). Cyanocobalamin is commonly found in supplements and energy drinks. However, in order for our bodies to use it, cyanocobalamin must be converted into methylcobalamin.. To make matters more complicated, about 50% of the population is estimated to have at least one ...
Vitamin B-12 Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg / mL Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injection Single Dose Vial 1 mL, 25/Pack Westward 00143962125
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Essential for Energy Production* Methylcobalamin Hypoallergenic Vitamin B-12 is necessary for the production of energy from fats and proteins and is well known for its critical role in DNA synthesis, as well as in homocysteine metabolism.* Methylcobalamin is the co-enzyme form of vitamin B-12 that h
Bluebonnet Earth Sweet Chewables Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 delivers 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin, a highly bioavailable form of vitamin B12. Known for its role in energy pro...
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How much of Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin is present in Cereals ready-for-eating, POST, Shredded Wheat n Bran, spoon-size in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin nutrient content it has.
How much of Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin is present in Veal, composite of trimmed retail cuts, separable fat, cooked in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin nutrient content it has.
The biosynthesis of many vitamins and coenzymes has often proven difficult to elucidate owing to a combination of low abundance and kinetic lability of the pathway intermediates. Through a serial reconstruction of the cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) pathwa
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Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin) deficiency signs, what Vitamin B12 is used for, what Vitamin B12 does, natural food sources for vitamin B12, herbs high in Vitamin B12, signs of overdose, precautions.
A molecular model of cyanocobalamin, a chemical compound most commonly converted into a usable form of vitamin B12 in animals. Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of proteins, blood cells, and myelin sheaths in nerves, as well as the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Atoms are coloured dark gray (carbon), light gray (hydrogen), red (oxygen), blue (nitrogen), and pink (cobalt). - Stock Image C028/0348
Coenzymated B-6 Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate Tablets In order for vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms. This more potent Coenzymated B-6 is in its active form and ready to go to work immediately. Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (PLP or P-5-P) is the main metabolically active coenzyme form of vitamin B-6. It is primarily in the liver that P-5-P is synthesized from pyridoxine, with the help of enzymes that require B-2, zinc and magnesium for their activity. P-5-P activates over 100 enzymes, many of which are involved in the conversion of amino acids into the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. P-5-P is also required for the synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule and plays an important role in regulating homocysteine levels. The Benefits of Coenzymated Sublingual Vitamins Coenzymated sublingual B-6 goes directly into your bloodstream in its active form. This avoids the loss that may occur not only during digestion, but during
Vitamin B-12, also referred to as cobalamin and cyanocobalamin, is a water-soluble compound of the B vitamin family with an unique difference -- unlike other B
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of The Tissue Distribution of the Haematopoetically Active Agents, Cyanocobalamin (57b12) and Inorganic Cobalt (60co), in the Rat Studied by Autoradiography. by Ida Lindgren et al.
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Cyanocobalamin (B12) Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
FAQ: Q: Does this product contain folic acid?A: No, our Vitamin B-12 supplement does not contain folic acid. Q: Does this product contain methylcobalamin vs cyanocobalamin?A: This product contains methylcobalamin. Q: What is the source of this form of B-12?A: Our Vitamin B-12 is a byproduct of microbial activity which
In order for vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms. This Coenzymated B-6 goes directly into your bloodstream in its active form and ready to go to work immediately. Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (PLP or P-5-P) is the main metabolically active coenzyme form of vitamin B-6. It is primarily in the liver that P-5-P is synthesized from pyrid... [Read More ...
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Methylcobalamin is vitamin B12 prescribed to treat peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy. It is essential for normal nerve function, maintains a healthy sleep-wake cycle.
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methylcobalamin injections out of the three types available are the best form of B12 vitamins for various issues affecting the body.
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In my practice I use different forms of Vitamin B12. In this article I explain some of the differences between cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin.. Cyanocobalamin can be given as an intramuscular injection. It should not be given intravenously. However, after injection it will need to convert to methylcobalamin, and then to hydroxocobalamin to be used by the body. Of all the forms of Vitamin B12 it is the least painful for the patient to inject. After introduction into the body it provides a small amount of cyanide. For individuals who are overall very healthy this is a good choice and this is also the least expensive form of injectable Vitamin B12. It is known that some people, such as smokers, are less able to transform cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin due to toxins and heavy metals in the liver. These individuals need to use other forms of Vitamin B12.. Methylcobalamin is more bioactive and can be given intramuscularly, intravenously, and intraarticularly. It is slightly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increase in total plasma homocysteine concentration after cardiac transplantation. AU - Berger, P. B.. AU - Jones, J. D.. AU - Olson, L. J.. AU - Edwards, Brooks Sayre. AU - Frantz, Robert. AU - Rodeheffer, R. J.. AU - Kottke, B. A.. AU - Daly, R. C.. AU - McGregor, C. G A. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objective: To determine whether plasma homocysteine concentrations are increased in patients after cardiac transplantation. Design: Total plasma homocysteine concentration was measured in 44 consecutive patients before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after orthotopic heart transplantation between June 1, 1988, and Oct. 15, 1992, and the data were analyzed statistically. Results: Mean homocysteine concentrations (normal range, 4 to 17 μmol/L) increased 70% from 12.5 μmol/L before cardiac transplantation to 21.2 μmol/L (P,0.002) 3 months after transplantation, at which time the concentrations were above normal in 14 of 26 patients (54%). Homocysteine concentrations remained elevated 6 ...
Hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency is a rare disease characterized by cobalamin deficiency with the lack of gastric intrinsic factor because of gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) mutations. Patients usually present with cobalamin deficiency without gastroscopy abnormality and intrinsic factor antibodies. A Chinese patient presented with recurrent severe anemia since age 2 with low cobalamin level and a mild elevation of indirect bilirubin. The hemoglobin level normalized each time after intramuscular vitamin B12 injection. Gene test verified a c.776delA frame shift mutation in exon 6 combined with c.585C | A nonsense early termination mutation in exon 5 of GIF which result in the dysfunction of gastric intrinsic factor protein. The hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency in literature was further reviewed and the ancestry of different mutation sites were discussed. A novel compound heterozygous mutation of GIF in a Chinese patient of hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency was reported. It was the first
During fetal life and infancy, an adequate cobalamin status is important for normal growth and central nervous system development. During the last years we have detected cobalamin deficiency in a number of infants admitted to the Pediatric Department with various symptoms, including neurological symptoms and feeding problems. Cobalamin treatment is given to the infants with biochemical cobalamin deficiency, and leads to loss of symptoms and in improved physical condition.. In this study we want to establish the prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in infants with gastrointestinal symptoms and/or feeding problems. Cobalamin status will be investigated in all children aged 8 months and younger, admitted to the Pediatric Department with these symptoms. In a randomised intervention trial we will evaluate the effect of cobalamin supplementation in children with these symptoms and metabolic evidence of impaired cobalamin status.. Study hypothesis: Cobalamin treatment given to the infants with ...
During fetal life and infancy, an adequate cobalamin status is important for normal growth and central nervous system development. A metabolic profile consistent with impaired cobalamin status is prevalent in breast-fed infants. Whether this profile reflects immature organ systems or cobalamin deficiency has not been clarified.. Low levels of cobalamin, elevated levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cystathionine and/or methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the blood are measures of impaired cobalamin status.. The purpose of this randomized, controlled study is to determine if cobalamin supplementation may influence the metabolic profile related to cobalamin status in infants.. Six weeks old infants will be randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 µg cobalamin or no intervention. Concentrations of cobalamin and folate in serum, and total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and cystathionine in plasma will be determined at inclusion and at the age of 4 months. A ...
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P , 0.001) from baseline at 6 h (11%) and 24 h (50%). TC saturation increased significantly (P , 0.001) from baseline at 12.5 h (33%) and 24 h (50%). The mean ...
Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) is a cobalt-containing vitamin which is synthesized by bacteria and archaea. It can be taken up from food of animal origin, but not from higher plants. Various cobalamins differ in the residue R in the upper axial position of the molecule. In adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) R is a 5-deoxyadenosyl moiety, in methylcobalamin (MeCbl) a methyl group. Common vitamin B12 supplements contain hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, labelled the natural form of the vitamin, with R = OH) or cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, with R = CN). CNCbl does not occur naturally, but is formed during the isolation of bacterial cobalamin (Watkins & Rosenblatt, 2011a). Nominations such as cblA- cblG and cblJ do not refer to special forms of cobalamin, but to enzymes and transport proteins involved in intracellular cobalamin metabolism. Each of those designations refers to a different complementation group and to a defect in cobalamin metabolism caused by mutations in the gene identified for this particular ...
BACKGROUND: low vitamin B12 concentrations are common in older people, but the clinical relevance of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the absence of anaemia is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: to examine associations of cognitive impairment, depression and neuropathy with blood measurements of vitamin B12 and folate status in older people. DESIGN: cross-sectional study in general practice in Banbury, England. PARTICIPANTS: a total of 1,000 individuals aged 75 years or older living in the community. RESULTS: low vitamin B12 concentrations were identified in 13% of older people and were associated with memory impairment and depression. After adjustment for age, sex and smoking, individuals with vitamin B12 or holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in the bottom compared with top quartiles had a 2-fold risk (OR = 2.17; 95% CI 1.11-4.27) and a 3-fold risk (OR = 3.02; 95% CI 1.31-6.98) of cognitive impairment, respectively. Low vitamin B12 status was also associated with missing ankle tendon jerks but not with
In agreement with previous studies,1, 6 we found an almost 50% decline in the concentration of cobalamins during late pregnancy (Table 1). A small increase in MMA was observed during pregnancy and post partum (Table 1) but we question whether this is caused by an increased metabolic rate during pregnancy and lactation rather than a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency. Only two women (holoTC: 33-43 pmol/L and 39-48 pmol/L) had a MMA above the upper limit of the reference intervals (,0.28 μmol/L) at all four time points during pregnancy and post partum. None of the women had a MMA ,0.75 μmol/L, the diagnostic level for vitamin B12 deficiency,7 at any time during pregnancy and post partum. These results suggest that the vitamin B12 status during pregnancy remains unchanged and that a sufficient amount of cobalamin was available for transportation into the cells despite the decreased level of total plasma cobalamins.. Interestingly, the decline in cobalamins during pregnancy was not reflected in holoTC ...
Methylcobalamin Liquid provides 1,000 mcg of highly bioavailable vitamin B12 in a tasty and convenient liquid. Vitamin B12 is important in numerous essential body.. Methylcobalamin Injection. Blood conditions. B12 deficient and am trying to find some methylcobalamin to buy over the.Methylcobalamin Liquid Methyl-Guard Methyl-Guard Plus Mg-Zyme Millivital Mn-Zyme Multi-Gland Multi-Mins. Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin sublingual Vitamin C w/ Flavonoids.Methylcobalamin - die natürliche Form von Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin-Kapseln Sehr gutes Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis (0,25 € pro 1000 µg Methylcobalamin ...
Holotranscobalamin, cobalamin-saturated transcobalamin, is the minor fraction of circulating cobalamin (vitamin B12), which is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. Currently, no method allows simple, direct quantification of holotranscobalamin. We now report on the identification and characterization of a monoclonal antibody with a unique specificity for holotranscobalamin. The specificity and affinity of the monoclonal antibodies were determined using surface plasmon resonance and recombinant transcobalamin as well as by immobilizing the antibodies on magnetic microspheres and using native transcobalamin in serum. The epitope of the holotranscobalamin specific antibody was identified using phage display and comparison to a de novo generated three-dimensional model of transcobalamin using the program Rosetta. A direct assay for holotrnscobalamin in the ELISA format was developed using the specific antibody and compared to the commercial assay HoloTC RIA. An antibody
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin): Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) at PatientsLikeMe. 609 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, bipolar disorder, Parkinsons disease, panic disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure (hypertension), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, asthma, social anxiety disorder, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin).
Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: According to a review, folate supplementation might mask vitamin B12 deficiency (113; 408). In older persons with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate was associated with anemia and cognitive impairment (409). Some authors suggest adding 1mg cobalamin to folate supplements (141). In American seniors with a serum vitamin B12 concentration ,148pmol/L, the presence of detectable circulating unmetabolized folic acid was related to lower cognitive test scores and lower mean cell volume (410). Vitamin B12 and folate may have increased effects on homocysteine levels over folate alone (411; 412; 413). A combination of B12 and folate had a lack of improvement on cognitive function in older adults (414) or vascular function (415). Post folic acid fortification, the proportion of individuals with low serum vitamin B12 concentrations without macrocytosis is higher in some (416) but not all (417) studies. Vitamin B12 may increase the preventive effects of folate on neural tube ...
Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and for the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins. Vitamin B-12 isalso essential for the synthesis of DNA during cell division and therefore is especially important for rapidly multiplying cells, such as blood cells. In addition, adequate intake of Vitamin B-12, along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B-6, encourages healthy serum homocysteine levels, thereby supporting cardiovascular health. Because Vitamin B-12 is found predominantly in animal products, strict vegetarians are at risk of developing Vitamin B-12 deficiency and may benefit from supplementation.Suggested Use: Shake well before use. As a dietary supplement, in the morning, take 1/4 teaspoon, hold in mouth for 30 seconds, then swallow.Nutrition InfoServing Size: 1/4 Teaspoon (1 mL)Servings Per Container: 198Amount Per Serving % Daily ValueRiboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 1.7 mg 100% Niacin 20 mg 100% Vitamin B-6 (as
Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl ...
Transcobalamin (TC) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport which clinically manifests in early infancy. We describe a child with TC deficiency who presented with classical clinical and lab stigmata of inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism except normal serum B12 levels. He was started on empirical parenteral cobalamin supplements at 2 months of age; however, the definitive diagnosis could only be established at 6 years of age when a genetic evaluation revealed homozygous nonsense variation in exon 8 of the TCN2 gene (chr22:g.31019043C,T). ...
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Methanococcus aeolicus Probable cobalamin biosynthesis protein CobD (cobD) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
The enteric bacterium Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) de novo only under anaerobic growth conditions. We initiated a genetic analysis of the cobalamin biosynthetic (cob) gene cluster, Stable cob::lac operon fusions were generated by insertions of a transposition-defective derivative of bacteriophage Mu d1 (Ap lac) into the cob genes. beta-Galactosidase synthesis was repressed in the presence of exogenously supplied cyanocobalamin, demonstrating that the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway was regulated by end-product repression. Transcriptional polarity studies showed that the cob genes responsible for synthesis of the corrinoid intermediate cobinamide (branch I of the pathway) were organized into a single operon. Genes for the synthesis of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (branch II) and the final assembly of the complete cobalamin molecule (branch III) were organized into two or more additional operons. All of the known cob genes (in branches I, II, and III) were transcribed in ...
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Abstract: DESCRIPTION (adapted from the application): Although primary prevention strategies have focused on key modifiable risk factors for development and progression of atherosclerosis, such as hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Many individuals who present with clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis do not have identifiable conventional risk factors for CHD. Epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of plasma tHcy levels with atherosclerosis from childhood to the elderly. A large number of studies have shown plasma tHcy levels to be an independent risk factor for CHD that is easily modifiable with the B-vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Plasma tHcy levels rise 25 % after 50 years of age and may partially account for the age-related risk for CHD. The rise in plasma tHcy levels parallel the age-related decrease in serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Elevated they levels result ...
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Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy), a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in...
Vitamin B-12 is essential for the proper production of blood platelets and red and white blood cells, the manufacture of vital substances needed for cell function, and the metabolism of nutrients necessary for cell growth. It participates in a variety of cellular reactions to release energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein. Vitamin B-12 helps maintain the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers from each other. People with Vitamin B-12 deficiency show irregular destruction of the myelin sheaths, which eventually causes paralysis and death. Vitamin B-12 levels decrease with age and various measures of cognitive impairment are associated with reduced B-12 status. The most important use of Vitamin B-12 is to treat the symptoms of pernicious anemia. Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B12 are critical to the health of the nervous system and to a process that clears homocysteine from the blood. Vitamins B-12, B-6, and B-9 (folate) work closely together to control blood levels of the amino acid ...
Cardiac Disease from the Metabolic Syndrome (elevated homocysteine levels). Lack of Vitamin B-12 in our Diet. One of the primary reasons why we are seeing so many individuals being diagnosed with vitamin B-12 deficiency is because of the Western diet. We have been instructed to avoid red meats (the primary source of vitamin B-12). We have been advised to avoid eating seafood (a great source of vitamin B-12) due to heavy metal toxicity or it is too expensive to serve with any regularity. We have been advised to avoid saturated fats (there go the eggs and cheese). The primary meat on the dining room table today is chicken breast and it contains very little vitamin B-12 as you can see from the chart above.. Fruits, vegetables and grains do not contain any appreciable vitamin B-12 and these foods, along with boneless, skinless chicken breast, now make up the vast majority of our daily caloric intake. Additionally, we are seeing more and more vegans and vegetarians who are avoiding all the primary ...
Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides insight into how several CUB (for complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) domains collectively function as modular ligand-binding regions, and how two distant CUB domains embrace the Cbl molecule by binding the two IF domains in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This dual-point model provides a probable explanation of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and
Objectives To study the effects of metformin on the incidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (,150 pmol/l), low concentrations of vitamin B-12 (150-220 pmol/l), and folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.. Design Multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial.. Setting Outpatient clinics of three non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands.. Participants 390 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.. Intervention 850 mg metformin or placebo three times a day for 4.3 years.. Main outcome measures Percentage change in vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations from baseline at4, 17, 30, 43, and 52 months.. Results Compared with placebo, metformin treatment was associated with a mean decrease in vitamin B-12 concentration of −19% (95% confidence interval −24% to −14%; P,0.001) and in folate concentration of −5% (95% CI −10% to −0.4%; P=0.033), and an increase in homocysteine concentration of 5% ...
Foods. Vitamin B-12 can be found naturally in animal products, such as fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products. It does not typically occur in plant foods.. Good dietary sources of vitamin B-12 include:. beef. pork. ham. poultry. lamb. fish, especially haddock and tuna. dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. some nutritional yeast products. eggs. Some types of soya milk and breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin B-12.. It is always better to maintain a balanced diet and receive healthful amounts of nutrients before active treatment is required. The symptoms of deficiency are easily avoided with a healthful diet.. Benefits. Vitamin B-12 is crucial to the normal function of the brain and the nervous system. It is also involved in the formation of red blood cells and helps to create and regulate DNA.. The metabolism of every cell in the body depends on vitamin B-12, as it plays a part in the synthesis of fatty acids and energy production. Vitamin B-12 enables the release of energy by ...
Question - Severe gastro-intestinal problems, bloated, severe flatulence, rumbling stomach, joint pain, IBS. On vitamin B. Help?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Nausea, Ask a Gastroenterologist, Surgical
A 12-month-old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dogs general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck ...
From http://www.homocysteine.net/pages/news/1/2003_11_vitamin.htm : Homocysteine Lowering does not Exclusively Mean Vitamin*Supplementation The causes underlying hyperhomocysteinemia are varied. Many lifestyle factors, such as smoking and high alcohol intake, increase homocysteine levels by different mechanisms, as do some diseases and treatment with several drugs. While increased vitamin intake or vitamin supplementation may counteract the effects of these factors, changes in lifestyle,
We explored the uptake of B12 and its accumulation and conversion to the coenzymes in rats kept on a low-B12 diet for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week diet containing HO-B12 or CN-B12 or a 2-week continuum on a low-B12 diet.. We found major differences in both the distribution and the degree of conversion to the B12 coenzymes for HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementations. Notably, more than half of the administered CN-B12 remained in this form in the kidneys, whereas HO-B12 was largely converted to the bioactive ADO-B12 providing more than the doubled amount of active coenzymes to the kidney tissues than CN-B12. The degree of conversion becomes even larger if subtracting ADO-B12 in the low-B12 organs and counting only its increments, accumulated in the cause of HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementation. Our study also highlights the uncertainty of using plasma B12 as a sole marker of B12 tissue content.. The work has some limitations. Even though no B12 had been added, the low-B12 diet still contained 5 µg/kg ...
Vitamin B6 deficiency may result in confusion, neuropathy (nerve damage), anemia, and dermatitis in adults and convulsions in infants. Other symptoms of Vitamin B6 deficiency may include a sensation of needles and pins in the feet and hands, cracks in the corners of the persons mouth, sore red tongue and numbness in feet and hands. Blood tests may help to determine the diagnosis.. Vitamin B-6 deficiency is treated with high daily dose of Vitamin B-6 (ten to twenty times the recommended daily allowance) unless the symptoms are relieved. Even higher dosage can be required when the Vitamin B-6 deficiency resulted from a hereditary disorders.. Related Videos on Vitamin B-6 Deficiency: ...
High dose vitamin B12 in its most effective form. Promotes healthy nerve function. Helps prevent pernicious anemia. Pleasant tasting lozenge for enhanced absorption. Methylcobalamin is the active, coenzyme form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin, the most common form of suppleme...
B-12 Fast Melt contains an active coenzyme form of vitamin B-12 instead of the more commonly available cyanocobalamin form. B-12 Fast Melt is a quick-dissolving and easily absorbed Coenzymated form of vitamin B-12 for energy and nerve health support. Vitamin B-12 is normally found in meat, seafood, eggs and dairy. B-12 Fast Melt is an excellent source of B-12 for vegans and older adults. Persons over 60 tend to have less stomach acid, resulting in less absorption of B-12. The Fast Melt formulation compensates with easy B-12 absorption. B-12 is essential for healthy function of red blood cells, regulation of normal homocysteine levels and the production of SAMe, the bodys main methyl donor. ...
Dietary supplement of the biologically active form of Folate (Vitamin B9), in 60 dissolving tablets with the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12 (Cobalamin with a methyl donor attached). This product is a high-potency, fast-dissolving tablets. Active B12-Folate combines the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12, methylco
Source Naturals Vitamin B-12, MethylCobalamin, 1000mcg x 60Tabs - available to buy online with free UK delivery. Bigvits also deliver to Europe at competitive prices.
Learn about Foltx (Folacin, Cyanocobalamin & Pyridoxine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
With its natural raspberry flavor, Bluebonnet Liquid Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 is a delicious way to get a serving of this important B vitamin. Vitamin B12 may be best known...
A study involving 266 people with mild cognitive impairment (aged 70+) has found that B vitamins are more effective in slowing cognitive decline when people have higher omega 3 levels.. Participants were randomly selected to receive either a B-vitamin supplement (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or a placebo pill for two years. The vitamins had little to no effect for those with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids, but were very effective for those with high baseline omega-3 levels.. Levels of DHA appeared to be more important than levels of EPA, but more research is needed to confirm that.. The finding may help to explain why research looking at the effects of B vitamins, or the effects of omega-3 oils, have produced inconsistent findings.. The study followed research showing that B vitamins can slow or prevent brain atrophy and memory decline in people with MCI, and they were most effective in those who had above average blood levels of ...
|p|Provides 1 mg (16,670% of DV) of Methylcobalamin B-12|/p| |p|B-12 is essential for healthy red blood cells, energy levels, and DNA production and plays an important role in maintaining normal nerve function. It is often lacking in a vegan diet because
High-dose methylcobalamin has demonstrated efficacy in treating polyneuropathy.5 In a clinical trial, 25 mg/day of methylcobalamin was intravenously administered to 12 patients for 10 days, which was then followed by monthly IV administration of 25 mg methylcobalamin for 5 months, The primary endpoints were safety and improvement in the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score in at least 2 of the 20 muscles tested. The MRC sum score was improved in 7/12 patients, and was either unchanged or worse in 5/12 patients. No adverse reactions were reported.5. A meta-analysis found that treatment with lipoic acid (300-600 mg IV) with methylcobalamin (500-1000 mg IV) for 2-4 weeks was associated with better outcomes in nerve conduction velocity and neuropathic symptoms compared with methylcobalamin treatment alone.6 Therefore, a combination approach to treatment might be more beneficial in this case than IV ALA or B12 individually. More research is needed to assess the benefit of oral supplementation of ...
... is a fat-soluble vitamin, a category that also includes vitamins D, E and K. The vitamin encompasses several ... Vitamin A is found in many foods. Vitamin A in food exists either as preformed retinol - an active form of vitamin A - found in ... Institute of Medicine (2001). "Vitamin A". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper ... Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans. It is a group of organic compounds that includes ...
Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata Vitamin C at All Music Vitamin C at Billboard Vitamin C at AllMovie Vitamin C at ... That same year Vitamin C was ranked No. 76 on the Maxim Hot 100 Women of 2001. Vitamin C signed with V2 Records in 2001 and ... Vitamin C was marketed through collaborations with a number of prolific brands. In 2000, Mattel produced a Vitamin C doll which ... "Eminem, Vitamin C, More Take On "Hip-Hop Witch"". MTV. May 17, 2000. Retrieved July 14, 2014. "Vitamin C - Chart history". ...
... tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160 ... Hewison M (2011). "Vitamin D and innate and adaptive immunity". Vitamins and the Immune System. Vitamins & Hormones. Vol. 86. ... "Vitamins and minerals - Vitamin D". National Health Service. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020. "Vitamin D and Calcium ... Dark-skinned people are less efficient at making vitamin D because melanin in the skin hinders vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D ...
... was founded in 1977 by Arthur Rudolph and is headquartered in Great River, New York. Vitamin World was a ... General vitamins and minerals are sold under the "Vitamin World" brand. Natural beauty products are sold under the "V Therapy" ... Vitamin World was acquired by private equity firm Center Lane Partners in 2016. In January 2018, Vitamin World was purchased by ... Vitamin World USA Corporation is a global retailer of vitamins and nutritional supplements and is headquartered on Long Island ...
... is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the B vitamins. The vitamin actually comprises a group of six chemically related ... Wu Y, Zhang L, Li S, Zhang D (April 2021). "Associations of dietary vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with ... Overconsumption of seeds from Ginkgo biloba can deplete vitamin B6, because the ginkgotoxin is an anti-vitamin (vitamin ... Vitamin B6 is one of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient. The term refers to a group of six chemically similar ...
... , colloquially referred to as niacin, is a vitamin family that includes three forms or vitamers: niacin (nicotinic ... Because deficiencies of other B-vitamins may be present, the WHO recommends a multi-vitamin in addition to the niacinamide. ... Institute of Medicine (1998). "Niacin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin ... "vitamin PP", "vitamin P-P" and "PP-factor", all derived from the term "pellagra-preventive factor". In the late 1930s, studies ...
"Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ... Vitamin B12 cannot be produced by the human body, and must be obtained from the diet. The body normally gets enough vitamin B12 ... Both vitamin B12 and folate are involved in the one-carbon metabolism cycle. In this cycle, vitamin B12 is a necessary cofactor ... Vitamin B12 deficiency can be determined, but not always. This means it measures forms of vitamin B12 that are "active" and can ...
... such as for fortified rice or vitamin A-rich sweet potato, may be more effective in eradicating vitamin A deficiency. "Vitamin ... Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues. It is common in poorer countries, ... They protect vitamin A from oxidation during storage and prompt absorption of vitamin A. Beta-carotene and retinyl acetate or ... 1993). "High dose vitamin A supplementation of breast-feeding Indonesian mothers: effects on the vitamin A status of mother and ...
... prescriptions decreased by 53% while vitamin C remained constant and vitamin D increased by 454%. A report on vitamin ... Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin E". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ... vitamin A, vitamin C, beta-carotene, selenium). In the United States vitamin E supplement use by female health professionals ... As of 2017, vitamin E continues to be a topic of active clinical research. There is no clinical evidence that use of vitamin E ...
"Vitamin C Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved October 5, 2019. "Vitamin C feat. Lady Saw - Smile". Top 40 Singles. " ... "Vitamin C feat. Lady Saw - Smile" (in German). GfK Entertainment charts. Retrieved October 5, 2019. "Vitamin C - Smile" (in ... Songs written by Vitamin C (singer), Vitamin C (singer) songs, Warner Music Group singles). ... According to Vitamin C, she had trouble coming up with the song's lyrics. On the day she wrote them, she was feeling sad about ...
... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ... Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced. It is on the ... In these, vitamin C did not affect duration or severity. An earlier review stated that vitamin C did not prevent colds, did ... The instability of vitamin C during cooking and/or storage limits the number of foods suitable for this. Vitamin C helps to ...
... can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D; disorders that limit vitamin D ... and other dairy products are fortified with vitamin D. Many multivitamins contain vitamin D in different amounts. Vitamin D ... Vitamin D deficiency or hypovitaminosis D is a vitamin D level that is below normal. It most commonly occurs in people when ... Vitamin D3, however, appears to decrease the risk of death from cancer but concerns with the quality of the data exist. Vitamin ...
... formed in the San Francisco Bay Area, United States, in 2004 after the dissolving of the bands City Volume and ... According to the Vitamin Party website the band has put together a live album compiled of soundboard recordings from a number ... Vitamin Party was thanked on the album. Thompson and Carey are also featured on the San Francisco natives Ex-Boyfriends new ... Vitamin Party is an American, San Francisco/Bay Area "DIY" rock-punk band, which formed in 2004. Their style shows influences ...
... includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone). Vitamin K2, in turn, consists ... Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vitamin K. Look up vitamin k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. "Vitamin K". Drug ... Plant-sourced forms are primarily vitamin K1. Animal-sourced foods are primarily vitamin K2. Vitamin K has several roles: an ...
... , Stimulated by retinoic acid 6 or STRA6 protein was originally discovered as a transmembrane cell-surface ... Berry DC, O'Byrne SM, Vreeland AC, Blaner WS, Noy N (August 2012). "Cross talk between signaling and vitamin A transport by the ... Berry DC, O'Byrne SM, Vreeland AC, Blaner WS, Noy N (August 2012). "Cross talk between signaling and vitamin A transport by the ... Berry DC, O'Byrne SM, Vreeland AC, Blaner WS, Noy N (August 2012). "Cross talk between signaling and vitamin A transport by the ...
Hypervitaminosis Vitamin D and neurology Vitamin D deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: 25-hydroxy vitamin D test Vitamin D at ... However the interconnected relationships between vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin K, outlined in a 2007 paper published in the ... Vitamin D is also used as a rodenticide. Rats and mice that consume the bait develop vitamin D overdose and die from ... Vitamin D toxicity, or hypervitaminosis D is the toxic state of an excess of vitamin D. The normal range for blood ...
Vitamin E deficiency TTPA "Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 2017-01-19. Doerflinger N, Linder C, ... Treatment includes Vitamin E therapy, where lifelong high-dose oral vitamin E supplementation is prescribed to maintain plasma ... Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency or Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive ... Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ...
... , also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is ... Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal- ... "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled ... each of which shows vitamin activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system, they are referred to as vitamers. The vitamin ...
Vitamin K Vitamin K1 Vitamin K3 Myneni VD, Mezey E (November 2017). "Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2". Oral ... Vitamin K2 or menaquinone (MK) (/ˌmɛnəˈkwɪnoʊn/) is one of three types of vitamin K, the other two being vitamin K1 ( ... The mechanism of action of vitamin K2 is similar to vitamin K1. K vitamins were first recognized as a factor required for ... Institute of Medicine, Panel on Micronutrients (2001). "5. Vitamin K". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, ...
... vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or ... vitamin A and vitamins B1, B2 and B12. The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored ... vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and ... Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others. Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin or nutrient not available from ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in doses well beyond the ... Additionally, the cited studies of larger daily doses of vitamin C do not take into account the fast excretion rate of vitamin ... A meta-analysis showed a significant positive effect of vitamin C on endothelial function. Benefit was found of vitamin C in ...
Vitamin K is changed to its active form in the liver by the enzyme Vitamin K epoxide reductase. Activated vitamin K is then ... Vitamin K deficiency results from insufficient dietary vitamin K1 or vitamin K2 or both. Symptoms include bruising, petechiae, ... Berkner KL, Runge KW (2004). "The physiology of vitamin K nutriture and vitamin K-dependent protein function in atherosclerosis ... The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency varies by geographic region. For infants in the United States, vitamin K1 deficiency ...
Since then, Vitamin Records has released over 185 albums in a variety of genres. Vitamin Records has also released an album ... from Vitamin String Quartet's tribute to Janet Jackson in July 2008, "Hallelujah" from Vitamin String Quartet's tribute to ... Vitamin Records is a Los Angeles-based record label founded in 1999 as a subsidiary of CMH Records. The label was formerly home ... Three songs from Vitamin Records have been featured on the Fox television show So You Think You Can Dance, including "Control ...
... (VKOR) is an enzyme (EC that reduces vitamin K after it has been oxidised in the ... electron relay through Cys43 and Cys51 reduces VKOR to allow vitamin K reduction and facilitation of vitamin K-dependent ... Li W, Schulman S, Dutton RJ, Boyd D, Beckwith J, Rapoport TA (January 2010). "Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K ... Li T, Chang CY, Jin DY, Lin PJ, Khvorova A, Stafford DW (February 2004). "Identification of the gene for vitamin K epoxide ...
Newborns are relatively vitamin K deficient for a variety of reasons: They have low vitamin K stores at birth as vitamin K ... Levels of vitamin K in human breast milk are low. Gut flora, that in adults produces vitamin K, has not yet developed. Early ... This combination can lead to vitamin K deficiency and later onset bleeding. Vitamin K deficiency leads to the risk of blood ... Bleeding in an infant without vitamin K supplementation with elevated prothrombin time (PT) that is corrected by vitamin K ...
Vitamin+D3+24-hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles with ... Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (EC, CYP24A1) is an enzyme with systematic name calcitriol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (24 ... Sakaki T, Kagawa N, Yamamoto K, Inouye K (January 2005). "Metabolism of vitamin D3 by cytochromes P450". Frontiers in ... Prosser DE, Jones G (December 2004). "Enzymes involved in the activation and inactivation of vitamin D". Trends in Biochemical ...
... is a cytochrome P450 enzyme purified from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseolus, with EC number ... Sawada N, Sakaki T, Yoneda S, Kusudo T, Shinkyo R, Ohta M, Inouye K (July 2004). "Conversion of vitamin D3 to 1alpha,25- ... EC and CYP Symbol CYP105A1 (Cytochrome P450, family 105, member A1), catalyses oxidation of cholecalciferol(vitamin ...
Vitamin B20: L-carnitine. Vitamin Bf: carnitine. Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor". Vitamin Bp ... Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine. Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin. Vitamin Bx: an alternative ... Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B vitamins. Deficiencies of other B vitamins ... Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol. Vitamin B10: ...
... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P11473 (Vitamin D3 receptor) at ... and the vitamin D2 homologue ercalcitriol, 1-alpha,25-dihydroergocalciferol) is also a strong activator. Other forms of vitamin ... "Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D-Related Disorders; Focus on Vitamin D Receptor". Current Drug Metabolism. 19 (12): 1042-1052 ... "A unique mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene in three Japanese patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II: utility ...
Vitamin D (the inactive version) is mainly from two forms: vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, is formed ... Vitamin D also play a role in phosphate absorption. Hypovitaminosis D is described as any deficiency of vitamin D. A vitamin D ... The presence of vitamin D, its activating enzyme, and VDR in the brain leads researchers to question what role vitamin D plays ... Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, is obtained from D2 supplements or fortified food sources. These two forms of vitamin D are ...
Batabatacha has been found to contain vitamin B12, but in insignificant amounts for human diets. Goishicha (碁石茶) from Ōtoyo, ... Raloff, Janet (January 28, 2004). "Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost". Retrieved 11 August 2014. "Saijo City Sightseeing ... "Lao Man'e: a Bulang Village in Transformation" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 溫, 志杰; 張, 凌云; 吳, 平; 何, 勇強 (2010), "黑茶加工中微 ... 12 (3): 71. Jung, Seo-Kyeong (2015). "Historycity about Coastal inflow of tteok-tea to Jeon-nam". Journal of North-East Asian ...
Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, Qin J, Wang H, Wang J, Yu Y. (2014). "Vitamin D inhibits COX-2 expression and ... COX-2 is naturally inhibited by calcitriol (the active form of Vitamin D). Both the peroxidase and PTGS activities are ... 2013). "Role of Vitamin D in Atherosclerosis". Circulation. 128 (23): 2517-2531. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002654. PMID ... 12 (9): 1336-45. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i9.1336. PMC 4124307. PMID 16552798. Bingham S, Beswick PJ, Blum DE, Gray NM, Chessell IP ...
Vitamin A is associated with a lower risk as are vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-Carotene. The treatment of ... Myung SK, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H (October 2011). "Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a ... Zhang X, Dai B, Zhang B, Wang Z (February 2012). "Vitamin A and risk of cervical cancer: a meta-analysis". Gynecologic Oncology ... Erstad S (12 January 2007). "Cone biopsy (conization) for abnormal cervical cell changes". WebMD. Archived from the original on ...
Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin known to aid in blood clotting. It is recommended that all newborns receive an injection of ... Vitamin K is synthesized from the molecule chorismate in a nine step conversion process. SHCHC synthase catalyzes the third ... This means the enzyme is more prone to mutation and is one of the most diverse enzymes in the vitamin K synthetic pathway. Only ... There are two major forms of vitamin K that occur naturally. Phylloquinone, also known as K1, is synthesized by plants and is ...
... researchers observed lung aplasia in animals that were fed with a diet deficient in vitamin A. From the result of this ... Congenital Malformations Induced in Rats by Maternal Vitamin A Deficiency: II. Effect of Varying the Preparatory Diet Upon the ... 31 (12): 2017-23. doi:10.7863/jum.2012.31.12.2017. PMID 23197556. S2CID 11325835. Pediatric critical care. Fuhrman, Bradley P ... experiment, a theory was raised that vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may cause pulmonary agenesis. Some authors have ...
New products were introduced that included Wonder Melior, "a better white bread with natural wheat vitamins," as well as Wonder ... During the 1940s, Continental Baking began adding vitamins and minerals to Wonder Bread as part of a government-sponsored ... Schroeder, Eric (August 13, 2009). "Wonder Classic to include more calcium and vitamin D". Baking Business. Retrieved January 5 ... Wonder reformulated its Wonder Classic and Wonder Classic Sandwich bread varieties to include more calcium and vitamin D. Two ...
A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in cells. In human nutrition, most vitamins ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a derivative of vitamin B3 (niacin), is an important coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen ... Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002). "Vitamins Are Often Precursors to Coenzymes". Biochemistry. 5th Edition. Archived from ... ISBN 0-12-518121-3. Wood HG (February 1991). "Life with CO or CO2 and H2 as a source of carbon and energy". FASEB Journal. 5 (2 ...
... has significant amounts of potassium and is high in vitamin A. It also contains significant amounts of silicon. ... ISBN 978-0-12-800588-0. Earl Mindell's Food as Medicine. Pocket Books. 2002. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-7432-2662-2. "Calories in Raw ...
... was a company based in Carson, California, and was one of America's largest manufacturers of vitamins, ... On several occasions, Leiner has been forced to recall vitamins or supplements containing iron, which were not packaged in ... On March 12, 2002, they recalled 14,000 bottles of "Nature's Valley Women's Formula Multivitamin", and on January 28, 2005, ... "Local drug, supplement maker signs pact with Indian supplier Archived 2004-12-06 at the Wayback Machine", Laurence Darmiento, ...
"Vitamin C" (U.N.K.L.E. Mix) - 8:20 "Halleluhwah" (Halleluwa Orbus 2) - 9:20 "Oh Yeah" (Sunroof Mix) - 8:56 "Unfinished" (Hiller ...
She was a sickly child, but, as a twelve-year-old, she spent an active six months in Switzerland enjoying dancing, tobogganing ... needed by reptiles for the synthesis of Vitamin D, to reach the animals and several of other sophisticated features (such as ... Chapter 12, pages 171 - 172. Heinemann, London. ISBN 0434736007 Bellairs, Angus d'A., and D. J. Ball, in Solly Zuckerman, (ed ... Retrieved 12 March 2014. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael. 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns ...
These bacteria feed upon chyme digestive, and also produce certain fat-soluble vitamins which are absorbed by the horse. The ... and vitamins A, D, and E. Any remaining liquids and roughage move into the large intestine. The cecum is the first section of ... The large colon is 3.0 to 3.7 m (10 to 12 ft) long and holds up to 76 L (20 US gal) of semi-liquid matter. It is made up of the ... The small colon is 3.0 to 3.7 m (10 to 12 ft) in length and holds only 19 L (5 US gal) of material. It is the area where the ...
Micro-nutrients such as iron and vitamin A can be delivered and provided at a very low cost. For example, vitamin A supplements ... June 1994). "Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1". Lancet. 343 (8913): 1593-7. doi:10.1016/ ... Nimmagadda A, O'Brien WA, Goetz MB (March 1998). "The significance of vitamin A and carotenoid status in persons infected by ... Increased mother-to-child transmission is related to specific deficiencies in micro-nutrients such as vitamin A. Further, ...
When fresh, the young leaves contain up to 585 mg of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) per 100 grams (3.5 oz) and the fruits contain ... The fruits of F. yoponensis contain more vitamin C than any other fruit available to the monkeys on Barro Colorado Island. ... 268 mg per 100 g. Like humans A. palliata and A. geoffroyi require vitamin C in their diet, since they do not possess the gene ... 542-. ISBN 978-0-12-178075-3. Retrieved 20 February 2011. Dewayne Shoemaker, D.; MacHado, C. A.; Molbo, D.; Werren, J. H.; ...
... and fortified with various vitamins and minerals. One serving of Cinnamon Toast Crunch cereal, equal to ¾ cup (177 mL) or 31 g ... 12 January 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022. "French Toast Crunch is back - A Taste of General Mills". A Taste of General Mills. ... Retrieved 2017-12-20. "Curiously Cinnamon". Nestlé Cereals. September 6, 2016. "Cinnamon Toast Crunch". Retrieved 25 June 2022 ...
Golden Rice is a technical failure standing in way of real solutions for vitamin A deficiency Archived 28 April 2005 at the ... a precursor of pro-vitamin A in the edible parts of rice. The addition of beta-carotene to the rice is seen as preventive to ... A new version of Golden Rice with increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology 23:482-487. Militant Filipino farmers ... Neuman, William (12 December 2014). "Peru is Indignant After Greenpeace Makes Its Mark on Ancient Site". The New York Times. ...
Matters were not improved by Hubbard's experiments with a cocktail of benzedrine, vitamins and glutamic acid, called GUK after ... Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2006-05-08. Originally published by Stephen A. Kent in December, 1999. "L.R ...
Such diseases include scurvy, which results from low vitamin C levels; rickets, from low vitamin D levels; and pellagra, from ... Protein, a good source of vitamin B and lasting energy, can be found in both plant and animal products. The USDA also suggests ... Regardless of daily caloric intake, those who do not eat foods that are rich in vitamins and nutrients are susceptible to ... Vegetables are good sources of fiber; potassium; folate; iron; manganese; choline; and vitamins A, C, K, E, B6 and many more. ...
Cho H (2013). "Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and obesity". Vitamins and Hormones. 91: 405-24. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ...
Researchers analyze longevity and composition (i.e., ingredients, vitamins, minerals, etc.) of foods, as well as how to ensure ... 2018-03-12. Retrieved 2018-04-01. Ramaswamy, Raghupathy; Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V.M.; Saona, Luis Rodriguez; Yousef, ... doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385881-8.00003-3. ISBN 9780123858818. Institute, of Food Technologies (IFT). "Kinetics of Microbial ...
Vitamin C Alexiades-Armenakas MR, et al .J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 May;58(5):719-37; quiz 738-40. Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, ... a proprietary blend of ingredients had a positive effect after six months of daily application when extrapolated to a twelve ... Telang, PS (2013). "Vitamin C in dermatology". Indian Dermatol Online J. 4 (2): 143-6. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.110593. PMC ... This includes things such as vitamin supplements, powders and teas. They are designed to reduce or diminish the effects of ...
... vitamin E, and higher doses of vitamin A, may actually increase mortality. In a recent study, it was showed that dietary ... 40 (12): 1484-8. doi:10.1038/ng.258. PMID 19029901. S2CID 225349. Alexander M, Ho SY, Molak M, Barnett R, Carlborg Ö, Dorshorst ... Among the 12 tissues examined the highest level of expression was observed in heart, followed by brain and steroidogenic tissue ... 12: 335. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-335. PMC 3142533. PMID 21718467. Damas J, Carneiro J, Amorim A, Pereira F (January 2014). " ...
IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum ... "Vitamin and mineral supplement fact sheets". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. ... "Vitamin B-12 (µg)" (PDF). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. 27 October 2015. Archived (PDF) ... As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids ...
... vitamin K) reduction site, present in the transmembrane domain of the gamma subunit. The menaquinone reduction site in the γ- ... Ruiz-Herrera J, DeMoss JA (1969). "Nitrate reductase complex of Escherichia coli K-12: participation of specific formate ...
"Vitamin D." It was performed by the female members of the glee club New Directions, with featured solos by Rachel Berry (Lea ... Retrieved 12 July 2014. "Top 100 Hits for 1985". The Longbored Surfer. Retrieved 12 July 2014. "The CASH BOX Year-End Charts: ... Retrieved 12 July 2014. "RPM's Top 100 Singles of 1985". RPM. Vol. 43, no. 16. Library and Archives Canada. 28 December 1985. ... p. 12. Pennanen, Timo (2021). "Katrina & The Waves". Sisältää hitin - 2. laitos Levyt ja esittäjät Suomen musiikkilistoilla 1.1 ...
442-501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... vitamin A). Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, ... For infants up to 12 months the RDA is 3 mg/day. For children ages 1-13 years the RDA increases with age from 3 to 8 mg/day. ... 12 (12): CD005978. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005978.pub3. PMC 6463931. PMID 27915460. Foster M, Samman S (July 2012). "Zinc and ...
... contains the vitamins A, B, C, and D,[citation needed] as well as other compounds, such as catalpol, an iridoid ... Retrieved 2011-12-29. Liu, Chongyun; Tseng, Angela; Yang, Sue (2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Modern Applications of ... Kadereit, Joachim W. (2012-12-06). Flowering Plants · Dicotyledons: Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). ...
... hot chocolate Vitamalt Vitamin Water Wander AG Welch's Wyler's Yop Zarex (drink) Zest-O Ensure Horlicks Afri-Cola Coca-Cola ... 2005-12-12. Retrieved 2010-06-22. McGauley, Joe (May 21, 2018). "These Are the 'Most Loved' Food & Drink Brands in America ...
... vitamins, bodywork, Chinese medicine, acupuncture, therapy groups, and nourishing food." According to Hotaling,"There never was ... "Norma Hotaling." Prostitution Research & Education, 24 May 2013, prostitutionresearch.com/2008/12/19/norma-hotaling/. "Norma ...
The vitamin C content of Chinese Olives is 10 times that of apples and 5 times that of pears. It offers higher calcium, protein ... One vendor stated, 'The chicken dressing weigh's 5 kg and we have to wear it for 12 hours every day'. The long work hours is ...
Andres E, Noel E, Kaltenbach G. [Vitamin B12 deficiency with normal Schilling test or non-dissociation of vitamin B12 and its ... Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases. Updated: Oct 22, 2018 * Author: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM; ... Vitamin B-12 structure. Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a complex molecule in which a cobalt atom is contained in a corrin ring. ... Vitamin B-12 regulates IL-6 levels in rodent CSF. In rodent models of B-12 deficiency parenteral EGF or anti-NGF antibody ...
Give Yourself a Targeted Energy Boost Vitamin B-12 is involved in numerous vital body functions, including red blood cell ... Vitamin B-12 is involved in numerous vital body functions, including red blood cell formation, synthesis and function of nerve ...
Andres E, Noel E, Kaltenbach G. [Vitamin B12 deficiency with normal Schilling test or non-dissociation of vitamin B12 and its ... Vitamin B12 deficiency and nervous system disease in HIV infection. Arch Neurol. 1993 Aug. 50(8):807-11. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Blood folate and vitamin B12: United States, 1988-94. Vital Health Stat 11. 1998 Dec. (243):1-78. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among geriatric outpatients. J Fam Pract. 1992 Nov. 35(5):524-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Browse Puritans selection of Vitamin B 12 supplements today! ... Vitamin B-Complex And Vitamin B-12. 180 Tablets Other options ... Vitamin B 12 supports healthy heart function, circulation, & the normal formation of blood cells.* ... Liquid Vitamin B Complex Sublingual + Vitamin B-12. *Features the same benefits as our Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg ... Shop Vitamin B Supplements Online. B Vitamins support overall well-being; working together to support nervous system health and ...
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Why is vitamin B12 so important?. Vitamin B12 helps maintain healthy nerve and red blood cells, and is also needed to make DNA ... Vitamin B12 is naturally found in meat, poultry, fish, milk and other dairy products, eggs, and also is in fortified breakfast ... Vitamin B12 influences melatonin secretion. While there can be many causes of insomnia, this may be one reason why B12 shots ... Note from me: As many of you know, I am a deeply committed advocate of Vitamin B-12 and have written about my own experiences ...
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We also found that vitamin D delays the progression of ovarian cancer. However, spontaneous epithelial ova … ... Moreover, we found the vitamin D3 increased the expression of E-cadherin and vitamin D receptor while it decreased the ... Keywords: DMBA; chemoprevention; epithelial ovarian cancer; experimental animal model; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor. ... Vitamin D3 can delay the progression of ovarian cancer induced by DMBA, and the administration of vitamin D3 during the whole ...
Get the benefits of Vitamin B-12 in a convenient form - Supports energy metabolism and supports heart health.** ... Vitamin World® Vitamin B12 Sublingual Details. https://www.vitaminworld.com/vitamin-b-12-5000-mcg.-sublingual-0070002019.html ... All orders placed through this website are subject to Vitamin World acceptance, in its sole discretion. This means that Vitamin ... All orders placed through this website are subject to Vitamin World acceptance, in its sole discretion. This means that Vitamin ...
... über Vitamin B 12 und Intrinsic Factor, Hamburg 2.-5. August 1961] ; mit ... 259 Tab. , WorldCat.org ... Vitamin B 12 und intrinsic factor : 2. Europäisches Symposion [ ... Vitamin B 12 und intrinsic factor : 2. Europäisches Symposion ... Hellmuth Carl Heinrich (Editor), European Symposium on Vitamin B 12 and Intrinsic Factor ,2, 1961, Hamburg,. ... über Vitamin B 12 und Intrinsic Factor, Hamburg 2.-5. August 1961] ; mit ... 259 Tab.. ...
Vitamin B-12 Cobalamin list and information including what is Vitamin B-12 Cobalamin, health benefits and usage indications. ... No Shot Methylcobalamin B-12 (10,000mcg) + B-6 & Folic Acid (1,200mcg) 30 tabs ... No Shot Methylcobalamin B-12 (1,000mcg) B-6 & Methylfolate 60 tabs ...
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Along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B6, it supports heart health by promoting healthy levels of homocysteine already within a ... Vitamin B12 is part of a group of essential nutrients known as the B Complex. It supports energy metabolism and promotes a ... Vitamin B12 is part of a group of essential nutrients known as the B Complex. It supports energy metabolism and promotes a ... Along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B6, it supports heart health by promoting healthy levels of homocysteine already within a ...
Energy support vitamin supplement. * Prolonged release allows nutrients to enter into the system over an extended period of ... Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) supports the bodyand#39;s nerves and blood cells. Prolonged release vitamins slowly release ...
Vitamin B-12 Liquid Complex as part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B-12 may ... Vitamin B-12 Liquid Complex as part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B-12 may ... From the FDAs website: "As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B-12 may reduce ... NOW Foods Vitamin B-12 Liquid Complex 2 oz: ... Vitamin B-12 Liquid Complex. Essential For Energy Production. * ...
To determine whether C. cornucopioides or C. cibarius contained vitamin B12 or other corrinoid compounds that are inactive in ... Characterization of Vitamin B12 Compounds in the Wild Edible Mushrooms Black Trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides) and Golden ... Zero or trace levels (0.01-0.09 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were determined in porcini mushrooms (Boletus spp.), ... Edited and published by The Vitamin Society of Japan, Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science Production services Center ...
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Vitamin D status and related parameters in a healthy population: the effects of age, sex, and season. Journal of clinical ... Diet and sunlight are 2 sources of vitamin D in humans. Individuals in Iran have a limited intake of milk, and milk in Iran is ... Lower rates of vitamin D deficiency have been reported in Iranian postmenopausal women (36%) and the general Saudi Arabian ... The vitamin D status of man at 70 degrees north. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation, 1980, 40(3):227 ...
ADHD associated with significantly less Vitamin B12 - Sept 2018 Obese women deficient in both Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 - March ... ADHD associated with significantly less Vitamin B12 - Sept 2018Obese women deficient in both Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 - March ... Vitamin B12 levels drop a lot during adolescent pregnancies - Feb 2019 Vitamin B12-fortified toothpaste helped (Vitamin D tooth ... Poor response to vitamin D supplementation if poor level of B Vitamins (rats in this case) March 2021 Vitamin B12 as a ...
Nature Made Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg, Timed Release, 160 Tablets ... Home : Category A-Z : Vitamins : Vitamin B-12 : Home : Category ... Nature Made - Vitamin B12 1000 mcg - 400 Softgels. Our Price: $40.49. Nature Made - Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg, Timed Release - 75 ... Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg, Timed Release. 160 Tablets. $15.84. May We Suggest.... ... You are Currently Viewing Nature Made Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg, Timed Release, 160 Tablets. Look for Similar Products by Category: ...
... is pleased to announce its continued partnership as a Humanitarian Sponsor of Vitamin Angels, a global public health ... organization working towards ending malnutrition worldwide by distributing life-changing vitamins and minerals to at-risk ... This year, Vitamin Angels will provide life-saving vitamins and minerals to over 70 million women and children in more than 70 ... About Vitamin Angels. Since 1994, Vitamin Angels has fought to protect pregnant women, mothers, and young children from chronic ...
Cyanocobalamin is a man-made form of vitamin B12 used to treat low levels (deficiency) of this vitamin. ... Cyanocobalamin is a man-made form of vitamin B12 used to treat low levels (deficiency) of this vitamin. Vitamin B12 helps your ... Cyanocobalamin is a man-made form of vitamin B12 used to treat low levels (deficiency) of this vitamin. Vitamin B12 helps your ... Remember that it is best to get your vitamins from healthy foods. Vitamin B12 is commonly found in many foods from animals, ...
Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) supports the bodys nerves and blood cells.*. Directions: As a vitamin supplement, adults take ... Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) supports the bodys nerves and blood cells.*. Directions: As a vitamin supplement, adults take ...
Vitamin B-12 helps a maintain healthy energy levels, nerve cell function and red cells. Take this raw supplement to make sure ... Thrive Market GoodsHolidayGiftsExclusivesNewFoodMeat & SeafoodFrozen FoodsWineVitaminsBeautyBath & BodyBabies & KidsHomePet ... Vitamins. Shopping ListsAmino AcidsAntioxidantsCollagenHemp ExtractMens HealthWomens Health ... Thrive Market GoodsFoodFrozenWineVitamins & SupplementsBeautyBath & BodyBabies & KidsHomePet ...
Serum vitamin A concentrations do not always reflect total vitamin A stores (9). In severe protein-calorie malnutrition, and ... Dejmek J, Ginter E, Solansky I, Podrazilova K, Stavkova Z, Benes I, Vitamin C, E and A levels in maternal and fetal blood for ... deficiencies of vitamins, such as A, C, and E, have been reported (6). Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with severe ... the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency is usually supported by low levels of serum vitamin A and levels of retinol-binding ...
Vitamin B juga melembapkan kulit, takdelah nampak kering je 🙂 Ala ala… ... 25/12/2012. Set Kecantikan, Set Kesuburan, Set ProdukBy Nur Sumiran ...
  • Vitamin B-12 is one of the three major B vitamins, along with B-6 and Folic Acid, that help maintain homocysteine levels already within a normal range by converting homocysteine into the amino acid methionine. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B6, it supports heart health by promoting healthy levels of homocysteine already within a normal range. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • In addition, adequate intake of Vitamin B-12, along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B-6, supports healthy serum homocysteine levels already within the normal range, thereby supporting cardiovascular health. (bulkapothecary.com)
  • This high-quality, hypoallergenic, proprietary multivitamin/mineral blend features activated vitamin cofactors, folate as a blend of 5-MTHF† and folic acid for optimal utilization, and patented Albion® chelated mineral complexes in vegetable capsules. (nutrimedical.com)
  • PRODUCT DESCRIPTION:Liposomal Spray1,000 mcg B-12 per sprayWith Folic Acid, TMG and B-6Nerve Stabili. (matritouch.com)
  • It's well known that Folic Acid is important for pregnant women, but did you also know that this essential B Vitamin also supports cardiovascular health in women and men? (puritan.com)
  • Folic Acid is part of a triad of B Vitamins - along with Vitamins B-6 and B-12 - that helps promote heart health. (puritan.com)
  • The authors of an earlier study from 2008 noticed that children with constipation had lower levels of vitamin C, folate , and magnesium . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This depends on your nutritional needs but, generally, B vitamin supplements are formulated to provide much more than you need and this can be a problem for the three B vitamins that can cause toxicity - niacin, folate and B-6 . (consumerlab.com)
  • It features natural and activated forms of vitamins, such as beta-carotene, cholecalciferol, folate as 5-MTHF (5-methyltetrahydrofolate), and B12 as methylcobalamin as well as patented Albion® chelated mineral complexes. (nutrimedical.com)
  • Nutrient intake data from a representative sample of the US population aged 2 years and older indicate that vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, calcium, and magnesium are underconsumed relative to the estimated average requirements (EARs). (nutrimedical.com)
  • 6] There are numerous reasons to select VitaMineralMIX: Complete, Minus Copper and Iron This formula features a wide variety of important nutrients in significant amounts, including calcium and magnesium, vitamins C and E, bioactive folate, B complex, beta-carotene, and trace elements. (nutrimedical.com)
  • Both folate and vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to metabolite elevation. (medscape.com)
  • Only 0.2% of 400 patients with low serum vitamin B-12 had normal metabolite levels, and 10% of 98 patients with folate deficiency had metabolite levels within the reference range. (medscape.com)
  • Promote healthy neurotransmitter function, amino acid metabolism and more with Methyl B-12 & Methyl Folate + P-5-P by Jarrow. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • Each cherry-flavored chewable tablet delivers a whopping 5,000 mcg of vitamin B12 and 800 mcg of methyl folate to support energy production and brain function. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • In 1986, Schilling described 2 patients with unrecognized vitamin B-12 deficiency who developed paresthesias and poor manual dexterity 1-3 months after brief N 2 O exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Nature Made Vitamin B12 1000 mcg Timed Release Tablet is guaranteed to meet our high quality standards - it is made from carefully selected ingredients under strict manufacturing processes. (vitacart.com)
  • The product image of Nature Made - Vitamin B-12 1000 mcg, Timed Release - 160 Tablets shown on this page may differ from actual size and flavor, or due to packaging update. (vitacart.com)
  • But the limit for vitamin C has been set higher, at 1000 milligrams a day - twelve times the recommended allowance. (newscientist.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) supports the bodyand#39;s nerves and blood cells. (biglots.com)
  • Cyanocobalamin is a man-made form of vitamin B12 used to treat low levels (deficiency) of this vitamin. (blinkhealth.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and for the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins. (bulkapothecary.com)
  • The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency warrants consideration of dietary supplementation. (who.int)
  • Vitamin A supplementation was administered intramuscularly as recommended by the World Health Organization (200,000 IU followed by a second dose the next day) to each patient ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Because Vitamin B-12 is found predominantly in animal products, strict vegetarians are at resk of developing Vitamin B-12 deficiency and may benefit from supplementation. (bulkapothecary.com)
  • Studies addressing the impact of vitamin B 12 supplementation on fall risk have not been published, but moderate to severe vitamin B 12 deficiency can cause gait disturbances and ataxia, which increase fall risk. (medscape.com)
  • Patients diagnosed with deficiency and borderline deficiency should receive vitamin B 12 supplementation. (medscape.com)
  • Three cases are presented here where vitamin B12 deficiency and psychiatric symptomatology were coexistent, and the patients recovered only on a combination of B12 supplementation and psychiatric medication. (who.int)
  • No doubt this was because of the fact that vitamin D supplementation has been shown to be one of the most important things we can do for our health. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Michael L. Holick, MD is an endocrinologist and is probably the world's leading expert on vitamin D supplementation. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • 1 In fact, some studies have shown that vitamin C supplementation supports certain aspects of cardiovascular health. (lifeextension.com)
  • Each tube of Nuun Vitamins contains 12 single serving tablets. (citymarket.com)
  • NEW FORMULAThe majority of B-12 supplements contain ONLY methylcobalamin -1 of the 2 forms of B. (matritouch.com)
  • Methylcobalamin, an active enzyme form of vitamin B-12 is essential for cell growth and replication. (rejuvenation-science.com)
  • Liquid Health Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin drops are readily absorbed into the body, for fast and effective results. (101danish.com)
  • Sublingual B-12 5,000 mcg. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Sublingual B-12 is important for heart health, nervous system health and energy metabolism. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Episode 828 - Andy & Vinnie talk about the new sublingual vitamin B-12 that PVC is launching on June 1st. (libsyn.com)
  • As a vitamin supplement, adults take one (1) tablet daily with any meal or as directed by a healthcare provider. (21stcenturyvitamins.com)
  • Doctors do not recommend that people take large doses of vitamin C to help them pass stool, but a daily vitamin C supplement may help. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Even if Vitamin B-12 isn't part of your supplement routine, you probably know that it's a vital part of balanced nutrition. (kalvitamins.com)
  • You may have to take a supplement if the health care provider says you are deficient in vitamin B12. (myworldnews24.com)
  • Every type of B12 supplement can increase vitamin B12 levels in your blood. (myworldnews24.com)
  • Which B vitamin supplement is best? (consumerlab.com)
  • [6] Population studies suggested that people who consumed foods with more vitamin E, or who chose on their own to consume a vitamin E dietary supplement, had lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases , cancer , dementia , and other diseases, but placebo -controlled clinical trials could not always replicate these findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, if you are deficient if Vitamin B-12 then it's CRUCIAL to supplement your Vitamin B-12 to improve your health. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • The good news is, even if you supplement your Vitamin B-12 level whatever your body does not need, you excrete in your urine. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • If you're not getting enough vitamin C from fruits such as oranges and strawberries or vegetables like broccoli and peppers, introducing a vitamin C supplement into your diet can provide health benefits year-round. (nwahomepage.com)
  • The best supplement, Garden of Life Vitamin Code Raw Vitamin C , provides a high amount of vitamin C per dose without any fillers or additives. (nwahomepage.com)
  • Take note of the amount of the other minerals you're getting in a mineral ascorbate vitamin C supplement to make sure you don't exceed recommended daily values. (nwahomepage.com)
  • You might assume a vitamin C supplement contains nothing but some form of vitamin C, but many formulas include added ingredients. (nwahomepage.com)
  • Is your breastfed baby getting a vitamin D supplement ? (healthychildren.org)
  • Vitamin C and Bio-Quercetin Phytosome is a high-potency vitamin C supplement with an ultra-absorbable form of quercetin, encased in a plant-derived phytosome delivery system. (lifeextension.com)
  • This supplement delivers 1,000 mg of vitamin C, plus 15 mg of an ultra-absorbable quercetin, which complements vitamin C's activity in supporting whole-body health. (lifeextension.com)
  • As Canada's Premier Vitamin and Nutritional Supplement Dispensary, The Vitamin Shop remains committed to giving our customers the best products at the best prices with the best service. (canadianvitaminshop.com)
  • Oral calcium and vitamin D supplement for freshening cows, with fast and sustained release of calcium. (drugs.com)
  • Covers the importance of vitamins and minerals in a balanced diet. (ck12.org)
  • Each serving of Nuun Vitamins contains 11 different key vitamins and minerals plus optimized electrolytes to hydrate for low-impact activities. (citymarket.com)
  • Lief Labs is a proud sponsor of Vitamin Angels and its work towards ending malnutrition worldwide by distributing life-changing vitamins and minerals to at-risk mothers and children under five in the U.S. and around the world. (scvnews.com)
  • Valencia-based Lief Labs, a premier formulation and product development innovator and manufacturer of dietary supplements, is pleased to announce its continued partnership as a Humanitarian Sponsor of Vitamin Angels, a global public health organization working towards ending malnutrition worldwide by distributing life-changing vitamins and minerals to at-risk mothers and children under five in the U.S. and around the world. (scvnews.com)
  • This year, Vitamin Angels will provide life-saving vitamins and minerals to over 70 million women and children in more than 70 countries and in the U.S. Both Charity Navigator and GuideStar give Vitamin Angels their highest marks for financial transparency. (scvnews.com)
  • While some vitamins and minerals might help relieve constipation if a person has a deficiency, others can cause it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although some vitamins and minerals can help people with constipation, others may cause it or make it worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Your dog's health depends on a variety of vitamins and minerals - otherwise known as micronutrients - in the right amounts and in the right balance. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals necessary for our health, and that of our dogs. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • It's important to know which vitamins and minerals your dog needs for his health and well-being, and to work with an integrative or holistic veterinarian or veterinary nutritionist to ensure he's getting the right amounts of each. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • If you want to add vitamins and minerals to your dog's diet, it is important to know which one can cause diseases if too much is given. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • An important aspect of good nutrition is micronutrition (vitamins and minerals). (nutrimedical.com)
  • Forget about learning the minutia of vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. (locusmag.com)
  • The French limits could lead to a wider crackdown on the sale of high-dose vitamins and minerals. (newscientist.com)
  • He says that people believe every small study extolling the ability of vitamins and minerals to prevent diseases such as cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • Pascal says the French generally consume a satisfactory amount of vitamins and minerals in their diet. (newscientist.com)
  • It also has large amounts of other vitamins and minerals. (naturalnews.com)
  • PRODUCT DESCRIPTION:5,000 mcg of B-12 per Teaspoon3 Forms of B-12 for Maximum UtilizationComplete Li. (matritouch.com)
  • I usually recommend 5,000 IU daily of vitamin D to get to that level. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Foods like organ meats, beef and tuna are some of the most abundant sources of Vitamin B-12. (kalvitamins.com)
  • Looking to get the benefits of Vitamin B-12 in a convenient form? (vitaminworld.com)
  • With all of the above benefits of Vitamin B-12 if you have normal Vitamin B-12 levels supplements may not provide the most significant benefits. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • Serum vitamin A concentrations do not always reflect total vitamin A stores ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency is usually supported by low levels of serum vitamin A and levels of retinol-binding protein within the reference range as described for at least 1 of the case-patients reported here. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested in 99 randomly selected specimens from adult Bhutanese refugees collected during December 2007--November 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Total serum vitamin B12 was measured using the Roche E-170 automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were measured during the postarrival medical screening examinations for all resettled refugees in three states during September 2010--January 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • 60 had serum vitamin B12 levels tested, and 19 (32%) were B12 deficient. (cdc.gov)
  • Research exploring the status of serum vitamin D levels in the populations of countries bordering the Arabian Gulf shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. (who.int)
  • Did you know that absorption of B-12 from the digestive system naturally decreases as we age? (vitaminworld.com)
  • Our super potency formula maximizes B-12 levels in the digestive system, to help increase overall B-12 absorption. (vitaminworld.com)
  • It is believed that compromises in vitamin D status and/or a reduced capability of the kidney to synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] are responsible for impairment in dietary calcium absorption. (who.int)
  • Vitamin D is important for the absorption and use of calcium. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Vitamin C promotes healthy teeth and gums, helps in the absorption of iron, aids in the maintenance of normal connective tissue, and promotes wound healing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Absorption of vitamin B 12 from food becomes less efficient with aging. (medscape.com)
  • Contains immediate-release calcium and sustained-release calcium plus vitamin D which is necessary for the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. (drugs.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is available in animal protein. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is important for the metabolic pathways that release cellular energy from fat and protein. (vitacart.com)
  • Vitamin B12 helps your body use fat and carbohydrates for energy and make new protein. (blinkhealth.com)
  • In case-patient 4, the blood level of retinol-binding protein was 0.026 g/L (normal range 0.02-0.05 g/L), confirming vitamin A deficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin B-12 helps decrease levels of homocysteine. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • Borderline vitamin B-12 level and clinical features of vitamin B-12 deficiency: Measure methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HC). (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is also essential for proper red blood cell production, homocysteine metabolism, and the maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. (vitacost.com)
  • SINGER, I. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective. (bvsalud.org)
  • Describes the roles of vitamins and nutrients in a balanced diet. (ck12.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is part of a group of essential nutrients known as the B Complex. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • Prolonged release vitamins slowly release nutrients into the body over an extended period of time. (biglots.com)
  • Although diet is not always the cause of hormonal imbalance, getting an adequate supply of vitamins and other nutrients may improve hormonal-related symptoms in adolescent girls. (livestrong.com)
  • Although it isn't a vitamin, iron is one of the most important nutrients for teenage girls, who are prone to iron-deficiency anemia, particularly if they have started their menstrual cycle. (livestrong.com)
  • Prenatal vitamins provide the kind of nutrients that most pregnant people-and their babies-need. (forbes.com)
  • 2020 marks the third continuous year of Lief's corporate partnership with Vitamin Angels to help further the organization's mission. (scvnews.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that keeps your nerves and red blood cells healthy. (apollopharmacy.in)
  • It is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, as well as in the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins and the cellular production of energy. (vitacost.com)
  • Following a vegetarian diet increases the risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency, since animal products are the primary foods that contain it. (livestrong.com)
  • Because vitamin B-12 is highly conserved through the enterohepatic circulation, cobalamin deficiency from malabsorption develops after 2-5 years and deficiency from dietary inadequacy in vegetarians develops after 10-20 years. (medscape.com)
  • This study determined the vitamin B 12 content of six wild edible mushrooms which are consumed by European vegetarians. (go.jp)
  • B-12 is only available from animal sources, which is why vegans and vegetarians often seek supplemental sources. (kalvitamins.com)
  • Nutritional Support for Vegetarians - Plant foods do not contain vitamin B-12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms. (101danish.com)
  • Liquid Health™ Vitamin B-12 drops provide vegetarians and vegans with a reliable source of supplemental liquid vitamin B-12. (101danish.com)
  • NOW® Vitamin B-12 is appropriate for vegetarians/vegans (non-animal derived), who are at higher risk of developing Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (vitacost.com)
  • Vitamin B 12 und intrinsic factor : 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Europäisches Symposion [über Vitamin B 12 und Intrinsic Factor, Hamburg 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Intrinsic factor is the chemical that binds to B 12 in our diet and allows us to absorb it. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Risk factors for vitamin B 12 deficiency include pernicious anemia , gastrectomy, pancreatic insufficiency, malnutrition, genetic causes, and medications such as metformin , long-term histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and/or proton pump inhibitor therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Baby Probiotic 12 Billion contains 11 different probiotic strains to help restore beneficial bowel flora in infants. (australianvitamins.com)
  • In humans, beta carotene is often recommended instead of vitamin A. Beta carotene isn't toxic and is converted into vitamin A. However, large amounts of beta carotene alone get converted into the pro-oxidant form of vitamin A, and in humans, made lung cancer worse (with shorter survival time and a greater chance of dying) than in patients not given beta carotene. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Ascorbic acid is the purest form of vitamin C because it stands alone as an isolated molecule. (nwahomepage.com)
  • 4) osteoporosis and the potential health care cost savings when using the combination of calcium and vitamin D or when using magnesium. (saratoga.com)
  • This why oral replacement with large vitamin B-12 doses is appropriate for PA. (medscape.com)
  • This is due to the fact that B-12 has low potential for toxicity, even when taken in very high doses. (kalvitamins.com)
  • Vitamin E is the most useful fat-soluble vitamin when using high doses of vitamins to treat a chronic disease. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • And this isn't the only study verifying the incredible safety of vitamin D even in high doses. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Another study reported just last year on more than 17,000 healthy adult volunteers who were taking doses of vitamin D up to 20,000 units a day. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • The evidence is clear that vitamin D toxicity is one of the rarest medical conditions and is typically due to intentional or inadvertent intake of extremely high doses of vitamin D, usually in the range of more than 50,000-100,000 units a day for months to years. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • This high limit was set because vitamin C has few known toxic effects, although scientists remain divided over the benefits of taking huge doses. (newscientist.com)
  • I decided to ask an expert to give us his thinking about this vitamin so essential to human health. (christinacooks.com)
  • As Naturopathic physicians have re-emerged in the health care picture, so has vitamin B12 use. (christinacooks.com)
  • Are Your Health Problems Actually Vitamin B 12 Deficiency Symptoms? (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Most people get enough vitamin B12 in their diet, but a deficiency may occur in certain health conditions (e.g., poor nutrition, stomach/intestinal problems, infection, cancer). (blinkhealth.com)
  • Herbs of Gold Baby Probiotic 12 Billion is an unflavoured powder formulated to support beneficial flora and digestive system health in infants. (australianvitamins.com)
  • We take a look at the effects of different vitamins on digestive health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adolescent girls ages 9 to 13 need 1.8 micrograms of B-12 daily, or 4 micrograms for girls ages 14 and up, according to National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • Aside from its benefits for mental health, vitamin D is especially crucial for bone growth that occurs during adolescence, so adolescent girls should be sure to get at least 5 micrograms each day. (livestrong.com)
  • Home / Health / Vitamin B-12 Deficiency: How We Can Treat It? (myworldnews24.com)
  • The formula also includes vitamin E and astaxanthin to improve the user's eye health to aid proper vision. (bellevuereporter.com)
  • Receiving Vitamin B-12 injections could be just the thing you're missing to take an active role in improving your health. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • To help you on your hunt , the Forbes Health editorial team consulted with OB-GYNS on the Forbes Health Advisory Board, who gave their top picks and explanations behind them for the best prenatal vitamins of 2022. (forbes.com)
  • Safe Energy - Liquid vitamin B-12 supplements have been used for years by health enthusiasts to promote energy in a sustainable, safe manner. (101danish.com)
  • ST. PETERSBURG, Fla. , Jan. 25, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- During the final quarter of 2022, even as the U.S. grappled with a "tripledemic" of flu, RSV and COVID-19, unit sales of vitamins and health supplements declined over the prior year while average unit prices rose, according to shopper intelligence leader Catalina . (fox59.com)
  • These findings may have public health implications when recommending vitamin D for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, describing how vitamin D levels fluctuate month-to-month may provide a basis for implementing public health strategies to increase 25(OH)D levels when deficiency is most acute. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding the association between vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk in Canadians may provide a clearer understanding of how this micronutrient modulates cardiometabolic disease and may inform public health strategies to curb the incidence of cardiometabolic disease in Canada and elsewhere. (cdc.gov)
  • I believe in the health advantages of vitamin C. (lifeextension.com)
  • Vitamin C supports immune health, collagen production, a healthy cardiovascular system and more. (lifeextension.com)
  • Quercetin is a flavonoid that complements vitamin C's health benefits. (lifeextension.com)
  • Quercetin complements vitamin C, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation to support cardiovascular health. (lifeextension.com)
  • Vitamin C is a powerful essential nutrient that provides profound whole-body health benefits. (lifeextension.com)
  • Getting enough vitamin C is vitally important for overall health but the human body can't make it, so you have to get vitamin C through diet or supplements. (lifeextension.com)
  • Plus, vitamin C's biological activity is complemented by the health benefits of the flavonoid quercetin. (lifeextension.com)
  • Determinants of good vitamin A consumption in the 12 East Africa Countries using recent Demographic and health survey. (bvsalud.org)
  • A recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of twelve East African countries were included to determine the magnitude and determinants of good vitamin A consumption . (bvsalud.org)
  • To increase good vitamin A consumption health education through the mass media and enhancing the economic status of women is recommended. (bvsalud.org)
  • HIGH-DOSE mineral and vitamin supplements could be banned in France as a result of a review by the government's health advisers. (newscientist.com)
  • March 15 - 21 is National Poison Prevention Week Rockland County Executive Ed Day and County Health Commissioner Dr. Patricia Schnabel Ruppert want to help you keep your children safe from medicines and vitamins that could cause them harm. (rocklandtimes.com)
  • March 17-23 is National Poison Prevention Week Pomona, NY - County Executive C. Scott Vanderhoef and the Rockland County Department of Health want to help you keep your children safe from medicines and vitamins that could cause them harm. (rocklandtimes.com)
  • Toxicol Ind Health 12(3-4):369-373. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1994, Vitamin Angels has fought to protect pregnant women, mothers, and young children from chronic malnutrition. (scvnews.com)
  • We describe the potential roles of malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency as risk factors for severe measles in adults from this community. (cdc.gov)
  • B12 deficiency and iron deficiency are common secondary deficiencies (of vitamin D deficiency) that also affect sleep. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Research from 2019 found a strong association between chronic constipation and vitamin D deficiencies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. (cdc.gov)
  • Other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamin B2 (riboflavin), have been identified in this population ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin B-12 fights fatigue and weakness by supporting the circulatory system and protecting against deficiencies in those vitamins necessary for energy production within the body. (101danish.com)
  • Background: Despite a remarkable reduction in the occurrence of many micronutrient deficiencies in most countries, vitamin D deficiency has remained a global problem. (who.int)
  • All 4 patients had low levels of vitamin A (0.16-0.34 mg/L) ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of vitamin A (0.36-0.46 mg/L) were also found for 2 other patients from the Roma community who did not have measles ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • The participants with intestinal disorders that cause constipation had lower levels of vitamin D. These findings do not suggest that increasing vitamin D will relieve constipation, however, as the low vitamin D levels may be a consequence of chronic constipation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • How can we get adequate levels of vitamin D in our body? (indianexpress.com)
  • If the levels of vitamin D increased so dramatically over that period of time, surely the number of toxicity cases went up as well? (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • In a prospective study of 57 patients with vitamin B-12 deficiency neurological syndrome, common presenting syndromes included myeloneuropathy (25), myelopathy (14), myeloneuroencephalopathy (13), myeloencephalopathy (4), and behavioral (1). (medscape.com)
  • Because vitamin B 12 is naturally found only in animal products, people following a vegetarian or vegan diet are also at an increased risk for deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • B-Vitamins support energy, metabolism, & provide nourishment for the stress of daily living. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 Liquid Complex as part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B-12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. (botanicchoice.com)
  • From the FDA's website: "As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B-12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. (botanicchoice.com)
  • Similarly, data are weak regarding the association between vitamin D intake and cardiovascular calcifications. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Primarily, increased vitamin K2 intake plays a beneficial role in our cardiovascular system, helping to decrease the chances of dying from heart disease. (unlike.net)
  • In 2019 alone, Vitamin Angels' remarkable efforts helped to impact the lives of 70 million children and mothers, and we are proud to help them to reach many millions more in the U.S. and globally, going forward. (scvnews.com)
  • Serious vitamin B12 deficiency may result in anemia, stomach problems, and nerve damage. (blinkhealth.com)
  • Although iron deficiency is usually the cause of anemia in adolescent girls, vitamin B-12 deficiency can also cause anemia, which is characterized not only by extreme fatigue, but also by moodiness, personality changes and depression. (livestrong.com)
  • As a group, B vitamins are especially good for anemia, appetite, and the nervous system Vitamin B12 is especially effective and non-toxic, and can be safely added to your dog's diet. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a complex molecule in which a cobalt atom is contained in a corrin ring. (medscape.com)
  • Browse our wide selection of B-Vitamin Complex. (puritan.com)
  • For each B vitamin or B complex, we identify CL's Top Picks . (consumerlab.com)
  • A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. (nature.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 has the largest and most complex chemical structure of all the vitamins. (vitacost.com)
  • I know Vit B 12 can help give them a little boost in times of stress, illness etc. (backyardchickens.com)
  • This allows them to boost their intake of Vitamin B-12 without altering their lifestyle dramatically. (kalvitamins.com)
  • If your body is not deficient in Vitamin B-12 it's controversial if you can BOOST your energy, but lack of energy or fatigue are the most common signs of Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • If you're experiencing any of the symptoms above and would like to start some Vitamin B-12 injections to improve your energy, cellular production, hair/skin/nails, protect your heart and boost your mood, let us know! (missionmedicalweightloss.com)
  • Vitamin B12 contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism & normal functioning of the nervous system. (apollopharmacy.in)
  • It is more concentrated in the cerebral spinal fluid than other forms of B-12 where it can be used by the central nervous system. (rejuvenation-science.com)
  • Fortified cereals and soy products also contain vitamin B-12. (livestrong.com)
  • In multivitamins that contain vitamin C, you can also find other mineral ascorbates, including zinc ascorbate, magnesium ascorbate, chromium ascorbate, molybdenum ascorbate and manganese ascorbate. (nwahomepage.com)
  • Vitamin C + 12% Youth Serum contains 12% vitamin C serum making it a stable and powerful antioxidant that stimulates cell renewal and the production of both collagen and elastin. (kroger.com)
  • Vitamin E is an antioxidant - but whenever it acts that way, it turns into a harmful pro-oxidant, which is where vitamin C comes in, as follows. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • [4] Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant which may help protect cell membranes from reactive oxygen species . (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the council says that the antioxidant Vitamin E is not very toxic, its daily limit was set at 40 milligrams. (newscientist.com)
  • KAL offers everything from B-12 Activmelts to Liquid ActivSpray for support in whatever format fits your family best. (kalvitamins.com)
  • Serum concentrations of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α and γ-tocopherol), two retinyl esters, and six carotenoids (α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, combined lutein/zeaxanthin, and trans-lycopene) are measured using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. (cdc.gov)
  • Liquid vitamin B-12 supplements are used by many people to promote memory and concentration. (101danish.com)
  • I ordered this liquid vitamin because it had a high dose of B12. (101danish.com)
  • Therefore, this study focuses on exploring the chemoprevention of vitamin D on epithelial ovarian cancer induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA). (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D is essential for regulating calcium and phosphate in your body. (indianexpress.com)
  • Severe vitamin B 12 deficiency can include bone marrow suppression, neurologic symptoms, and cardiomyopathy. (medscape.com)
  • While taking vitamin B-12 supplements may not help those without a deficiency, correcting the deficiency may relieve symptoms in those who do. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While most people are not deficient in B vitamins (since these vitamins can be easily obtained from foods), older people and those taking medication to reduce stomach acid may be low in B-12 and taking it can help slow age-related decline in memory . (consumerlab.com)
  • Other than the Bhutanese, only the Somali population had any B12-deficient persons (10 [12%] of 82 screened). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the clinical features of vitamin B-12 deficiency may consist of a classic triad of weakness, sore tongue, and paresthesias, these are not usually the chief symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these symptoms can also result from a variety of medical conditions other than vitamin B12 deficiency. (christinacooks.com)
  • [ 16 ] Patients with deficiency and borderline deficiency may present with symptoms of inadequate B 12 . (medscape.com)
  • Rather than vitamins, shoppers instead were prone to spend their money on over-the-counter (OTC) treatment remedies for coughs, colds, flu, fever and aches and pains -- common symptoms associated with the tripledemic. (fox59.com)
  • I hope this puts the vitamin D toxicity crisis in its proper place. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • It's always amazing to me when a doctor who spends 80% of his life writing prescriptions for patent drugs with serious documented toxicity gets his dander up over a patient taking a vitamin. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Whether you and your family stick to a vegetarian diet or you just want to be entirely sure you're getting plenty of Vitamin B-12, you can easily incorporate supplements into your routine. (kalvitamins.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with severe cases of measles in children in developing countries ( 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To date, we did not find published data associating vitamin A deficiency with severe measles among adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of illness and the rate of deaths associated with measles, and it is known to induce severe measles-related complications in children, delaying recovery and promoting xerophthalmia, corneal ulcer, and blindness ( 7 , 8 , 10 ). (cdc.gov)