A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Financial assistance for the impoverished elderly through public funding of programs, services, and individual income supplements.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A neuropathy due to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY or to excessive NITROUS OXIDE inhalation. It is associated with overproduction of the myelinolytic TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC and
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A subclass of transferases that transfer chemical groups containing a single carbon. These include the METHYLTRANSFERASES, the HYDROXYMETHYL AND FORMYL TRANSFERASES, the CARBOXYL AND CARBAMOYL TRANSFERASES, and the AMIDINOTRANSFERASES. EC 2.1.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/2147)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (2/2147)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to gastrin in patients with pernicious anaemia--a novel antibody. (3/2147)

Autoantibodies arise when there is a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor are found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) and are associated with elevated plasma gastrin. Endogenous gastrin autoantibodies have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies to gastrin. Plasma from 50,000 patients, including more than 2000 with AAG, was tested. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in whole plasma and the presence of autoantibody determined by using a control which omitted assay antibody. The quantity and affinity of gastrin autoantibodies was assessed. Three patients had autoantibodies to gastrin. All three had AAG and pernicious anaemia (PA). The antibodies were of low titre and relatively high affinity. Free circulating plasma gastrin levels were within the normal range, but total gastrin levels were elevated. This is the first description of autoantibodies to endogenous gastrin. The incidence of antibodies to gastrin is low, they are found in association with PA, and they may lead to falsely low measurements of plasma gastrin.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (4/2147)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients. (5/2147)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an established, independent risk factor for vascular disease morbidity and mortality. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T has been shown to result in increased total homocysteine concentrations on the basis of low folate levels caused by a decreased enzyme activity. The effect of this polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate plasma levels in renal transplant patients is unknown. METHODS: We screened 636 kidney graft recipients for the presence of the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. The major determinants of total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations of 63 patients, who were identified to be homozygous for this gene polymorphism compared with heterozygotes (N = 63), and patients with wild-type alleles (N = 63), who were matched for sex, age, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and body mass index, were identified by analysis of covariance. The variables included sex, age, GFR, body mass index, time since transplantation, folate and vitamin B12 levels, the use of azathioprine, and the MTHFR genotype. To investigate the impact of the kidney donor MTHFR genotype on total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations, a similar model was applied in 111 kidney graft recipients with stable graft function, in whom the kidney donor C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism was determined. RESULTS: The allele frequency of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was 0.313 in the whole study population [wild-type (CC), 301; heterozygous (CT), 272; and homozygous mutant (TT), 63 patients, respectively] and showed no difference in the patient subgroups with various renal diseases. The MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism significantly influenced total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations in renal transplant recipients (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Furthermore, a significant influence of the GFR (P = 0.0001), folate levels (P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), body mass index (P = 0.0001), gender (P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.004) on total homocysteine concentrations was observed. The donor MTHFR gene polymorphism had no influence on total homocysteine and folate levels. Geometric mean total homocysteine levels in patients homozygous for the mutant MTHFR allele were 18.6 micromol/liter compared with 14.6 micromol/liter and 14.9 micromol/liter in patients heterozygous for the MTHFR gene polymorphism and those with wild-type alleles (P < 0.05 for TT vs. CT and CC). Geometric mean folate levels were lower in CT and TT patients (11.2 and 10.2 nmol/liter) compared with CC patients (13.6 nmol/liter, P < 0.05 vs. CT and TT). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homozygosity for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene significantly increases total homocysteine concentrations and lowers folate levels in kidney graft recipients, even in patients with excellent renal function (GFR more than median). These findings have important implications for risk evaluation and vitamin intervention therapy in these patients who carry an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is assembled into trimers via a coiled-coil alpha-helix. (6/2147)

A large protein was purified from bovine kidney, using selective extraction with EDTA to solubilize proteins anchored by divalent cation-dependent interactions. An antiserum raised against the purified protein labeled the apical cell surface of the epithelial cells in proximal tubules and the luminal surface of small intestine. Ten peptide sequences, derived from the protein, all matched the recently published sequences for rat (Moestrup, S. K., Kozyraki, R., Kristiansen, M., Kaysen, J. H., Holm Rasmussen, H., Brault, D., Pontillon, F., Goda, F. O., Christensen, E. I., Hammond, T. G., and Verroust, P. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5235-5242) and human cubilin, a receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, identifying the protein as bovine cubilin. In electron microscopy, a three-armed structure was seen, indicating an oligomerization of three identical subunits. This model was supported by the Mr values of about 1,500,000 for the intact protein and 440,000 for its subunits obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation. In a search for a potential assembly domain, we identified a region of heptad repeats in the N-terminal part of the cubilin sequence. Computer-assisted analysis supported the presence of a coiled-coil alpha-helix between amino acids 103 and 132 of the human cubilin sequence and predicted the formation of a triple coiled-coil. We therefore conclude that cubilin forms a noncovalent trimer of identical subunits connected by an N-terminal coiled-coil alpha-helix.  (+info)

The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Met1p and Met8p in sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis. (7/2147)

MET1 and MET8 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be complemented by Salmonella typhimurium cysG, indicating that the genes are involved in the transformation of uroporphyrinogen III into sirohaem. In the present study, we have demonstrated complementation of defined cysG mutants of Sal. typhimurium and Escherichia coli, with either MET1 or MET8 cloned in tandem with Pseudomonas denitrificans cobA. The conclusion drawn from these experiments is that MET1 encodes the S-adenosyl-l-methionine uroporphyrinogen III transmethylase activity, and MET8 encodes the dehydrogenase and chelatase activities (all three functions are encoded by Sal. typhimurium and E. coli cysG). MET8 was further cloned into pET14b to allow expression of the protein with an N-terminal His-tag. After purification, the functions of the His-tagged Met8p were studied in vitro by assay with precorrin-2 in the presence of NAD+ and Co2+. The results demonstrated that Met8p acts as a dehydrogenase and chelatase in the biosynthesis of sirohaem. Moreover, despite the fact that S. cerevisiae does not make cobalamins de novo, we have shown also that MET8 is able to complement cobalamin cobaltochelatase mutants and have revealed a subtle difference in the early stages of the anaerobic cobalamin biosynthetic pathways between Sal. typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium.  (+info)

Binding of Cob(II)alamin to the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Identification of dimethylbenzimidazole as the axial ligand. (8/2147)

The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes the reduction of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and uses coenzyme B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), as a cofactor. Use of a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine 5'-triphosphate, and isotopically labeled RTPR and AdoCbl in conjunction with EPR spectroscopy has allowed identification of the lower axial ligand of cob(II)alamin when bound to RTPR. In common with the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes catalyzing irreversible heteroatom migrations and in contrast to the enzymes catalyzing reversible carbon skeleton rearrangements, the dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of the cofactor is not displaced by a protein histidine upon binding to RTPR.  (+info)

Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamins structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]
Synonyms for cyanocobalamin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cyanocobalamin. 3 synonyms for cyanocobalamin: antipernicious anemia factor, cobalamin, vitamin B12. What are synonyms for cyanocobalamin?
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What Is It?. Methylcobalamin is an activated, highly bioavailable form of vitamin B12, which acts as the principal circulating form of cobalamin in the body. It is available in liquid and capsule form.*. Uses For Methylcobalamin. Nervous System Health: In recent studies, methylcobalamin has demonstrated an enhanced ability to support neurological function. This form of vitamin B12 promotes protein synthesis for maintaining healthy nerve cells and myelin. Methylcobalamin may also help to moderate levels of glutamate in the brain, encouraging healthy brain cell activity, as well as memory, mood, and cognitive function. In general, vitamin B12 works with folate to promote DNA and red blood cell health. Additionally, vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for energy metabolism and a vital component of the methionine synthase pathway, which supports healthy homocysteine metabolism and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) production.*. What Is The Source?. Pure Encapsulations methylcobalamin is produced from ...
Cyanocobalamin with NDC 72843-507 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Ubi Pharma Inc.. The generic name of Cyanocobalamin is cyanocobalamin.
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Methylcobalamin Max is a higher concentration of B12 at 10,000 mcg/ml, allowing for subcutaneous administration. Methylcobalamin is the most active form of the B12 family. This is what the body converts Cyanocobalamin into, so it is more readily available to the body.. This form of B12 is better absorbed than Cyanocobalamin because it is more bioavailable. Vitamin B12 is an essential component for proper digestion and absorption of foods and for normal metabolism of carbohydrates, and fat. It aids in maintaining healthy nerve cells and red blood cells and is needed to make DNA. Vitamin B12 is also involved in homocysteine metabolism and plays a critical role in proper energy metabolism, immune function, and nerve function. Several disorders have recently been linked to possible vitamin B12 deficiencies. Methylcobalamin also interacts differently with certain neurotransmitters within the brain and appears to be helpful in treating Autism.. *** This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, ...
Vitamin B12 can be obtained through its synthesis by intestinal flora, from animal-based or fortified foods, or from supplementation. Unlike most other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B12 (4 to 6 mg) is bound to a protein and stored in the liver as Methylcobalamin or 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. These are the coenzyme forms of B12 that are active in human metabolism. Reserve stores of B12 can become depleted due to poor dietary intake without supplementation, lack of intrinsic factor, or poor intestinal absorption. Many vitamin B12 supplements on the market contain cyanocobalamin. The liver is able to convert a small amount of cyanocobalamin to Methylcobalamin; however, Methylcobalamin is the preferred form since it is the bioactive form and therefore better utilized. In a research study, tissue retention of cobalamin was greater when using the methyl- form versus the cyano- form. This was exemplified by the fact that urinary excretion of Methylcobalamin was one-third less that of cyanocobalamin
A 1973 study suggests that once absorbed, MeCbl may be retained in the body better than CNCbl (1).. A 2011 clinical trial from Korea found that 1,500 µg/day of MeCbl was effective at raising vitamin B12 levels, reducing or eliminating neurological symptoms of B12 deficiency, and lowering homocysteine levels (5). This trial was done on people who had a gastrectomy and, therefore, had vitamin B12 malabsorption, indicating that for most people 1,500 µg/day would be more than enough. There was no comparison group receiving CNCbl.. I am unaware of any clinical trials testing the various forms of vitamin B12 against each other among the general population and most people seem to do well using CNCbl.. Some people with chronic fatigue report getting more relief from AdoCbl than either MeCbl or CNCbl (more info), while other people report feeling better only when taking both AdoCbl and MeCbl. Its possible this could be a real effect, but could also be due to a placebo effect or taking more B12 and ...
B vitamins are involved in a large and important group of metabolic functions in the human body. They must be replaced on a daily basis because they are water soluble, and therefore do not build up a reserve in the body. The easiest and best way to get what your body needs is to take a B-Complex supplement like Pathway B-Complex 50. Pathways formula contains the full complement of B-complex vitamins as well as coenzyme forms. B vitamins work as a team and should always be taken together in specific ratios like those found in this formula.. This supplement contains the full complement of the B-complex vitamins. Vitamins B-1, B-2, and B-6 and folate do not function properly in the body until they are made into their coenzyme forms by the addition of phosphate. Because this process does not always occur efficiently, B-Complex-50 includes the coenzyme forms of these B vitamins.**. B-Complex includes Vitamin B-1 as thiamin (hydrochloride) HCl and thiamin diphosphate (cocarboxylase), Vitamin B-2 as ...
Active Coenzyme Form of Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of Vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12...
Cyanocobalamin - Is it really true that cyanocobalamin can be used as a sex stimulus? Only if it is low. Cyanocobalamin is also known as vitamin b12. While it can boost energy in some people, generally, if it is not low to begin with, it will likely have little effect.
Active Coenzyme Form of Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of Vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12...
Methylcobalamin is a more predominant and active form of Vitamin B-12. Regular Vitamin B-12 supplements must be converted in the body to Methylcobalamin before they can provide any benefits - taking Methylcobalamin allows you to bypass this step for quicker absorption. B-12 may not be as readily absorbable as you age, so older adults may especially benefit from taking a Methylcobalamin supplement. This biologically active form of B-12 promotes heart health and energy metabolism. Our vegetarian-friendly microlozenges supply you with a high-potency source of B-12.. ...
Notice the use of methylcobalamin (Me-B12) both to lower homocysteine and to increase the serum B12 level. Dr. Bredesen is getting results in preventing and reversing dementia, and hes using methylcobalamin as part of his treatment strategy. Why would I use a form of B12 that is tightly bound together, i.e., cyanocobalamin, when methylcobalamin appears to help prevent dementia ...
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a progressive decline in vitamin B-12 status. Overt vitamin B-12 deficiency causes neurologic disturbances in peripheral and central motor and sensory systems, but the public health impact for neurologic disease of moderately low vitamin B-12 status in older people is unclear. Evidence from observational studies is limited by heterogeneity in the definition of vitamin B-12 status and imprecise measures of nerve function. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether vitamin B-12 status is associated with electrophysiologic indexes of peripheral or central neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with moderately low vitamin B-12 status. DESIGN: We used a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function study conducted in Southeast England. This trial investigated the effectiveness of vitamin B-12 supplementation on electrophysiologic indexes of neurologic function in asymptomatic older people (mean age: 80 y) with
Methylcobalamin is the only form of vitamin B-12 found in the brain. The liver is unable to convert the common form of B-12, cyanocobalamin, into an ample supply of methylcobalamin. Sublingual Methylcobalamin supports a healthy brain and spinal cord.
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The subcellular distribution of vitamin B12 was studied during its absorption in the guinea-pig ileum. Animals were fed either (57Co) or (58Co) cyanocobalamin and killed two or four hours later. At two hours labelled cyanocobalamin was concentrated in brush border and lysosomal fractions of ileal homogenates, with some remaining in the sample layer. In contrast, at four hours labelled cyanocobalamin was concentrated predominantly in the cytosol with much smaller peaks in the brush border and lysosomal fractions. These findings are consistent with vitamin B12 absorption by receptor-mediated endocytosis. It is suggested that, after binding at the brush border, vitamin B12 is first sequestrated within lysosomes, and then released into the cytosol, from where it leaves the cell to enter the portal blood.
All three types are considered `Vitamin B12`, they are NOT all the same and using the right one can be a critical decision. Cyanocobalamin is probably the most commonly used in the medical world and is often given as `B12 Shots` in a doctors office for those with certain medical conditions. But cyanocobalamin is actually the WORST choice, despite the fact that doctors in the US are more likely to prescribe it over any other form. Not only does cyanocobalamin require a higher dosage for the same effectiveness of hydroxycobalamin, but it is Entirely Ineffective for several different conditions related to vitamin B12 deficiency. As such, it has been suggested repeatedly by several researchers, starting with Dr. AG Freeman in 1970, that cyanocobalamin should be removed from the market. While Great Britain followed through with researcher recommendations and removed the inferior product, doctors in the the United States have no such restrictions and still use cyanocobalamin routinely ...
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Vitamin B-12, a family of compounds called cobalamins, is one of eight essential B-complex vitamins. Foods or dietary supplements might contain several types of cobalamins, but your body converts dietary B-12 into two active forms -- methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin -- and uses these forms to maintain ...
Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12 in the
Vitamin B-12) We have previously described 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and unusual vitamin B12 deficiency. We have therefore studied vitamin B12 metabolism in 29 consecutive cases of MS, 17 neurological controls, and 31 normal subjects. Patients with MS had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 levels and significantly higher unsaturated R-binder capacities than neurological and normal controls, and they were significantly macrocytic compared with normal controls. Nine patients with MS had serum vitamin B12 levels less than 147 pmol/L and, in the absence of anemia, this subgroup was significantly macrocytic and had significantly lower red blood cell folate levels than neurological and normal controls. Nine patients with MS had raised plasma unsaturated R-binder capacities, including three patients with very high values. There is a significant association between MS and disturbed vitamin B12 metabolism. Vitamin B12 deficiency should always be looked for in patients with MS. The ...
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Vegetarians and vegans are not the only ones who can develop a Vitamin B12 deficiency. Whether youre young or old; a Paleo, gluten-free, or raw foods enthusiast, you too can suffer from this. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, one in every 31 adults in the US, age 51 or older, is deficient in vitamin B12.. What is B12?. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin required for many reactions in your body as well as for the health of your nerves, red blood cells, and DNA. Its most important role is as a methyl group donor, which is a crucial step in many of our main detoxification pathways.. B12 has many forms, and the most common are cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin (methyl-B12). Cyanocobalamin is commonly found in supplements and energy drinks. However, in order for our bodies to use it, cyanocobalamin must be converted into methylcobalamin.. To make matters more complicated, about 50% of the population is estimated to have at least one ...
Vitamin B-12 Cyanocobalamin 1000 mcg / mL Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injection Single Dose Vial 1 mL, 25/Pack Westward 00143962125
Bluebonnet Earth Sweet Chewables Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 delivers 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin, a highly bioavailable form of vitamin B12. Known for its role in energy pro...
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How much of Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin is present in Cereals ready-for-eating, POST, Shredded Wheat n Bran, spoon-size in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin nutrient content it has.
How much of Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin is present in Veal, composite of trimmed retail cuts, separable fat, cooked in details, quantity how high or low Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin nutrient content it has.
The biosynthesis of many vitamins and coenzymes has often proven difficult to elucidate owing to a combination of low abundance and kinetic lability of the pathway intermediates. Through a serial reconstruction of the cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) pathwa
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Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin) deficiency signs, what Vitamin B12 is used for, what Vitamin B12 does, natural food sources for vitamin B12, herbs high in Vitamin B12, signs of overdose, precautions.
A molecular model of cyanocobalamin, a chemical compound most commonly converted into a usable form of vitamin B12 in animals. Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of proteins, blood cells, and myelin sheaths in nerves, as well as the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Atoms are coloured dark gray (carbon), light gray (hydrogen), red (oxygen), blue (nitrogen), and pink (cobalt). - Stock Image C028/0348
Coenzymated B-6 Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate Tablets In order for vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms. This more potent Coenzymated B-6 is in its active form and ready to go to work immediately. Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (PLP or P-5-P) is the main metabolically active coenzyme form of vitamin B-6. It is primarily in the liver that P-5-P is synthesized from pyridoxine, with the help of enzymes that require B-2, zinc and magnesium for their activity. P-5-P activates over 100 enzymes, many of which are involved in the conversion of amino acids into the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. P-5-P is also required for the synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule and plays an important role in regulating homocysteine levels. The Benefits of Coenzymated Sublingual Vitamins Coenzymated sublingual B-6 goes directly into your bloodstream in its active form. This avoids the loss that may occur not only during digestion, but during
Vitamin B-12, also referred to as cobalamin and cyanocobalamin, is a water-soluble compound of the B vitamin family with an unique difference -- unlike other B
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The Tissue Distribution of the Haematopoetically Active Agents, Cyanocobalamin (57b12) and Inorganic Cobalt (60co), in the Rat Studied by Autoradiography. by Ida Lindgren et al.
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Cyanocobalamin (B12) Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
FAQ: Q: Does this product contain folic acid?A: No, our Vitamin B-12 supplement does not contain folic acid. Q: Does this product contain methylcobalamin vs cyanocobalamin?A: This product contains methylcobalamin. Q: What is the source of this form of B-12?A: Our Vitamin B-12 is a byproduct of microbial activity which
In order for vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms. This Coenzymated B-6 goes directly into your bloodstream in its active form and ready to go to work immediately. Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (PLP or P-5-P) is the main metabolically active coenzyme form of vitamin B-6. It is primarily in the liver that P-5-P is synthesized from pyrid... [Read More ...
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Methylcobalamin is vitamin B12 prescribed to treat peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy. It is essential for normal nerve function, maintains a healthy sleep-wake cycle.
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methylcobalamin injections out of the three types available are the best form of B12 vitamins for various issues affecting the body.
Do you think sublingual methylcobalamin, i.e. vitamin b12, will get into the bloodstream and have a local effect, if I apply it to my skin with DMSO?
B-12 Methylcobalamin Spray is the most absorbable Vitamin B-12 supplement - especially great for vegetarians who are often deficient. Vegan Certified.
Save 39% Solaray - Vitamin B-6 100 mg 60 Capsules Vitamin B-6 100 mg Two-Stage, Timed-Release Fast-Acting First Stage Timed-Release Second Stage This product is formulated using an innovative, two-stage, timed-release technology. The formula is designed so that half of the Vitamin B-6 in this product is rapidly released when taken and the other half is gradually released over a period of up to 8 hours. The two-stage, timed-release technology helps to extend the availability of B-6 to the body over a longer period of time. B-6 affects both physical and mental health and is involved in more bodily functions than almost any other single nutrient. B-6 is intended to provide nutritive support for the healthy formation of homocysteine, maintaining electrolyte balance, healthy red blood cell formation and much more. Vegetarian Capsules.
nbsp 0183 32 Methylcobalamin is a form of B12 It is the easiest injectable form of B12 to be absorbed and used by your body Once the injectable Methylcobalamin B12 is administered your body immediately puts it to work unlike cyanocobalamin that needs to be metabolized before your body can use it Methylcobalamin B12 is thought to have… ...
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In my practice I use different forms of Vitamin B12. In this article I explain some of the differences between cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin.. Cyanocobalamin can be given as an intramuscular injection. It should not be given intravenously. However, after injection it will need to convert to methylcobalamin, and then to hydroxocobalamin to be used by the body. Of all the forms of Vitamin B12 it is the least painful for the patient to inject. After introduction into the body it provides a small amount of cyanide. For individuals who are overall very healthy this is a good choice and this is also the least expensive form of injectable Vitamin B12. It is known that some people, such as smokers, are less able to transform cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin due to toxins and heavy metals in the liver. These individuals need to use other forms of Vitamin B12.. Methylcobalamin is more bioactive and can be given intramuscularly, intravenously, and intraarticularly. It is slightly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increase in total plasma homocysteine concentration after cardiac transplantation. AU - Berger, P. B.. AU - Jones, J. D.. AU - Olson, L. J.. AU - Edwards, Brooks Sayre. AU - Frantz, Robert. AU - Rodeheffer, R. J.. AU - Kottke, B. A.. AU - Daly, R. C.. AU - McGregor, C. G A. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objective: To determine whether plasma homocysteine concentrations are increased in patients after cardiac transplantation. Design: Total plasma homocysteine concentration was measured in 44 consecutive patients before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after orthotopic heart transplantation between June 1, 1988, and Oct. 15, 1992, and the data were analyzed statistically. Results: Mean homocysteine concentrations (normal range, 4 to 17 μmol/L) increased 70% from 12.5 μmol/L before cardiac transplantation to 21.2 μmol/L (P,0.002) 3 months after transplantation, at which time the concentrations were above normal in 14 of 26 patients (54%). Homocysteine concentrations remained elevated 6 ...
Hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency is a rare disease characterized by cobalamin deficiency with the lack of gastric intrinsic factor because of gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) mutations. Patients usually present with cobalamin deficiency without gastroscopy abnormality and intrinsic factor antibodies. A Chinese patient presented with recurrent severe anemia since age 2 with low cobalamin level and a mild elevation of indirect bilirubin. The hemoglobin level normalized each time after intramuscular vitamin B12 injection. Gene test verified a c.776delA frame shift mutation in exon 6 combined with c.585C | A nonsense early termination mutation in exon 5 of GIF which result in the dysfunction of gastric intrinsic factor protein. The hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency in literature was further reviewed and the ancestry of different mutation sites were discussed. A novel compound heterozygous mutation of GIF in a Chinese patient of hereditary intrinsic factor deficiency was reported. It was the first
During fetal life and infancy, an adequate cobalamin status is important for normal growth and central nervous system development. During the last years we have detected cobalamin deficiency in a number of infants admitted to the Pediatric Department with various symptoms, including neurological symptoms and feeding problems. Cobalamin treatment is given to the infants with biochemical cobalamin deficiency, and leads to loss of symptoms and in improved physical condition.. In this study we want to establish the prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in infants with gastrointestinal symptoms and/or feeding problems. Cobalamin status will be investigated in all children aged 8 months and younger, admitted to the Pediatric Department with these symptoms. In a randomised intervention trial we will evaluate the effect of cobalamin supplementation in children with these symptoms and metabolic evidence of impaired cobalamin status.. Study hypothesis: Cobalamin treatment given to the infants with ...
During fetal life and infancy, an adequate cobalamin status is important for normal growth and central nervous system development. A metabolic profile consistent with impaired cobalamin status is prevalent in breast-fed infants. Whether this profile reflects immature organ systems or cobalamin deficiency has not been clarified.. Low levels of cobalamin, elevated levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cystathionine and/or methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the blood are measures of impaired cobalamin status.. The purpose of this randomized, controlled study is to determine if cobalamin supplementation may influence the metabolic profile related to cobalamin status in infants.. Six weeks old infants will be randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 µg cobalamin or no intervention. Concentrations of cobalamin and folate in serum, and total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and cystathionine in plasma will be determined at inclusion and at the age of 4 months. A ...
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P , 0.001) from baseline at 6 h (11%) and 24 h (50%). TC saturation increased significantly (P , 0.001) from baseline at 12.5 h (33%) and 24 h (50%). The mean ...
Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) is a cobalt-containing vitamin which is synthesized by bacteria and archaea. It can be taken up from food of animal origin, but not from higher plants. Various cobalamins differ in the residue R in the upper axial position of the molecule. In adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) R is a 5-deoxyadenosyl moiety, in methylcobalamin (MeCbl) a methyl group. Common vitamin B12 supplements contain hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, labelled the natural form of the vitamin, with R = OH) or cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, with R = CN). CNCbl does not occur naturally, but is formed during the isolation of bacterial cobalamin (Watkins & Rosenblatt, 2011a). Nominations such as cblA- cblG and cblJ do not refer to special forms of cobalamin, but to enzymes and transport proteins involved in intracellular cobalamin metabolism. Each of those designations refers to a different complementation group and to a defect in cobalamin metabolism caused by mutations in the gene identified for this particular ...
In agreement with previous studies,1, 6 we found an almost 50% decline in the concentration of cobalamins during late pregnancy (Table 1). A small increase in MMA was observed during pregnancy and post partum (Table 1) but we question whether this is caused by an increased metabolic rate during pregnancy and lactation rather than a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency. Only two women (holoTC: 33-43 pmol/L and 39-48 pmol/L) had a MMA above the upper limit of the reference intervals (,0.28 μmol/L) at all four time points during pregnancy and post partum. None of the women had a MMA ,0.75 μmol/L, the diagnostic level for vitamin B12 deficiency,7 at any time during pregnancy and post partum. These results suggest that the vitamin B12 status during pregnancy remains unchanged and that a sufficient amount of cobalamin was available for transportation into the cells despite the decreased level of total plasma cobalamins.. Interestingly, the decline in cobalamins during pregnancy was not reflected in holoTC ...
Methylcobalamin Liquid provides 1,000 mcg of highly bioavailable vitamin B12 in a tasty and convenient liquid. Vitamin B12 is important in numerous essential body.. Methylcobalamin Injection. Blood conditions. B12 deficient and am trying to find some methylcobalamin to buy over the.Methylcobalamin Liquid Methyl-Guard Methyl-Guard Plus Mg-Zyme Millivital Mn-Zyme Multi-Gland Multi-Mins. Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin sublingual Vitamin C w/ Flavonoids.Methylcobalamin - die natürliche Form von Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin-Kapseln Sehr gutes Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis (0,25 € pro 1000 µg Methylcobalamin ...
Holotranscobalamin, cobalamin-saturated transcobalamin, is the minor fraction of circulating cobalamin (vitamin B12), which is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. Currently, no method allows simple, direct quantification of holotranscobalamin. We now report on the identification and characterization of a monoclonal antibody with a unique specificity for holotranscobalamin. The specificity and affinity of the monoclonal antibodies were determined using surface plasmon resonance and recombinant transcobalamin as well as by immobilizing the antibodies on magnetic microspheres and using native transcobalamin in serum. The epitope of the holotranscobalamin specific antibody was identified using phage display and comparison to a de novo generated three-dimensional model of transcobalamin using the program Rosetta. A direct assay for holotrnscobalamin in the ELISA format was developed using the specific antibody and compared to the commercial assay HoloTC RIA. An antibody
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin): Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) at PatientsLikeMe. 609 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, bipolar disorder, Parkinsons disease, panic disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure (hypertension), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, asthma, social anxiety disorder, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin).
Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: According to a review, folate supplementation might mask vitamin B12 deficiency (113; 408). In older persons with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate was associated with anemia and cognitive impairment (409). Some authors suggest adding 1mg cobalamin to folate supplements (141). In American seniors with a serum vitamin B12 concentration ,148pmol/L, the presence of detectable circulating unmetabolized folic acid was related to lower cognitive test scores and lower mean cell volume (410). Vitamin B12 and folate may have increased effects on homocysteine levels over folate alone (411; 412; 413). A combination of B12 and folate had a lack of improvement on cognitive function in older adults (414) or vascular function (415). Post folic acid fortification, the proportion of individuals with low serum vitamin B12 concentrations without macrocytosis is higher in some (416) but not all (417) studies. Vitamin B12 may increase the preventive effects of folate on neural tube ...
Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and for the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins. Vitamin B-12 isalso essential for the synthesis of DNA during cell division and therefore is especially important for rapidly multiplying cells, such as blood cells. In addition, adequate intake of Vitamin B-12, along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B-6, encourages healthy serum homocysteine levels, thereby supporting cardiovascular health. Because Vitamin B-12 is found predominantly in animal products, strict vegetarians are at risk of developing Vitamin B-12 deficiency and may benefit from supplementation.Suggested Use: Shake well before use. As a dietary supplement, in the morning, take 1/4 teaspoon, hold in mouth for 30 seconds, then swallow.Nutrition InfoServing Size: 1/4 Teaspoon (1 mL)Servings Per Container: 198Amount Per Serving % Daily ValueRiboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 1.7 mg 100% Niacin 20 mg 100% Vitamin B-6 (as
Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl ...
Transcobalamin (TC) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of cobalamin transport which clinically manifests in early infancy. We describe a child with TC deficiency who presented with classical clinical and lab stigmata of inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism except normal serum B12 levels. He was started on empirical parenteral cobalamin supplements at 2 months of age; however, the definitive diagnosis could only be established at 6 years of age when a genetic evaluation revealed homozygous nonsense variation in exon 8 of the TCN2 gene (chr22:g.31019043C,T). ...
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Methanococcus aeolicus Probable cobalamin biosynthesis protein CobD (cobD) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
The enteric bacterium Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) de novo only under anaerobic growth conditions. We initiated a genetic analysis of the cobalamin biosynthetic (cob) gene cluster, Stable cob::lac operon fusions were generated by insertions of a transposition-defective derivative of bacteriophage Mu d1 (Ap lac) into the cob genes. beta-Galactosidase synthesis was repressed in the presence of exogenously supplied cyanocobalamin, demonstrating that the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway was regulated by end-product repression. Transcriptional polarity studies showed that the cob genes responsible for synthesis of the corrinoid intermediate cobinamide (branch I of the pathway) were organized into a single operon. Genes for the synthesis of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (branch II) and the final assembly of the complete cobalamin molecule (branch III) were organized into two or more additional operons. All of the known cob genes (in branches I, II, and III) were transcribed in ...
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Abstract: DESCRIPTION (adapted from the application): Although primary prevention strategies have focused on key modifiable risk factors for development and progression of atherosclerosis, such as hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Many individuals who present with clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis do not have identifiable conventional risk factors for CHD. Epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of plasma tHcy levels with atherosclerosis from childhood to the elderly. A large number of studies have shown plasma tHcy levels to be an independent risk factor for CHD that is easily modifiable with the B-vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Plasma tHcy levels rise 25 % after 50 years of age and may partially account for the age-related risk for CHD. The rise in plasma tHcy levels parallel the age-related decrease in serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Elevated they levels result ...
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Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy), a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in...
Vitamin B-12 is essential for the proper production of blood platelets and red and white blood cells, the manufacture of vital substances needed for cell function, and the metabolism of nutrients necessary for cell growth. It participates in a variety of cellular reactions to release energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein. Vitamin B-12 helps maintain the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers from each other. People with Vitamin B-12 deficiency show irregular destruction of the myelin sheaths, which eventually causes paralysis and death. Vitamin B-12 levels decrease with age and various measures of cognitive impairment are associated with reduced B-12 status. The most important use of Vitamin B-12 is to treat the symptoms of pernicious anemia. Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B12 are critical to the health of the nervous system and to a process that clears homocysteine from the blood. Vitamins B-12, B-6, and B-9 (folate) work closely together to control blood levels of the amino acid ...
Cardiac Disease from the Metabolic Syndrome (elevated homocysteine levels). Lack of Vitamin B-12 in our Diet. One of the primary reasons why we are seeing so many individuals being diagnosed with vitamin B-12 deficiency is because of the Western diet. We have been instructed to avoid red meats (the primary source of vitamin B-12). We have been advised to avoid eating seafood (a great source of vitamin B-12) due to heavy metal toxicity or it is too expensive to serve with any regularity. We have been advised to avoid saturated fats (there go the eggs and cheese). The primary meat on the dining room table today is chicken breast and it contains very little vitamin B-12 as you can see from the chart above.. Fruits, vegetables and grains do not contain any appreciable vitamin B-12 and these foods, along with boneless, skinless chicken breast, now make up the vast majority of our daily caloric intake. Additionally, we are seeing more and more vegans and vegetarians who are avoiding all the primary ...
Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides insight into how several CUB (for complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) domains collectively function as modular ligand-binding regions, and how two distant CUB domains embrace the Cbl molecule by binding the two IF domains in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This dual-point model provides a probable explanation of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and
Objectives To study the effects of metformin on the incidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (,150 pmol/l), low concentrations of vitamin B-12 (150-220 pmol/l), and folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.. Design Multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial.. Setting Outpatient clinics of three non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands.. Participants 390 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin.. Intervention 850 mg metformin or placebo three times a day for 4.3 years.. Main outcome measures Percentage change in vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations from baseline at4, 17, 30, 43, and 52 months.. Results Compared with placebo, metformin treatment was associated with a mean decrease in vitamin B-12 concentration of −19% (95% confidence interval −24% to −14%; P,0.001) and in folate concentration of −5% (95% CI −10% to −0.4%; P=0.033), and an increase in homocysteine concentration of 5% ...
Foods. Vitamin B-12 can be found naturally in animal products, such as fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products. It does not typically occur in plant foods.. Good dietary sources of vitamin B-12 include:. beef. pork. ham. poultry. lamb. fish, especially haddock and tuna. dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. some nutritional yeast products. eggs. Some types of soya milk and breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin B-12.. It is always better to maintain a balanced diet and receive healthful amounts of nutrients before active treatment is required. The symptoms of deficiency are easily avoided with a healthful diet.. Benefits. Vitamin B-12 is crucial to the normal function of the brain and the nervous system. It is also involved in the formation of red blood cells and helps to create and regulate DNA.. The metabolism of every cell in the body depends on vitamin B-12, as it plays a part in the synthesis of fatty acids and energy production. Vitamin B-12 enables the release of energy by ...
Question - Severe gastro-intestinal problems, bloated, severe flatulence, rumbling stomach, joint pain, IBS. On vitamin B. Help?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Nausea, Ask a Gastroenterologist, Surgical
A 12-month-old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dogs general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck ...
From http://www.homocysteine.net/pages/news/1/2003_11_vitamin.htm : Homocysteine Lowering does not Exclusively Mean Vitamin*Supplementation The causes underlying hyperhomocysteinemia are varied. Many lifestyle factors, such as smoking and high alcohol intake, increase homocysteine levels by different mechanisms, as do some diseases and treatment with several drugs. While increased vitamin intake or vitamin supplementation may counteract the effects of these factors, changes in lifestyle,
We explored the uptake of B12 and its accumulation and conversion to the coenzymes in rats kept on a low-B12 diet for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week diet containing HO-B12 or CN-B12 or a 2-week continuum on a low-B12 diet.. We found major differences in both the distribution and the degree of conversion to the B12 coenzymes for HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementations. Notably, more than half of the administered CN-B12 remained in this form in the kidneys, whereas HO-B12 was largely converted to the bioactive ADO-B12 providing more than the doubled amount of active coenzymes to the kidney tissues than CN-B12. The degree of conversion becomes even larger if subtracting ADO-B12 in the low-B12 organs and counting only its increments, accumulated in the cause of HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementation. Our study also highlights the uncertainty of using plasma B12 as a sole marker of B12 tissue content.. The work has some limitations. Even though no B12 had been added, the low-B12 diet still contained 5 µg/kg ...
Vitamin B6 deficiency may result in confusion, neuropathy (nerve damage), anemia, and dermatitis in adults and convulsions in infants. Other symptoms of Vitamin B6 deficiency may include a sensation of needles and pins in the feet and hands, cracks in the corners of the persons mouth, sore red tongue and numbness in feet and hands. Blood tests may help to determine the diagnosis.. Vitamin B-6 deficiency is treated with high daily dose of Vitamin B-6 (ten to twenty times the recommended daily allowance) unless the symptoms are relieved. Even higher dosage can be required when the Vitamin B-6 deficiency resulted from a hereditary disorders.. Related Videos on Vitamin B-6 Deficiency: ...
High dose vitamin B12 in its most effective form. Promotes healthy nerve function. Helps prevent pernicious anemia. Pleasant tasting lozenge for enhanced absorption. Methylcobalamin is the active, coenzyme form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin, the most common form of suppleme...
Dietary supplement of the biologically active form of Folate (Vitamin B9), in 60 dissolving tablets with the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12 (Cobalamin with a methyl donor attached). This product is a high-potency, fast-dissolving tablets. Active B12-Folate combines the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12, methylco
Source Naturals Vitamin B-12, MethylCobalamin, 1000mcg x 60Tabs - available to buy online with free UK delivery. Bigvits also deliver to Europe at competitive prices.
Learn about Foltx (Folacin, Cyanocobalamin & Pyridoxine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
With its natural raspberry flavor, Bluebonnet Liquid Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 is a delicious way to get a serving of this important B vitamin. Vitamin B12 may be best known...
A study involving 266 people with mild cognitive impairment (aged 70+) has found that B vitamins are more effective in slowing cognitive decline when people have higher omega 3 levels.. Participants were randomly selected to receive either a B-vitamin supplement (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or a placebo pill for two years. The vitamins had little to no effect for those with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids, but were very effective for those with high baseline omega-3 levels.. Levels of DHA appeared to be more important than levels of EPA, but more research is needed to confirm that.. The finding may help to explain why research looking at the effects of B vitamins, or the effects of omega-3 oils, have produced inconsistent findings.. The study followed research showing that B vitamins can slow or prevent brain atrophy and memory decline in people with MCI, and they were most effective in those who had above average blood levels of ...
|p|Provides 1 mg (16,670% of DV) of Methylcobalamin B-12|/p| |p|B-12 is essential for healthy red blood cells, energy levels, and DNA production and plays an important role in maintaining normal nerve function. It is often lacking in a vegan diet because
High-dose methylcobalamin has demonstrated efficacy in treating polyneuropathy.5 In a clinical trial, 25 mg/day of methylcobalamin was intravenously administered to 12 patients for 10 days, which was then followed by monthly IV administration of 25 mg methylcobalamin for 5 months, The primary endpoints were safety and improvement in the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score in at least 2 of the 20 muscles tested. The MRC sum score was improved in 7/12 patients, and was either unchanged or worse in 5/12 patients. No adverse reactions were reported.5. A meta-analysis found that treatment with lipoic acid (300-600 mg IV) with methylcobalamin (500-1000 mg IV) for 2-4 weeks was associated with better outcomes in nerve conduction velocity and neuropathic symptoms compared with methylcobalamin treatment alone.6 Therefore, a combination approach to treatment might be more beneficial in this case than IV ALA or B12 individually. More research is needed to assess the benefit of oral supplementation of ...
Results: As expected, cognitive status significantly declined over the follow-up period and this was paralleled by a significant increase in homocysteine concentrations (p=0.006). However, during this follow-up period there was no significant decline in neither dietary intake, nor the corresponding blood concentrations of vitamin B12/folate, with both remaining within normal values. Changes in blood concentrations of B vitamins were not associated with changes in homocysteine levels (p,0.05 ...
The unsaturated binding capacities (UBBC) of individual vitamin B12- binding proteins in plasma were measured by a two-step procedure. Transcobalamin II (TC II) was separated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate; the R-type binders remaining soluble were then divided into two components by bath separation with anion exchange on DEAE- cellulose. The two R components were designated alpha1-R (TC 1) and alpha2-R (third binder, fetal binder, PV binder, TC III). Ten normal sera were studied by this technique giving a separation into TC III and total plasma R identical to that obtained simultaneously by gel filtration. The mean UBBC of TC II was 969 plus or minus 204 pg of 57 Co B12 per ml of serum. The mean contamination of the precipitated TC III with plasma R was 3%. The UBBCs of alpha 2-R and alpha 1-R were 127 plus or minus 42 and 40 plus or minus 12 pg/ml, respectively. The mean contamination of the R fraction by TC II was 14% as evaluated by gel filtration. By isoelectric focusing it was ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ... Twelve-step groups *Al-Anon/Alateen. *Alcoholics Anonymous (AA):. *Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) ... Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... and a combination of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.[42] ...
... vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at ... Vitamin D2[edit]. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ... Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced ...
Vitamin B12[edit]. Spirulina does not contain vitamin B12 naturally (see table), and spirulina supplements are not considered ... Watanabe, F (2007). "Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 232 (10): 1266-74. doi:10.3181/0703- ... The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans.. ... B vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin, 207% and 306% DV, respectively), and dietary minerals, such as iron (219% DV) and manganese ...
Vitamin B12 structure[edit]. In 1948, Hodgkin first encountered vitamin B12,[33] and created new crystals. Vitamin B12 had ... Hodgkin used the name "Dorothy Crowfoot" until twelve years after marrying Thomas Lionel Hodgkin, when she began using "Dorothy ... Rickes, E. L.; Brink, N.G.; Koniuszy, F.R.; Wood, T.R.; Folkers, K. (16 April 1948). "Crystalline Vitamin B12". Science. 107 ( ... "Beginning to work on vitamin B12". Web of Stories. Retrieved 14 October 2014.. ...
Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) catalyzes the transfer of ... Human reference proteome in Uniprot, accessed 12 Jan 2018 *^ Andreini C, Banci L, Bertini I, Rosato A (November 2006). "Zinc ... At position 12, there is a glutamate or aspartate ligand that behaves as a (bidentate ligand), providing two oxygen atoms. The ... ISBN 0-12-182252-4.. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ... 4.2 Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes. *4.3 Nitrogenase (nitrogen ...
... raw ginger supplies 80 Calories and contains moderate amounts of vitamin B6 (12% of the Daily Value, DV) and the dietary ... It was also used in the blessing of Austronesian ships.[9][10][11][12][13][14] ... minerals, magnesium (12% DV) and manganese (11% DV), but otherwise is low in nutrient content (table). ...
Roselle fruits are harvested fresh, and their calyces are made into a drink rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins. ... It is then consumed with or without ice cubes after the flowers have been strained.[12] In Lebanon, toasted pine nuts are ... Buletin PGM Dec 2002, p. 12-13.. *Mohamad, O., Mohd. Nazir, B., Azhar, M., Gandhi, R., Shamsudin, S., Arbayana, A., Mohammad ...
A 100 gram reference amount of raw fruit supplies 31 calories and a rich content of vitamin C (41% of the Daily Value), with no ... 12 (12): 420-424. doi:10.6026/97320630012420. PMC 5357571. PMID 28405126.. *^ Chang CT, Chen YC, Fang JT, Huang CC (2002). " ... Fact Sheet HS-12. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-19 ... Each fruit can have 10 to 12 flat light brown seeds about 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to 0.5 in) in width and enclosed in gelatinous aril ...
Roselle fruits are harvested fresh, and their calyces are made into a drink rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins. ... It is then consumed with or without ice cubes after the flowers have been strained.[12] In Lebanon, toasted pine nuts are ... Buletin PGM Dec 2002, p. 12-13.. *Mohamad, O., Mohd. Nazir, B., Azhar, M., Gandhi, R., Shamsudin, S., Arbayana, A., Mohammad ... This page was last edited on 17 February 2018, at 08:12. ...
It is also a good source of vitamin C.[14] Storage[edit]. ... In Laos, it is called man phao (ມັນເພົາ),[12] smaller and ... Jícama should be stored dry, between 12 and 16 °C (53 and 60 °F). As colder temperatures will damage the roots, whole unpeeled ...
... and vitamin K (20% DV), with moderate contents (10-19% DV) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium. Avocados also contain ... Retrieved 12 May 2010.. *^ a b "Twiggy squares up to Sainsbury's in the avocado wars". The Scotsman. 23 May 2009. Retrieved 14 ... Retrieved 12 May 2010.. *^ Steve Chawkins (3 June 2013). "Gil Henry dies at 88; revolutionized avocado industry; Henry ... of several B vitamins (such as 28% DV in pantothenic acid) ... The scion cultivar grows for another 6-12 months before the ...
... for vitamin C, 16% DV for vitamin K and 10% DV for folate (table). ... They can be tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −12 °C (10 °F).[16] ... A 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of pomegranate arils provides 12% of the Daily Value (DV) ... 5-12 cm (2-5 in) in diameter with a rounded shape and thick, reddish husk.[3] ...
It is also labelled as vitamin-fortified and low-fat. No raisins, date nuggets, or sliced almonds are in the Canadian version. ...
100-grams of milk chocolate is an excellent source (over 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary ... Retrieved 12 September 2016.. *^ Ariyoshi, Rita (2007). "The Rarest Chocolate in the World - Surprise: It's made in Hawai'i". ... The scientific name, Theobroma, means "food of the gods".[51] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15-30 cm (6-12 in) long ... Kieran Guilbert (12 June 2017). "Falling cocoa prices threaten child labor spike in Ghana, Ivory Coast". Reuters. Retrieved 7 ...
... vitamin B6 and vitamin K (32-37% DV) (table).[23] Iron, potassium, zinc, and selenium are present in significant content (14-61 ... Retrieved 2012-01-12.. *^ Ferri, Enrico (22 May 2011). "Bioresins Derived from Cashew Nutshell Oil". MaterialsToday. Archived ... This dessert is popular in South Africa.[12] In Brazil, cashew fruit juice and the fruit pulp are used in the production of ...
... is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber.[citation needed] ... This page was last edited on 7 February 2019, at 13:12 (UTC). ...
... is a source of potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E (alpha tocopherol), vitamin K, thiamin, ... Contrary to popular[who?] belief, vitamin B12 is not contained within wheatgrass or any vegetable, as vitamin B12 is not made ... Like most plants, wheatgrass contains chlorophyll, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. Claims about the health ... and vitamins decline sharply.[7] Wheatgrass grown is harvested, dehydrated at a low temperature and sold in tablet and powdered ...
Vitamins. Quantity %DV†. Thiamine (B1). 75%. 0.867 mg. Riboflavin (B2). 11% ... Five or six species are native to China, Indochina, and India (Assam), as many as 12 are native to the United States, four are ...
Vitamins. Quantity %DV†. Vitamin A equiv.. 26%. 207 μg. Thiamine (B1). 3% ... Justin M. Waggoner (12 October 2007). "Acquiring a European Taste for Geographical Indications" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-09-22.. ... At 12 months, the Consorzio Parmigiano-Reggiano inspects every wheel. The cheese is tested by a master grader who taps each ... After brining, the wheels are then transferred to the aging rooms in the plant for 12 months. Each cheese is placed on wooden ...
Vitamins. Quantity %DV†. Vitamin A equiv.. 0%. 2 μg. Thiamine (B1). 79% ... Boiled pili pulp resembles the sweet potato in texture; it is oily (about 12%) and is considered to have food value similar to ... Seed germination is highly recalcitrant, reduced from 98 to 19% after 12 weeks of storage at room temperature; seeds stored for ...
The B vitamins riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, and pyridoxine dissolve into cooking water at differing rates.[27] ... Overprocessing may decrease the nutritional value; extrusion leads to losses in minerals and vitamins, while dry heating does ... Minerals and B vitamins are retained more effectively during germination than with cooking. Phytic acids are reduced ... vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc contents are moderate, providing 10-16% of the DV. Compared to reference levels established by ...
... is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B12, iron ... Retrieved 12 September 2016.. *^ American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the ... "12 September 2016 - via www.bbc.com.. *^ Doshi, Vidhi (6 June 2017). "To protest Modi, these Indians are cooking beef in public ... Sutter, John D. (12 December 2016). "How to stop the sixth mass extinction". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2017.. ...
... is moderate to rich in several B vitamins and vitamin K, with good content of vitamin C, vitamin E and potassium (right table, ... Retrieved 2007-12-29.. *^ a b c Stradley, Linda (2004). "All About Avocados: History of the Hass Avocado". What'sCookingAmerica ... Retrieved 2007-12-29.. *^ a b "Avocado History". IndexFresh.com. Bloomington, CA: Index Fresh Avocado. 2007. Archived from the ... Avocados are also a good source of vitamins B, E, and C, copper and fiber; their potassium content is higher than bananas.[71] ...
Vitamin B6: 1.0 mg. *Vitamin B12: 0.5 µg. *Taurine: 2000 mg ...
Vitamins. Quantity %DV†. Vitamin A equiv.. 22%. 172 μg. Thiamine (B1). 9% ... A Chinese omelette can be egg foo yung[12] or an oyster omelette. ...
... vitamin B6 and vitamin K (32-37% DV) (table).[19] Iron, potassium, zinc, and selenium are present in significant content (14-61 ... Retrieved 2012-01-12.. *^ Ferri, Enrico (22 May 2011). "Bioresins Derived from Cashew Nutshell Oil". MaterialsToday. Retrieved ... Cold, solvent-extracted CNSL is mostly composed of anacardic acids (70%),[25] cardol (18%) and cardanol (5%).[12][26] ... It is a raw material of multiple uses in developing drugs, antioxidants, fungicides, and biomaterials.[12] It is used in ...
As a proportion of the Daily Value (DV), a serving of yogurt is a rich source of vitamin B12 (31% DV) and riboflavin (23% DV), ... 12 (1): 171. doi:10.3390/nu12010171. PMC 7019219. PMID 31936185.. *^ Davidson A (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford ... The cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala (οξύγαλα) which was similar to yogurt.[12][13][14][15] ... Sale of yogurt was down 3.4 percent over the 12 months ending in February 2019. The decline of Greek-style yogurt has allowed ...
Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1). *renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1) ... 10 (12): 3735-42. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1991.tb04942.x. PMC 453108. PMID 1935897.. ...
Vitamin A equiv.. (0%). 1 μg. Thiamine (B1). (21%). 0.238 mg. ... This page was last edited on 7 December 2017, at 12:14. ... 12] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar ... and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. The tannin ...
Vitamins. Quantity %DV†. Vitamin A equiv.. 0%. 2 μg. Thiamine (B1). 70% ...
Eckle SB, Corbett AJ, Keller AN, Chen Z, Godfrey DI, Liu L, Mak JY, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J. Recognition of Vitamin ... MR1 presents microbial vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells (PDF). Nature. November 2012, 491 (7426): 717-23. Bibcode:2012Natur. ... 其他几类不表达FOXP3基因的T细胞具有免疫抑制作用,例如Tr1细胞和Th3细胞。Tr1与IL-10相关,Th3与TGF-beta相关。最近,Th17细胞也被列入此类免疫抑制细胞之中[12]。 ... doi:10.1128/JVI.00889-12.. *^ Wherry
Vitamin D: 7-Dehydrocholesterol. *Calcidiol/Calcifediol. *Calcitriol. *Cholecalciferol. *Others: 7α-Hydroxycholesterol ... 8R,9S,13S,14S)-3,4-Dihydroxy-13-methyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one ... InChI=1S/C18H22O3/c1-18-9-8-11-10-4-6-15(19)17(21)13(10)3-2-12(11)14(18)5-7-16(18)20/h4,6,11-12,14,19,21H,2-3,5,7-9H2,1H3/t11-, ...
Bile acid sequestrants may cause gastrointestinal problems and may also reduce the absorption of other drugs and vitamins from ...
While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D supplementation to people with type 2 diabetes may improve markers of insulin resistance and HbA1c.[119] ... 12 (1): 75-80. doi:10.1038/nm0106-75. PMID 16397575.. *^ Tfayli H, Arslanian S (March 2009). "Pathophysiology of type 2 ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9. PMC 3645500. PMID 22818936.. *^ Lind L, Lind PM (June 2012). "Can persistent organic ...
"Biology"-based practices: Use substances found in nature such as herbs, foods, vitamins, and other natural substances. (Note ... Substance based practices use substances found in nature such as herbs, foods, non-vitamin supplements and megavitamins, animal ... Retrieved 2012-12-20.. *^ a b Kent, H. (1997). "Ignore growing patient interest in alternative medicine at your peril - MDs ... Retrieved 2012-12-11.. *^ Borkan, J. (2012). "Complementary alternative health care in Israel and the western world". Israel ...
... was a company based in Carson, California, and was one of America's largest manufacturers of vitamins, ... On several occasions, Leiner has been forced to recall vitamins or supplements containing iron, which were not packaged in ... On March 12, 2002, they recalled 14,000 bottles of "Nature's Valley Women's Formula Multivitamin", and on January 28, 2005, ... "Local drug, supplement maker signs pact with Indian supplier Archived 2004-12-06 at the Wayback Machine.", Laurence Darmiento, ...
MN1 also acts as a coactivator of the vitamin D receptor.[7] ... 2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D ... 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to ... April 1995). "Translocation (12;22) (p13;q11) in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on ...
A K-vitamin felfedezése[szerkesztés]. Miközben kísérleteket végzett a csirkék szterolanyagcseréjével kapcsolatosan, felfigyelt ... Dam úgy vélte, hogy a betegséget egy addig ismeretlen "véralvadási vitamin" hiánya okozta, amit a koaguláció szóból K- ... 1946-ban visszatért Dániába és folytatta kutatásait a K- és E-vitamin, koleszterin- és zsíranyagcsere témakörökben, valamint ... 1943-ban Edward Doisyval megosztva orvostudományi Nobel-díjban részesült a K-vitamin felfedezéséért. ...
Piot concluded that Belgian nuns had inadvertently started the epidemic by giving unnecessary vitamin injections to pregnant ... It is recommended that survivors of EVD wear condoms for at least twelve months after initial infection or until the semen of a ... 978-0-12-370200-5. .. *^ a b c d e f g h Funk DJ, Kumar A (November 2014). "Ebola virus disease: an update for ... 12 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014.. *^ a b "Mystery DR Congo fever kills 100". BBC News Online ...
... of vitamin C and moderate levels (10-19% DV) of several B vitamins and vitamin K (table).[20] ... p. 12.. *^ "Cabbage Flowers for Food". Aggie Horticulture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System. Retrieved 12 ... The word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian caoli fiori, meaning "cabbage flower".[12] The ultimate origin of the name is ... about 12 plants per 1 foot (30 cm).[1] Ideal growing temperatures are about 65 °F (18 °C) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old. ...
Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ... acne generally improves between eight and twelve weeks after starting therapy.[15] ... Brescoll J, Daveluy S (February 2015). "A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology ( ... 12 (2): e30-5. PMID 23377402.. *^ a b Danby FW (27 January 2015). Acne: Causes and Practical Management. John Wiley & Sons. pp ...
Vitamin C and vitamin K deficiency. *Von Willebrand's disease. *Hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome), a rare ... 139 (12): 1279-84. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.5220. PMID 24136624.. *^ Folz, BJ; Kanne, M; Werner, JA (November 2008). "[Current ... Some use gauze and others use balloons.[12] Posterior packing can be achieved by using a Foley catheter, blowing up the balloon ... There are two types of nasal packing, anterior nasal packing and posterior nasal packing.[12] There are a number of different ...
Vitamin K deficiency *Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. *HDN *ABO. *Anti-Kell ... "Retrieved 2007-07-12.. *^ American Academy of Pediatrics. Chlamydia trachomatis. In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on ...
"The Vitamin B scam. Don't trust Boots". 22 November 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2019.. ... Retrieved 12 May 2019.. *. Gooden, Philip (2015). "Arts". Skyscrapers, Hemlines and the Eddie Murphy Rule (1st ed.). Bloomsbury ... Retrieved 12 May 2019.. *. Linander, Mats (19 March 2015). "is betteridge's law of headlines correct?". calmer than you are. ... Retrieved 12 May 2019.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). *. Schwab, Victor O. (September 1939). "An Advertisement That ...
These include high coverage of semiannual vitamin A supplementation and deworming; CB-IMCI; high rates of full child ... iron and vitamin A deficiency. Each type of malnutrition wrecks its own particular havoc on the human body, and to make matters ... Control of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) e) Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) f) Deworming of children aged 1 to 5 years ... vitamin A and deworming campaign, and the Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition program. National immunization ...
Some sources state that deficiencies of vitamin A or pyridoxine are also linked. There is limited evidence that a diet high in ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ... p. 12. ISBN 9789350252147. Gow, Neil (8 May 2002). "Candida albicans - a fungal Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". Mycologist. 16 (01). ... 13 (12-13): 963-976. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2011.06.009. PMC 3185145 . PMID 21801848. Lynch, DP (August 1994). "Oral candidiasis ...
"Narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation increases the serum level of vitamin D3in patients with neurofibromatosis 1". The Journal ... Retrieved on 2013-12-23. *↑ Mathew K.G. (2008) Medicine: Prep Manual for Undergraduates, 3/e, Elsevier India, ISBN 8131211541, ...
Nine to twelve months are required for sake to mature. Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen ... vitamins and proteins. Since higher concentration of fat and protein in the sake would lead to off-flavors and contribute rough ... While there were 3,229 breweries nationwide in fiscal 1975, the number had fallen to 1,845 in 2007.[12] ...
... a derivative of vitamin A). The retinal exists in the 11-cis-retinal form when in the dark, and stimulation by light causes its ... Distribution of rods and cones along a line passing through the fovea and the blind spot of a human eye[12] ...
In 2000, the concentration of pro-vitamin A was increased by adding a bacterial gene encoding phytoene desaturase, although the ... 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. *^ Kumar, H.; Kumar, V. (2004). "Tomato expressing Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein ... 12: 644-647. doi:10.1007/bf00232816.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Improved nutrition and vitamins. Non-adherent dressings and elevation of limbs. Large infected ulcers may require debridement ...
Vitamin deficiency. B vitamins. *B1 *Beriberi. *Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. *Wernicke's encephalopathy ...
Sirćetna kiselina • Acetilkarnitin • Acetil koenzim A • Vitamin B5 (Pantetin • Pantetein • Pantenol) ... Evan E. Bolton, Yanli Wang, Paul A. Thiessen, Stephen H. Bryant (2008). "Chapter 12 PubChem: Integrated Platform of Small ... InChI=1S/C20H27NO3/c22-19(24-18-14-21-12-10-15(18)11-13-21)20(23,17-8-4-5-9-17)16-6-2-1-3-7-16/h1-3,6-7,15,17-18,23H,4-5,8-14H2 ...
Ferozni Gvožđe (Fe2+) • S-Adenozil-L-Metionin • Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nikotinamid → NADPH) • Vitamin B6 (Piridoksin, Piridoksamin ... Piridoksal → Piridoksal Fosfat) • Vitamin B9 (Folna kiselina → Tetrahidrofolna kiselina) • Vitamin C (Askorbinska kiselina) • ...
... vitamin B6 (42% DV), phosphorus (40% DV), iron (50% DV), and zinc (35%), among others (table).[14][15] When lentils are cooked ... by boiling, protein content declines to 9% of total composition, and B vitamins and minerals decrease due to the overall water ... 12] Lentil flour can be produced by milling the seeds, like cereals. ...
Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of vitamin C which is necessary for the synthesis of collagen. ...
Ferrous Iron (Fe2+) • Tetrahydrobiopterin • Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinamide → NADPH) • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, ... Pyridoxal → Pyridoxal Phosphate) • Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid → Tetrahydrofolic Acid) • Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) • Zinc (Zn2+) ... 12] டோம்பரிடோன் கொடுக்கப்படும் பிறந்த குழந்தைகளில் QT இடைவெளிகள் அதிகரித்திருப்பதை சமீபத்திய ஆய்வுகள் குறிப்பிடுகின்றன.[13]. ...
Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press. 18 May 1976. pp. 682-. ISBN 978-0-08-086630-7.. ... "Comparison of the Hershberger assay and androgen receptor binding assay of twelve chemicals". Toxicology. 195 (2-3): 177-86. ... 12 (2): 285-99. doi:10.1517/14728214.12.2.285. PMID 17604502.. *^ a b Akaza H (Jan 2011). "Combined androgen blockade for ... 12 August 1997. pp. 34-. ISBN 978-0-08-052628-7.. *^ Bodh I. Jugdutt (19 February 2014). Aging and Heart Failure: Mechanisms ...
An erythropoetin stimulating agent may be required to ensure adequate production of red blood cells, activated vitamin D ...
"Banned Vitamin Supplement May Have Caused Horse Deaths Polo Team Member Tells Newspaper Horses Received French-Made Drug". West ... sodium selenite and vitamin B 12) for debility, convalescence and myopathies."[2] ... "Polo team captain: Vitamin likely killed 21 horses". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009 ... "Scrutiny in horse deaths falls on vitamins". CNN. Retrieved April 22, 2009 ...
Vitamin B-12 is found only in foods of animal origin. Dietary B-12 is freed from food protein by pepsin in the acid gastric ... Further testing showed that his vitamin B-12 was low: 90 pmol/l (reference range 160-800 pmol/l). Folate, ferritin, thyroid ... In the small intestine, haptocorrin is degraded by pancreatic enzymes; vitamin B-12 is released and binds with intrinsic factor ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency. BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c2305 (Published 01 June 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010; ...
The vitamin is found in many animal products such as poultry, beef, eggs, and dairy products. The article examines its benefits ... Vitamin B-12 is an essential vitamin necessary for healthy nerve tissue, brain function, and red blood cell production. ... and the health problems that accompany a deficiency of vitamin B-12. ... Vitamins: What are they and what do they do? Vitamins are essential to life, but what are they and why do we need them? Here is ...
Know the causes of a vitamin B-12 deficiency and when use of this supplement is recommended. ... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplements. Taking vitamin B-12 with vitamin C might reduce the available amount of vitamin B-12 in ... To avoid this interaction, take vitamin C two or more hours after taking a vitamin B-12 supplement. ... in combination with vitamin B-6 and folate (vitamin B-9), has been shown to control high levels of homocysteine in the blood. ...
Cyanocobalamine is used in most supplements because it is readily converted to active forms of vitamin B-12 in the body. ... Vitamin B-12 is also known as cobalamine or cyanocobalamine, owing to the presence of the metal, cobalt. ... Vitamin Supplements. Easy to understand info & tips with diagrams about vitamin supplements like vitamin C, B6, B9 & B12. ... Vitamin-F. Essential fatty acids - omega 3 and omega 6 are sometimes referred to as Vitamin F. The body is not capable of ...
To pack the ultimate vitamin C punch, fill up on these 12 superfoods. ... Despite their reputation for being loaded with vitamin C, the 69.7 mg that a medium orange provides is actually less than many ... Taste the tropics for a 122.3 mg boost of vitamin C. Mango is also a great source of vitamin A, which like vitamin C plays a ... quicklist: 10 category: Foods With More Vitamin C Than Oranges title: Pineapple url: text: In addition to 78.9 mg of vitamin C ...
A vitamin B-12 test measures the amount of B-12 in your blood. Find out what your B-12 results mean and how to optimize your B- ... Vitamin B12 is a nutrient you need for good health. Its one of eight B vitamins that help your body convert the food you eat ... Vitamin B is a key player in maintaining cell health and keeping you energized. When youre deficient in vitamin B, there are ... What Is a Vitamin B-12 Test?. Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT on. August 12, 2016. - ...
Healthy vitamin B-12 levels also promote the health of your blood cells, including platelets. ... vitamin B-12 has a number of physiological roles in your body, including a role in nerve function and cell growth. ... A deficiency in vitamin B-12 is one cause of low platelet production in the bone marrow. Therefore, a vitamin B-12 deficiency ... An essential nutrient, vitamin B-12 has a number of physiological roles in your body, including a role in nerve function and ...
Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. BMJ 1990; 300 :1263 ... Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia.. BMJ 1990; 300 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.300.6734.1263 ( ...
An allergy to vitamin B-12 is uncommon but is possible. Drugs.com states that B-12 is important for cell reproduction, growth ... Vitamin B-12 is taken in supplement form for people who lack the essential vitamin. ... Vitamin B-12 is taken in supplement form for people who lack the essential vitamin. An allergy to vitamin B-12 is uncommon but ... To confirm a vitamin B-12 allergy, your doctor may perform a skin prick test to determine if your body creates IgE antibodies ...
It is another B vitamin. Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia ... Inability to absorb vitamin B-12 . Surgery that removes or bypasses the end of the small intestine may be one reason that B-12 ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. It is caused by:. * Lack of ... This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells. These cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Without enough red blood ...
Vitamin B-12. Setembro 15, 2019. de George Spellwin. Perfil. Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin, qual é, according to the ... Vitamin B-12 sounds awesome! What are the benefits overall?. 1. Energy: B-12 is needed to convert carbs into useable glucose in ... Vitamin B-12 can be found at any vitamin shop or health food store. Contudo, for best results, you should stack it with other ... Vitamin B-12 benefits our body in many ways. The central nervous system needs it, because it will help maintain the health of ...
March the citral plant at itsLudwigshafen headquarters that was damaged by a fire and thatshipments of downstream vitamin ... The German chemicals giant, which competes with DSM in vitamins, said in November that a fire at the production facility for ... March the citral plant at its Ludwigshafen headquarters that was damaged by a fire and that shipments of downstream vitamin ... aroma ingredients was also leading to a production outage in vitamins and carotenoids, declaring force majeure to suspend ...
Many feedstuffs and forages do not provide the dietary vitamins necessary for optimum growth and development, making ... Next: 13 Vitamin B12 » The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth St., NW , Washington, DC 20001 ... The vita- min appears to be well absorbed from the gut, but is not well retained. 2. Studies with poultry and swine indicate ... Supplemental biotin and vitamin Be for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 26:903. (Abstr.) Arends, L. G., E. W. Kienholz, J. V. Schutze, and ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins and is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, ... Even though vitamin B12 is water-soluble, it doesnt exit your body quickly like other water-soluble vitamins. B12 is stored in ...
... discover the most advanced and effective vitamin C skincare products to try now. ... What is vitamin C and how does it work?. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for good health, explains aesthetic doctor and ... Sebaghs vitamin C treatments are a true cult classic. Each test-tube style vial is filled with pure, stabilised vitamin C ... Is vitamin C a stable active?. Vitamin C is notoriously unstable as an ingredient, meaning heat, light and air can easily ...
Learn about Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, ... Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection. This page contains information on Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection for veterinary use.. The ... Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection Caution. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. ... Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection Indications. For use in vitamin B-12 deficiency associated with cobalt deficiency in cattle and ...
Beef, chicken, fish, milk are all foods rich in vitamin B-12, something our bodies cannot do without. ... It is a vitamin that keeps your brain healthy and your immune system strong, but some of us just dont have enough of it. ... However, there are ways to address a B-12 deficiency and figure out who is at risk for it. ... BECAUSE AGE AND MEDICAL CONDITIONS CAN MAKE IT HARD FOR THE BODY TO ABSORB THE VITAMIN ,, VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY DOES GET MORE ...
The length of time for the expiration date or best used before date depends on the type of product, as well as the brand.. Perishable items (such as flax oils or certain probiotics) generally have shorter expiration dates. Although our warehouse is fully air-conditioned, these more fragile items are put in cold storage (freezer or refrigeration unit) for maximum freshness.. Our receiving department does its best to verify and then enter the correct expiration dates for all incoming products. However, discrepancies do occur from time to time. This being said, the exceptionally high turnover at iHerb ensures that our inventory is among the freshest in the industry.. ...
Headaches from sublingual Vitamin B-12.. [ Back to Messages ] Message. Posted by earthling on September 24, 2000 at 23:28:59:. ... Re: Headaches from sublingual Vitamin B-12. Jim Benton 01:35:57 9/26/00 (0) ... I have gotten headaches after taking sublingual Vitamin B-12. Has anyone else gotten this reaction and do you know what causes ...
This topic has 99 study abstracts on Vitamin B-12 indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Vitamin B ... Vitamin B-6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E ... Vitamin B-6, Vitamin E, Zinc. Diseases : Aging, Vitamin A ... Vitamin B-3 (Niacin), Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid), Vitamin B-6 ... Administration of Vitamin C, Vitamin B12, omega 3, or their ... Substances : Vitamin B12: methylcobalamin , Vitamin B-12. Diseases : Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, High Homocysteine, ...
... women may find lasting relief from daily doses of fish oil and vitamin B-12, according to a small Danish study. ... "Vitamin B-12 has been shown to lower homocysteine levels ... and homocysteine can cause inflammation as well," he says. "But ... Neither Schaefer nor the Danish researchers are quite clear on why vitamin B-12 seems to help, but Schaefer can take a guess. " ... So, should women of childbearing age stock up on vitamin B-12 and fish oil to foil menstrual cramps? While some studies have ...
Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be a side effect of this drug. If you take metformin, talk to your doctor about strategies to ... Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble B complex vitamin found naturally in a variety of foods, including meat, fish and dairy ... Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as a dietary supplement. Vitamin B-12 injections are commonly ... But vitamin B-12 can interfere with the effectiveness of some medications, so if you receive vitamin B-12 injections, be sure ...
... explore the best vitamin D supplements that will help improve your overall health from HUM Nutrition, Nature Made and more. ... MegaFood Vitamin D3 2,000 IU Supplement $15 Buy Now Solgar Vitamin D3 Supplement. With 1,000 IU of vitamin D3, the Solgar ... Nature Made Vitamin D3 Supplement $23 Buy Now MegaFood Vitamin D3 2,000 IU Supplement. The MegaFood Vitamin D3 Supplement helps ... NatureWise Vitamin D3 Supplement. The NatureWise Vitamin D3 Supplement packs a healthy, daily dose of vitamin D in its most ...
The Vitamin Shoppe is a good place to purchase vitamin B12 supplements in a variety of forms, such as softgels, tablets and in ... What foods have vitamin B12?. A: Many foods contain vitamin B12, but some of the foods with the highest B12 content include ... How does the body use vitamin B12 and folic acid?. A: The body uses vitamin B12 to create DNA and keep blood and nerve cells ... What are the normal ranges of vitamin B12?. A: The normal range for vitamin B12 levels is from about 110 to 1,500 picograms per ...
Does your pain doctor give you vitamin B-12 injections at your monthly appointments? Mine does, it gives.... ... Vitamin B injections ar awesome and too bad they dont last a week or even a month! lol The B vitamins are some of the most ... Does your pain doctor give you vitamin B-12 injections at your monthly appointments?. Mine does, it gives me an appetite and ... essential vitamins for our bodies for so many reasons especially with stress and illness often depleting them. I have a ...
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin B12 is intended to provide nutritive support for healthy metabolism, nerve ... Natures Life Vitamin B-12 -- 1000 mcg - 100 Tablets. *Shop all Natures Life ...
The most highly rated B-12 vitamins are of the methylcobalmin variety, according to One Green Planet. This information is ... Is Vitamin B a Water-Soluble Vitamin?. A: B vitamins are water-soluble, as indicated by WebMD. This means that B vitamins ... What Does Vitamin B Complex Do?. A: Vitamin B complex consists of eight vitamins that help in energy production, amino acid ... What Will Happen If You Dont Get Enough Vitamin B?. A: A deficiency of certain B vitamins can cause anemia, fatigue, poor ...
I take a coenzyme B-complex, made by Country Life and sold at Vitamin Cottage. It contains 500 mcg of B-12 (one cap per day) ... If you are interested in supplements for nerve healing and ED, you may also want to search on Q10, Vitamin D and Arginine. ... plus a bunch of other B vitamins. I take it to improve nerve healing. I started taking it after reading a bunch of "stuff" on ... Do any of you have information about taking B-12 supplements? I am getting mixed opinions. ...
Shop for Nature Made Vitamin B-12 Tablets 500 mcg at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order ... Along with other B vitamins, vitamin B12 is important for converting the food you eat into cellular energy.* Vitamin B12 is ... Vitamins and Supplements. Personal Care. Beauty. Pet. Candy. Floral. Baby. Ship to Home. Specialty Diets. International Cuisine ... Vitamin B12 supplements may be important for vegetarians and vegans who avoid dietary sources rich in vitamin B12. ...
Sometimes eating the right foods that contain vitamin B-12 is not the solution for the individual who suffers from this problem ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency and the related B-12 malabsorption syndrome, is a real illness that is often overlooked by physicians ... and depression are only a few of the medical issues that are a result of a deficiency of this important and essential vitamin. ... Nutritional Vitamins & Supplements. How Do Vitamins Provide Energy If It Can Only Help the Body Develop and Grow?. by Sree Vani ...
  • Despite this benefit, there's no evidence to show that vitamin B-12 supplements prevent heart disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with dementia and low cognitive function, but it's not clear whether vitamin B-12 supplements might help prevent or treat dementia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Unless you have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, there's no evidence that vitamin B-12 supplements will boost your energy or make you a better athlete. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, older adults, vegetarians and people who have conditions that affect their ability to absorb vitamin B-12 from foods might benefit from the use of oral supplements. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 supplements also are recommended for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding exclusively and follow vegetarian or vegan diets. (mayoclinic.org)
  • When taken at appropriate doses, vitamin B-12 supplements are generally considered safe. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplements. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cyanocobalamine is used in most supplements because it is readily converted to active forms of vitamin B-12 in the body. (medindia.net)
  • Easy to understand info & tips with diagrams about vitamin supplements like vitamin C, B6, B9 & B12. (medindia.net)
  • Many people, especially older adults and people with intestinal disorders, have trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from food and oral supplements. (healthline.com)
  • For your body to make enough healthy platelets, make sure that you are eating enough vitamin B-12 food sources or taking supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • To keep platelet production normal, vegetarians can get enough of this vitamin by eating fortified foods such as breakfast cereal or take supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • Depending on the cause of your vitamin B-12 deficiency, you may need to take vitamin B-12 supplements for the rest of your life. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Treatment may include vitamin B-12 supplements. (uhhospitals.org)
  • After being given B-12 supplements, their symptoms and laryngeal, bronchial, and cough thresholds significantly improved. (mercola.com)
  • Certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce psychiatric symptoms in some people with schizophrenia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Incorporating the best vitamin D supplements into your wellness routine is essential to your body's overall health. (wwd.com)
  • To ensure a strong daily dosage and healthy absorption, the best vitamin D supplements contain vitamin D3, an active form of the vitamin that the body has an easier time breaking down. (wwd.com)
  • For some, vitamin D3 supplements can lead to a deficiency in other vitamins and minerals including magnesium and vitamins A and K. Make sure to consult your physician to find the right dosage and formula that best suits your body, diet and lifestyle. (wwd.com)
  • Featuring the highest potency of vitamin D3, the Now Supplements VItamin D3 Supplement is free of GMOs, soy, gluten, dairy, sugar and eggs and promotes a healthier immune system and stronger bones. (wwd.com)
  • The Vitamin Shoppe is a good place to purchase vitamin B12 supplements in a variety of forms, such as softgels, tablets and in liquid form, explains the store's official website. (reference.com)
  • In addition to taking supplements, individuals can consume vitamin B12 through eating certain foods, states the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. (reference.com)
  • In some cases, doctors prescribe vitamin B12 in forms unavailable over the counter, including in injection form and as a nasal gel, notes the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. (reference.com)
  • I have a sublingual B-12 supp I take when the cost can be afforded inbetween doctors visits, Rx meds, so many supplements. (dailystrength.org)
  • Other types of B-12 supplements on the market include cyanocobalamin and the less common hydroxycobalamin. (reference.com)
  • Do any of you have information about taking B-12 supplements? (cancer.org)
  • If you are interested in supplements for nerve healing and ED, you may also want to search on Q10, Vitamin D and Arginine. (cancer.org)
  • Vitamin B12 supplements may be important for vegetarians and vegans who avoid dietary sources rich in vitamin B12. (ralphs.com)
  • Generally speaking these people will say something like, "I've been vegan for eight years, never take B 12 supplements, and I'm in perfect health," but meanwhile they're all twitchy and something just isn't right. (vegan.com)
  • Why are there so many vegans who take pride in spurning B 12 supplements? (vegan.com)
  • Vegans can easily meet their B 12 needs through supplements or by regularly eating B 12 fortified foods. (vegan.com)
  • Note that B 12 fortified foods are dosed with the very same B 12 that is put into supplements. (vegan.com)
  • This means that obtaining your B 12 through fortified vegan foods is in no way more "natural" than purchasing supplements. (vegan.com)
  • Sublingual B 12 supplements are easy to find online or at any natural foods store. (vegan.com)
  • Of the dozens of B 12 supplements Amazon stocks, probably the best buy is Nature's Bounty 1000 microgram tablets . (vegan.com)
  • In recent years, Vitamin B-12 has become one of the most popular nutritional supplements, and that popularity has expanded to consumer products. (puritan.com)
  • Your body can't make Vitamin B-12 on its own, so it is important to consume it through foods or supplements. (puritan.com)
  • We carry huge selections of vitamins and supplements, and other different health and beauty products, over 400 brands and 30,000 items now, with new products added frequently. (vitasprings.com)
  • HealthDay News) -- Seniors are wasting their time and money taking calcium and vitamin D supplements to ward off the brittle bones of old age, a new review concludes. (ksla.com)
  • I think that it is time to stop taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. (ksla.com)
  • Total vitamin D at 9-12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. (mdpi.com)
  • 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. (mdpi.com)
  • Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D intake from supplements or fortified foods or beverages is therefore important in northern latitudes [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Statements made about specific vitamins, supplements, procedures or other items sold on or through this website have not been evaluated by eVitamins, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) or the United States Food and Drug Administration. (evitamins.com)
  • Innovative vitamins and dietary supplements. (medshopexpress.com)
  • However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. (nih.gov)
  • Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. (definitions.net)
  • Based on Pharmacy Times Survey or pharmacists recommending letter vitamin supplements). (vons.com)
  • Someone PMed me asking where I buy my vitamin b-12 supplements, so I thought I would post that here in case anyone else is interested. (veganbodybuilding.com)
  • Cyanocobalamin - the most common form of B-12 found in nutritional supplements, is a synthetic not found in nature. (prohealth.com)
  • Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • The U.S. Institute of Medicine recommends that adults over 50 obtain their vitamin B-12 from supplements. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • Taking vitamin B-12 supplements will reduce homocysteine levels in your blood. (verywell.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 supplements have also been recommended for improving cognitive skills, and to boost energy. (verywell.com)
  • Moreover, folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements were shown to have little impact in this study on growth of beef cattle. (gc.ca)
  • Vitamin D supplements are given to treat or to prevent osteomalacia and rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injections of cyanocobalamin, or vitamin B12, normally get administered daily to start. (reference.com)
  • Note that many brands of B 12 contain methylcobalamin, but research indicates cyanocobalamin can satisfy your body's needs with much smaller doses. (vegan.com)
  • A bottle comes in under $10, and gives you a large dose of B-12, using the cyanocobalamin molecule. (vegan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12, also referred to as cobalamin and cyanocobalamin, is a water-soluble compound of the B vitamin family with an unique difference - unlike other B-vitamins that must be replaced daily, vitamin B12 can be stored for long periods in the liver and kidneys. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Each tablet provides:Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 100 µg. (victoriahealth.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and for the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin) 1,000 mcg 16667% *percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. (vitasprings.com)
  • All of these drugs may interfere with vitamin B-12 absorption. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Older adults and people with digestive tract conditions that affect absorption of nutrients also are susceptible to vitamin B-12 deficiency. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking this drug used to treat digestive problems might reduce your body's absorption of vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking this anti-inflammatory drug used to prevent and treat gout attacks might decrease your absorption of vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking this diabetes drug might reduce your absorption of vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid) or other stomach acid-reducing drugs might decrease your absorption of vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Thankfully, a host of brands have found ways to side-step vitamin C's stability and absorption issues, creating innovative formulations and advanced packaging to keep the actives alive until the moment they hit your skin. (harpersbazaar.com)
  • As a vitamin that a large number of the American population is deficient in, vitamin D plays a vital role in the function of the body's absorption and retention of calcium, which is required for strong bones and teeth. (wwd.com)
  • For those who prefer gummy formulations, the Nordic Naturals Vitamin D3 Gummies provide 1,000 IU of vitamin D3 per gummy and allow for better absorption. (wwd.com)
  • Made with coconut oil to increase the body's absorption, the Sports Research Vitamin D3 Supplement contains 5,000 IU of vitamin D3 and strengthens your muscles and bones as it promotes a healthier immune system. (wwd.com)
  • You'll get better absorption from B 12 lozenges or 'sublingual tablets', which are different words for the same thing. (vegan.com)
  • You let these tablets dissolve under your tongue, thereby enabling B 12 absorption through the capillaries in your mouth. (vegan.com)
  • Absorption of vitamin B-12 from the digestive system naturally decreases as we age. (vitaminworld.com)
  • B-12 levels in the digestive system helps to increase overall B-12 absorption. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Did you know that absorption of B-12 from the digestive system naturally decreases as we age? (vitaminworld.com)
  • Our super potency formula maximizes B-12 levels in the digestive system, to help increase overall B-12 absorption. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Because of the complicated process involved in digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin B-12, supplementation may be important for those with digestive concerns that may lead to B-12 malabsorption. (puritan.com)
  • B12 also supports the action of vitamin C, and is necessary for the proper digestion and absorption of foods, for protein synthesis, and for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The stomach secretes intrinsic factor that binds vitamin B-12 and mediates its absorption at receptor sites in the ileum. (eagle-min.com)
  • For example, B-12 requires a particular "intrinsic factor" to be present in the stomach for absorption. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • But Tucker can only speculate about the reasons for poor absorption of the vitamin from meat among younger adults or why B12 appears to be better absorbed from dairy products than from meats. (physicsforums.com)
  • An infection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria may also interfere with gastric secretions and hinder B-12 absorption. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Our time release formula extendeds vitamin absorption by the body. (giantfood.com)
  • Atrophic gastritis results in declining gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion, and hence decreasing intestinal digestion and absorption of both B vitamins. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For optimal absorption, this product is designed to dissolve slowly in your mouth, preferably under your tongue.Vitamin B-12 is intended to promote healthy nerve function and healthy homocysteine levels.This product also contains methylcobalamin, a preferred form of Vitamin B-12.Methylcobalamin is thought to be utilized more efficiently by the body than other forms of vitamin B-12. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Offering twice as much absorption as other forms, our unique ion-exchange resin protects vitamin B-12 from gastric acid of the stomach, delivering the nutrient to the small intestine where absorption takes place. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • First Step for Energy High Potency B-12: Formulated for maximum absorption to effectively increase your B-12 levels. (vitasprings.com)
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B supplementation was effective in reducing serum homocysteine levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • For some, adequate vitamin D supplementation can boost their energy levels and mood due to its beneficial effect on the hormones. (wwd.com)
  • More trials are needed to test vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of heart disease, say researchers behind a new study showing heart failure among the elderly is strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency. (nutraingredients.com)
  • These results are consistent with an earlier study reported by NutraIngredients ​ which found an association between vitamin D supplementation and lower risk of heart failure. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "The low cost of its supplementation and the possibility of preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases point to the need for more studies on the supplementation with vitamin D in prospective cohort, so that the conduct of supplementation is implanted with a solid base of evidence," ​they wrote. (nutraingredients.com)
  • A horse may need vitamin and mineral supplementation for several different reasons. (drsfostersmith.com)
  • The potential benefit of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in preventing even a small number of hip fractures far outweighs the otherwise minimum risks associated with routine calcium and vitamin D supplementation in at-risk populations,' Smith added. (ksla.com)
  • [ 10 ] The USDA recommends B-12 supplementation for people at risk of deficiency because it's more easily absorbed than B-12 from food sources. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • As many as 30% of adults over 50 are unable to absorb B-12 in food, making supplementation the best source. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • B-12 supplementation is not a cure for Alzheimer's disease but preliminary reports suggest a link between vitamin B-12 deficiency and Alzheimer's disease. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin B-12, once administered by injection, can now be obtained through oral supplementation. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • Supplementation should not be necessary for healthy adults, except for vegans, as vitamin B-12 is only found in animal products. (verywell.com)
  • 0.10) milk yield but the vitamin supplementation increased (P=0.002) milk concentrations of vitamin B12. (gc.ca)
  • Since folate and vitamin B(12) intake and status are mostly insufficient in elderly subjects, a supplementation can generally be recommended. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The evidence for other health effects of vitamin D supplementation in the general population is inconsistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality is not clear, with one meta-analysis finding a small decrease in mortality in elderly people, and another concluding no clear justification exists for recommending supplementation for preventing many diseases, and that further research of similar design is not needed in these areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobalamin is another name for vitamin B-12. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays essential roles in red blood cell formation, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B-12, also known as cobalamin, is a nutrient that helps the body produce energy as it works to covert food into glucose. (reference.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (also known as cobalamin) supports energy metabolism and has several other benefits. (puritan.com)
  • PART III: VITAMIN B12 189 VITAMIN B12 V itamin B12 (cobalamin) functions as a coenzyme for a critical reaction that converts homocysteine to methionine and in the metabolism of fatty acids of odd chain length. (nap.edu)
  • Homocysteine levels are a much better predictor of heart disease than cholesterol, and their levels are improved with adequate B-Complex, especially the pyridoxine (B-6), cobalamin (B-12) and folic acid within it. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Your body needs vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, and folate, also called folic acid, to function normally. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Vitamin B-12, or cobalamin, is a member of the water-soluble family of B-complex vitamins. (verywell.com)
  • In addition to the serum concentrations of the vitamins, the metabolites homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are sensitive markers of cobalamin and folate status. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. (wur.nl)
  • Vitamin B-12 enables the release of energy by helping the human body absorb folic acid . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency, like folic acid deficiency, can cause increased homocysteine in the blood. (medindia.net)
  • Treatment may include vitamin B-12 shots (injections) or folic acid pills. (uhhospitals.org)
  • 5-methyltehydrofolate (folic acid) and vitamin B12 ameliorate red blood cell abnormalities in pediatric patients with Cystic Fibrosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • How does the body use vitamin B12 and folic acid? (reference.com)
  • of folic acid and an equal amount of vitamin B-12, than perhaps we should revisit the breakdown of the type and amount of vitamins we are really consuming on a daily basis. (hubpages.com)
  • Often it is important to eat a variety of foods that contain a high amount of vitamin B-12 as well as folic acid. (hubpages.com)
  • B vitamins alone including vitamin B9, better known as Folic Acid, as mentioned, are no doubt important to our overall health and well being. (hubpages.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is one of the three major B vitamins, along with B-6 and Folic Acid, that help maintain homocysteine levels already within a normal range by converting homocysteine into the amino acid methionine. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Vitamin B-12, B-6 with Folic Acid is a supplement that can help you maintain an energetic lifestyle. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Here is a breakdown of the ingredients in Wonder Lab's Sublingual Vitamin B-12, B-6 with Folic Acid , as well as the advanced formula that contains Biotin, and how this combination can be beneficial in supplementing your daily diet. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Folic Acid - This form of B vitamin is used as a supplement to help low blood levels of folate, which can lead to anemia. (wonderlabs.com)
  • By adding Vitamin B-6, Folic Acid, and Biotin to your daily B-12 supplement, it will help your body experience the benefits listed above. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Thus some symptoms of vitamin B-12 and folic deficiencies are similar. (eagle-min.com)
  • What is curcuminoid turmerone complex-folic acid-vitamin B-12? (patientslikeme.com)
  • There are no evaluations for curcuminoid turmerone complex-folic acid-vitamin B-12. (patientslikeme.com)
  • 2 additional evaluations for curcuminoid turmerone complex-folic acid-vitamin B-12 are not currently shared publicly. (patientslikeme.com)
  • B-12 and folic acid deficiencies are associated with a decline in thinking ability. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Folic acid and B-12 deficiencies have long been known to contribute to disturbances of sensation and coordination of the legs and feet. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • There has been concern about the interaction between vitamin B 12 and folic acid. (physicsforums.com)
  • In addition, adequate intake of Vitamin B-12, along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B-6, encourages healthy serum homocysteine levels, thereby supporting cardiovascular health. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • It is important to note that these adverse interactions between high folate blood levels and vitamin B12 deficiency were seen only in the study participants from the NHANES conducted between 1999 and 2002, after the fortification of flour and other cereals with folic acid," says Selhub, who is also a professor at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Folic acid is a synthetic form of the vitamin, which requires specific processing by the body for incorporation into the folate pool of the body. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Now Folic Acid 800mcg with Vitamin B-12 supports healthy homocysteine metabolism. (ovitaminpro.com)
  • Folic acid is an important member of the B-vitamin family required for DNA synthesis and genetic repair. (ovitaminpro.com)
  • Within each diet, cows were administered either no vitamins or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B12. (gc.ca)
  • In this respect, vitamin B(12) and folic acid play a major role, since deficiency of both vitamins is associated with the pathogenesis of different diseases such as declining neurocognitive function and atherosclerotic lesions. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vitamin B(12) and folic acid act as coenzymes and show a close molecular interaction on the basis of the homocysteine metabolism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Wolters M, Ströhle A, Hahn A. [Age-associated changes in the metabolism of vitamin B(12) and folic acid: prevalence, aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiological consequences]. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Well one good reason that I can give you off the top of my head, is that many doctors today, are not readily, or even thoroughly trained in areas of nutrition and/or related vitamin deficiencies issues, often overlooked as a real vitamin deficiency disorder problem, just like that associated with vitamin B12 malabsorption syndrome. (hubpages.com)
  • And in addition to not being thoroughly trained in the area of nutrition for example, your healthcare practitioner also may be totally unaware, that vitamin deficiencies-mainly B-12 vitamin deficiencies can be more common then they had previously thought. (hubpages.com)
  • But experts said Tyler was one of a growing number of children found to be suffering from the condition or associated vitamin deficiencies attributed to a combination of less active modern lifestyles and a tendency to cover up more in the sun. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Even minor deficiencies of vitamin B-12 can cause anemia, fatigue, shortness of breath and weakness. (prohealth.com)
  • Deficiencies of B-12 can cause neurological changes including numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, balance problems, depression, confusion, poor memory and Alzheimer's-like symptoms. (prohealth.com)
  • Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 are associated with risk of osteoporosis and fracture. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiencies often appear so slowly as to go unnoticed, and blood tests miss early deficiency states at least 50% of the time. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • Oral vitamin B-12 is as effective as injection in treating B-12 deficiencies. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • It would be tough to use foods to prevent or treat vitamin B-12 deficiencies due to malabsorption, although eating large amounts of liver was an historical treatment for pernicious anemia. (verywell.com)
  • Headaches from sublingual Vitamin B-12. (healthboards.com)
  • I have gotten headaches after taking sublingual Vitamin B-12. (healthboards.com)
  • Sublingual microlozenge delivers a highly concentrated dose of essential B-12 that dissolves easily when placed under your tongue. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Sublingual B-12 is important for heart health, nervous system health and energy metabolism. (vitaminworld.com)
  • In its sublingual form, Vitamin B-12 can be quickly absorbed into the body by placing it under the tongue. (wonderlabs.com)
  • B-12 Sublingual 2000 mcg by Source Naturals is a B-12 supplement alternative for those who do not or cannot take traditional capsules and tablets. (evitamins.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin, like all other B-vitamins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dietary Supplement Use and Smoking Are Important Correlates of Biomarkers of Water-Soluble Vitamin Status after Adjusting for Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Variables in a Representative Sample of U.S. Adults. (medindia.net)
  • Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. (vitacost.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it dissolves in water and travels through your bloodstream to get where it needs to go. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin generally not present in plant foods. (drsfostersmith.com)
  • A water-soluble vitamin, B-12 is essential for proper energy metabolism, nerve and mental function, red blood cell formation, and cardiovascular health. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Cardiovascular system - Vitamin B-12 deficiency can cause elevated homocysteine levels and this is a known risk factor for heart attack and stroke. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • Even moderately increased homocysteine levels or poor folate and vitamin B(12) status are associated with vascular disease and neurocognitive disorders. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 in the form of (Methylcobalamin), is usually used more efficiently by the bodies cells.The reason being is that instead of orally taking this form of B-12, you would place it under the tongue (sublingually) and let it dissolve slowly. (hubpages.com)
  • Methylcobalamin, or methylated B-12 is the most pure, active, bioavailable coenzyme form of B-12 and when paired with adenosylcobalamin, the other coenzyme form of B-12, forms the most potent B-12 combination available. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • The first hint of a knockoff form of B-12 came from the marine algae spirulina , a popular health supplement. (washington.edu)
  • This article provides a thorough background on Vitamin B 12 needs for vegans, but if you simply want our recommendation on how to avoid deficiency, here it is: every day or two take one of these 1000 microgram Nature's Bounty tablets . (vegan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is naturally available in meats, but people who do not eat meat, such as vegans, can obtain vitamin B-12 in supplement form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as an oral supplement. (mayoclinic.org)
  • To avoid this interaction, take vitamin C two or more hours after taking a vitamin B-12 supplement. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is taken in supplement form for people who lack the essential vitamin. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have a known allergy to cobalt or if you've been diagnosed with Leber's disease, you should not take a B-12 supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • If you develop adverse reactions after you ingest a vitamin B-12 supplement, call your doctor for an evaluation of your symptoms. (livestrong.com)
  • Your immune system overreacts to the supplement and creates IgE antibodies that fight off the vitamin, resulting in the production of histamine. (livestrong.com)
  • A vitamin allergy will cause mild to severe symptoms shortly after consuming the supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • Your doctor may recommend incorporating foods that contain B-12 to avoid the need for a supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as a dietary supplement. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B12: Dietary supplement fact sheet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The NatureWise Vitamin D3 Supplement packs a healthy, daily dose of vitamin D in its most active form with its easy-to-swallow softgels. (wwd.com)
  • Containing 5,000 IU of vitamin D3 and organic olive oil, this supplement is essential for healthy bones, teeth and muscles in addition to maintaining immune health. (wwd.com)
  • Delivering what is considered to be a healthy daily dose of vitamin D3 for adults, the Pure Encapsulations Vitamin D3 Supplement is a high-quality‚ hypo-allergenic dietary supplement that supports bone strength, heart health and digestive health. (wwd.com)
  • With 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per serving, the HUM Nutrition Here Comes The Sun Supplement delivers a potent dose of vitamin D while supporting bone strength, muscle retention, heart health and the immune system. (wwd.com)
  • Stocked with a 250-day supply of softgels, the Nature Made Vitamin D3 Supplement contains 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 and promotes healthier bone, teeth and muscles in addition to supporting your immune health. (wwd.com)
  • The MegaFood Vitamin D3 Supplement helps maintain healthy bones, hormones and immune function thanks to its 2,000-IU tablets. (wwd.com)
  • The vitamin is also available for purchase in the supplement sections of pharmacies, such as CVS Pharmacy. (reference.com)
  • Should Vegans Take a Vitamin B 12 Supplement? (vegan.com)
  • One of the great annoyances of being vegan is that you will sometimes encounter other vegans who insist that there's no need to take a B 12 supplement. (vegan.com)
  • You have probably heard that vegetarians and vegans should supplement with Vitamin B-12. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient in the body and one of the easiest to take in supplement offer. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is available in supplement. (nutritionreview.org)
  • e Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound vitamin B12, for adults over 50 years old it is advisable for most of this amount to be obtained by consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12 or a vitamin B12-containng supplement. (nap.edu)
  • Because 10â 30 percent of older people may be unable to absorb naturally occurring vitamin B12, most likely due to atrophic gastritis, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their needs mainly by consuming foods forti- fied with vitamin B12 or by taking a supplement that contains it. (nap.edu)
  • Vita B-12 is a nutritional supplement that supplies a concentrated source of Vitamin B12. (drsfostersmith.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is a supplement that supports cellular health and nervous system function, promotes good muscle tone, and supports healthy growth in pigeons, poultry, and dogs. (jedds.com)
  • Convenient, pre-measured electrolyte and vitamin supplement packets that mix into one gallon of drinking water to support hydration and bird health during periods of hot weather or other stress. (jedds.com)
  • A water soluble premix of vitamins and electrolytes formulated to be a nutrient supplement for use in all poultry, swine, ruminants and horses. (jedds.com)
  • No. 1 pharmacist recommended vitamin & supplement brand. (vons.com)
  • Vegans or individuals who eat very little foods of animal origin can take vitamin B-12 as a dietary supplement or eat vitamin-fortified cereal. (verywell.com)
  • 0.10) except for collagen concentrations and shear force measurements in the longissimus lumborum muscle, which had a tendency to be decreased (P£0.06) by the vitamin supplement. (gc.ca)
  • Of all the nutrients that vegans must pay attention to, Vitamin B 12 is at the very top of the list. (vegan.com)
  • It's because back in the 1980s and 1990s several prominent vegan advocacy books came out that downplayed the need for vegans to take B 12 . (vegan.com)
  • There are all sorts of ludicrous arguments asserting that vegans don't need B 12 . (vegan.com)
  • For most vegans, it's therefore much easier and more reliable to simply buy a bottle of vegan B 12 lozenges. (vegan.com)
  • One example of why cholesterol is not the major factor in heart disease is seen in vegans who have low blood fats but have vascular disease due to B-12 deficiency. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Vegetarians and vegans who don't get B-12 from food. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Jack Norris, a Registered Dietitian (RD) and a cofounder of Vegan Outreach in his Daily Recommendations For Vegans recommends 25 - 100 micrograms of vitamin b-12 in lozenge daily. (veganbodybuilding.com)
  • Because the absorbed vitamin is secreted in bile and subsequently reabsorbed, deficiency symptoms can take 20 years to develop from low intakes, e.g., in strict vegetarians. (eagle-min.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is mostly found in vegetarians. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • It is important for everyone, but especially for vegetarians and seniors who tend to be lacking in B-12. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • However, if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, you might be prone to deficiency because plant foods don't contain vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Woman's Doctor: What food sources contain vitamin B-12? (wbaltv.com)
  • Only animal-based foods, or supplemented vegan foods, contain Vitamin B 12 . (vegan.com)
  • vitamin B-12 is released and binds with intrinsic factor, which is secreted by gastric parietal cells. (bmj.com)
  • However if you have chronic alcoholism, or vitamin B-12 intrinsic factor-than eating all of the correct foods may not be enough to prevent it. (hubpages.com)
  • Intrinsic factor (IF), a protein secreted in the stomach, joins B-12 and safely transports it past the protein-digesting enzymes that would otherwise destroy the vitamin. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Individuals who have pernicious anemia can't absorb enough vitamin B-12 because they don't produce enough of a substance called intrinsic factor, which is essential for vitamin B-12 to be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine. (verywell.com)
  • In the United States (U.S.), between 1.5 and 15 percent of the population are currently diagnosed with vitamin B-12 deficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • VeganSafe B-12 is a certified organic blend of methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, the two most bioactive forms of vitamin B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • The new study applied that technique to see where different forms of vitamin B-12 exist in the open ocean. (washington.edu)
  • Instead, two biochemical abnormalities, each heavily involved in ME/CFS/FM and other multi system diseases, are both related to forms of vitamin B-12 deficiency. (prohealth.com)
  • The recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for adults is 2.4 micrograms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking vitamin B-12 with vitamin C might reduce the available amount of vitamin B-12 in your body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. (wur.nl)
  • Health Tip: Are You Deficient in Vitamin B-12? (celiac.com)
  • People with digestive issues may also be deficient in Vitamin B-12. (puritan.com)
  • According to a program I heard yesterday, roughly 16% of Americans are deficient in Vitamin B 12 . (physicsforums.com)
  • A sluggish thyroid, or hypothyroidism, may cause you to be deficient in vitamin B-12, and the resulting vitamin B-12 deficiency can further exacerbate the slow thyroid or negatively affect energy. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • The Institute of Medicine recommends that men and women over the age of 18 years get at least 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B-12 each day. (livestrong.com)
  • For example, each 10 additional milligrams of vitamin B-6 and 10 additional micrograms of vitamin B-12 were associated with 2% lower odds of depressive symptoms per year. (nih.gov)
  • There's no solid evidence that vitamin B-12 injections aid weight loss. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Hi, actually there is no evidence that vitamin B-12 in any form stimulates weight loss. (steadyhealth.com)
  • This page contains information on Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg Injection information published above. (drugs.com)
  • Each Vitamin B-12 5000 mcg. (vitaminworld.com)
  • VeganSafe B-12 is a certified organic, vegan formula that contains methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, the two most bioactive forms of B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Methylcobalamin - the most active form of vitamin B-12, is a required nutrient in the Methylation Cycle. (prohealth.com)
  • Your doctor might also test your vitamin B-12 levels if you have high serum folate levels. (healthline.com)
  • High serum folate levels may mask vitamin B-12 deficiency and worsen the symptoms, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (healthline.com)
  • Why don't you first check with them to see if they had also recently ordered a CBC-(Complete Blood Count), which includes a comprehensive test that gives your total levels of serum B-12. (hubpages.com)
  • The requirements for vitamin B12 are based on the amount needed to main- tain hematological status and normal serum vitamin B12 values. (nap.edu)
  • The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3-165.5). (mdpi.com)
  • These two vitamin D metabolites (called 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D) are measured in serum to determine a person's vitamin D status. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is crucial to the normal function of the brain and the nervous system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a known cause of central and peripheral nervous system damage. (mercola.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is also important for proper red blood cell formation and normal function of the nervous system. (ralphs.com)
  • People take Vitamin B12 to help support energy levels and the nervous system. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Taking B-12 every day helps keep your nervous system working efficiently. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is essential for the normal formation of blood cells, contributes to the health of the nervous system, and helps maintain circulatory health. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 - This vitamin is considered essential to the proper functioning of blood cells, brain, nervous system and the heart. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Vitamin B-6 - This vitamin helps your body absorb Vitamin B-12, and is considered essential for normal brain development and a healthy nervous system. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a vital nutrient that supports normal energy levels, cardiovascular health, and the nervous system. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • B-12 also helps your nervous system function as it should. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • B-12 is good for healthy production and a healthy nervous system. (influenster.com)
  • Walking energizes the nervous system the same way b-12 does. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia). (uhhospitals.org)
  • This type of B-12 deficiency anemia is called pernicious anemia. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 injections are commonly prescribed to help prevent or treat pernicious anemia and B-12 deficiency. (mayoclinic.org)
  • liver, certain fish and cheeses for example, to name a few of many, are really essential in maintaining health and avoiding pernicious anemia, which can also be a direct result of a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (hubpages.com)
  • A deficiency of vitamin B-12 can result in a potentially fatal form of anemia called pernicious anemia. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Intramuscular injections of 100 g are usually given once/month to individuals who cannot absorb the vitamin through their intestine because of pernicious anemia or other problems. (eagle-min.com)
  • People who have pernicious anemia may have low B-12 levels because this condition prevents them from absorbing B-12. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, a fatigue ridden condition where red blood cells don't develop properly and can't carry oxygen efficiently. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. (definitions.net)
  • Vitamin B-12 is required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine which is processed by enzymes. (medindia.net)
  • B-12 works to activate certain enzymes in the body that breaks down nutrients, making them available for your body's energy metabolism. (vitaminworld.com)
  • B-12 works in conjunction with important enzymes in the body. (vitaminworld.com)
  • B-Complex is a true synergy of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, coenzymes and trace minerals. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Vitamin B-12-depende enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. (epfl.ch)
  • Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, compounds used by enzymes that contain vitamin B12, accumulate in the blood in patients who are vitamin B12 deficient. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For use in vitamin B-12 deficiency associated with cobalt deficiency in cattle and sheep and for vitamin B-12 deficiency associated with inadequate vitamin B-12 intake or intestinal malabsorption in swine and horses. (drugs.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 Malabsorption Syndrome-An Often Misdiagnosed Medical Condition. (hubpages.com)
  • Eating a variety of foods high in vitamin B-12 can in itself help prevent B-12 malabsorption syndrome. (hubpages.com)
  • In the elderly, atrophic gastritis is commonly associated with vitamin B-12 malabsorption and deficiency. (eagle-min.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency may be common in AIDS and also in developing countries, probably due to malabsorption combined with low intakes. (eagle-min.com)
  • People who have been diagnosed with a vitamin B12 deficiency due to malabsorption may be given regular vitamin B-12 shots, which eliminate the need to absorb the vitamin through the small intestine, but in some cases taking the vitamin in a pill form may work. (verywell.com)
  • Excessive intake of vitamin B-12 has not demonstrated toxic or harmful qualities. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • quicklist: 4 category: Foods With More Vitamin C Than Oranges title: Kale url: text: In addition to twice your recommended daily intake of vitamin A and seven times the recommended amount of vitamin K, a one-cup serving of kale provides 80.4 mg of vitamin C. The nutrition powerhouse also delivers a sizeable dose of minerals and fatty acids. (go.com)
  • If you are concerned about your Vitamin B-12 intake, it should be discussed with your personal healthcare provider. (puritan.com)
  • British health officials now recommend people spend 15 minutes outside during peak sun hours three times a week to prevent vitamin D deficiency, as sunlight is responsible for 90 percent of our vitamin D intake. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • To encourage both to be at their best, pay special attention to thyroid gland health and vitamin B-12 intake. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Infant need for vitamin D can be met by synthesis in the skin when exposed to appropriate ultraviolet B wavelengths and by sufficient vitamin D intake, either from breast milk or other dietary sources [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The recommended intake (RI) of vitamin D is 10 μg (400 IU) for infants and children from six months of age according to Nordic nutrition recommendations [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This is the reason why an insufficient vitamin B(12) status in the elderly is rarely due to low dietary intake. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. (wur.nl)
  • I take a coenzyme B-complex, made by Country Life and sold at Vitamin Cottage. (cancer.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is a particularly important coenzyme that is required for the proper synthesis of DNA which controls the healthy formation of new cells throughout the body. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Biotin - This coenzyme and B vitamin helps support the health of the nerves, skin, nails, digestive system, and cells. (wonderlabs.com)
  • The B-12 coenzyme deoxyadenosylcobalamin catalyzes amino and fatty acid breakdown. (eagle-min.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. (bmj.com)
  • Dokal I S , Cox T M , Galton D A . Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency presenting as leukaemia. (bmj.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur together and can be hard to tell apart. (uhhospitals.org)
  • These substances can build up in your body if you have a B-12 or folate deficiency. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 injections or nasal spray might be prescribed to treat vitamin B-12 deficiency. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 injections for weight loss: Do they work? (mayoclinic.org)
  • Are vitamin B-12 injections helpful for weight loss? (mayoclinic.org)
  • Some weight-loss clinics offer vitamin B-12 injections as part of their weight-loss programs. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Proponents of vitamin B-12 injections say the shots give you more energy and boost your metabolism, helping you shed unwanted pounds. (mayoclinic.org)
  • But unless you have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, vitamin B-12 injections aren't likely to give you an energy boost. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Getting large amounts of vitamin B-12 through vitamin B-12 injections isn't likely to harm your health. (mayoclinic.org)
  • But vitamin B-12 can interfere with the effectiveness of some medications, so if you receive vitamin B-12 injections, be sure to let your doctor know. (mayoclinic.org)
  • How often should you get Vitamin B12 injections? (reference.com)
  • Does your pain doctor give you vitamin B-12 injections at your monthly appointments? (dailystrength.org)
  • Hi Doug, Vitamin B injections ar awesome and too bad they don't last a week or even a month! (dailystrength.org)
  • Hi, I have heard of vitamin B12 injections being effective in weight loss program. (steadyhealth.com)
  • i found out 3 days ago my b-12 level was 170 so i been getting injections once a day for a week and then it will go to once a week for a month. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Most people get enough vitamin B-12 from a balanced diet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most men aren't going to find it challenging to get enough B-12 unless they're vegan or vegetarian, however it's still an important vitamin and a key part of a well balanced diet. (howstuffworks.com)
  • From the FDA's website: "As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 can be found naturally in animal products, such as fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Food sources of vitamin B-12 include poultry, meat, fish and dairy products. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins and is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products. (mercola.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble B complex vitamin found naturally in a variety of foods, including meat, fish and dairy products. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Obtained through exposure to sunlight and a diet rich in eggs yolks, oily fish, red meat and liver, vitamin D is also responsible for supporting heart health in addition to healthy immune and digestive systems by aiding in the efficient functioning of the cells. (wwd.com)
  • Foods commonly fortified with B 12 include non-dairy milks, cereals, meat substitutes, energy bars, and nutritional yeast. (vegan.com)
  • B-12 is abundant in meat, especially salmon and tuna, as well as in eggs and cheese. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is found in foods like meat, fish and dairy. (wonderlabs.com)
  • In the elderly, it's probably because they don't secrete enough stomach acid to separate the vitamin from the meat proteins that tightly bind it. (physicsforums.com)
  • vitamin B12 is in more places than meat. (physicsforums.com)
  • B-12 is found in fortified cereals and animal products like fish, meat, eggs, and dairy. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Older adults, people who consume excess alcohol, and people who have had bariatric surgery may have trouble absorbing Vitamin B-12 properly. (puritan.com)
  • Looking to get the benefits of Vitamin B-12 in a convenient form? (vitaminworld.com)
  • One of the main benefits of Vitamin B-12 is that it supports energy metabolism. (puritan.com)
  • What are the symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia? (uhhospitals.org)
  • The symptoms of vitamin B-12 anemia may look like other blood conditions or health problems. (uhhospitals.org)
  • And despite all of the correct things you are doing good and putting into your body, you still may find that when your Complete Blood Count is reviewed by your physician, that it is apparent to him/her that you still are plagued and have all the signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency. (hubpages.com)
  • In the U.S., the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that teens and adults over the age of 14 years should consume 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin B-12 a day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Red peppers are also a great source of vitamin A, which promotes eye health. (go.com)
  • quicklist: 7 category: Foods With More Vitamin C Than Oranges title: Strawberries url: text: A cup of this superfruit contains 84.7 mg of vitamin C, plus healthy doses of folate and other compounds shown to promote heart health . (go.com)
  • 12 Foods with More Vitamin C Than Oranges originally appeared on Health.com. (go.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is an important vitamin for many bodily functions, such as brain health, blood cell production, and proper nerve functioning. (healthline.com)
  • Between 1.5 and 15 percent of Americans have low levels of vitamin B-12, according to the National Institutes of Health . (healthline.com)
  • If a breast-feeding mother has low levels of B-12, her infant is at increased risk for neurological damage and developmental problems, according to Harvard Health Publications . (healthline.com)
  • Healthy vitamin B-12 levels also promote the health of your blood cells, including platelets. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for good health, explains aesthetic doctor and educator in cosmetic dermatology Dr. Amiee Vyas . (harpersbazaar.com)
  • The body uses vitamin B12 to create DNA and keep blood and nerve cells healthy, according to the National Institutes of Health. (reference.com)
  • The findings present more evidence of the importance of adequate vitamin D status in the elderly for cardiovascular benefits as well as bone health. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health in the United States recommends that people over the age of 14 should consume 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of Vitamin B-12 per day. (puritan.com)
  • Vitamin D is a key ingredient in our health, and covering our bodies with toxic crap to block out what is natural and has been around for millions of years is just silly to me. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • It's been longstanding medical advice that aging people focus on getting enough calcium and vitamin D to preserve their bone health as they age. (ksla.com)
  • B-12 is the catalyst for red blood cell production, DNA synthesis, protein conversion, neurological function, [ 5 ] fatty acid synthesis, [ 6 ] and nerve health. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • We are sure you will see and feel the health benefits of VeganSafe B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Vitamin D is a key nutrient for children's well-being and growth, is essential for bone health [ 1 ] and may contribute to other health benefits [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is very important for our normal health for both infants and adults . (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • If there is a deficiency in vitamin D it very much increases the major health problems in your life. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Now let us discuss the major symptoms of deficiency of vitamin D. First let us discuss the major health problems in case of the children. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • The combination of high blood folate and normal vitamin B12 status is actually beneficial to health. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Vitamin B-12 - ME/CFS/FM Connection: A Key to Improved Health for Many? (prohealth.com)
  • Research shows that a connection between ME/CFS/FM, Lyme disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS), and Gulf War Syndrome - and an equally complicated and misunderstood vitamin - may be a key to improved health for many sufferers. (prohealth.com)
  • Research has shown that the connection between CFS, Fibromyalgia, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Syndrome & Gulf War Syndrome and vitamin B-12 may be the key to improved health for people with these illnesses. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • The Health and Medicine Division of National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine determines the dietary reference intakes for vitamins and minerals. (verywell.com)
  • If you think you might have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, you need to see a health care provider who can determine if you have a vitamin B-12 deficiency by ordering special blood tests. (verywell.com)
  • Yet reaping the benefits of vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid), is not quite as easy as slathering on a cream and waiting eagerly for your radiance revival. (harpersbazaar.com)
  • Dr. Vyas recommends looking for products in airtight, opaque packaging (not a glass bottle with a pipette) and containing ascorbic acid (often referred to as L-ascorbic acid), which is generally the most effective form of vitamin C to apply topically to the skin. (harpersbazaar.com)
  • That's because the liver often stores comparatively large amounts of B 12 . (vegan.com)
  • In previous research, Heal developed a method for measuring trace amounts of B-12 in seawater that can distinguish between similar molecules. (washington.edu)
  • Dermera Skin Vitamins are formulated to nourish your skin from the inside out with a unique blend of bioactive vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. (hairfinity.com)
  • If you eat an all vegetarian or vegan diet, vitamin B12 is one of the nutrients your body is most likely deficient in. (mercola.com)
  • Reading the nutrition labels of foods reveals whether a particular product is fortified with vitamin B12 or other nutrients. (reference.com)
  • Our top selling Vitamin B-12 helps to convert the nutrients from foods into fuel for the body. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Give your skin the nutrients it needs with Dermera Skin Vitamins. (hairfinity.com)
  • In the oceans, marine organisms rely on nutrients, too, but the source of their vitamins is sometimes mysterious. (washington.edu)
  • This test measures both vitamin B-12 and folate, but either of these nutrients can be measured separately in different lab tests. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Found in foods such as oatmeal and soy, Biotin, a water-soluble B vitamin, assists in energy metabolism in cells. (puritan.com)
  • Adenosylcobalamin (dibencozide) - another active form of vitamin B-12, is essential for energy metabolism, normal myelin sheath formation, and nucleoprotein synthesis. (prohealth.com)
  • Liquid Vitamin B-12 5,000 mcg provided by Protocol for Life Balance contains only 10 calories in each teaspoon serving! (evitamins.com)
  • Your body doesn't naturally produce vitamin B-12. (healthline.com)
  • Clams and beef liver are among the richest dietary sources of the vitamin, while poultry, eggs, milk and other meats also naturally supply B12. (reference.com)
  • There are also many foods on the market that do not naturally contain B12 but are fortified with the vitamin, such as certain breakfast cereals. (reference.com)
  • B-12 naturally decreases as you age, so it's important for people of every age to keep levels up. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Refined foods do have vitamins added but they are synthetic vitamins and not the naturally-found complete complex, thus they actually cause a drain on the B-Complex needs of the body. (universitynaturalmedicine.org)
  • Each naturally calming insert provides 30 IU of vitamin E from natural sources. (astronutrition.com)
  • The vitamin B-12 found naturally in food is bound to proteins. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Few common foods are naturally rich in vitamin D [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is naturally obtained from sunlight. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is found naturally in meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy products-foods that are high in protein. (verywell.com)
  • Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D. In the U.S. and other countries, cow's milk and plant-derived milk substitutes are fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 participates in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. (prohealth.com)
  • An essential nutrient, vitamin B-12 has a number of physiological roles in your body, including a role in nerve function and cell growth. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is intended to provide nutritive support for healthy metabolism, nerve function, and red blood cells. (vitacost.com)
  • B-12 is essential for maintaining nerve cells, which is important for relaying messages from the brain to all the cells of the body. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Additionally, vitamin B12 prevents nerve damage by contributing to the formation of the myelin sheath that insulates nerve cells. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Vitamin B-12 is required for manufacture of red blood cells, the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cells, and DNA. (prohealth.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 is crucial for the production of red blood cells, the myelin sheath around nerve cells and DNA. (fightingfatigue.org)
  • It's required for normal function of nerve cells, DNA production and your body need vitamin B-12 to make an adequate number of blood cells. (verywell.com)
  • In at least a couple cases, the vegan authors contributing to B 12 complacency went back to eating animal products. (vegan.com)
  • The one thing you should care about when choosing a vegan B 12 brand is bang for the buck. (vegan.com)
  • A one-cup serving packs 17 grams of vegan protein and 12 grams of fiber. (dailyburn.com)
  • According to the OP 16% of Americans have a vitamin B12 deficiency, however: only ±0.5% of Americans are vegan. (physicsforums.com)
  • Although daily B-12 requirements are fairly low (just 2.4 micrograms for teenagers and adults [ 4 ] ), it plays a crucial role in metabolic and cellular processes. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • On the other hand you may be consuming just the right combinations of green leafy vegetables, eggs, whole milk and other dairy products and maybe even raw oysters-another delicacy that is very high in vitamin B12. (hubpages.com)
  • Ovolactovegetarians will get vitamin B-12 from eggs or dairy products. (verywell.com)
  • The RDA for vitamin B12 is 2 micrograms for adults, 2.2 micrograms for pregnant women, and 2.6 micrograms for nursing mothers. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Adults and children 12 or more years of age. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Adults who are deficient in vitamin D become weak easier than other people. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Osteomalacia is the softening of bones caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D in adults. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • In a study of adults aged 20 and over, researchers at Tufts University showed that homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We examined whether dietary intakes of vitamins B-6, folate, or vitamin B-12 were predictive of depressive symptoms over an average of 7.2 y in a community-based population of older adults. (nih.gov)
  • Our results support the hypotheses that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. (nih.gov)
  • A B-12 deficiency may result when you either don't consume enough B-12 or your body doesn't absorb enough B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • Some conditions may also affect your body's ability to absorb B-12. (healthline.com)
  • Deficiency can result when levels of vitamin B-12 are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The production of red blood cells reduces if vitamin B-12 levels are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vitamin B-12, in combination with vitamin B-6 and folate (vitamin B-9), has been shown to control high levels of homocysteine in the blood. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are several ways to test your B-12 levels. (healthline.com)
  • Research suggests that MMA and holoTC may be more accurate at reading low B-12 levels because they represent active B-12. (healthline.com)
  • High levels of vitamin B-12 can be a sign of liver disease, certain types of leukemia, or diabetes . (healthline.com)
  • Can vitamin B-12 boost your energy levels? (healthline.com)
  • New mothers who are breastfeeding may want to test their vitamin B-12 levels if they have symptoms or are in the at-risk group above. (healthline.com)
  • This amount will prevent a vitamin B-12 deficiency and therefore help keep platelet levels normal. (livestrong.com)
  • If this approach fails this new study suggests it would be worthwhile to consider a trial of of optimizing your vitamin B12 levels. (mercola.com)
  • Lower vitamin B12 levels are associated with increased rates of double incontinence. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • If you take metformin, talk to your doctor about strategies to maintain adequate B-12 levels. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The normal range for vitamin B12 levels is from about 110 to 1,500 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL), according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Additionally, it may be difficult to meet your B 12 needs through fortified foods, since comparatively few products are fortified, and B 12 fortification of foods is often at low levels. (vegan.com)
  • Vitamin B-12 also helps maintain cellular energy levels by converting food into energy. (puritan.com)
  • You can manage your B-12 levels by eating a nutritious diet, supplementing when necessary, and speaking with your physician when you have concerns. (puritan.com)
  • When it comes to packing in super-high levels of multiple B vitamins, salmon is the crown jewel. (dailyburn.com)
  • There are no known toxic levels of B-12. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Timed release vitamin B-12 supporting increased energy levels and healthy heart and gums. (wonderlabs.com)
  • High levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate predicted fracture, whereas vitamin B12 and genotypes were not related to fracture risk. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate fracture risk according to levels of plasma tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 and for different genotypes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The association between tHcy and risk of hip fracture was only slightly weakened by adjustments for plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This test measures the levels of vitamin B-12 (or B12) and folate in your blood. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • B-12 stimulates your energy levels. (steadyhealth.com)