Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Irradiation directly from the sun.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A disease that results from a congenital defect in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV. Defects in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

Perspectives from micronutrient malnutrition elimination/eradication programmes. (1/904)

Micronutrient malnutrition cannot be eradicated, but the elimination and control of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies and their health-related consequences as public health problems are currently the targets of global programmes. Remarkable progress is occurring in the control of goitre and xerophthalmia, but iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) has been less responsive to prevention and control efforts. Subclinical consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. "hidden hunger", include compromised immune functions that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development and growth, and reduced reproductive and work capacity and performance. The implications are obvious for human health and national and global economic and social development. Mixes of affordable interventions are available which, when appropriately adapted to resource availability and context, are proven to be effective. These include both food-based interventions, particularly fortification programmes, such as salt iodization, and use of concentrated micronutrient supplements. A mix of accompanying programmes for infection control, community participation, including education, communication and information exchange, and private sector involvement are lessons learned for overcoming deterrents and sustaining progress towards elimination.  (+info)

Candidate noninfectious disease conditions. (2/904)

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. (3/904)

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

Using cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate targeting strategies: the case of vitamin A supplementation. (4/904)

Given the demonstrated efficacy of vitamin A supplements in reducing childhood mortality, health officials now have to decide whether it would be efficient to target the supplements to high risk children. Decisions about targeting are complex because they depend on a number of factors; the degree of clustering of preventable deaths, the cost of the intervention, the side-effects of the intervention, the cost of identifying the high risk group, and the accuracy of the 'diagnosis' of risk. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used in the Philippines to examine whether vitamin A supplements should be given universally to all children 6-59 months, targeted broadly to children suffering from mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition, or targeted narrowly to pre-schoolers with moderate and severe malnutrition. The first year average cost of the universal approach was US$67.21 per death averted compared to $144.12 and $257.20 for the broad and narrow targeting approaches respectively. When subjected to sensitivity analysis the conclusion about the most cost-effective strategy was robust to changes in underlying assumptions such as the efficacy of supplements, clustering of deaths, and toxicity. Targeting vitamin A supplements to high risk children is not an efficient use of resources. Based on the results of this cost-effectiveness analysis and a consideration of alternate strategies, it is apparent that vitamin A, like immunization, should be provided to all pre-schoolers in the developing world. Issues about targeting public health interventions can usefully be addressed by cost-effectiveness analysis.  (+info)

Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding protein. (5/904)

BACKGROUND: Two German sisters aged 14 and 17 y were admitted to the Tubingen eye hospital with a history of night blindness. In both siblings, plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations were below the limit of detection (<0.6 micromol/L) and plasma retinol concentrations were extremely low (0.19 micromol/L). Interestingly, intestinal absorption of retinyl esters was normal. In addition, other factors associated with low retinol concentrations (eg, low plasma transthyretin or zinc concentrations or mutations in the transthyretin gene) were not present. Neither sibling had a history of systemic disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the cause of the retinol deficiency in these 2 siblings. DESIGN: The 2 siblings and their mother were examined clinically, including administration of the relative-dose-response test, DNA sequencing of the RBP gene, and routine laboratory testing. RESULTS: Genomic DNA sequence analysis revealed 2 point mutations in the RBP gene: a T-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1282 of exon 3 and a G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1549 of exon 4. These mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions of asparagine for isoleucine at position 41 (Ile41-->Asn) and of aspartate for glycine at position 74 (Gly74-->Asp). Sequence analysis of cloned polymerase chain reaction products spanning exons 3 and 4 showed that these mutations were localized on different alleles. The genetic defect induced severe biochemical vitamin A deficiency but only mild clinical symptoms (night blindness and a modest retinal dystrophy without effects on growth). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the cellular supply of vitamin A to target tissues might be bypassed in these siblings via circulating retinyl esters, beta-carotene, or retinoic acid, thereby maintaining the health of peripheral tissues.  (+info)

Dietary antioxidants and magnesium in type 1 brittle asthma: a case control study. (6/904)

BACKGROUND: Type 1 brittle asthma is a rare form of asthma. Atopy, psychosocial factors and diet may contribute to this condition. As increased dietary magnesium has a beneficial effect on lung function and selenium, vitamins A, C and E have antioxidant properties, a study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients with brittle asthma have diets deficient in these nutrients compared with subjects with non-brittle asthma and healthy adults. METHODS: A case control study of the dietary intakes of 20 subjects with brittle asthma, 20 with non-brittle asthma, and 20 healthy adults was performed using five day weighed dietary records. Intake of magnesium was the primary outcome measure with selenium and vitamins A, C and E as secondary outcomes. Serum levels were measured at the same time as the dietary assessment. RESULTS: Sixty subjects (27 men) of mean age 49.5 years were recruited and completed the study. Subjects with brittle asthma had statistically lower median dietary intakes of vitamins A and E than the other groups (vitamin A: brittle asthma 522.5 micrograms/day, non-brittle asthma 869.5 micrograms/day, healthy adults 806.5 micrograms/day; vitamin E: brittle asthma 4.3 mg/day, non-brittle asthma 4.6 mg/day, healthy adults 4.5 mg/day). Median dietary intakes for the other nutrients were not significantly different between groups. Serum levels were within normal ranges for each nutrient in all subjects. Intakes less than the reference nutrient intake (RNI) for magnesium and vitamins A and C, and less than the safe intake (SI) for vitamin E were more likely in patients with brittle asthma than in those with non-brittle asthma. CONCLUSION: Nutrient deficiency and reduced antioxidant activity may contribute to disease activity in type 1 brittle asthma, although a prospective study of replacement therapy will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.  (+info)

Ocular signs and symptoms and vitamin A status in patients with cystic fibrosis treated with daily vitamin A supplements. (7/904)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may have low plasma vitamin A levels from malabsorption, zinc deficiency, liver disease, or poor compliance with prescribed supplements. In view of the increasing number of adults with CF, many of whom drive cars, it is important to assess vitamin A status. In our centre an attempt has been made to achieve normal levels of fat soluble vitamins by annual estimation of plasma levels and appropriate oral supplementation. This study aimed to determine if this approach prevents vitamin A deficiency and the consequent problems with dark adaptation. METHODS: The study was conducted at the regional adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis unit and the patients were recruited from there. Dark adaptation studies were conducted at the department of ophthalmology, St James's University Hospital. All patients are regularly seen in the outpatient department by a CF specialist dietitian and have a comprehensive annual dietary assessment. 28 patients had the following investigations: serum retinol, plasma zinc, serum retinol binding protein, liver function tests, dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and anterior ocular surface status. 25 age and sex matched controls without CF or ocular pathology were also recruited for the dark adaptation study. RESULTS: None of the patients had vitamin A deficiency, the median value of serum retinol being 48 microg/dl, range 31-80 microg/dl (normal range 30-80 microg/dl). Dark adaptation was normal in all cases compared with the control group where the mean value was 3.4 log units of threshold luminance (95% confidence interval 2.4-4.0). None of the test group had a value of threshold luminance 2 SD above the mean value for the control group. Eight patients had reduced contrast sensitivity. The median value for serum zinc was 14.2 micromol/ l, range 13-81 micromol/l (normal range 8-23 micromol/l) and the median value for retinol binding protein was 36 mg/l, range 13-81 mg/l (normal range 35-58 mg/l). There was no correlation between dark adaptation and serum retinol, zinc, or retinol binding protein. Two patients had clinical evidence of dry eye. CONCLUSION: Regular estimates of plasma vitamin A together with appropriate supplementation and expert dietetic review can maintain normal dark adaptation in patients with cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of reduced contrast sensitivity function is well documented but remains an unexplained phenomenon and deserves further study.  (+info)

Parenteral vitamin requirements during intravenous feeding. (8/904)

Serum vitamin levels of 40 patients undergoing parenteral nutrition over a 5-to 42-day period were studied while the subjects received daily water-soluble and once weekly fat soluble vitamin formulations intravenously. Initial serum deficiencies of vitamins A, C, and folate were noted in a large portion of the severely malnourished population. At the replacement levels used in this study a small number of patients developed subnormal levels of vitamins A and D. Improvement in levels for vitamin C and folate were noted for most patients. Vitamin B12 deficiencies were not noted in any patient. Currently available commercial vitamin preparations can be used with safety in the parenterally nourished population and recommended guidelines for weekly infusion of both water and fat soluble vitamins are presented.  (+info)

TY - GEN. T1 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. AU - Mitchell, C.A.. AU - Thompson, Philip. AU - Ruffin, R.E.. AU - Walters, E.H.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 28(2). SP - 261. BT - Annual Scientific Meeting of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand. A2 - Macdonald, G.. PB - Adis International Ltd. CY - Sydney. T2 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. Y2 - 1 January 1998. ER - ...
Vitamins and minerals are essential to life. They act as cofactors or prosthetic groups for most enzymes, thus making biochemical reactions possible. Some cofactors are transiently associated with a given enzyme and in this capacity they function as cosubstrates. They are also called coenzymes. Besides being cofactors for enzymes some vitamins such as the fat-soluble vitamins A and D have been shown to exhibit hormone-like functions. Thus, vitamin A and its metabolites retinaldehyde and retinoic acids are involved in the growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues as well as for reproduction. Retinoic acids can substitute for vitamin A--deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. As for vitamin D is interesting to note that the skin is both the site of vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 synthesis and a target organ for the latter. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 is essential for mineral homeostasis and bone integrity as well as the regulation of growth and ...
Subjecting tiny babies and our precious children to massive doses of antigens and toxic contents of vaccines, without being vaccinated...
Vitamin A deficiency leads to altered lipid metabolism in the liver. The expression pattern of metabolic genes in vitamin A-sufficient (VAS) versus vitamin A-deficient (VAD) liver was compared using a Mouse Genome Oligo Set Version 3.0 (Qiagen-Operon) 70mer-oligonucleotide array. Results from microarray analysis were analyzed using the GeneSpring bioinformatics program. The microarray results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Mice were made vitamin A deficient by placing them on the modified AIN-93G diet without vitamin A on the tenth day of gestation. Both the differential expression of metabolic genes and the metabolic outcome of this differential expression were assessed. ^ In this study, vitamin A deficiency caused a decrease in expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation, including fatty acid ligase, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and carnitine o-palmitoyl transferase I in the liver. A decrease in the mitochondrial β
Full Text - Objective: The current study evaluated the relationship between circulating fat soluble vitamin status and cognition in aging Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1754 community residents aged 55-80 years aiming to evaluate the relationship between circulating α-tocopherol and retinol status and cognition. The effect of ApoE genetic polymorphism on the relationship between vitamins and cognition was also explored.Results: Our results indicated that serum retinol status positively correlated with cognitive performance; while, serum α-tocopherol (α-TOH)/retinol ratio negatively correlated with cognitive performance. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subject demonstrated higher serum α-TOH status (P < 0.05), α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01) and lower retinol status (P < 0.01) than normal subjects. Subjects with ApoE4 genotype have lower serum retinol level (P < 0.05) and higher α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01)
Golden rice is rich in vitamin A. Rice kernals are deficient of vitamin A ,so people who obtain most of their calories from rice are deficient of vitamin A..
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Vitamin A deficiency, which affects about 100 million young children worldwide, was long known to cause blindness. But it has become increasingly clear that even mild vitamin A deficiency also impairs the immune system, reducing childrens resistance to diarrhoea, which kills 2.2 million children a year, and measles, which kills nearly 1 million annually. And new findings strongly suggest that vitamin A deficiency is a cause of maternal mortality as well, especially among women in impoverished regions (Panel 1).. At its most basic level, malnutrition is a consequence of disease and inadequate dietary intake, which usually occur in a debilitating and often lethal combination. But many more elements -- social, political, economic, cultural -- are involved beyond the physiological.. Discrimination and violence against women are major causes of malnutrition.. Women are the principal providers of nourishment during the most crucial periods of childrens development, but the caring practices vital to ...
There are 17 thirteen-letter words containing A, H, I, M and X: ALEXIPHARMICS EXAMINERSHIPS EXOPHTHALMIAS ... XANTHOCHROMIA XEROPHTHALMIA XEROPHTHALMIC. Every word on this site can be used while playing scrabble. Build other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
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Youve all probably heard the idea that stress causes health problems. Your doctor may have even told you that your health concern(s) exist solely because of stress. In my opinion - thats pretty close to nonsense. Its a great excuse though. Why? Stress doesnt cause poor health. OK, Ill be flexible with you. Severe, unrelenting physical (major accident, etc.), chemical (acute exposure to a massive dose of a toxin, etc.) or emotional ((un)expected death, etc.) stressors can actually cause health problems. Im also willing to say that long-term unresolved stressors can also cause health problems. But then again, its not necessarily the stress thats causing the problem if its that long-term (referring to behavioral patterns). There could be an emotional component to why the long-term stressor has not been resolved. Either way, those instances are fortunately not the norm. With that in mind, I find most of the time its not the stressor that is the problem, its how the body handles the ...
I have gained a bit of weight (yay!! mostly fluids - but there is some real weight in there too we think!), and the massive doses of IV steroids they had to use to treat the allergic reactions (basically it would start as a few red marks around the dressing, and within hours I was completely covered in hives and my mouth was going numb - it was dramatic!!) have actually stirred my gut up a bit and Ive been able to tolerate some tube feeds, and some oral food! Nowhere near enough to go off TPN or even really cut back much, and I cannot drink enough to stay hydrated, but its a very small improvement - after nothing but decline, a very small improvement is welcome ...
Well kids, I am very tired today, due to a massive dose of antihistamines the last couple of days. Dont ask. Anyway since utenzi tagged me, I will try to think of a few movies for you to munch on, in semi-chronological order of when I saw them and liked them. I dont necessarily still like all of these as much as I did then, not by a long shot. And Im sure some anal-retentive person will correct me if I list them in the wrong order of when they were made ...
Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning of rat cytochrome P450RAI (CYP26) cDNA and regulation of its gene expression by all-trans-retinoic acid in vivo. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - Zolfaghari, R.. AU - Catharine, Ross A.. PY - 2002/5/15. Y1 - 2002/5/15. N2 - A novel retinoic acid (RA)-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450 RAI or CYP26), previously cloned from human, zebra fish, and mouse, functions in the metabolism of all-trans-RA to polar metabolites including 4-hydroxy-RA and 4-oxo-RA. To further study CYP26 in the rat model, we first cloned rat CYP26 cDNA. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 497-amino-acid protein whose sequence is 95% identical to mouse and 91% homologous to human CYP26. Animal studies showed that CYP26 mRNA expression is very low (0.01 ± 0.008; P , 0.05) in vitamin-A-deficient rats compared to pair-fed vitamin-A-sufficient rats (defined as 1.0). In a kinetic study, vitamin-A-deficient rats were treated with ∼ 100 μg of all-trans-RA and liver was collected after 3-72 h for analysis of CYP26 mRNA by ...
This blinded randomised trial has shown that oral supplementation of vitamin A in a dose of 5000 IU/day did result in an increase in plasma retinol concentrations but did not decrease the incidence of CLD in preterm infants of less than 1000 g birth weight. In addition, mortality and the incidence of other complications such as ROP, IVH, NEC, and PDA were unaffected by vitamin A supplementation. The results of this study of oral supplementation are in contrast with previous studies, which used intramuscular supplementation of vitamin A and showed a significant decrease in the incidence of oxygen dependency at 1 month of age and/or death.6-12 Although most of these studies were performed before the routine use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant, the most recent study was performed after the introduction of these important interventions, which may influence the incidence of CLD.6 This study is the first randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation, and it has been ...
Hi everyone! This is Jeffery Smith and Im reporting on the news development that the Department of Agriculture in the Philippines has approved genetically engineered golden rice to be, As safe as conventional rice. . What a disaster this is! This is incredible! Now, a lot of people think that golden rice is the example of why we should be allowing genetically engineered foods into the diet because its designed to provide vitamin A for vitamin A-deficient children who are suffering from blindness and death. On the cover of TIME magazine, they say This rise could save the lives and health of, you know, thousands or millions of children each year. Well, this is all false hype. Lets go through this and find out the truth behind GE golden rice. First of all, rice is a staple in parts of Asia and other places. So we are considering genetically engineering something that will be eaten three times a day. If theres any health issue associated with it, it could be a disaster. Now, the Philippines ...
As a result, the edible part of rice grains consists of the endosperm, filled with starch granules and protein bodies, but it lacks several essential nutrients for the maintenance of health, such as carotenoid… a) Insect resistance b) High protein content c) High vitamin A content d) High lysine content Answer: c) High vitamin A content 2. Answer: (a) RNAi only 46 Over the years the contribution of agriculture to Indian GDP is . (a) acidic pH of stomach (d) To produce useful biological products In which of the following states, is rice … Rice is a subsistence crop in Orissa. Some topics that you will be assessed on include the nutrients in golden rice and the problems associated with vitamin A deficiency. (b) Oryza Golden rice is a new variety of rice which has very high Vitamin A content. #Golden rice is rich in (a) Vit.C (b) Vit.D (c) Vit.E (d) Vit.A #More for Less slogan of SRI belongs to which state (a) Tripura (b) Nagaland (c) Punjab (d) Tamil Nadu. Biological and Biomedical Rice is ...
The results of various studies show severe Vitamin D deficiency across India and Pakistan in all age groups, as well as insufficiency in populations of South-East and East Asia.
Vitamin A palmitate 1.5MIU/g is the Corrective Vitamin otherwise known as Retinol Palmitate or Retinyl Palmitate. Retinyl palmitate can be used as an additive in skin care formulations or can be applied directly onto the skin. After its absorption into the skin, retinyl palmitate is converted to retinol, and ultimately to retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A present in Retin-A). Only retinoids such as retinoic acid have a direct effect on skin and can adjust to help the skin achieve a more youthful look.. ...
The third goal specified in the contract is perhaps the most important. It addresses the important planning question of what we should expect in a new programme in a new setting. The response can be divided into two sub-questions: in what population setting(s) can one expect vitamin A to be effective and what is the range of effect to be expected?. Where is improvement of vitamin A status most likely to affect morbidity and mortality?. The obvious answer to this question is: Where vitamin A deficiency is now a serious problem. For the mortality trials, all of which were conducted in settings where it was assumed vitamin A was a public health problem under the WHO definition, we attempted to ask about population-level predictors of the relative effect. Statistical power was very low for these analyses of the predictors of response (mortality of control group, xerophthalmia, stunting, wasting) since study was the unit of analysis (n = 8). Individual-level data might have uncovered more subtle ...
Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women and 51 men) were available. BMC and BMD were ...
The World Health Organization estimates that Vitamin A deficiency causes 500,000 cases of child blindness a year, and 6,000 deaths. Five years ago, it was claimed that genetic engineering could help solve this problem with
Retinol. Molecular model of the diterpenoid alcohol retinol (C20.H30.O), one of the forms of vitamin A. This chemical, when converted to the retinal form, is vital to the functioning of the eyes retina. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). Illustration. - Stock Image F017/0736
Im not totally against Jamies desire to shift people towards a more wholesome diet, but his demonisation of sugar in drinks whilst continuing to sell sweet desserts ironically leaves me with a bitter taste in my mouth. As Ive stated before, sugar is neither toxic (unless consumed in massive doses, which applies to most substances) or addictive. It is essential, (especially for brain function it would appear) and pretty disgusting if consumed alone (take the sugar challenge and see how many spoonfuls of table sugar you want to consume). I admit that when food processors get their hands on sugar and fat they are able to induce sometimes uncontrollable cravings, but as a chef surely that is Jamies role? To create dishes that entice our tastebuds and leave us desiring more ...
Im not totally against Jamies desire to shift people towards a more wholesome diet, but his demonisation of sugar in drinks whilst continuing to sell sweet desserts ironically leaves me with a bitter taste in my mouth. As Ive stated before, sugar is neither toxic (unless consumed in massive doses, which applies to most substances) or addictive. It is essential, (especially for brain function it would appear) and pretty disgusting if consumed alone (take the sugar challenge and see how many spoonfuls of table sugar you want to consume). I admit that when food processors get their hands on sugar and fat they are able to induce sometimes uncontrollable cravings, but as a chef surely that is Jamies role? To create dishes that entice our tastebuds and leave us desiring more ...
Ophthalmic compositions having negligible side effects on the heart can be obtained by using as the active ingredient an adrenergic β receptor agonist having a high selectivity toward adrenergic β2 receptor. These compositions are usable as preventives or therapeutics for xerophthalmic disorder and keratoconjunctival disorder.
Material Weakness or Significant Deficiency. The difference between a material weakness and a significant deficiency is simply that a significant deficiency is less severe. A significant deficiency is, however, still risky enough for the auditor to let management know so that they may have a chance to get rid of the problem.
Augstas kvalitātes koronāro un perifēro asinsvadu stenti, balonkatetri, vadītājstīgas, kā arī plašs papildierīču klāsts invazīvai kardioloģijai un radioloģijai. ...
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Vitamin A-deficient (A-) mice make strikingly poor IgG responses when they are immunized with purified protein antigens. Previously, we showed that A- T cells overproduce interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which then could inhibit interleukin 4 (IL-4)-stimulated B cell IgG responses. To determine if the altered IFN-gamma regulation pattern and its immunological consequences would extend to a natural infection, we studied mice infected with the parasitic helminth Trichinella spiralis. The course of the infection was similar in A- and A-sufficient (A+) mice. These mice did not differ with respect to newborn larvae/female/hour produced in the intestine, or muscle larvae burden 5 wk postinfection. They also did not differ in the intestinal worm expulsion rate until day 15, when A- mice still harbored parasites, whereas A+ mice had cleared intestinal worms. Vitamin A deficiency reduced both the frequency of B lymphocytes secreting IgG1 antibodies to parasite antigens, and the bone marrow eosinophilia ...
Degradation of beta-carotene during storage is a problem that may prove even more troublesome for the proposed nutritional benefits of Golden Rice than its initial low levels.. Unnoticed by the media, a 2017 paper published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported that the beta-carotene content of Golden Rice GR2E at harvest is short-lived (Schaub et al. 2017).. This study found Golden Rice retained only 60% of its original beta-carotene levels after 3 weeks of storage and just 13% after 10 weeks.. The apparent explanation is that the beta-carotene in Golden Rice is unstable in the presence of oxygen. Thus, under normal storage conditions, the beta-carotene in Golden Rice grains will rapidly degrade.. Under tropical farming, storage, and household conditions, degradation may be faster still.. In any event, the low levels and rapid degradation of beta-carotene measured in Golden Rice GR2E seem a significant blow to the likelihood that Golden Rice will fulfill expectations. That ...
If these strategies do not work, poor vitamin A status should be considered a possible explanation. This interpretation is strengthened if you have poor night vision (for example, if you strain your eyes or have trouble seeing when driving down an unlit road with your headlights alone but can see fine without any eyestrain during the day) or dry eyes. This interpretation is also strengthened if you have serum retinol near or below the bottom of the reference range, or if you track your vitamin A intake and your daily average is below the RDA.. It is important to note that any of these additional pieces of evidence strengthen the interpretation of poor vitamin A status, but their absence does not rule it out. If circadian rhythm disruption is more sensitive to deficiency than night blindness, then it may occur in the absence of other clinical signs, at serum retinol concentrations within the reference range, and at vitamin A intakes above the RDA.. The best way to ensure basic adequacy of vitamin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhea. AU - Alvarez, J. O.. AU - Salazar-Lindo, E.. AU - Kohatsu, J.. AU - Miranda, P.. AU - Stephensen, C. B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Acute infections of childhood are associated with an increased rate of xerophthalmia, apparently due to depletion of vitamin A stores. The mechanism responsible for this is not known. Recently, it has been reported that severe infections in adult patients (ie, sepsis and pneumonia) result in excretion of large quantities of retinol in the urine. In 44 children hospitalized for treatment of acute diarrhea we found mean urinary excretions of 1.44 μmol retinol/24 h on day 1 of hospitalization, 0.62 μmol retinol/24 h on day 2, and 0.23 μmol/24 h on day 3. Healthy control subjects matched for age did not excrete measurable amounts of retinol in the urine. Retinol excretion was associated strongly with rotavirus diarrhea and presence of fever. Furthermore, serum retinol concentration was ...
Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, Instead, they very much. The golden rice case hopefully may help to, the support of the public. And they need Vitamin M, thats Vitamin Money. Investigation of the biochemical properties of immature rice endosperm using [14C]-labelled substrates revealed the presence of geranyl geranyl diphosphate, the C20 general isoprenoid precursor necessary for C40 carotenoid biosynthesis. At that time I was much, tempted to join those who fight patenting. You will argue t, might be able to help solve the problem of vitamin A, Board is chaired by Ingo Potrykus, the co-inventor of golden, further golden rice research and the introduction of golden rice. Each team will be given a list of facts on golden rice. Accordingly you will argue against continued. Critics have countered that the rice is a hoax, that it is fools gold and propaganda for the genetic engineering industry. One ...
Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S.When doctors write that prescription for steroids and theyre sending the patients for lab tests, they should also get the vitamin D level measured, said study lead author Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S., assistant professor of pediatrics at Einstein and Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital for Einstein.. The severe vitamin D deficiency assessed in this study (defined as levels below 10 nanograms per milliliter of blood) is known to be associated with osteomalacia (softening of the bones), rickets (softening of bones in children) and clinical myopathy (muscle weakness). While there is much debate on the issue, vitamin D levels between 20 and 50 ng/ml are generally considered adequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals. Steroids have been shown to cause vitamin D deficiency, possibly by increasing levels of an enzyme that inactivates the vitamin.. Smaller studies involving people often prescribed steroids (i.e., children with asthma and patients ...
Purpose:To identify children aged 0-72 months with blinding xerophthalmia in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and its adjoining Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan, using a new surveillance system, and to describe socio-economic and other characteristics of reported cases. Methods: All ophthalmologists in district headquarter hospitals in NWFP and agency headquarter hospitals in FATA were requested to participate in a surveillance programme for the detection of blinding xerophthalmia (corneal xerosis, corneal ulcers, keratomalacia and corneal scars related to vitamin A deficiency) for children aged 0-72 months. The surveillance included reporting of each case of blinding xerophthalmia presenting to the participating eye units over a period of 12 months and recording their socio-economic and other related characteristics. Results: Seventy six cases of blinding xerophthalmia were reported and there was almost no gender difference. Children came from 19 of 31 districts and
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Selective exposure of bone marrow lymphocytes to massive doses of hydrocortisone for the purpose of facilitating the ultrastructural identification of hematopoietic stem cells]. by Z. A. Butenko et al.
a. Number of cases.. Vitamin-A deficiency (xerophthalmia and keratomalacia). Untreated vitamin-A deficiency leads to irreversible blindness and death. Growing children are at the greatest risk of developing signs of xerophthalmia because of their higher vitamin-A requirement and also because they have a higher rate of infections. A close association between even moderate vitamin-A deficiency and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections has been reported [8].. The lead time for the signs to develop depends on the level of vitamin A stored in the body. Refugees most often arrive in camps with low vitamin-A stores after subsisting on a deficient diet prior to and during their exodus, and during initial periods in the country of asylum. Thus, the lead time for developing xerophthalmia in refugees can be expected to be shorter than in a population that suffers vitamin-A deficiency without previous malnutrition.. Iron deficiency (anaemia). Anaemia can have ...
SUMMARY : GOLDEN RICE One of the applications of recombinant DNA technology in enriched foods field is golden rice. The organism used is daffodil or maize
In Midland Bank plc v Madden, the EAT holds that, while no court short of the Court of Appeal can discard the range or band of reasonable responses test as a determinative test, a tribunal is free to substitute its own views for those of the employer as to the reasonableness of dismissal as a response to the reason shown for it.
Free Online Library: Vitamin Es bloody role. (massive doses of vitamin E increases propensity toward bleeding, Biomedicine, Brief Article) by Science News; Science and technology, general Blood clotting Health aspects Blood coagulation
Liver Health Supplements - Liver illness treatment, Liver vitamins, Liver disease cure, Liver cleanse, Liver pain relief, Liver enzyme...Detoxify and support your liver health with a supplement.
Several studies have shown that klf2 activates the expression of vascular genes including endothelial NO synthase (eNOS).16,30,34 NO is involved in several physiologic and pathologic events. In particular, NO produced by the eNOS is a fundamental determinant of cardiovascular homeostasis, including systemic blood pressure, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis.35 In cultured endothelial cells, shear stress and other factors have been shown to increase eNOS expression.36 To determine whether NO signaling was altered in tnnt2a- and klf2a-deficient embryos, we first used NO imaging to visualize NO production in live embryos. DAF-FM staining showed that NO production was reduced in the tnnt2a- and klf2a-deficient embryos (Figure 7B-C red arrows), compared with that in controls. To further test whether NO signaling was involved in the blood flow response required for HSC development, we examined nos1 and nos2a/2b expression in klf2a-deficient embryos. nos1 and nos2b expression was significantly ...
The use of psychotropic prescription medications to treat mental health disorders in very young children is stabilizing, according to a study published in
Among the most underrated areas of fitness is that great nights sleep! If you arent well-rested do you expect to get lively and motivated the following moment, enough to your work out? Additionally, it is understood by a lot of people which you really burn calories while sleeping, actually more than you do watching tv! Not many multivitamins are made equal. Consequently, youre ensuring that youre receiving all the crucial nutrients you ought to be receiving out of a multivitamin. Occasionally, our fiscal condition keeps us from eating correctly. Vitamins and antioxidants help to eliminate all the toxins inside the body. Its unsafe to take more than the suggested price of the majority of vitamins, so be certain you avoid that. 1 case of that is iron, which is Codeage Exogenous Ketones Capsules Customer Reviews harmful to the liver if taken in massive doses. Should you really feel as if you arent receiving the best benefit from the vitamins, you should probably consult with a dietician about ...
A verified doctor answered: No: Not to my knowledge unless your joint pain is dues to some specific severe vitamin deficiency sy...
Vitamin A deficiency is occasionally seen in chickens and turkeys (insufficient vitamin A during 1-7 weeks of age). As in the case of other nutritional deficiencies, classic signs of deficiency are very rare in commercial poultry fed complete diets ...
When my 83-year-old mom-in-law was dying of bowel cancer, her doctor could not use the D word with her, either.. Somehow, she was under the impression that all these last ditch efforts they were making-the massive doses of antibiotics to hold back her pneumonia, the surgery to insert a shunt to because her kidneys were failing-well, she thought all these things were done because there was hope. Thing was, hope had left the building a month ago. The cancer had spread to her kidneys. It was a race between the kidney cancer and the pneumonia. Her kidneys quit first. Her doctor was straight with us, but not with her.. When her doctor finally screwed up the courage to tell her that she was in palliative care, that nothing more could be done, she made her peace with dying, said her good-byes, lapsed into a coma and died peacefully within 36 hours.. I have seen three parents through palliative care for cancer now-my father, my dad-in-law and my mom-in-law. The doctors were quite forthcoming with both ...
Dh was discussing ds (3.5) with his sister. She mentioned Steve Budulph , and his theory that boys have a massive dose of testosterone at aged 3.5 an
In the 1940s and 50s, psychiatrists often used insulin-shock therapy to treat mental illness. In this barbaric treatment, which disappeared by 1970, the doctor would give the patient a massive dose of insulin to cause low-blood sugar. The insulin would put the patient into a coma. After about an hour, the doctor would administer glucose to bring the patient out of the coma.
That is until I saw the slide - the one with a giant sledge hammer that represented the effect of massive doses of high-potency chemo that precede the SCT. Geesh, could the doctor, a transplant specialist from the University of Minnesota Medical Center, have been any more subtle? I thought to myself that she should have used a slide of a giant anvil falling on an unsuspecting road runner. That would have gotten her point across ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Few plant species can have been better studied than rice. There is a wealth of information out there; Ive picked a few interesting and enlightening extracts- a résumé of rice if you like.. ...
There are 16 fourteen-letter words containing A, H, M, T and X: ANTIHOMOSEXUAL CHEMOTAXONOMIC DEXAMETHASONES ... XANTHOCHROMIAS XANTHOMELANOUS XEROPHTHALMIAS. Every word on this site is valid scrabble words. See other lists, beginning with or ending with letters of your choice.
Our All Trans Retinol Cream with 2.0% retinol is the best over the counter retinol cream available. Firm your skin and fight wrinkles now - try it today!
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Strengthen Wood, formerly Strengthen Liver from Kan Herbs. The Liver stores and nurtures the Blood, spreads the Qi, and maintains the evenness of both our emotional and mental life.
向图书馆借! Rabbit, run. [John Updike] -- Twenty-two-year-old Rabbit Angstrom is a salesman in a local department store, father of a preschool-age son, and husband to an alcoholic wife who was his second-best high school sweetheart. The ...
The idea of a link between inadequate vitamin A and hearing disorders was initially treated with suspicion, reflected by its being confined to animal studies and observations
Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer
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I usually have door stops for biscuits. Ive worked on it and tonight I ended up with very light, soft biscuits. I CAREFULLY spooned flour into the cup and leveled it off with a knife. Usually I just
With this easy biscuit wand recipe, you can have heaps of fun baking with your little fairy. Weve made wands in the shapes of stars, hearts and circles but you could cut out biscuit wands in any shape that takes your fancy!
Finding the best retinol cream (drugstore or high end) can get tricky, not to mention pricey! These wont-break-the-bank retinol treatments actually work to turn back the clock!
If you are looking for or searching for the best biscuit joiner then you are in the right place as I will be discussing about some of them.
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... vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin E. As of 21 December 2018, 81 countries required food fortification ... Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified ... "Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia , Michigan Medicine". Retrieved 8 October 2021. "How a Vitamin B Deficiency ... Other B Vitamins (1998). "Vitamin B6". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin ...
Severe vitamin B12 deficiency can damage nerve cells. If this happens, vitamin B12 deficiency may result in sense loss, loss of ... If vitamin B12 deficiency exists with folate deficiency, vitamin B12 should be replaced first to prevent subacute combined ... "Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia , Michigan Medicine". Retrieved 2021-10-08. "How a Vitamin B Deficiency ... "Vitamin B12 Deficiency - Disorders of Nutrition". MSD Manual Consumer Version. Retrieved 2021-10-15. "Vitamin B12 Deficiency: ...
... such as for fortified rice or vitamin A-rich sweet potato, may be more effective in eradicating vitamin A deficiency. "Vitamin ... Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005, WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. Black ... Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues. It is common in poorer countries, ... Other causes of vitamin A deficiency are inadequate intake, fat malabsorption, or liver disorders. Deficiency impairs immunity ...
There is a rare genetic condition termed isolated vitamin E deficiency or 'ataxia with isolated with vitamin E deficiency', ... Treatment is oral vitamin E supplementation. Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency Abetalipoproteinemia Tocopherol Institute ... Vitamin E deficiency in humans is a very rare condition, occurring as a consequence of abnormalities in dietary fat absorption ... Signs of vitamin E deficiency include the following: Neuromuscular problems - such as spinocerebellar ataxia and myopathies. ...
... results from insufficient dietary vitamin K1 or vitamin K2 or both. Symptoms include bruising, petechiae, ... The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency varies by geographic region. For infants in the United States, vitamin K1 deficiency ... Vitamin K is changed to its active form in the liver by the enzyme Vitamin K epoxide reductase. Activated vitamin K is then ... Vitamin K1-deficiency may occur by disturbed intestinal uptake (such as would occur in a bile duct obstruction), by therapeutic ...
Evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with impaired immune function. Those with vitamin D deficiency ... Vitamin D deficiency can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D; disorders that limit vitamin D ... Vitamin D deficiency or hypovitaminosis D is a vitamin D level that is below normal. It most commonly occurs in people when ... Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of schizophrenia. Vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin under the ...
This combination can lead to vitamin K deficiency and later onset bleeding. Vitamin K deficiency leads to the risk of blood ... Newborns are relatively vitamin K deficient for a variety of reasons: They have low vitamin K stores at birth as vitamin K ... Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) of the newborn, previously known as haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, is a rare form of ... Classical VKDB is more common and caused by the relative deficiency at birth with inadequate vitamin K intake. This is often ...
"VItamin D in Australia" (PDF). "Vitamin D deficiency and multicultural Australia". The Medical Journal of Australia. 2001. ... Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D Sun exposure "Australian Health Survey: Biomedical Results for Nutrients, 2011-12" (PDF). ... they were considered safe from a deficiency. Nowadays through technological advancements Vitamin D deficiencies are now ... Moderate deficiency: 13 - 29nmol/L •Severe deficiency: < 13 nmol/L In 1997, the prevalence of deficiency, defined as < 50 years ...
Vitamin E deficiency TTPA "Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency". Retrieved 2017-01-19. Doerflinger N, Linder C, ... Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency or Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive ... "Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency". NCBI Bookshelf. PMID 20301419. Retrieved 2022-11-13. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency at ... Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene for a-tocopherol transfer protein. Symptoms manifest ...
"Vitamin deficiency". The Guardian, 6 January 2005. Retrieved 6 January 2007. Goldacre, Ben. "Working papers". The Guardian, 20 ... The real crime here is that no full-scale human trials have been funded on vitamin C to follow up Jariwalla's important finding ... Goldacre writes that Holford based this conclusion on a non-clinical study where "you tip lots of vitamin C onto HIV-infected ... He argues that "Holford was guilty of at least incompetence in claiming that this study demonstrated vitamin C to be a better ...
Holick, M. F (2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. PMID ... 7-Dehydrocholesterol from lanolin is used as a raw material for producing vitamin D3 by irradiation with ultraviolet light. ... also used in vitamins" (PDF). American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). 3 (7): 33-43. Archived (PDF) from the original ...
Specific cases include: Vitamin K deficiency: In the liver, vitamin K plays an important role in the synthesis of coagulation ... The liver synthesizes inactive precursor proteins in the absence of vitamin K (liver disease). Vitamin K deficiency leads to ... "Factor II Deficiency: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments". Healthline. Retrieved 2017-12-12. "Vitamin K Deficiency". ... Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors have a very short half-life, sometimes leading to a deficiency when a depletion of ...
"Vitamin Deficiency Anemia". Mayo Clinic. Pirklbauer M (July 2020). "Hemodialysis treatment in patients with severe electrolyte ... Folate deficiency can occur in some patients having hemodialysis. Although a dyalisate fluid, which is a solution containing ...
Many South Africans also have a Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency. A serious deficiency in this vital nutrient can cause ... due to the detrimental effects of Vitamin A on the immune system. Vitamin C deficiency also has detrimental effects on the ... An additional malnutrition problem is a deficiency in vitamin A. It is especially prominent in the Northern Province, the ... West Jr., K. (1 September 2002). "Extent of Vitamin A Deficiency Among Preschool children and Women of Reproductive Age". The ...
Mayo Clinic staff (March 4, 2011). "Vitamin deficiency anemia". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Mayo Clinic ... "Folate-deficiency anemia". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 31 January 2010. ... Hall, C. A. (November 1975). "Transcobalamins I and II as natural transport proteins of vitamin B12". J. Clin. Invest. 56 (5): ... Griffin JH, Evatt B, Zimmerman TS, Kleiss AJ, Wideman C (1981). "Deficiency of protein C in congenital thrombotic disease". J. ...
It demonstrates the ability for humans to develop and innovate themselves out of problems, such as the deficiency of vitamin A ... "Vitamin A Deficiency". Retrieved 2015-10-31. Samantha (2021-03-24). "Techno solutionism-very few things ... GM crops can create many advantages, such as higher food fields, added vitamins and increased farm profits. Depending on the ... a precursor of vitamin A). This enables healthier and fulfilling lifestyles for these individuals and consequently helps to ...
Sommer, Alfred; West, Keith P. (1996). Vitamin A Deficiency. Oxford University Press. p. 352. Prabhune, Meenakshi (April 6, ... she worked with Alfred Sommer to analyze data to uncover a link between vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and an increased risk for ... "The Story of Vitamin A". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2021. Howard, Brandon (May ... Her research has also sought to find low cost interventions to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, infectious diseases, and poor ...
... vitamin D deficiency; higher levels of poverty than the figures suggest; and adverse childhood experiences. Housing in Glasgow ... vitamin D deficiency, cold winters, higher levels of poverty than the figures suggest, adverse childhood experiences and ...
... and B vitamin deficiency. The protein in cottonseed meal is also low in lysine. Glandless cottonseed was developed in the early ...
B; Smith M (2015). "Vitamins and supplements lifestyle guide. Calcium;". Sahota, O. (2014). "Understanding vitamin D deficiency ... 1-2 serves of fruit (150g) should also be consumed daily as it is essential in preventing early onset vitamin deficiencies. 1- ... Vitamin D, also coined as the sunshine vitamin, is necessary within a child's diet as it allows body tissues and in particular ... Perlstein, D. (2015). "Rickets (Calcium, Phosphate, or Vitamin D Deficiency) Pg 1". Inglis, V.; Ball, K.; Crawford, D. (2005 ...
see Vitamin D deficiency). Davies married Deborah Gail Hemsley, whom he met whilst studying at Huddersfield Polytechnic, in ... In November 2020 he called for the government to give Vitamin D to citizens to help boost their immune systems against COVID-19 ...
Similarly, vitamin A deficiency can cause an increase in the severity of diarrheal episodes. However, there is some discrepancy ... Rice AL, West KP, Black RE (2004). "Vitamin A deficiency" (PDF). In Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJ (eds.). ... West KP (September 2002). "Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age". The Journal ... "Increased risk of respiratory disease and diarrhea in children with preexisting mild vitamin A deficiency". The American ...
Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the diet. A long-term deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to ... "Vitamin B12 deficiency" (PDF). BMJ. 349: g5226. doi:10.1136/bmj.g5226. PMID 25189324. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 ... Atrophic gastritis, particularly in the elderly, will cause an inability to absorb B12 and can lead to deficiencies such as ... In pernicious anemia, autoantibodies directed against parietal cells or intrinsic factor cause a reduction in vitamin B12 ...
Ting RZ, Szeto CC, Chan MH, Ma KK, Chow KM (October 2006). "Risk factors of vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients receiving ... May 2010). "Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised ... Higher doses and prolonged use are associated with increased incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency, and some researchers ... Andrès E, Noel E, Goichot B (October 2002). "Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 ( ...
Vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine deficiency) was reported to cause seizures, especially in alcoholics. Vitamin B6 depletion ( ... pyridoxine deficiency) was reported to be associated with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Vitamin B12 deficiency was reported to ... Yavuz, Halûk (2008). "Vitamin B12 deficiency and seizures". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 50 (9): 720. doi: ... Kumar, S (2004). "Recurrent seizures: an unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Neurology India. 52 (1): 122-3. PMID ...
Hastings, V. E. (1938). "Cancer And Vitamin A Deficiency". The British Medical Journal. 1 (4042): 1390. Lane, William Arbuthnot ...
... tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency. His study was the first of its kind which documented the widespread deficiency of ... Sasidharan, P.K; Vijayakumari V; Rajeev E (April 2002). "Tuberculosis and Vitamin D deficiency". J Assoc Physicians India. 50 ( ... the most prominent among them being the landmark study on Vitamin D deficiency in Tuberculosis which established the link ... Besides these, there are original studies on B12 deficiency, reversal of diabetes, reversal of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ...
Vitamin D deficiency can occur. Vitamin D binding protein is lost. Hypocalcaemia: lack of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (the way ... In addition to these key imbalances, vitamin D and calcium are also taken orally in case the alteration of vitamin D causes ... Hypothyroidism: deficiency of the thyroglobulin transport protein thyroxin (a glycoprotein that is rich in iodine and is found ... that vitamin D is stored in the body). As vitamin D regulates the amount of calcium present in the blood, a decrease in its ...
... iron deficiency or deficiency of B vitamins are involved. Nutritional deficiencies may be a more common cause of AC in Third ... Vitamin B12 deficiency is sometimes responsible for AC, and commonly occurs together with folate deficiency (a lack of folic ... In the developing world, iron, vitamin B12, and other vitamin deficiencies are a common cause. Angular cheilitis is a fairly ... Biotin (vitamin B7) deficiency has also been reported to cause AC, along with hair loss (alopecia) and dry eyes. Zinc ...
"Benzopyrene and Vitamin A deficiency". Researcher links cigarettes, vitamin A and emphysema. Retrieved March 5, 2005. ... A link between vitamin A deficiency and emphysema in smokers was described in 2005 to be due to BaP, which induces vitamin A ... deficiency in rats. A 1996 study provided molecular evidence linking components in tobacco smoke to lung cancer. BaP was shown ...
The name "Vitamin E" later came after Vitamin D. From 1924 to 1929, Bishop worked as a histopathologist at the George Williams ... Bishop and Evans started experimenting with dietary deficiencies. In 1923, they found a previously unknown factor that is vital ... The discovery of Vitamin E came as a result of the study of the reproductive cycle of rats. After establishing a standard diet ... National Academy of Sciences Biography of Herbert McLean Evans Vitamin E Discovery (Articles with short description, Short ...
Congenital Malformations Induced in Rats by Maternal Vitamin A Deficiency: II. Effect of Varying the Preparatory Diet Upon the ... a theory was raised that vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may cause pulmonary agenesis. Some authors have suggested ... researchers observed lung aplasia in animals that were fed with a diet deficient in vitamin A. From the result of this ...
June 1994). "Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1". Lancet. 343 (8913): 1593-7. doi:10.1016/ ... Increased mother-to-child transmission is related to specific deficiencies in micro-nutrients such as vitamin A. Further, ... Micro-nutrients such as iron and vitamin A can be delivered and provided at a very low cost. For example, vitamin A supplements ... and Severe Vitamin A Deficiency". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 175 (1): 57-62. doi:10.1093/infdis/175.1.57. PMC 3372419 ...
Golden Rice is a technical failure standing in way of real solutions for vitamin A deficiency Archived 28 April 2005 at the ... a precursor of pro-vitamin A in the edible parts of rice. The addition of beta-carotene to the rice is seen as preventive to ... A new version of Golden Rice with increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology 23:482-487. Militant Filipino farmers ...
The lack of access to fruits and vegetables often results in vitamin deficiencies, which eventually causes health problems for ... Such diseases include scurvy, which results from low vitamin C levels; rickets, from low vitamin D levels; and pellagra, from ... Protein, a good source of vitamin B and lasting energy, can be found in both plant and animal products. The USDA also suggests ... Regardless of daily caloric intake, those who do not eat foods that are rich in vitamins and nutrients are susceptible to ...
IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum ... Food portal Food composition Mineral deficiency Micronutrient Human nutrition Zoroddu MA, Aaseth J, Crisponi G, Medici S, Peana ... "Vitamin and mineral supplement fact sheets". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. ... "Vitamin B-12 (µg)" (PDF). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. 27 October 2015. Archived (PDF) ...
442-501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... Zinc deficiency affects about 2.2 billion people around the world. Severe zinc deficiency is rare, and is mainly seen in ... Zinc deficiency contributes to an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea. Zinc deficiency may lead to loss of appetite. ... Zinc deficiency may affect up to 2 billion people worldwide. Zinc deficiency may manifest as acne, eczema, xerosis (dry, ...
... applications of euphenics was the use of vitamins containing folic acid during pregnancy to combat neural-tube deficiencies ...
He also made the false claim that vitamin E foods have a beneficial effect on sex organs and that lack of this vitamin may ... malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies. He argued that protein is the key to living and that most vegetarians eat a low- ... 1968). The Great Vitamin Hoax. Macmillan. p. 75 Barrett, Stephen; Herbert, Victor. (1994). The Vitamin Pushers: How the "Health ... 1985). Vitamins and "Health" Foods: The Great American Hustle. G.F. Stickley Company. p. 90 Kordel, Lelord. (April 5, 1970). ...
Micronutrient deficiency - Micronutrient deficiency is when a child is lacking essential vitamins or minerals such as Vitamin A ... Vitamin A deficiencies can lead to partial and total blindness. Vitamin A costs 2 cents a dose and could reduce about 2% of ... of pregnant women don't get enough vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiencies are a contributing factor each year in 1.3 million deaths ... Vitamin A Approximately 190 million preschool-age children don't get enough vitamin A. Approximately 19 million (15%) ...
Some sources state that deficiencies of vitamin A or pyridoxine are also linked. There is limited evidence that a diet high in ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. ...
The leaves also contain high levels of vitamin A, B, and C, and phenolics and alkaloids, including cocaine, quinine, nicotine, ... as it is good for people with iron deficiencies, and malaria patients. The leaves of African nightshade are eaten as a cooked ...
A few experiments performed on vitamin deficiency, such as one conducted to determine the effects of Vitamin A deficiency and ... The experiments into deficiency of vitamin A and vitamin C were particularly notable. However, other kinds of medical research ... However, the most important work of the Institute was into nutrition, particularly vitamin deficiency. In a period of severe ... Marx, Stephen J.; Liberman, Uri A;, Eil, Charles, "Calciferols: actions and deficiencies in action", Vitamins and Hormones, vol ...
Kenyan School Children Have Multiple Micronutrient Deficiencies, but Increased plasma vitamin B12 is the only detectable ... Six micronutrients are richly found in ASF: vitamin A, vitamin B12, riboflavin (also called vitamin B2), calcium, iron and zinc ... 2003) Micronutrient Deficiencies and Cognitive Functioning. J. Nutr. 133: 3927S-3931S. Black MM. (2003) Micronutrients and ... Some of these effects, such as impaired cognitive development from an iron deficiency, are irreversible.[citation needed] ...
People also have chronic malabsorption, which causes deficiencies in iron, ferritin, calcium, magnesium, folate, vitamin D and ... CD55 deficiency, also called DAF deficiency or CHAPLE syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system. CHAPLE stands ... July 2017). "CD55 Deficiency, Early-Onset Protein-Losing Enteropathy, and Thrombosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 377 ... "Eculizumab Is Safe and Effective as a Long-term Treatment for Protein-losing Enteropathy Due to CD55 Deficiency". Journal of ...
The porphyria associated with the deficiency of each enzyme is also shown: A common synthesis for porphyrins is the Rothemund ... including vitamin B12, which is coordinated to a cobalt Corphins, the highly reduced porphyrin coordinated to nickel that binds ...
Vitamins Hormones. Vitamins & Hormones. Vol. 15. pp. 73-118. doi:10.1016/s0083-6729(08)60508-7. ISBN 9780127098159. PMID ... "Development and characterization of an animal model of carnitine deficiency". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (6): 1876-1887. doi:10.1046/ ...
Erythropoietin is only secreted in the kidneys when there is an O2 deficiency, as such, RBC manufacture is independent of the ... Particularly of note is the cobalt complex, cobalamin (Vitamin B12) commonly used as a dietary supplement. Cobalamin is an ... has shown that cobalamin has no effect on erythropoiesis in the absence of a red blood cell/oxygen deficiency. These results ... amount of cobalamin administered when there is no O2 deficiency. Accordingly, cobalamin is of little to no value in blood ...
... during which time while treating fellow prisoners he established that beriberi is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B1, not as ...
... and vitamin deficiencies. Typical dementia screening tests used are the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal ... To lessen the risk of fractures in individuals at risk for falls, bone mineral density screening and testing of vitamin D ...
The cause is vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency. This has been available for treatment and prevention since 1936, so the ... name="Cambridge 2017, p36-41." Williams R R, Cline J K (1936) Synthesis of vitamin B1. Journal of the American Chemical ... Anaemia is common in pregnancy and the puerperium, and folate deficiency has been linked to psychosis. The psychoses, mentioned ... Thornton W E (1977) Folate deficiency in puerperal psychosis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 129: 222-223. name ...
... due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). White rice is often enriched with some of the nutrients stripped from it during ... Missing nutrients, such as vitamins B1 and B3, and iron, are sometimes added back into the white rice, a process called ... The bran in brown rice contains significant dietary fiber and the germ contains many vitamins and minerals. Typically, 100 ... ISBN 978-0-520-22053-9. "Christiaan Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1". Retrieved 28 September 2015. Perkins S ...
... now known to be caused by vitamin deficiency. Gradually, more and more of the soldiers showed serious symptoms, and at the ...
Carotene Biosynthesis Pathway into Rice Endosperm by Genetic Engineering to Defeat Vitamin A Deficiency. J. Nutr. 132:506S-510 ... risk some level of vitamin A deficiency. This problem interested Potrykus for numerous reasons, including the scientific ... The most significant development so far has been the creation of golden rice, a new rice variety providing vitamin A. This ... Lucca P, Hurrell R, Potrykus I (2002) Fighting Iron Deficiency Anemia with Iron-Rich Rice. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21:184S-190. ...
One potential side effect of vagotomy is a vitamin B12 deficiency. As vagotomy decreases gastric secretion, intrinsic factor ... Intrinsic factor is needed to absorb vitamin B12 efficiently from food, and injections or large oral doses of the vitamin may ...
Subclinical deficiency can be found in individuals with poor diet (including low intake of folate or vitamin C) or genetic ... BH4*2HCL is indicated at least in tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency caused by GTPCH deficiency or PTPS deficiency. This condition ... Other underlying causes of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency are: 6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency Autosomal ... Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency can be caused by a deficiency of the enzyme dihydrobiopterin reductase (DHPR), whose activity is ...
Vitamin deficiency states: Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin), vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1 (thiamin) Physical trauma: ... Hypothyroidism Porphyria Vitamin B12 deficiency Vitamin B6 excess Those with diseases or dysfunctions of their nerves may ... When peripheral neuropathy results from vitamin deficiencies or other disorders, those are treated as well. A range of ... Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), hyperglycemia-induced glycation, vitamin deficiency, ...
"Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Parturition in the Rat" (1968) "Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Maintenance of Pregnancy in the Rat ... Apgar, Jean; Kramer, T. R.; Smith, J. Cecil (1995-04-01). "Marginal vitamin A intake during pregnancy in Guinea pigs: effect on ... She worked on important research on ribonucleic acids (RNA), and on zinc deficiency as a risk factor in reproduction. She won ... Apgar, Jean (1970-04-01). "Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Maintenance of Pregnancy in the Rat". The Journal of Nutrition. 100 (4 ...
Mineral and vitamin deficiencies can also contribute to a lighter coat, similar to sunbleaching. Black-pointed horses that are ...
... caused by vitamin A deficiency (Q13.1) Aniridia - a rare congenital eye condition leading to underdevelopment or even absence ...
Learn important information about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding. ... What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB?. Vitamin K ... A person without enough of a vitamin stored in the body is "vitamin deficient" or has a "vitamin deficiency". ... What can I do to prevent my baby from getting vitamin K deficiency and VKDB?. Protect Your Baby from Bleeds Fact Sheet ... What is vitamin K and why is it important?. Vitamin K is a substance that our body needs to form clots and to stop bleeding. We ...
Another study supports a link between low vitamin D and increased risk for cognitive decline in aging adults. ... In individuals already cognitively impaired at baseline, vitamin D deficiency was also associated with a higher risk for ... Cite this: Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Cognitive Decline - Medscape - Nov 20, 2014. ... Participants with 25OHD deficiency or insufficiency (50 to 75 nmol/L) were more likely to have declining Mini-Mental State ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. ... Shots of vitamin B12 can prevent anemia if youve had a surgery known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency. ... Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent if you do not start treatment within 6 months of ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia most often responds well to treatment. It will likely get better when the underlying cause of the ...
World Health Organization. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme; World Health Organization. Nutrition Programme (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 1992)‎ ...
Vitamin D has regulatory roles in immunity, insulin secretion, blood pressure and calcium metabolism, ... ... Vitamin D DeficiencyVitamin D is a vital substance for life. ... Vitamin D Deficiency. Vitamin D is a vital substance for life. ... Vitamin D Deficiency. By Narain Balchandani. See all Articles by narian balchandaniGet Updates on Natural HealthGet Updates on ... This may be a significant factor for Vitamin D deficiency today.. The loma randhra in the skin is also connected to the dehagni ...
... this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency … ... Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with ... Vitamin B12 deficiency - A 21st century perspective Clin Med (Lond). 2015 Apr;15(2):145-50. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.15-2-145 ... Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with ...
WebMD tells you about symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency and how it can be treated. ... Vitamin B12 is essential for good health, but some people may not be getting enough. ... Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency. If you have vitamin B12 deficiency, you could become anemic. A mild deficiency may cause no ... "Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Pernicious Anemia.". Harvard Health Publications: "Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Vegetarians, elderly may not ...
Learn to prevent and treat a vitamin E deficiency here. ... Deficiency is rare and usually the result of an underlying ... Vitamin E is essential, and it is stored in the liver before being released into the bloodstream. ... A vitamin D deficiency is common, and it can lead to further health issues. Still, many people with the deficiency have no ... Vitamin B-12 is essential for blood health. People with vitamin B-12 deficiency may have a variety of symptoms, including ...
Its primary enzymatic function is to cleave the vitamin biotin (also known as coenzyme R, vitamin H, or vitamin B7) from the ... encoded search term (Biotinidase Deficiency) and Biotinidase Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ... Vitamins and cofactors. Class Summary. Organic substances are required by the body in small amounts for various metabolic ... Biotinidase Deficiency Medication. Updated: Feb 15, 2023 * Author: Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP; Chief Editor: Maria ...
Vitamin D deficiency: time for action Evidence supports routine supplementation for elderly people and others at risk ... 2 3 A recent study from the United States has added further evidence that vitamin D deficiency continues to be neglected and ... Over recent decades a wealth of evidence has accumulated documenting vitamin D deficiency in elderly populations in Europe and ... Vitamin D is both a vitamin and a hormone and has diverse actions. The major biologically active metabolite, 1,25- ...
Learn more about vitamin K deficiency in both adults and infants, including what causes it, symptoms to look out for, and how ... Vitamin K deficiency treatment. The treatment for vitamin K is the drug phytonadione, which is vitamin K1. Most of the time ... Vitamin K deficiency symptoms. The main symptom of vitamin K deficiency is excessive bleeding. Keep in mind that bleeding may ... Vitamin K deficiency causes. Although vitamin K deficiency is uncommon in adults, certain people are at increased risk if they: ...
Low levels of vitamin B12 lead to muscle weakness and cramps. Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include the following: *A Strict ... Since vitamin B12 supports the sheathing that coats the nerve cells, people with vitamin B12 deficiency often suffer from ... Anemia or Iron Deficiency Can Cause Fatigue and Sleep Disorders. *Can A Vitamin Deficiency Cause Muscle Spasms - What Foods ... The occurrence of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vitamin B deficiency. There is also a link between vitamin B12 ...
Loredana Quadro and her colleagues think they have an answer to vitamin A deficiency. ... "The usual way to treat people with vitamin A deficiency is to get vitamin A or beta-carotene into them, either with a pill or ... This novel approach could potentially change the way to treat not only vitamin A deficiency, but also deficiencies of other ... Vitamin A deficiency causes the deaths of millions of people every year, many of them children. The World Health Organization ...
... Layering in ancient teeth found at archaeological sites. *. Share ... In broader terms, though, the teams paper - published in the journal Current Anthropology - shows that vitamin D deficiency, ... The team found that the earliest evidence of vitamin D deficiency came from the late Pleistocene era, in four out of five teeth ... Left: A tooth displaying two episodes of childhood vitamin D deficiency, indicated by interglobular spaces in the dentine. ...
Women who are deficient in vitamin D in the first 26 weeks of their pregnancy may be at risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia ... like vitamin D deficiency, holds great potential.". "If our results hold true in a modern sample of pregnant women, then ... Factors that affect vitamin D status. Dr Bodnar and her colleagues also studied blood samples from 3 000 mothers who did not ... "For decades, vitamin D was known as a nutrient that was important only for bone health," said lead author Lisa Bodnar, PhD, MPH ...
... who is more likely to be deficient in vitamin B6 as well as how much vitamin B6 you should be getting. ConsumerLab.coms answer ... B6 supplements can help to correct a deficiency. More details can be found in the Vitamin B6 section of the B Vitamin ... Although mild deficiency may not cause apparent symptoms, severe deficiency in vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can cause changes in the ... Join our FREE Newsletter and Become a Member to view the full answer to What are the symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency? First ...
1995)‎. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. World Health Organization. ...
... the minimal amount of vitamin D found in breast milk. In children, vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, which presents ... Vitamin D deficiency can result from inadequate exposure to sunlight; malabsorption; accelerated catabolism from certain ... encoded search term (Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Disorders) and Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Disorders What to Read ... In children with a severe vitamin D deficiency, the examination may reveal bowing in the legs. In adults with a severe vitamin ...
... and a deficiency in this vitamin B3 can result in a condition known as pellagra. One of the most common symptoms of pellagra is ... B3 Deficiency and Pellagra A vitamin B3 deficiency is rare in the United States, and it is most often the result of high ... Vitamin B3 is essential for healthy skin, and a deficiency in this vitamin B3 can result in a condition known as pellagra. One ... Symptoms of a mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, vomiting, canker sores and depression. If your deficiency becomes ...
A Basic Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation. 05th June 2009. A Basic Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation Most people think that vitamin ... Vitamin deficiencies, especially in children can stop t... Read ,. Author: Article Publisher ... All Natural Vitamins Ensure the Growth of Children. 06th July 2009. All natural vitamins are vital to your health as well as to ... The Importance Of Vitamins To Your Body. 09th August 2005. By: Charlene J. Nuble The body needs a minimum amount of vitamins ...
Definition of Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Insufficiency. Vitamin D status in the serum is evaluated based on the ... Serum 25-hydroxycalciferol vitamin D levels were characterized as ,20 ng/mL vitamin D deficiency, 20 to 29 ng/mL vitamin D ... 2D3 deficiency and insufficiency caused by the kidneys role in vitamin D metabolism, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency ... Results: Overall, 30.7% of adults with diabetes have nephropathy, 48.9% have vitamin D deficiency and 36.6% have vitamin D ...
... is caused in part by the tumor destroying certain vitamins needed by the entire body to extract energy from food. ...
... and IL-17 were measured before and after vitamin D3 supplementation. The vitamin D status was assessed according to the level ... and IL-17 were measured before and after vitamin D3 supplementation. The vitamin D status was assessed according to the level ... AIT patients with respect to their vitamin D status and changes after vitamin D3 supplementation.Material and Methods: Patients ... AIT patients with respect to their vitamin D status and changes after vitamin D3 supplementation. Material and Methods: ...
Find Vitamin D Deficiency information, treatments for Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Deficiency symptoms. ... MedHelps Vitamin D Deficiency Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Vitamin D Deficiency. ... This is not a question but my .02 on vitamin D deficiency...Im not sure where that other t... ... Posts on Vitamin D Deficiency (108). Pain, Sleep disorders and vitamin D deficiency - General Health Community ...
Seniors who are deficient in vitamin D also tend to have compromised immune functions including inflammation and biomarkers for ... "Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Inflammation in Older Irish Adults"​. Authors: E. Laird, H. McNulty, M. Ward, L. Hoey ... Vitamin D deficiency linked to compromised immune function: Study. By Nathan Gray ... Related tags: Vitamin d Seniors who are deficient in vitamin D also tend to have compromised immune functions including ...
Late Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Infants Whose Parents Declined Vitamin K Prophylaxis - Tennessee, 2013. Vitamin K ... Sutor AH, Kries R, Cornelissen EAM, McNinch AW, Andrew M. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy. Thromb Haemost 1999; ... In adults, vitamin K is absorbed from food and from vitamin K synthesized by gut bacteria. However, placental transfer in ... Zipursky A. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborns. Br J Haematol 1999;104:430-7. ...
Much of the food we eat today is not at all similar to the food our ancestors ate. Much of what we consume has been genetically altered. Through the combination of biotechnology, genetic engineering, and computer engineering techniques, the range of possible DNA products is greatly increased, thus allowing scientists to change the genetic composition…. ...
Unfortunately, we have been so warned against sun exposure and advised to use sunscreen to the point that vitamin d deficiency ... I listened a few years ago about Vitamin D, and decided to ask my Internist. She included a check for Vitamin D in my yearly ... the most accurate way to measure your bodys vitamin d level is the 25-hydroxy vitamin d blood test. My lab considers 35 - 100 ... the most accurate way to measure your bodys vitamin d level is the 25-hydroxy vitamin d blood test. My lab considers 35 - 100 ...
... seeing if vitamin D levels are connected to Hashimotos thyroiditis ... type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes UV exposure vitamin d vitamin d deficiency vitamin d levels vitamin d supplementation vitamin d ... Vitamin D Council Information on the latest vitamin D news and research.. Find out more information on deficiency, ... Certainly Vitamin D (or perhaps better stated, Pro-hormone D) deficiency is at pandemic levels…but Iodine deficiency is also a ...
To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a ... Gibney KB, MacGregor L, Leder K, Torresi J, Marshall C, Ebeling PR, Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis and ... for a relative 1-log decrement in vitamin D levels, which suggests that vitamin D deficiency might be a strong risk factor for ... Vitamin D deficiency in an ample sunlight country. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009;19:267-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • Some people may respond to treatment by taking vitamin B12 supplements by mouth. (
  • It is not enough to bring the Vitamin D blood levels up using supplements. (
  • Since your body doesn't make vitamin B12, you have to get it from animal-based foods or from supplements. (
  • Learn more about the different types of vitamin b supplements. (
  • For more in-depth resources about vitamins, minerals, and supplements, visit our dedicated hub . (
  • Vitamin B12 supplements are also a good option, as are B12 injections and oral B12 tables, which are usually prescribed for B12 neuropathy recovery. (
  • If scientists could build such a beta-carotene producing machine to reside in a person's gut, we could overcome the need to constantly ingest foods or supplements containing vitamin A. These beta-carotene-producing probiotics could reside in a person's intestine for a prolonged period of time, even months. (
  • The usual way to treat people with vitamin A deficiency is to get vitamin A or beta-carotene into them, either with a pill or by getting them to eat food or supplements rich in these compounds," says co-author Breslin. (
  • Until then, women shouldn't automatically take vitamin D supplements during pregnancy as a result of these findings. (
  • B6 supplements can help to correct a deficiency. (
  • More details can be found in the Vitamin B6 section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review (also see our T op Picks among B6 supplements). (
  • A Basic Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation Most people think that vitamin and mineral supplements are pretty much alike. (
  • Earthlight® Whole Food Vitamin D is a clean label ingredient that can help you create cutting-edge fortified foods and supplements. (
  • calcium deficiency is a big cause of muscle cramps But calcium supplements don't always help. (
  • It is also possible to get Vitamin K supplements at most health stores. (
  • Therefore, taking additional vitamin D supplements is not likely to prevent or improve OSA. (
  • When northern latitudes, darker skin, sun blocks or lifestyle choices limit our exposure to sunshine, vitamin D levels can be maintained through the intake of supplements and of foods that contain natural or added vitamin D. Adequate vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy are crucial to provide the calcium needed for fetal bone mineral accretion, most of which occurs in the final trimester. (
  • People who have anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency may need to take vitamin B12 supplements for life. (
  • We'll also explore food sources, deficiencies, and answer questions on topics such as B vitamin complex supplements. (
  • Also, make sure that you're able to properly absorb the vitamins and minerals - whether from your diet or from supplements. (
  • Do Becosule (b complex) capsules help in covering up this deficiency or some additional supplements have to be taken? (
  • I'll just take vitamin D supplements or get more sun. (
  • I'll just get my vitamin D measured, and if it's low, I'll take supplements. (
  • If sun exposure is inadequate, vitamin D level can be maintained by taking supplements or foods that contain vitamin D (2). (
  • Although vitamin-fortified and B-12 supplements are readily available, Vitamin B-12 shots can only be taken on prescription, meaning that a medicinal diagnosis must be required. (
  • Another important point to keep in mind is that, for some, absorption and assimilation of vitamin D from both foods and supplements could be compromised if gut health is poor , as Vitamin D is absorbed in the small intestines. (
  • As was noted above, our body cannot produce most of the vitamins on its own and needs to get it with foods or as supplements. (
  • All these factors prove that when planning how to lose weight, we should be aware of an almost inevitable deficiency in certain vitamins and microelements and, possibly, and consider taking synthetic vitamins and biologically active supplements. (
  • Under severe deficiency situations, airway symptoms may be aggravated (Brehm 2009) with vitamin D supplements having steroid sparing effects (Xystrakis 2006). (
  • Vitamin C supplements are also considerably popular and easy to include in your daily routine. (
  • The NHS warns against taking too many vitamin D supplements, however: "Taking too many vitamin D supplements over a long period of time can cause too much calcium to build up in the body (hypercalcaemia). (
  • Individuals must obtain vitamin b2 through dietary sources, such as supplements or food. (
  • Riboflavin 5'-phosphate supplements can help meet individuals' daily dietary needs for vitamin B2. (
  • Individuals eating a vegan diet may need to take vitamin B2 supplements to meet their nutritional needs. (
  • A new study supports a link between low levels of vitamin D and increased risk for cognitive decline, prompting calls for clinical trials to test whether vitamin D supplementation may delay or prevent dementia. (
  • N]eurologists and geriatricians should be aware of the possibility that in elderly individuals, vitamin D supplementation might be a potential cost-effective strategy for preventing neurodegenerative diseases," Elena D. Toffanello, MD, from University of Padova, Italy, and colleagues say. (
  • Dr Toffanello and colleagues say studies are needed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation might help to delay the cognitive decline, especially in patients who already have cognitive impairment. (
  • Taken together, this rapidly evolving body of evidence suggests clinical trials are warranted to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation helps to delay or prevent dementia in elderly adults," Dr Llewellyn concluded. (
  • When an adult has less than 4 mg/L of vitamin E in their blood, they usually require supplementation. (
  • Vitamin E supplementation is often effective. (
  • Current practice involves providing vitamin E supplementation through a tube in the stomach. (
  • Children and adults with deficiencies caused by inherited conditions require supplementation with high doses of vitamin E. (
  • This study evaluated the relationship between the metabolic and immune status of DM + AIT patients with respect to their vitamin D status and changes after vitamin D 3 supplementation. (
  • The results of our study showed that vitamin D 3 supplementation in patients with T1DM and T2DM reduced the concentrations of the inflammatory Th1-type cytokines and increased the levels of Th2-type cytokines. (
  • Vitamin D 3 supplementation should be considered for the prevention and treatment of combined endocrine pathology. (
  • Find out more information on deficiency, supplementation, sun exposure, and how vitamin D relates to your health. (
  • However further studies are needed especially about the effects of vitamin D supplementation on prevention and/or progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. (
  • A 2016 study on breast cancer by Dr. William Jacot and colleagues from Montpelier, France showed that 'tailored vitamin D supplementation' could keep plasma levels in the acceptable range in women with breast cancer even during chemotherapy. (
  • over 20 years ago, Congdon and colleagues 6 measured forearm bone mineral content (BMC) in infants born to Asian and white mothers and found that infant BMC was independent of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and had no relation to umbilical cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (
  • If you're vegetarian, you should definitely be having your B-12 levels checked on a regular basis, at least twice a year, to make sure that you're getting adequate quantities through supplementation, because biochemically the active form of Vitamin B-12 is only found in animal food. (
  • 25(OH)D is an easy biomarker to screen for through simple commercially-available laboratory tests, and deficiencies can be treated with supplementation and/or modest sunlight exposure. (
  • It seems like every day another article is published in medical journals or the mainstream press about the dangers of vitamin D deficiency, and the benefits of supplementation. (
  • In this article we're going to discuss the impacts of vitamin D on thyroid physiology and wade into the increasingly murky topic of vitamin D supplementation - specifically as it relates to thyroid disorders. (
  • With regard to allergy initiation, effects of early vitamin D supplementation are being controversially discussed. (
  • Breast milk has only minimal amounts of vitamin D. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vitamin D supplementation starting at age 2 months for infants fed exclusively with breast milk. (
  • In addition, current literature suggests that vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of developing caries lesions. (
  • Another study found that supplementation of vitamin D did not directly improve symptoms. (
  • You can prevent anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12 by eating a well-balanced diet. (
  • Some research suggests that a lack of vitamin E can inhibit the immune cells. (
  • Can Lack of Vitamin Cause Skin Peeling? (
  • The old school ailment for lack of vitamin d was (is) rickets. (
  • The strongest predictors of a lack of vitamin D were being African-American, female, the winter season, and low blood levels of the protein albumin. (
  • now firmly linked to vitamin D deficiency, the idea that a lack of vitamin D could be a causative factor in ESRD would seem to be a possibility worthy of investigation. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency (a lack of vitamin B 12 ) is very common. (
  • A lack of vitamin A in your diet can cause dry, rough eyes and affect your overall eye health. (
  • Deficiency is shockingly common due to factors of inadequate sun exposure and lack of vitamin D rich foods as part of a whole foods diet (more on specific foods in just a moment). (
  • A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone deformities such as rickets in children, and bone pain caused by a condition called osteomalacia in adults. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency and folate ( folic acid ) deficiency cause megaloblastic anemia. (
  • Folate Deficiency Folate deficiency is common. (
  • Because the body stores only a small amount of folate, a diet lacking in folate leads to a deficiency within a few months. (
  • Deficiency of folate ( folic acid ) is sometimes caused by drugs used to treat cancer. (
  • Symptoms of anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency develop slowly and are similar to symptoms caused by other types of anemia, such as fatigue, weakness, and paleness. (
  • Once blood tests show a person has anemia, tests are done to determine if a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folate is the cause. (
  • The blood levels of vitamin B12 and folate are measured, and other tests may be done to determine the cause of the vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • The treatment of anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency consists of replacing the deficient vitamin. (
  • For example, folate (vitamin B9) is important in the metabolism of amino acids and vitamins. (
  • Whatsmore, folate, relies on vitamin B12 to be utilized inside the body. (
  • Vitamin B2 changes into vitamin B6 and folate (vitamin B9) so that the body can use it.Vitamin B2 deficiency is rare as this vitamin is found in almost all common foods, still it can occur in people who are underweight, those who have frequent digestive problems or in adolescent girls who avoid milk and rarely have vegetables. (
  • The Journal of Neurology recently published a study conducted in South Korea that took 518 elderly people under their wing to test their theories about the effects of Folate deficiency. (
  • Folate is also known as Vitamin B9 and many people could be suffering from Vitamin B deficiency and not even know it. (
  • A chronic dietary deficiency of either folate or vitamin B12 causes macrocytic anemia, although strict dietary deficiencies are rare. (
  • A member of the B vitamin family, we see that impaired folate metabolism can impair mental health. (
  • This vitamin is involved with folate and the homocysteine pathways and play a role in neurotransmission. (
  • Folate belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins that occur naturally in food. (
  • Vitamin D has regulatory roles in immunity, insulin secretion, blood pressure and calcium metabolism, which is vital for normal functioning of the nervous system, as well as for bone growth and maintenance of bone density. (
  • Rare genetic forms of rickets occur because of defects in vitamin D metabolism. (
  • A vitamin D intervention resulted in significant changes in the blood levels of 25(OH)D that are related to parameters of autoimmunity and glucose metabolism. (
  • The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM), investigated the association between vitamin D status and immune markers of inflammation in a large sample of older adults. (
  • 4 ,5 Animal studies suggest that, in addition to the impact that chronic renal failure has on increasing the likelihood of 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency and insufficiency caused by the kidney's role in vitamin D metabolism, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency also have an active role in the progression of kidney disease. (
  • Meanwhile, cobalamin (vitamin B12) is vital for protein and fat metabolism ( 2 ). (
  • Vitamin B plays an important role in maintaining the good health of the human body by regulating body energy levels, metabolism, and cellular functions. (
  • Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine supports over 100 enzyme reactions including brain development, stronger immune system, breakdown of carbohydrates and fats, and metabolism of amino acid. (
  • When the body lacks this vital vitamin, brain development, immune response and metabolism are hampered. (
  • Vitamin B is responsible for your energy, focus and metabolism. (
  • Recent evidence shows that the role of vitamin D goes beyond calcium and phosphorous metabolism (3). (
  • Many extra skeletal illnesses have been associated with vitamin D deficiency, such as those related to fuel metabolism, the cardiovascular system, cancer and the immune system (1,3). (
  • Finally, a deficiency in specific vitamins can block our attempts to lose weight, preventing our body from transforming accumulated fat into energy and slowing down our metabolism. (
  • If we get all essential vitamins and minerals, we are more energetic and feel less urge for unhealthy foods (as we don't have a deficiency in crucial substances), our metabolism is good at transforming calories into energy. (
  • Vitamin B12 (B12) is an essential cofactor for two enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism: methylmalonyl CoA mutase (reduced function of this enzyme results in increased serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels) and methionine synthetase (this enzyme catalyzes the remethylmation of homocysteine to methionine) (IOM 1998). (
  • What might cause babies to be deficient in vitamin K and have bleeding problems? (
  • Women who are deficient in vitamin D in the first 26 weeks of their pregnancy may be at risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia , a potentially life-threatening disorder diagnosed by an increase in blood pressure and protein in the urine, according to research by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. (
  • Seniors who are deficient in vitamin D also tend to have compromised immune functions including inflammation and biomarkers for heart disease, according to new research. (
  • Now it turns out that one group in particular is almost universally lacking in vitamin D. According to a study slated for publication in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society Nephrology (CJASN), kidney disease patients who have low blood protein levels and who start dialysis during the winter are at extremely high risk of being seriously deficient in vitamin D. (
  • For years, it's been known that being deficient in vitamin D increases the risk of developing certain respiratory infections . (
  • Now, a study shows that being deficient in vitamin D is, in fact, associated with a higher risk of developing COVID-19 - even after adjusting for other factors that might affect a person's infection risk. (
  • There is a higher probability of birth defects in children born to mothers deficient in Vitamin B12. (
  • You may have to take a supplement if the health care provider says you are deficient in vitamin B12. (
  • Even if you expose your skin to sunlight, if the intelligence of your skin is low, Vitamin D3 will not be produced in sufficient quantities to meet the body's needs. (
  • Scientists controlled for factors that could have affected a woman's vitamin D status, including race, pre-pregnancy body mass index, number of previous pregnancies, smoking, diet, physical activity and sunlight exposure , which is the body's primary source of vitamin D. (
  • The scientists pointed out in their media statement that although previous studies have suggested that patients on dialysis have an impaired ability to generate vitamin D when they are exposed to adequate sunlight, their study indicates that skin-based production of vitamin D is likely to be important in patients with ESRD. (
  • Sunlight helps the body to produce vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency results in rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. (
  • While it can be found in a few foods, the most common natural source of vitamin D is sunlight exposure on your skin - which causes your body to create its own vitamin D. Many people don't get enough sun exposure to have adequate vitamin D levels, especially during winter months. (
  • They synthesis of active vitamin D from sunlight depends on cholesterol. (
  • Aging reduces the conversion of sunlight to vitamin D becomes. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is surprisingly common, even in sunny parts of the world where the population could easily be getting enough from sunlight alone. (
  • While is it important to avoid burning, exposing as much skin to direct sunlight as possible for a certain period of time per day can provide adequate levels of vitamin D. However, determining your need for sunlight (how many minutes and times per week) hugely varies. (
  • The Norwegian Institute of Air Research has devised a very useful online tool where you can insert the city or latitude/longitude of any particular location, skin color, and time of day sun exposure will take place and see the recommended daily dose of direct sunlight one needs in order to bring their vitamin D levels to 1000 IU. (
  • Vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin from sunlight, but it can also be obtained through several foods. (
  • Inadequate exposure to sunlight causes a deficiency in cutaneously synthesized vitamin D. Diseases associated with vitamin D malabsorption include celiac sprue, short bowel syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. (
  • Vitamin D is created from direct sunlight on the skin when outdoors. (
  • According to the NHS, between October and early March, people in the UK don't get enough vitamin D from sunlight, which heightens the risk of a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • If you have dark skin - for example you have an African, African-Caribbean or south Asian background - you may also not get enough vitamin D from sunlight," noted the health body. (
  • Khan AH , Iqbal R . Vitamin D deficiency in an ample sunlight country. (
  • Common wisdom has it that simple exposure to more sunlight is the answer, as this will provide more vitamin D, but this may not be the total answer. (
  • Infants who do not receive the vitamin K shot at birth can develop VKDB at any time up to 6 months of age. (
  • Infants who do not receive a vitamin K shot at birth are 81 times more likely to develop late VKDB than infants who do receive a vitamin K shot at birth. (
  • Premature infants are at particular risk because an immature digestive tract can interfere with fat and vitamin E absorption. (
  • Vitamin E deficiencies in these infants can also lead to hemolytic anemia , which destroys red blood cells. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency is much more common in infants. (
  • In infants, the condition is called VKDB , for vitamin K deficiency bleeding. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is a coagulopathy that develops in infants who do not have sufficient vitamin K stores to support production of clotting factors. (
  • The relative risk for developing late VKDB has been estimated at 81 times greater among infants who do not receive intramuscular vitamin K than in infants who do receive it ( 4 ). (
  • The four infants had laboratory-confirmed coagulopathy, defined as elevation of prothrombin time (PT) greater than or equal to four times the laboratory limit of normal, correctable by vitamin K administration, and symptomatic bleeding. (
  • To assess the proportion of neonates who did not receive a vitamin K injection in 2013, records of a random sample of infants born during January-October 2013 at each of three Nashville area hospitals and at four major Tennessee nonhospital birthing centers were reviewed. (
  • At the Nashville hospital with the highest proportion of neonates not administered vitamin K, 3.4% of 3,080 infants discharged from the newborn nursery received no vitamin K injection. (
  • Parents of the four infants with VKDB were asked why they declined vitamin K prophylaxis for their neonate. (
  • Hemorrhages in Newborns - To prevent hemorrhages some infants require extra administration of Vitamin K. This can be given in a fat-soluble or water-soluble form. (
  • Infants, whose mother has received anti-coagulant therapy, should be given Vitamin K immediately after birth. (
  • In recent years, despite this understanding and the numerous preventive and therapeutic strategies now available, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced as a global health problem among infants and children. (
  • As expected, vitamin D deficiency was more common in non-white mothers and their infants. (
  • BMC values were similar in infants with vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency, but the vitamin D deficient newborns were, on average, heavier and longer than those with adequate vitamin D levels. (
  • Weiler and colleagues also note that, in their Winnipeg cohort, mothers with vitamin D deficiency were significantly younger and more likely to be non-white than mothers with adequate vitamin D. Untested differences resulting from maternal age, ethnicity or both may have affected the BMC results in the infants. (
  • Infants with VK deficiency are at risk for hemorrhagic disease of newborn, caused by a lack of VK reaching the fetus across the placenta, the low level of VK in breast milk, and low colonic bacterial synthesis. (
  • The risk of developing VK deficiency bleeding is 81 times greater in infants who do not receive a vitamin K injection. (
  • In infants, the low transmission of vitamin K (VK) across the placenta, liver prematurity with prothrombin synthesis, lack of VK in breast milk, and the sterile gut in neonates account for VK deficiency. (
  • Each year, micro-nutrient deficiencies take a heavy toll on infants and young children. (
  • Consequently, different nutritional deficiency-related diseases are affecting millions of infants and young children. (
  • Approximately 40-60 percent of infants in the developing world suffer from impaired mental and physical development due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. (
  • Although classically caused by pernicious anaemia, this condition now accounts for a minority of cases and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs most often due to food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. (
  • Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin) is necessary for basic body functions, such as the growth and development of red blood cells and the nervous system. (
  • Vitamin B 12 is termed Cobalamin because it contains cobalt. (
  • No study reported on clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency (e.g. fatigue, depression, neurological complications), health-related quality of life, or acceptability of the treatment scheme. (
  • You might experience brain fog, lightheadedness, fatigue, tingling fingers and hands, or other symptoms if you don't get enough vitamin B12. (
  • Participants with 25OHD deficiency or insufficiency (50 to 75 nmol/L) were more likely to have declining Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores over 4.4 years of follow-up than their peers with sufficient 25OHD levels (75 nmol/L or greater). (
  • To evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency with diabetic nephropathy across racial/ethnic groups. (
  • 20 ng/mL vitamin D deficiency, 20 to 29 ng/mL vitamin D insufficiency, and ≥30 ng/mL normal vitamin D. (
  • Overall, 30.7% of adults with diabetes have nephropathy, 48.9% have vitamin D deficiency and 36.6% have vitamin D insufficiency. (
  • 95% CI, 1.12-2.85 for vitamin D insufficiency). (
  • There is an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency with the presence of nephropathy, even after adjustment for race/ethnicity and other variables. (
  • One of the most important ones is scurvy (if there is a shortage of vitamin C), rickets (in case of insufficiency in vitamin D with children) and pellagra (in case of shortage of vitamins PP and proteins). (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Can You Identify and Prevent Vitamin D Insufficiency? (
  • Individuals with lactose intolerance, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, or alcohol dependency may also have deficient vitamin B2 levels. (
  • Your body must absorb enough vitamin B12. (
  • Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. (
  • With age, it can become harder to absorb this vitamin. (
  • This is because the body requires fat to absorb vitamin E correctly. (
  • Failure to absorb or utilize the Vitamin can lead to a few deficiencies. (
  • most often develops due to a lack of these vitamins in the diet or an inability to absorb these vitamins from the digestive tract. (
  • Commonly, vitamin B12 is administered by injection, particularly when the deficiency is severe or caused by an inability to absorb the vitamin from the digestive tract. (
  • For example, people with an Intrinsic Factor deficiency cannot absorb vitamin B-12. (
  • Its deficiency is usually seen in chronic alcoholics and patients with gastro-intestinal diseases who are unable to absorb the vitamin. (
  • Another commonly overlooked but crucial reason to ensure proper vitamin D levels is that the body cannot adequately absorb calcium without sufficient levels of Vitamin D. According to the Institute of Health, when the body cannot absorb enough calcium, it begins drawing on existing bone stores, which can lead to weakened bone structure, fracture and disease ( 4 ). (
  • Firstly, they are all water-soluble (i.e. they dissolve in water), unlike vitamin A, for instance, which is fat-soluble. (
  • B vitamins are water-soluble. (
  • Thiamine or vitamin B-1 is a water-soluble vitamin that gets destroyed on heating and pasteurisation. (
  • For pregnant women, riboflavin becomes essential for bone, muscle and nerve development of the baby.Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin like all other B vitamins which means that it is flushed out of the body daily so it must be restored each day to avoid any deficiencies. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, occurs when babies cannot stop bleeding because their blood does not have enough Vitamin K to form a clot. (
  • Breast milk contains low amounts of vitamin K, so exclusively breastfed babies don't get enough vitamin K from the breast milk, alone. (
  • Do you get enough vitamin B12? (
  • You should talk to your doctor before you have your baby, so that you have a plan in place for how you'll get enough vitamin B12 to keep your baby healthy. (
  • Without enough vitamin B12, your baby could have developmental delays and not thrive and grow like they should. (
  • There are very few foods (fish, eggs, mushroom (if grown in the sun)) that actually have therapeutic levels of vitamin D naturally and even fortified foods do not contain enough vitamin D to support your health needs. (
  • Studies show that new-born guinea pigs subjected to vitamin C deficiency have a markedly worse memory than guinea pigs given enough vitamin C. Maybe this also applies to human beings? (
  • We may thus be witnessing that children get learning disabilities because they have not gotten enough vitamin C in their early life. (
  • In fact, most of us aren't consuming enough vitamin D, vitamin C, calcium and iron, according to numerous studies. (
  • Your body's collagen levels can start to run low if you do not obtain enough vitamin C or if you smoke, eat too much sugar, or spend too much time in the sun. (
  • Pernicious anemia is a condition where you aren't getting enough vitamin B12. (
  • A condition where the body doesn't get enough vitamin B12 through food can be called pernicious anemia. (
  • In order to provide for immediate bonding and contact between the newborn and mother, giving the vitamin K shot can be delayed up to 6 hours after birth. (
  • Available at . (
  • Preliminary queries of Tennessee hospital discharge data during 2007-2012 revealed no confirmed cases of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding, defined as an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis code of either hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (776.0) or vitamin K deficiency (269.0), plus any codes for symptoms of bleeding, including intracranial or gastrointestinal hemorrhages, epistaxis, bruising, or hemothorax. (
  • Plasma vitamin D levels were measured in 50 mother-newborn pairs from the Winnipeg area, and the results were related to the BMC of the newborns. (
  • If the cause is due to imbalanced diet, intravenous injections of vitamin B12 along with dietary changes are often prescribed by the physicians to treat the problem. (
  • Although there has long been a folk understanding of the therapeutic benefit of cod-liver oil (such as is speculated to have been given to Dickens' Tiny Tim), discovery of the biochemical structure of vitamin D in the 1930s led to a scientific understanding of the importance of sunshine and dietary sources to prevent vitamin D deficiency. (
  • A deficiency in one or more B vitamins can be caused by inadequate dietary intake or an underlying health condition. (
  • Daily recommended Vitamin B intake depends on age, dietary preferences, medical conditions etc. (
  • Riboflavin is continuously excreted through the urine, thus increasing the risk of a deficiency when dietary intake is insufficient. (
  • Only 10-15% of dietary calcium is absorbed without vitamin D (1). (
  • Bones are weakened because of dietary deficiency of calcium and Vitamin D. Deficiency of Vitamin D leads to osteoporosis and early arthritis. (
  • For decades, vitamin D was known as a nutrient that was important only for bone health ," said lead author Lisa Bodnar, PhD, MPH, RD, associate professor in Pitt Public Health's Department of Epidemiology. (
  • In adults with a severe vitamin D deficiency, the examination can reveal periosteal bone pain. (
  • Elderly people too may increase their chances of bone and hip fractures, in case they do not follow a diet which contains an adequate amount of foods high in Vitamin K . (
  • And good vitamin D levels are essential to prevent many different illnesses from Alzheimer's to Ricketts and bone weakness in old age. (
  • Vitamin D plays a key role in bone development by promoting calcium absorption in the gut. (
  • A severe deficiency in vitamin D takes a heavy toll on the growing skeleton by causing impaired mineralization of bone tissue (leading to osteomalacia) and of the growth plate (which manifests as rickets). (
  • The finding of similar BMC values in the presence of a larger body weight in the vitamin D deficient group therefore may be indicative of a relative paucity of bone mineral. (
  • Severe vitamin D deficiency impairs bone mineralization leading to osteomalacia and rickets (2). (
  • It's a good idea to take D3 with K2 as there's a synergistic relationship between vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 for bone and cardiovascular health. (
  • If pregnant women are deficient during pregnancy, their children could be at higher risk for neonatal hypocalcaemia (not enough calcium in the blood) or rickets, a bone deficiency due to vitamin D deficiency ( 2 ). (
  • In one controlled study, people with vitamin D deficiency were nearly twice as likely to experience bone pain in their legs, ribs or joints compared to those with blood levels in the normal range. (
  • It's possible, say the researchers, that the role of vitamin D on further cognitive decline may be less obvious because of the presence of other comorbidities and disabilities that might accelerate cognitive decline regardless of the starting levels of vitamin D. (
  • He told Medscape Medical News that this new study "effectively replicates" a 2010 study by his group showing a link between low vitamin D levels and an increased risk for cognitive decline. (
  • That study suggested older patients with vitamin D levels below 50 nmol/L have about a 122% increased risk for dementia compared with those with higher levels. (
  • Strengthening the bhutagnis, dehagni and loma randhra is essential if Vitamin D levels are to return to a balanced state. (
  • There is accumulating evidence that high vitamin B12 levels (values varied from 350-1,200 pmol/l) are associated with haematological and hepatic disorders, in particular with malignancy. (
  • Two of these diseases, congenital abetalipoproteinemia and familial isolated vitamin E deficiency , are chronic and result in extremely low vitamin E levels. (
  • While one dose can sufficiently raise blood levels of vitamin E, multiple doses may be required. (
  • It is highly unlikely that a person has low levels of vitamin E unless they have an underlying chronic disease, a genetic condition, or a diet extremely low in fat. (
  • Low levels of vitamin B12 lead to muscle weakness and cramps. (
  • Quadro says this research is an important step toward figuring out how human-friendly bacteria can be engineered to produce high levels of beta-carotene within the human gut, where they could serve as a source of the vitamin A precusor. (
  • In a counterintuitive finding, scientists have discovered that levels of vitamin D deficiency in prehistoric Middle Eastern farming communities were four times as severe as those found in modern-day Greeks. (
  • The result, over a lifetime, is that each tooth, in cross-section, presents a permanent record of vitamin D levels, with its presence or absence deducible by layers of mineralisation. (
  • Teeth from Greece in 1948, the scientists found, had four times the levels of deficiency - enough in several cases to have caused rickets - than those from farmers in the Middle East 5000 years earlier. (
  • The blood was well-preserved, and researchers were able to test for vitamin D levels decades later. (
  • Normal serum vitamin D levels. (
  • cord blood and infant liver reserve levels of vitamin K are substantially below adult levels ( 1,2 ). (
  • This prospective study assessed the blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of immune function in response to vitamin D intervention in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). (
  • This study is the first to find a connection between vitamin D levels and inflammation in a large sample of older individuals. (
  • Ensuring older individuals have optimal vitamin D levels may be a way to boost immune function in this population, but this needs to be confirmed through additional studies. (
  • The team followed 957 Irish adults, all of whom were at least 60 years old, as part of their observational study investigating vitamin D levels and immune function biomarkers. (
  • Participants who were vitamin D deficient were more likely to have high levels of these biomarkers, which are linked to cardiovascular disease and inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, said the team. (
  • Thus, evaluating vitamin D levels in people with diabetes may be warranted. (
  • To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. (
  • Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis. (
  • Serum levels of vitamin D in TB patients are lower than in healthy controls ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Paradoxically, prolonged treatment of TB also causes a decline in serum vitamin D levels ( 2 ). (
  • For the present study, 129 de-identified, plasma samples preserved at -70°C from the baseline visit were shipped to Stanford University (Stanford, CA, USA) for analysis of vitamin D levels. (
  • Levels of vitamin D in test samples were derived by fitting a 2-parameter logistic curve to 6 standard levels and expressed as ng/mL (1 nmol/L × 0.4 = 1 ng/mL). (
  • Vitamin D levels in the cohort were classified in population-based tertiles (low, middle, high). (
  • Levels of vitamin D in plasma in the Karachi, Pakistan, tuberculosis (TB) household cohort ( 7 ) by TB status at baseline (disease-free, index TB case-patient, coprevalent TB case-patient, and past. (
  • Also, the doctor was not happy that it was healing slowly so he ordered a blood test for vitamin d levels. (
  • I am aware there seems to be much hype about low vitamin d levels but I am beginning to be a believer. (
  • Dr Nujen Bozkurt and colleagues of the Ankara University School of Medicine in Turkey, recently conducted a cross-sectional study of 540 subjects, seeing if vitamin D levels are connected to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. (
  • We showed that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis present lower vitamin D levels inversely correlated to antibody levels and directly correlated to thyroid volume. (
  • I predict that a growing number of studies will look at vitamin D and antibody levels in autoimmune disorders. (
  • One recent study in the same realm looked at antibodies possibly involved in autism and vitamin D levels, where Saudi Arabian researchers discovered an amazingly high correlation (r=-.86) between vitamin D levels and an antibody against human brain tissue, anti-MAG antibodies. (
  • Study: High antibodies, low vitamin D levels in autistic children. (
  • This key nutrient plays a role in your muscles, mood, and energy levels-meaning a deficiency can impact your health in a number of ways. (
  • Antibiotic therapy and low intake of the vitamin, reduces its production by bacteria, and may lead to lower levels of Vitamin K in the body. (
  • Drugs, and particularly chemotherapy drugs can deplete vitamin D levels. (
  • Importantly, chemotherapy can reduce vitamin D to dangerously low levels in the bodies of cancer patients, causing severe vitamin D deficiency. (
  • And this happens at exactly the moment good vitamin D levels are crucial to a cancer patient. (
  • and for people with cancer, plasma levels of vitamin D are predictive of survival times. (
  • There are several reasons you need good vitamin D levels, not least vitamin D activates the immune system to attack cancer cells. (
  • Each of three different chemotherapy treatments studied reduced plasma vitamin D levels down to 21.3 ng/ml, where 30-50 is an optimal range. (
  • This followed 2012 research stating that 'vitamin D deficiency remains rampant' and that chemotherapy destroyed vitamin D levels in women with breast cancer. (
  • At the very moment cancer patients need good levels of vitamin D in their bodies because good levels have been proven to be critical to survival, along comes the chemotherapy with yet another side-effect. (
  • Specifically, the researchers found that if black dialysis patients had low blood albumin levels during the winter season, the likelihood they would be vitamin D deficient increased from 90% to 100% for women and from 85% to 100% for men. (
  • Although our study was not designed to figure out why obese people have lower vitamin D levels, our results ultimately suggest that low vitamin D levels do not cause or worsen OSA," said Kunisaki. (
  • It is known that vitamin D deficient mothers and their babies have lower serum calcium and higher parathyroid hormone levels. (
  • At first, injections are given daily or weekly for several weeks until the blood levels of vitamin B12 return to normal. (
  • However, low or marginal vitamin B12 levels (200-300 pg/mL [148-221 pmol/L]) in asymptomatic individuals is far more common. (
  • In some areas in the world, vitamin C deficiency is very common - population studies in Brazil and Mexico have shown that 30 to 40 per cent of the pregnant women have too low levels of vitamin C, and the low level is also found in their foetuses and new-born babies. (
  • If your vitamin D levels are found to be insufficient, your doctor will probably recommend taking a vitamin D supplement. (
  • Two studies used 1000 μg/day oral vitamin B 12 and showed no relevant difference to intramuscularly applied vitamin B 12 with regard to vitamin B 12 blood levels. (
  • One trial used 2000 μg/day vitamin B 12 and showed higher vitamin B 12 blood levels in favour of oral vitamin B 12 . (
  • Low quality evidence shows oral and IM vitamin B 12 having similar effects in terms of normalising serum vitamin B 12 levels, but oral treatment costs less. (
  • Our primary outcomes were serum vitamin B 12 levels, clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency, and adverse events. (
  • For mothers about to give birth, Vitamin B increases energy levels and reduces the risk of preeclampsia. (
  • How to test for vitamin levels and deficiencies? (
  • Laboratory tests determine the vitamin levels and deficiencies in your body from a standard blood sample. (
  • Also, testing vitamin levels can benefit anyone displaying vitamin deficiency symptoms (read below for common symptoms). (
  • Symptoms that arise from low levels of vitamins in the body can differ depending on the specific vitamin that is deficient. (
  • If you don't consume meat or animal products as part of your diet then you need to pay close attention to your levels as B vitamins are rare in plants. (
  • Low vitamin B12 levels can lead to medical issues so a regular test is advised. (
  • Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is one of the important vitamins among the eight B vitamins, which is not only responsible for maintaining healthy blood cells, protecting the skin and eye health but also in boosting your energy levels. (
  • The prevalence of ED is 30% higher among men who have vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL versus those with levels of 30 ng/mL or higher. (
  • Men with vitamin D deficiency-defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level below 20 ng/mL-have a significant 30% and 80% greater prevalence of ED and severe ED, respectively, compared with men who have optimal levels (30 ng/mL or higher), after adjusting for comorbidities, lifestyle variables, and medication use, investigators reported in Atherosclerosis (2016;252:61-67). (
  • One mechanism linking low vitamin D levels with ED may be via reduced synthesis of nitric oxide," they wrote. (
  • High cortisol levels (caused by stress or medications like steroids) are associated with lower vitamin D levels . (
  • Obesity reduces the biologic activity of vitamin D. Obese people have lower serum levels of vitamin D because it gets taken up by fat cells. (
  • People on low-fat diets, and people with conditions that impair fat absorption (like IBS, IBD, gall bladder or liver disease) are more likely to have low levels of vitamin D. (
  • We now know that certain people with normal serum levels of vitamin D still suffer from deficiency symptoms. (
  • This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a large sample of healthy children and adolescents in Bahrain, evaluate any sex and age differences between children with low vitamin D levels and those with adequate vitamin D, and correlate vitamin D levels with children's age. (
  • The importance of keeping appropriate B-12 levels is addressed in this article, and we will describe the advantages and risks of Vitamin B-12 Shots . (
  • Every type of B12 supplement can increase vitamin B12 levels in your blood. (
  • It is important to remember that in most healthy individuals low levels are uncommon and the human liver stores vitamin B-12 for many years. (
  • Every cell in the human body needs sufficient vitamin D levels to survive and thrive. (
  • Additionally, babies in the womb have higher levels of vitamin D, which then drop after birth and begin rising again upon exposure to sun. (
  • And these are just some of the reasons sufficient vitamin D blood levels are crucial to achieve optimal health. (
  • According to the Harvard Medical School, if an individual suffers from conditions such as Chrohn's disease, leaky gut syndrome, celiac disease, chronic pancreatic or cystic fibrosis, vitamin D levels could be affected ( 5 ). (
  • Ill people will spend less time outdoors and will have also lower levels of vitamin D. (
  • isolated 25-OH vitamin D serum levels have only limited explanatory value. (
  • Results were largely discrepant: The Gale study reported a more than 5-fold increased risk on asthma by high maternal vitamin D serum levels, while the Devereux study showed a 0.3-fold reduced risk on wheezing by questionnaire derived exposure estimates. (
  • July 7, 2008 (Boston, Massachusetts) - New research showing that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic migraine suggests that this patient group, like other vitamin D-deficient populations, is at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and other serious illnesses that have been linked to low levels of this "good-health" vitamin. (
  • He reviewed the records from consecutive chronic migraine patients who had vitamin D levels assessed at a single outpatient laboratory over a 6-month period. (
  • Optimal or sufficient total vitamin D was defined as levels greater than 30 ng/mL. (
  • One study examined the association between vitamin D levels and back pain in more than 9,000 older women. (
  • The findings, published in Scientific Reports, were the result of an analysis of serum vitamin D levels and occurrence of headache in approximately 2,600 men aged between 42 and 60 years in 1984-1989. (
  • Chronic headache occurring at least on a weekly basis was reported by 250 men, and men reporting chronic headache had lower serum vitamin D levels than others. (
  • When the study population was divided into four groups based on their serum vitamin D levels, the group with the lowest levels had over a twofold risk of chronic headache in comparison to the group with the highest levels. (
  • Levels of vitamin D in plasma in the Karachi, Pakistan, tuberculosis (TB) household cohort ( 7 ) by TB status at baseline (disease-free, index TB case-patient, coprevalent TB case-patient, and past TB case-patient, treated 2-10 years previously). (
  • Box plots show the median, 25th, and 75th quartiles of serum vitamin D estimated for each group (A) by any TB diagnosis (current or past) at baseline (B) and by sex (C). Reference lines represent cut-offs for insufficient and sufficient vitamin D levels, respectively. (
  • Nnoaham KE , Clarke A . Low serum vitamin D levels and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Vitamin D may be involved in the production of feel-good neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, and people who are depressed commonly have low vitamin D levels. (
  • However, it has not been established that low vitamin D levels are the main cause of SAD. (
  • When situations of white muscle disease and other Se-related problems do occur, it is important to look at vitamin E levels as well. (
  • Vitamin D: an essential adjuvant therapeutic agent in breast cancer - J Int Med Res 2022 Jul - 'Low serum levels of vitamin D have been reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. (
  • With all the news in the press about the benefits of having good levels of vitamin D e.g. prevention of cancer, especially breast cancer, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis it is important that you know whether or not you are lacking in this vital vitamin by taking a simple blood test. (
  • As well as all of these benefits, it is now thought that having good levels of vitamin D can help slow down the ageing process and. (
  • Severe hemorrhages maybe caused as a result of blood taking longer to clot due to deficiency of Vitamin K. Life threatening situations may occur due to bleeding and nose bleeds. (
  • Reduction in the number of white blood cells and platelets also can occur, especially when people have had vitamin deficiency anemia for a long time. (
  • Some B vitamin deficiencies occur more frequently than others. (
  • Vitamin K (VK) deficiency can occur in any age group but is encountered most often in infancy. (
  • What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding? (
  • Vitamin K is a substance that our body needs to form clots and to stop bleeding. (
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K stored in their bodies, which can lead to serious bleeding problems if not supplemented. (
  • How often are babies affected with vitamin K deficiency bleeding? (
  • The telltale sign of vitamin K deficiency is bleeding too much. (
  • The main symptom of vitamin K deficiency is excessive bleeding. (
  • During February-September 2013, four confirmed cases of late vitamin K deficient bleeding were diagnosed at a children's hospital in Nashville, Tennessee. (
  • The medical therapy for VK deficiency depends on the severity of the associated bleeding and the underlying disease state. (
  • The most effective approach to correcting the deficiency also depends on the nature of the bleeding and the risk of inducing a local hematoma at the VK injection site. (
  • Diseases like autoimmune disorders, pancreatic diseases, HIV infection, malabsorption syndromes, and Crohn's disease reduce the stomach acids that aid in the absorption of B12, resulting in deficiency. (
  • Patients with combined endocrine disorders (DM and AIT) with a decreased vitamin D status had significantly increased background concentrations of Th1-type cytokines and reduced concentrations of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5), IL-10, and IL-17. (
  • Vitamin B deficiency leads to hormonal imbalances, neuropsychiatric disorders, metabolic disorders, and several other problems. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency increases the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • Vitamin B5 deficiency leads to metabolic disorders. (
  • Subtly reduced cognitive function resulting from early vitamin B12 deficiency is sometimes the only symptom of these intestinal disorders. (
  • There is increasing evidence for deficiency of both macro and micronutrients being linked to mental health disorders. (
  • Found in the raw (green) papaya, this enzyme overcomes deficiency of unhealthy mucus in the stomach and cures intestinal disorders. (
  • Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. (
  • Untreated deficiencies will lead to megaloblastic anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency results in irreversible central nervous system degeneration. (
  • Like humans pets are also prone to deficiencies and disease. (
  • As a result, we become prone to deficiencies in essential vitamins and microelements or exacerbate the existing deficiency. (
  • Although mild deficiency may not cause apparent symptoms, severe deficiency in vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can cause changes in the tongue and skin, mood, as well as nerve damage. (
  • A balanced diet normally supplies sufficient vitamins. (
  • Vitamin D status was also found to be a significant predictor of the IL-6 to IL-10 cytokine ratio, with participants defined as deficient significantly more likely to have an IL-6 to IL-10 ratio greater than 2:1 when compared with those defined as sufficient, they added. (
  • Thus, inadequate vitamin E status led to a depletion of PUFA that may be a result of either or both increased lipid peroxidation and an impaired ability to synthesize sufficient PUFA, especially (n-3) PUFA. (
  • 11 In the Weiler and colleagues' study, sample size or unmeasured differences between the vitamin D deficient versus sufficient groups may have contributed to their unexpected finding. (
  • Guinea pigs - like humans - are dependent on getting sufficient vitamin C through their diet. (
  • Data on sex and age were recorded and vitamin D level was measured as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Children were grouped as: vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L], vitamin D insufficient (51-74 nmol/L) and vitamin D deficient (≤ 50 nmol/L). (
  • Only 6.6% were vitamin D sufficient. (
  • A little known fact about vitamin D in comparison to other vitamins, is that it is actually a steroidal hormone that is best produced in the body via sufficient sun exposure. (
  • A big reason so many people are vitamin D deficient is due to the fact that it is extremely difficult to get sufficient amounts through food alone. (
  • A sufficient supply of vitamins of the B group is generally not possible using normal feeding and additives. (
  • Older adults who have a vitamin B12 deficiency will likely have to take a daily B12 supplement or a multivitamin that contains B12. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency is rare in adults because many of the foods we eat contain adequate amounts of K1, and because the body makes K2 on its own. (
  • In adults, vitamin D deficiency results in osteomalacia, which presents as a poorly mineralized skeletal matrix. (
  • Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. (
  • In adults, vitamin K is absorbed from food and from vitamin K synthesized by gut bacteria. (
  • Led by Professor Sean (JJ) Strain from the University of Ulster, the Irish research team demonstrated significant associations between low vitamin D status and markers of inflammation (including the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10) within elderly adults. (
  • It is not yet known to what extent new-born babies in Denmark or the Western World suffer from vitamin C deficiency but a conservative estimate would be 5 to 10 per cent based on the occurrence among adults. (
  • For instance, vitamin B12 deficiency affects between 1 in 60 and 1 in 6 US adults depending on the definition used. (
  • Scientists are searching for ways to increase vitamin A intake without the need of consuming foods rich in vitamin A or beta-carotene. (
  • A vitamin B3 deficiency is rare in the United States, and it is most often the result of high alcohol intake. (
  • The highest concentration of vitamin C is found in the neurons of the brain and in case of a low intake of vitamin C, the remaining vitamin is retained in the brain to secure this organ. (
  • Poor intake of Vitamin B2 may cause the following symptoms1. (
  • Moreover, a deficiency of Vitamin B2 during pregnancy can result in birth defects including congenital heart defects and limb deformities.There is no side effect seen for Vitamin B2 toxicity produced by excessive intake because it has a lower water solubility than other B vitamins. (
  • Vitamin E occurs in eight chemical forms. (
  • Vitamin D-dependent rickets type I occurs because of a defect in the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase that results in decreased 1,25(OH) 2 D production. (
  • Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II occurs when a mutation exists in the VDR. (
  • In Western populations, vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in up to 40% of diets because people often consume a low quantity of vitamin B12-rich foods. (
  • Vitamin B deficiency occurs when the body doesn't get adequate amounts of Vitamin B for the efficient functioning of different bodily processes. (
  • Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is naturally created in the intestinal tract and works similarly to K1. (
  • Not only did they produce beta-carotene, but subsequent tests showed that the vitamin A precursor crossed the intestinal barrier and made itself at home in other tissues of the mouse's body. (
  • Most people who develop a vitamin B12 deficiency have an underlying stomach or intestinal disorder that limits the absorption of vitamin B12. (
  • Rutgers scientists believe that they have found a way to fight vitamin A deficiency - a discovery they hope could be the answer to a global health problem linked to blindness, impaired immune systems, and birth defects. (
  • "These findings suggest that an adequate vitamin D status may be required for optimal immune function, particularly within the older adult population," ​ wrote the team. (
  • "Our data suggest vitamin D may be involved in maintaining the health of the immune system as well as the skeletal system," ​ added study co-author Dr Mary Ward, also the University of Ulster. (
  • "The results indicate immune function may be compromised in older individuals with vitamin D deficiency," ​ explained Ward. (
  • Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator of innate immune responses ( 4 , 5 ) by acting as a cofactor for induction of antimycobacterial activity ( 6 ). (
  • Vitamin D is critical to the functioning of your immune system , so any deficiency can make it harder for your body to fight off viruses and other pathogens (like bacteria and fungi) that can cause infections. (
  • Vitamin B2 deficiency makes the immune system weak and makes the body vulnerable to diseases. (
  • Vitamin D plays an important role in balancing the Th1 (cell-mediated) and Th2 (humoral) arms of the immune system. (
  • Although the reputation of vitamin C is centered around its benefits for your immune system, this vitamin also has an important role in supporting hydrated skin. (
  • Vitamin D doesn't just protect the bones, but is absolutely critical to the proper functioning of the immune system. (
  • In fact, German researchers discovered that vitamin D could increase immune system function by a factor of 3 to 5! (
  • Vitamin D enhances the immune system by stimulating the production of over 200 antimicrobial peptides, which are essential to fighting infections. (
  • Wolf B, Spencer R, Gleason T. Hearing loss is a common feature of symptomatic children with profound biotinidase deficiency. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. (
  • Deficiency is also common in newborns and babies born prematurely who have lower birth weights and less fat. (
  • Neuropathy is a common side effect of diabetes and one of the prime causes for diabetic neuropathy is vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is the most common cause of nutritional rickets. (
  • Pet Meds for resolving common pet deficiencies Being treated as a part of your family and most lovable animals, dogs and cats need special care to stay fit and healthy. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is becoming incredibly common in a lot of people, but many mistakenly believe they aren't at risk because they consume vitamin-D-fortified foods (such as milk). (
  • Test yourself on this common nutritional deficiency with this short quiz. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. (
  • Common symptoms of Vitamin B2 deficiency The symptoms can be visible within a few days. (
  • Since vitamin D is absorbed in the small intestine, a leaky and inflamed GI tract - which is extremely common in people with low thyroid function - reduces the absorption of vitamin D. (
  • Why is Vitamin D Deficiency So Common? (
  • In order to keep your skin hydrated and healthy, you need a steady stream of several common vitamins and nutrients. (
  • Vitamin B2 deficiencies aren't common. (
  • Regular consumption of papaya can help prevent night blindness, an ailment caused by vitamin A deficiency, which is common in many Indian children. (
  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common hematological disorder. (
  • The exact role of vitamin D in a number of areas to which it is linked - including health and skin pigmentation - remains unknown. (
  • If our results hold true in a modern sample of pregnant women, then further exploring the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia would be warranted," said Dr Bodnar. (
  • In the present study, we explored the role of vitamin D deficiency in TB disease progression within this cohort. (
  • Rook GA . The role of vitamin D in tuberculosis. (
  • The most important function in the body played by Vitamin K is to attract and then bind the calcium in the body, to the protein. (
  • Without Vitamin K, the calcium does not stick to the protein, which causes the strength and density in the bones to reduce. (
  • Second, she takes one Calcium tablet per day (600mg Calcium with Vitamin D3 of 400 IUs added). (
  • Vitamin K is essential for the proper utilization of calcium. (
  • Most often, those who are actively exercising experience a deficiency in vitamin B, vitamins A, E, and D, as well as calcium, copper, and potassium (the latter is actively washed out from our body with sweat). (
  • Dr Tomar says that deficiency of calcium and Vitamin D is one of the leading causes of osteoporosis. (
  • It is among the body's main antioxidants , and a deficiency results in oxidative stress , which can lead to muscle weakness. (
  • Hi Max, I know you like to stay on top of lab tests, so FYI, the most accurate way to measure your body's vitamin d level is the 25-hydroxy vitamin d blood test. (
  • Taking vitamins boosts our body's needs during dieting and it is important to our health. (
  • People with alcohol addiction are also more susceptible to malnutrition due to vitamin deficiencies because excessive alcohol use can interfere with the body's vitamin absorption. (
  • A mild deficiency may cause no symptoms. (
  • Drugs like antacids, Metformin and antibiotics can be seen as being primary causes of Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (
  • Clinical consequences of human infection are generally absent or mild, although anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency was described in Scandinavia ( 1 ). (
  • Why are babies more likely to have vitamin K deficiency and to get VKDB? (
  • The long-term goal of our work is to translate this approach into a microorganism that will be human-friendly and will allow us to move from a mouse model system to humans, to actually fight vitamin A deficiency," says Quadro whose team's work was funded by a $100,000 grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (
  • If the liver is bogged down by toxins, and the panchabhutagnis (flames of the liver) are not firing properly, the supplement of Vitamin D3 will not get transformed into active Vitamin D. (
  • You can change your diet to include vitamin B12-fortified grains, a supplement or B12 injections, or a high-dose oral vitamin B12 if you are deficient. (
  • This is unbearable when it would be so easy to prevent this deficiency by giving a vitamin supplement to high-risk pregnant women and new mothers" says Jens Lykkesfeldt whose research group is currently studying how early in pregnancy vitamin C deficiency affects the embryonic development of guinea pigs and whether the damage may be reversed after birth. (
  • Over recent decades a wealth of evidence has accumulated documenting vitamin D deficiency in elderly populations in Europe and elsewhere. (
  • Other populations that may carry an increased risk of deficiency are athletes who follow a vegetarian diet, pregnant or lactating women, and people who follow a vegan diet and/or avoid milk consumption. (
  • Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted in African refugee camps to assess the level of iron deficiency anemia and vitamin A deficiency in populations dependent on long-term international food aid and humanitarian assistance . (
  • This novel approach could potentially change the way to treat not only vitamin A deficiency, but also deficiencies of other nutrients. (
  • In case a person experiences Vitamin K deficiency symptoms in spite of eating a high amount of Vitamin K rich foods, it may be best to consult a doctor as this could mean that the body is not absorbing the nutrients from the food in the right way. (
  • B vitamins are a family of critical nutrients that we typically obtain from the foods that we eat. (
  • With the average American's rushed schedule and inadequate diet, it's no wonder that many of us are lacking many of the vitamins and nutrients considered essential to maintaining healthy bodies. (
  • However, you may not expect the vitamins and nutrients that play a key role in keeping your skin smooth and hydrated. (
  • A deficiency in any of the following nutrients can take a toll on the health and appearance of your skin. (
  • Since the body produces collagen on its own, taking vitamin C and other nutrients like zinc and copper can help to support collagen production. (
  • The nutrients are vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acid. (
  • The humble papaya (Botanical name: Carica Papaya) is a storehouse of vitamins and nutrients. (
  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce or prevent complications related to a low vitamin B12 level. (
  • Biotinidase deficiency: initial clinical features and rapid diagnosis. (
  • Since missing the diagnosis can result in potentially severe complications, including degeneration of the spinal cord and pancytopaenia, vitamin B12 deficiency must be diagnosed early and managed appropriately. (
  • For the current study, researchers looked at patient records at the University of Florida Health Center between October 2015 and June 2020 to look for a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Overall, patients with a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency were found to be 4.6 times as likely to get COVID-19 as people with no diagnosis of a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • What is the ICD 10 diagnosis for protein deficiency? (
  • In 68 percent of these men, the serum vitamin D level was below 50 nmol/l, which is generally considered the threshold for vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Vitamin E deficiency can also result from diseases that severely reduce the absorption of fat. (
  • For example, multiple sclerosis or insulin dependent diabetes are both vitamin D associated diseases but the effects of those autoimmune assaults are to date apparently irreversible. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases in the scientific literature. (
  • At the same time, prolonged vitamin deficiency can lead to the development of dangerous pathological diseases. (
  • Nutritional deficiencies can adversely affect the brain and body in a multitude of ways. (
  • 4. Over the past decade, the international community has intensified actions to fight against all these nutritional deficiencies. (
  • Shots of vitamin B12 can prevent anemia if you've had a surgery known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • The researchers also found no evidence to support a link between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of OSA in non-obese study participants. (
  • In one of the largest studies to date, researchers studied blood samples collected from 700 pregnant women who later developed pre-eclampsia in an effort to examine a woman's vitamin D status during pregnancy and her risk of developing pre-eclampsia. (
  • The researchers found that vitamin D sufficiency was associated with a 40% reduction in risk of severe pre-eclampsia. (
  • In February 2009, researchers from Roswell Park Cancer Center , studying patients with colorectal cancer, noted that vitamin D deficiency was linked to a heightened risk of the disease and lowered survival. (
  • In the latest issue of the well-known scientific journal the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , a group of researchers headed by professor Jens Lykkesfeldt shows that guinea pigs subjected to moderate vitamin C deficiency have 30 per cent less hippocampal neurones and markedly worse spatial memory than guinea pigs given a normal diet. (
  • The researchers then looked at several factors that were tied to a person's risk of vitamin D deficiency, to see if the link to COVID-19 was still present once these factors were adjusted for. (
  • The researchers also found a trend toward earlier onset of headache (14.3 vs 18 years) and migraine (16.7 vs 22.2 years) in vitamin D-deficient patients. (
  • The researchers found that those with a deficiency were more likely to have back pain, including severe back pain that limited their daily activities. (
  • The researchers added 600 mg of vitamin C and patients who were administered the medication had lower blood pressure than the control group. (
  • Researchers hypothesize that vitamin B2 may reduce migraine frequency, as the body relies on riboflavin to produce mitochondrial energy. (
  • What can I do to prevent my baby from getting vitamin K deficiency and VKDB? (
  • The good news is that VKDB is easily prevented by giving babies a vitamin K shot into a muscle in the thigh. (
  • In the United States, administration of intramuscular vitamin K at birth to prevent all forms of VKDB has been standard practice since first recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1961 ( 3 ). (
  • In contrast, 28.0% of 218 neonates at birthing centers did not receive vitamin K. Case-finding efforts revealed no additional cases of late VKDB in Tennessee in 2013. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency: a factor that induces depression? (
  • The deficiency of vitamin B12 creates a case of hyperhomocysteinemia and decline of S-adenosylmethionine, which is a risk factor for depression without adequate treatment. (
  • This project had as an objective to verify the relation between depression and the deficiency of vitamin B12, through literary revision. (
  • Of the 25 results obtained, 15 associated the deficiency of B12 with depression and 10 didn't find this relation. (
  • Iron deficiency can have an adverse impact on the developing human brain and can increase risk for depression, anxiety, ADHD and other mental health conditions. (
  • This is because vitamin B12 deficiency affects the way certain cells (epithelial cells) in the cervix look. (
  • EMF (electromagnetic frequency) is especially detrimental to the production of Vitamin D because it affects the liver (bhutagnis), the skin (loma randhra) and the whole body (dehagni). (
  • Doctors are still working to fully understand how vitamin D works within the body and how it affects our overall health. (
  • that affects vitamin B12 absorption. (
  • The problem is that many people with autoimmune disease have a genetic polymorphism that affects the expression and activation of the VDR and thus reduces the biologic activity of vitamin D. Studies have shown that a significant number of patients with autoimmune Hashimoto's disease have VDR polymorphisms. (
  • Since vitamin B12 supports the sheathing that coats the nerve cells, people with vitamin B12 deficiency often suffer from peripheral neuropathy. (
  • The chemical formula for vitamin A. Human beings need it, but can't make it, and many people, particularly children in the developing world, sicken and die for the lack of it. (
  • Vitamin A deficiency causes the deaths of millions of people every year, many of them children. (
  • People with certain medical conditions and those who take certain antibiotics or anti-epileptic medications may be at greater risk of deficiency. (
  • When people think of their hair and wanting to stop hair loss, they may not realize that vitamins can play an important part in keeping a healthy head of hair. (
  • Hence, people will not suffer from the deficiency of Vitamin K, if they do continue to follow a diet high in fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables. (
  • What's more, people with diabetes were found to be at an increased risk for both vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19. (
  • Another goal was to find out if the higher COVID-19 risk seen in certain groups - including people with diabetes and Black Americans - might be explained, in part, by a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • People with obesity were 4.9 times as likely to have vitamin D deficiency as others in the study. (
  • But at the same time, it suggests that certain groups - including Black people, people with diabetes and obese people - may need to be extra vigilant about screening for and treating any vitamin D deficiency, due to a higher likelihood of being vitamin D deficient. (
  • These include people with malnutrition, people with Hartnup disease, and people with inadequate intakes of certain vitamins (B2 and B6) and/or iron. (
  • Does oral vitamin B 12 have similar effects as intramuscular injections of vitamin B 12 for people with vitamin B 12 deficiency? (
  • Most people with vitamin B 12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B 12 . (
  • What I've seen happen in a number of people is that they develop what they thought was a diabetic neuropathy, not because they were diabetic, and not because of the blood sugar issue was creating the nerve damage, but because the drug they were taking for so many years was blocking the B-12, creating the Vitamin B-12 deficiency neuropathy. (
  • One of the reasons we get Vitamin B-12 deficiency is people that use medications that block stomach acids. (
  • In addition to back pain, people with a vitamin D deficiency may have an increased risk of chronic headaches, according to a study from the University of Eastern Finland. (
  • People can also top up the vitamin by eating certain foods. (
  • Following this ill-advised recommendation, up to 75% of people are vitamin D deficient. (
  • NaturalNews) Research abounds that adequate vitamin D is essential for good health ( ). (
  • Early in the COVID-19 pandemic , there was speculation that making sure your vitamin D level is adequate might be a way to help reduce the risk of getting the viral infection - but there wasn't any hard evidence to support this idea at first. (
  • The majority of beef rations will be low in vitamin E. This can trigger Se deficiency symptoms even when Se is adequate. (
  • Many studies have shown that vitamin K is safe when given to newborns. (
  • Increased incidence of profound biotinidase deficiency among Hispanic newborns in California. (
  • High incidence of partial biotinidase deficiency cases in newborns of Greek origin. (
  • 3) women and newborns in the Winnipeg area are at risk for vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D exposure of newborns continues to be a risk factor for allergic sensitization. (
  • Reasons included concern about an increased risk for leukemia when vitamin K is administered, an impression that the injection was unnecessary, and a desire to minimize the newborn's exposure to "toxins. (
  • Unfortunately, we have been so warned against sun exposure and advised to use sunscreen to the point that vitamin d deficiency has become epidemic. (
  • The link between obesity and vitamin D deficiency can be explained a number ways, one of which is that obese individuals are less likely to be physically active, thereby limiting their sun exposure," said senior investigator Ken Kunisaki, MD, MS, Medical Director of the Sleep Apnea Program at the Minneapolis VA and Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. (
  • If you're eating and picking and choosing the wrong kinds of meats, what's going to end up happening is you're getting exposure to antibiotics that can inhibit your Vitamin B-12, and you still end up with a Vitamin B-12 deficiency. (
  • Ignoring some of these points was probably the reason of the recent controversy around the epidemiological studies of vitamin D exposure in pregnancy. (
  • There is evidence from several birth cohort studies that vitamin D exposure will lead to later allergy (summarized in Wjst 1999, Wjst 2006, Wjst 2009). (
  • What are the symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency? (
  • Future trials should also measure important outcomes such as the clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency, health related-quality of life, socioeconomic effects, and report adverse events adequately, preferably in a primary care setting. (
  • What are some symptoms of vitamin deficiencies? (
  • Gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin B-6 in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). (
  • Biliary Obstruction - When absorption of Vitamin K has been obstructed by lack of bile salts, pancreatic secretions or other causes of digestive failures. (
  • However, it is important to ensure that the vegetables are either eaten raw, or are only slightly cooked for higher absorption of Vitamin K. Other foods with Vitamin K include certain herbs and spices, beans , lamb and legumes. (
  • Not eating enough fat or not digesting fat properly reduces absorption of vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, which means it requires fat to be absorbed. (
  • There are two main kinds of vitamin K. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) comes from plants, especially leafy green vegetables like spinach and kale. (
  • Almost all vegetables contain Vitamin K and some of the best sources of Vitamin K include green vegetables like cabbage , kale and spinach, as well as other veggies such as Brussels sprouts, turnip greens, collards and beet greens. (
  • Multiple carboxylase deficiency: clinical and biochemical improvement following neonatal biotin treatment. (
  • Wolf B. Worldwide survey of neonatal screening for biotinidase deficiency. (
  • Profound vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy can result in neonatal rickets. (
  • Several factors indicate that the neonatal brain , in contrast to other tissue, is particularly vulnerable to even a slight lowering of the vitamin C level. (
  • In Bahrain, two published studies on vitamin D status looked at neonatal and adult age groups (12,13). (
  • Final considerations: There is a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and early childhood caries. (