Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Irradiation directly from the sun.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A disease that results from a congenital defect in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV. Defects in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.

Perspectives from micronutrient malnutrition elimination/eradication programmes. (1/904)

Micronutrient malnutrition cannot be eradicated, but the elimination and control of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies and their health-related consequences as public health problems are currently the targets of global programmes. Remarkable progress is occurring in the control of goitre and xerophthalmia, but iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) has been less responsive to prevention and control efforts. Subclinical consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. "hidden hunger", include compromised immune functions that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development and growth, and reduced reproductive and work capacity and performance. The implications are obvious for human health and national and global economic and social development. Mixes of affordable interventions are available which, when appropriately adapted to resource availability and context, are proven to be effective. These include both food-based interventions, particularly fortification programmes, such as salt iodization, and use of concentrated micronutrient supplements. A mix of accompanying programmes for infection control, community participation, including education, communication and information exchange, and private sector involvement are lessons learned for overcoming deterrents and sustaining progress towards elimination.  (+info)

Candidate noninfectious disease conditions. (2/904)

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. (3/904)

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

Using cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate targeting strategies: the case of vitamin A supplementation. (4/904)

Given the demonstrated efficacy of vitamin A supplements in reducing childhood mortality, health officials now have to decide whether it would be efficient to target the supplements to high risk children. Decisions about targeting are complex because they depend on a number of factors; the degree of clustering of preventable deaths, the cost of the intervention, the side-effects of the intervention, the cost of identifying the high risk group, and the accuracy of the 'diagnosis' of risk. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used in the Philippines to examine whether vitamin A supplements should be given universally to all children 6-59 months, targeted broadly to children suffering from mild, moderate, or severe malnutrition, or targeted narrowly to pre-schoolers with moderate and severe malnutrition. The first year average cost of the universal approach was US$67.21 per death averted compared to $144.12 and $257.20 for the broad and narrow targeting approaches respectively. When subjected to sensitivity analysis the conclusion about the most cost-effective strategy was robust to changes in underlying assumptions such as the efficacy of supplements, clustering of deaths, and toxicity. Targeting vitamin A supplements to high risk children is not an efficient use of resources. Based on the results of this cost-effectiveness analysis and a consideration of alternate strategies, it is apparent that vitamin A, like immunization, should be provided to all pre-schoolers in the developing world. Issues about targeting public health interventions can usefully be addressed by cost-effectiveness analysis.  (+info)

Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding protein. (5/904)

BACKGROUND: Two German sisters aged 14 and 17 y were admitted to the Tubingen eye hospital with a history of night blindness. In both siblings, plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations were below the limit of detection (<0.6 micromol/L) and plasma retinol concentrations were extremely low (0.19 micromol/L). Interestingly, intestinal absorption of retinyl esters was normal. In addition, other factors associated with low retinol concentrations (eg, low plasma transthyretin or zinc concentrations or mutations in the transthyretin gene) were not present. Neither sibling had a history of systemic disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the cause of the retinol deficiency in these 2 siblings. DESIGN: The 2 siblings and their mother were examined clinically, including administration of the relative-dose-response test, DNA sequencing of the RBP gene, and routine laboratory testing. RESULTS: Genomic DNA sequence analysis revealed 2 point mutations in the RBP gene: a T-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1282 of exon 3 and a G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1549 of exon 4. These mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions of asparagine for isoleucine at position 41 (Ile41-->Asn) and of aspartate for glycine at position 74 (Gly74-->Asp). Sequence analysis of cloned polymerase chain reaction products spanning exons 3 and 4 showed that these mutations were localized on different alleles. The genetic defect induced severe biochemical vitamin A deficiency but only mild clinical symptoms (night blindness and a modest retinal dystrophy without effects on growth). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the cellular supply of vitamin A to target tissues might be bypassed in these siblings via circulating retinyl esters, beta-carotene, or retinoic acid, thereby maintaining the health of peripheral tissues.  (+info)

Dietary antioxidants and magnesium in type 1 brittle asthma: a case control study. (6/904)

BACKGROUND: Type 1 brittle asthma is a rare form of asthma. Atopy, psychosocial factors and diet may contribute to this condition. As increased dietary magnesium has a beneficial effect on lung function and selenium, vitamins A, C and E have antioxidant properties, a study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients with brittle asthma have diets deficient in these nutrients compared with subjects with non-brittle asthma and healthy adults. METHODS: A case control study of the dietary intakes of 20 subjects with brittle asthma, 20 with non-brittle asthma, and 20 healthy adults was performed using five day weighed dietary records. Intake of magnesium was the primary outcome measure with selenium and vitamins A, C and E as secondary outcomes. Serum levels were measured at the same time as the dietary assessment. RESULTS: Sixty subjects (27 men) of mean age 49.5 years were recruited and completed the study. Subjects with brittle asthma had statistically lower median dietary intakes of vitamins A and E than the other groups (vitamin A: brittle asthma 522.5 micrograms/day, non-brittle asthma 869.5 micrograms/day, healthy adults 806.5 micrograms/day; vitamin E: brittle asthma 4.3 mg/day, non-brittle asthma 4.6 mg/day, healthy adults 4.5 mg/day). Median dietary intakes for the other nutrients were not significantly different between groups. Serum levels were within normal ranges for each nutrient in all subjects. Intakes less than the reference nutrient intake (RNI) for magnesium and vitamins A and C, and less than the safe intake (SI) for vitamin E were more likely in patients with brittle asthma than in those with non-brittle asthma. CONCLUSION: Nutrient deficiency and reduced antioxidant activity may contribute to disease activity in type 1 brittle asthma, although a prospective study of replacement therapy will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.  (+info)

Ocular signs and symptoms and vitamin A status in patients with cystic fibrosis treated with daily vitamin A supplements. (7/904)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may have low plasma vitamin A levels from malabsorption, zinc deficiency, liver disease, or poor compliance with prescribed supplements. In view of the increasing number of adults with CF, many of whom drive cars, it is important to assess vitamin A status. In our centre an attempt has been made to achieve normal levels of fat soluble vitamins by annual estimation of plasma levels and appropriate oral supplementation. This study aimed to determine if this approach prevents vitamin A deficiency and the consequent problems with dark adaptation. METHODS: The study was conducted at the regional adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis unit and the patients were recruited from there. Dark adaptation studies were conducted at the department of ophthalmology, St James's University Hospital. All patients are regularly seen in the outpatient department by a CF specialist dietitian and have a comprehensive annual dietary assessment. 28 patients had the following investigations: serum retinol, plasma zinc, serum retinol binding protein, liver function tests, dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and anterior ocular surface status. 25 age and sex matched controls without CF or ocular pathology were also recruited for the dark adaptation study. RESULTS: None of the patients had vitamin A deficiency, the median value of serum retinol being 48 microg/dl, range 31-80 microg/dl (normal range 30-80 microg/dl). Dark adaptation was normal in all cases compared with the control group where the mean value was 3.4 log units of threshold luminance (95% confidence interval 2.4-4.0). None of the test group had a value of threshold luminance 2 SD above the mean value for the control group. Eight patients had reduced contrast sensitivity. The median value for serum zinc was 14.2 micromol/ l, range 13-81 micromol/l (normal range 8-23 micromol/l) and the median value for retinol binding protein was 36 mg/l, range 13-81 mg/l (normal range 35-58 mg/l). There was no correlation between dark adaptation and serum retinol, zinc, or retinol binding protein. Two patients had clinical evidence of dry eye. CONCLUSION: Regular estimates of plasma vitamin A together with appropriate supplementation and expert dietetic review can maintain normal dark adaptation in patients with cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of reduced contrast sensitivity function is well documented but remains an unexplained phenomenon and deserves further study.  (+info)

Parenteral vitamin requirements during intravenous feeding. (8/904)

Serum vitamin levels of 40 patients undergoing parenteral nutrition over a 5-to 42-day period were studied while the subjects received daily water-soluble and once weekly fat soluble vitamin formulations intravenously. Initial serum deficiencies of vitamins A, C, and folate were noted in a large portion of the severely malnourished population. At the replacement levels used in this study a small number of patients developed subnormal levels of vitamins A and D. Improvement in levels for vitamin C and folate were noted for most patients. Vitamin B12 deficiencies were not noted in any patient. Currently available commercial vitamin preparations can be used with safety in the parenterally nourished population and recommended guidelines for weekly infusion of both water and fat soluble vitamins are presented.  (+info)

TY - GEN. T1 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. AU - Mitchell, C.A.. AU - Thompson, Philip. AU - Ruffin, R.E.. AU - Walters, E.H.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 28(2). SP - 261. BT - Annual Scientific Meeting of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand. A2 - Macdonald, G.. PB - Adis International Ltd. CY - Sydney. T2 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. Y2 - 1 January 1998. ER - ...
Vitamins and minerals are essential to life. They act as cofactors or prosthetic groups for most enzymes, thus making biochemical reactions possible. Some cofactors are transiently associated with a given enzyme and in this capacity they function as cosubstrates. They are also called coenzymes. Besides being cofactors for enzymes some vitamins such as the fat-soluble vitamins A and D have been shown to exhibit hormone-like functions. Thus, vitamin A and its metabolites retinaldehyde and retinoic acids are involved in the growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues as well as for reproduction. Retinoic acids can substitute for vitamin A--deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. As for vitamin D is interesting to note that the skin is both the site of vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 synthesis and a target organ for the latter. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 is essential for mineral homeostasis and bone integrity as well as the regulation of growth and ...
Subjecting tiny babies and our precious children to massive doses of antigens and toxic contents of vaccines, without being vaccinated...
Vitamin A deficiency leads to altered lipid metabolism in the liver. The expression pattern of metabolic genes in vitamin A-sufficient (VAS) versus vitamin A-deficient (VAD) liver was compared using a Mouse Genome Oligo Set Version 3.0 (Qiagen-Operon) 70mer-oligonucleotide array. Results from microarray analysis were analyzed using the GeneSpring bioinformatics program. The microarray results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Mice were made vitamin A deficient by placing them on the modified AIN-93G diet without vitamin A on the tenth day of gestation. Both the differential expression of metabolic genes and the metabolic outcome of this differential expression were assessed. ^ In this study, vitamin A deficiency caused a decrease in expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation, including fatty acid ligase, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and carnitine o-palmitoyl transferase I in the liver. A decrease in the mitochondrial β
Full Text - Objective: The current study evaluated the relationship between circulating fat soluble vitamin status and cognition in aging Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1754 community residents aged 55-80 years aiming to evaluate the relationship between circulating α-tocopherol and retinol status and cognition. The effect of ApoE genetic polymorphism on the relationship between vitamins and cognition was also explored.Results: Our results indicated that serum retinol status positively correlated with cognitive performance; while, serum α-tocopherol (α-TOH)/retinol ratio negatively correlated with cognitive performance. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subject demonstrated higher serum α-TOH status (P < 0.05), α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01) and lower retinol status (P < 0.01) than normal subjects. Subjects with ApoE4 genotype have lower serum retinol level (P < 0.05) and higher α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01)
Golden rice is rich in vitamin A. Rice kernals are deficient of vitamin A ,so people who obtain most of their calories from rice are deficient of vitamin A..
Minhen i okolina - tražim posao čuvanja deteta, ili dece. Imam jako dobro iskustvo, predana sam i pedantna. Za sve dodatne informacije, možete me kontaktirati. Molim, samo ozbiljne ponude.. Jasmina 060/184- ...
Vitamin A deficiency, which affects about 100 million young children worldwide, was long known to cause blindness. But it has become increasingly clear that even mild vitamin A deficiency also impairs the immune system, reducing childrens resistance to diarrhoea, which kills 2.2 million children a year, and measles, which kills nearly 1 million annually. And new findings strongly suggest that vitamin A deficiency is a cause of maternal mortality as well, especially among women in impoverished regions (Panel 1).. At its most basic level, malnutrition is a consequence of disease and inadequate dietary intake, which usually occur in a debilitating and often lethal combination. But many more elements -- social, political, economic, cultural -- are involved beyond the physiological.. Discrimination and violence against women are major causes of malnutrition.. Women are the principal providers of nourishment during the most crucial periods of childrens development, but the caring practices vital to ...
There are 17 thirteen-letter words containing A, H, I, M and X: ALEXIPHARMICS EXAMINERSHIPS EXOPHTHALMIAS ... XANTHOCHROMIA XEROPHTHALMIA XEROPHTHALMIC. Every word on this site can be used while playing scrabble. Build other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Youve all probably heard the idea that stress causes health problems. Your doctor may have even told you that your health concern(s) exist solely because of stress. In my opinion - thats pretty close to nonsense. Its a great excuse though. Why? Stress doesnt cause poor health. OK, Ill be flexible with you. Severe, unrelenting physical (major accident, etc.), chemical (acute exposure to a massive dose of a toxin, etc.) or emotional ((un)expected death, etc.) stressors can actually cause health problems. Im also willing to say that long-term unresolved stressors can also cause health problems. But then again, its not necessarily the stress thats causing the problem if its that long-term (referring to behavioral patterns). There could be an emotional component to why the long-term stressor has not been resolved. Either way, those instances are fortunately not the norm. With that in mind, I find most of the time its not the stressor that is the problem, its how the body handles the ...
I have gained a bit of weight (yay!! mostly fluids - but there is some real weight in there too we think!), and the massive doses of IV steroids they had to use to treat the allergic reactions (basically it would start as a few red marks around the dressing, and within hours I was completely covered in hives and my mouth was going numb - it was dramatic!!) have actually stirred my gut up a bit and Ive been able to tolerate some tube feeds, and some oral food! Nowhere near enough to go off TPN or even really cut back much, and I cannot drink enough to stay hydrated, but its a very small improvement - after nothing but decline, a very small improvement is welcome ...
Well kids, I am very tired today, due to a massive dose of antihistamines the last couple of days. Dont ask. Anyway since utenzi tagged me, I will try to think of a few movies for you to munch on, in semi-chronological order of when I saw them and liked them. I dont necessarily still like all of these as much as I did then, not by a long shot. And Im sure some anal-retentive person will correct me if I list them in the wrong order of when they were made ...
Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning of rat cytochrome P450RAI (CYP26) cDNA and regulation of its gene expression by all-trans-retinoic acid in vivo. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - Zolfaghari, R.. AU - Catharine, Ross A.. PY - 2002/5/15. Y1 - 2002/5/15. N2 - A novel retinoic acid (RA)-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450 RAI or CYP26), previously cloned from human, zebra fish, and mouse, functions in the metabolism of all-trans-RA to polar metabolites including 4-hydroxy-RA and 4-oxo-RA. To further study CYP26 in the rat model, we first cloned rat CYP26 cDNA. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 497-amino-acid protein whose sequence is 95% identical to mouse and 91% homologous to human CYP26. Animal studies showed that CYP26 mRNA expression is very low (0.01 ± 0.008; P , 0.05) in vitamin-A-deficient rats compared to pair-fed vitamin-A-sufficient rats (defined as 1.0). In a kinetic study, vitamin-A-deficient rats were treated with ∼ 100 μg of all-trans-RA and liver was collected after 3-72 h for analysis of CYP26 mRNA by ...
This blinded randomised trial has shown that oral supplementation of vitamin A in a dose of 5000 IU/day did result in an increase in plasma retinol concentrations but did not decrease the incidence of CLD in preterm infants of less than 1000 g birth weight. In addition, mortality and the incidence of other complications such as ROP, IVH, NEC, and PDA were unaffected by vitamin A supplementation. The results of this study of oral supplementation are in contrast with previous studies, which used intramuscular supplementation of vitamin A and showed a significant decrease in the incidence of oxygen dependency at 1 month of age and/or death.6-12 Although most of these studies were performed before the routine use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant, the most recent study was performed after the introduction of these important interventions, which may influence the incidence of CLD.6 This study is the first randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation, and it has been ...
Hi everyone! This is Jeffery Smith and Im reporting on the news development that the Department of Agriculture in the Philippines has approved genetically engineered golden rice to be, As safe as conventional rice. . What a disaster this is! This is incredible! Now, a lot of people think that golden rice is the example of why we should be allowing genetically engineered foods into the diet because its designed to provide vitamin A for vitamin A-deficient children who are suffering from blindness and death. On the cover of TIME magazine, they say This rise could save the lives and health of, you know, thousands or millions of children each year. Well, this is all false hype. Lets go through this and find out the truth behind GE golden rice. First of all, rice is a staple in parts of Asia and other places. So we are considering genetically engineering something that will be eaten three times a day. If theres any health issue associated with it, it could be a disaster. Now, the Philippines ...
As a result, the edible part of rice grains consists of the endosperm, filled with starch granules and protein bodies, but it lacks several essential nutrients for the maintenance of health, such as carotenoid… a) Insect resistance b) High protein content c) High vitamin A content d) High lysine content Answer: c) High vitamin A content 2. Answer: (a) RNAi only 46 Over the years the contribution of agriculture to Indian GDP is . (a) acidic pH of stomach (d) To produce useful biological products In which of the following states, is rice … Rice is a subsistence crop in Orissa. Some topics that you will be assessed on include the nutrients in golden rice and the problems associated with vitamin A deficiency. (b) Oryza Golden rice is a new variety of rice which has very high Vitamin A content. #Golden rice is rich in (a) Vit.C (b) Vit.D (c) Vit.E (d) Vit.A #More for Less slogan of SRI belongs to which state (a) Tripura (b) Nagaland (c) Punjab (d) Tamil Nadu. Biological and Biomedical Rice is ...
The results of various studies show severe Vitamin D deficiency across India and Pakistan in all age groups, as well as insufficiency in populations of South-East and East Asia.
Vitamin A palmitate 1.5MIU/g is the Corrective Vitamin otherwise known as Retinol Palmitate or Retinyl Palmitate. Retinyl palmitate can be used as an additive in skin care formulations or can be applied directly onto the skin. After its absorption into the skin, retinyl palmitate is converted to retinol, and ultimately to retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A present in Retin-A). Only retinoids such as retinoic acid have a direct effect on skin and can adjust to help the skin achieve a more youthful look.. ...
The third goal specified in the contract is perhaps the most important. It addresses the important planning question of what we should expect in a new programme in a new setting. The response can be divided into two sub-questions: in what population setting(s) can one expect vitamin A to be effective and what is the range of effect to be expected?. Where is improvement of vitamin A status most likely to affect morbidity and mortality?. The obvious answer to this question is: Where vitamin A deficiency is now a serious problem. For the mortality trials, all of which were conducted in settings where it was assumed vitamin A was a public health problem under the WHO definition, we attempted to ask about population-level predictors of the relative effect. Statistical power was very low for these analyses of the predictors of response (mortality of control group, xerophthalmia, stunting, wasting) since study was the unit of analysis (n = 8). Individual-level data might have uncovered more subtle ...
Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women and 51 men) were available. BMC and BMD were ...
The World Health Organization estimates that Vitamin A deficiency causes 500,000 cases of child blindness a year, and 6,000 deaths. Five years ago, it was claimed that genetic engineering could help solve this problem with
Retinol. Molecular model of the diterpenoid alcohol retinol (C20.H30.O), one of the forms of vitamin A. This chemical, when converted to the retinal form, is vital to the functioning of the eyes retina. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). Illustration. - Stock Image F017/0736
Im not totally against Jamies desire to shift people towards a more wholesome diet, but his demonisation of sugar in drinks whilst continuing to sell sweet desserts ironically leaves me with a bitter taste in my mouth. As Ive stated before, sugar is neither toxic (unless consumed in massive doses, which applies to most substances) or addictive. It is essential, (especially for brain function it would appear) and pretty disgusting if consumed alone (take the sugar challenge and see how many spoonfuls of table sugar you want to consume). I admit that when food processors get their hands on sugar and fat they are able to induce sometimes uncontrollable cravings, but as a chef surely that is Jamies role? To create dishes that entice our tastebuds and leave us desiring more ...
Im not totally against Jamies desire to shift people towards a more wholesome diet, but his demonisation of sugar in drinks whilst continuing to sell sweet desserts ironically leaves me with a bitter taste in my mouth. As Ive stated before, sugar is neither toxic (unless consumed in massive doses, which applies to most substances) or addictive. It is essential, (especially for brain function it would appear) and pretty disgusting if consumed alone (take the sugar challenge and see how many spoonfuls of table sugar you want to consume). I admit that when food processors get their hands on sugar and fat they are able to induce sometimes uncontrollable cravings, but as a chef surely that is Jamies role? To create dishes that entice our tastebuds and leave us desiring more ...
Ophthalmic compositions having negligible side effects on the heart can be obtained by using as the active ingredient an adrenergic β receptor agonist having a high selectivity toward adrenergic β2 receptor. These compositions are usable as preventives or therapeutics for xerophthalmic disorder and keratoconjunctival disorder.
Material Weakness or Significant Deficiency. The difference between a material weakness and a significant deficiency is simply that a significant deficiency is less severe. A significant deficiency is, however, still risky enough for the auditor to let management know so that they may have a chance to get rid of the problem.
Augstas kvalitātes koronāro un perifēro asinsvadu stenti, balonkatetri, vadītājstīgas, kā arī plašs papildierīču klāsts invazīvai kardioloģijai un radioloģijai. ...
Study Flashcards On Animals-Biology at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Vitamin A-deficient (A-) mice make strikingly poor IgG responses when they are immunized with purified protein antigens. Previously, we showed that A- T cells overproduce interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which then could inhibit interleukin 4 (IL-4)-stimulated B cell IgG responses. To determine if the altered IFN-gamma regulation pattern and its immunological consequences would extend to a natural infection, we studied mice infected with the parasitic helminth Trichinella spiralis. The course of the infection was similar in A- and A-sufficient (A+) mice. These mice did not differ with respect to newborn larvae/female/hour produced in the intestine, or muscle larvae burden 5 wk postinfection. They also did not differ in the intestinal worm expulsion rate until day 15, when A- mice still harbored parasites, whereas A+ mice had cleared intestinal worms. Vitamin A deficiency reduced both the frequency of B lymphocytes secreting IgG1 antibodies to parasite antigens, and the bone marrow eosinophilia ...
Degradation of beta-carotene during storage is a problem that may prove even more troublesome for the proposed nutritional benefits of Golden Rice than its initial low levels.. Unnoticed by the media, a 2017 paper published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported that the beta-carotene content of Golden Rice GR2E at harvest is short-lived (Schaub et al. 2017).. This study found Golden Rice retained only 60% of its original beta-carotene levels after 3 weeks of storage and just 13% after 10 weeks.. The apparent explanation is that the beta-carotene in Golden Rice is unstable in the presence of oxygen. Thus, under normal storage conditions, the beta-carotene in Golden Rice grains will rapidly degrade.. Under tropical farming, storage, and household conditions, degradation may be faster still.. In any event, the low levels and rapid degradation of beta-carotene measured in Golden Rice GR2E seem a significant blow to the likelihood that Golden Rice will fulfill expectations. That ...
If these strategies do not work, poor vitamin A status should be considered a possible explanation. This interpretation is strengthened if you have poor night vision (for example, if you strain your eyes or have trouble seeing when driving down an unlit road with your headlights alone but can see fine without any eyestrain during the day) or dry eyes. This interpretation is also strengthened if you have serum retinol near or below the bottom of the reference range, or if you track your vitamin A intake and your daily average is below the RDA.. It is important to note that any of these additional pieces of evidence strengthen the interpretation of poor vitamin A status, but their absence does not rule it out. If circadian rhythm disruption is more sensitive to deficiency than night blindness, then it may occur in the absence of other clinical signs, at serum retinol concentrations within the reference range, and at vitamin A intakes above the RDA.. The best way to ensure basic adequacy of vitamin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhea. AU - Alvarez, J. O.. AU - Salazar-Lindo, E.. AU - Kohatsu, J.. AU - Miranda, P.. AU - Stephensen, C. B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Acute infections of childhood are associated with an increased rate of xerophthalmia, apparently due to depletion of vitamin A stores. The mechanism responsible for this is not known. Recently, it has been reported that severe infections in adult patients (ie, sepsis and pneumonia) result in excretion of large quantities of retinol in the urine. In 44 children hospitalized for treatment of acute diarrhea we found mean urinary excretions of 1.44 μmol retinol/24 h on day 1 of hospitalization, 0.62 μmol retinol/24 h on day 2, and 0.23 μmol/24 h on day 3. Healthy control subjects matched for age did not excrete measurable amounts of retinol in the urine. Retinol excretion was associated strongly with rotavirus diarrhea and presence of fever. Furthermore, serum retinol concentration was ...
Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, Instead, they very much. The golden rice case hopefully may help to, the support of the public. And they need Vitamin M, thats Vitamin Money. Investigation of the biochemical properties of immature rice endosperm using [14C]-labelled substrates revealed the presence of geranyl geranyl diphosphate, the C20 general isoprenoid precursor necessary for C40 carotenoid biosynthesis. At that time I was much, tempted to join those who fight patenting. You will argue t, might be able to help solve the problem of vitamin A, Board is chaired by Ingo Potrykus, the co-inventor of golden, further golden rice research and the introduction of golden rice. Each team will be given a list of facts on golden rice. Accordingly you will argue against continued. Critics have countered that the rice is a hoax, that it is fools gold and propaganda for the genetic engineering industry. One ...
Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S.When doctors write that prescription for steroids and theyre sending the patients for lab tests, they should also get the vitamin D level measured, said study lead author Amy Skversky, M.D., M.S., assistant professor of pediatrics at Einstein and Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital for Einstein.. The severe vitamin D deficiency assessed in this study (defined as levels below 10 nanograms per milliliter of blood) is known to be associated with osteomalacia (softening of the bones), rickets (softening of bones in children) and clinical myopathy (muscle weakness). While there is much debate on the issue, vitamin D levels between 20 and 50 ng/ml are generally considered adequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals. Steroids have been shown to cause vitamin D deficiency, possibly by increasing levels of an enzyme that inactivates the vitamin.. Smaller studies involving people often prescribed steroids (i.e., children with asthma and patients ...
Purpose:To identify children aged 0-72 months with blinding xerophthalmia in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and its adjoining Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan, using a new surveillance system, and to describe socio-economic and other characteristics of reported cases. Methods: All ophthalmologists in district headquarter hospitals in NWFP and agency headquarter hospitals in FATA were requested to participate in a surveillance programme for the detection of blinding xerophthalmia (corneal xerosis, corneal ulcers, keratomalacia and corneal scars related to vitamin A deficiency) for children aged 0-72 months. The surveillance included reporting of each case of blinding xerophthalmia presenting to the participating eye units over a period of 12 months and recording their socio-economic and other related characteristics. Results: Seventy six cases of blinding xerophthalmia were reported and there was almost no gender difference. Children came from 19 of 31 districts and
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Selective exposure of bone marrow lymphocytes to massive doses of hydrocortisone for the purpose of facilitating the ultrastructural identification of hematopoietic stem cells]. by Z. A. Butenko et al.
a. Number of cases.. Vitamin-A deficiency (xerophthalmia and keratomalacia). Untreated vitamin-A deficiency leads to irreversible blindness and death. Growing children are at the greatest risk of developing signs of xerophthalmia because of their higher vitamin-A requirement and also because they have a higher rate of infections. A close association between even moderate vitamin-A deficiency and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections has been reported [8].. The lead time for the signs to develop depends on the level of vitamin A stored in the body. Refugees most often arrive in camps with low vitamin-A stores after subsisting on a deficient diet prior to and during their exodus, and during initial periods in the country of asylum. Thus, the lead time for developing xerophthalmia in refugees can be expected to be shorter than in a population that suffers vitamin-A deficiency without previous malnutrition.. Iron deficiency (anaemia). Anaemia can have ...
SUMMARY : GOLDEN RICE One of the applications of recombinant DNA technology in enriched foods field is golden rice. The organism used is daffodil or maize
In Midland Bank plc v Madden, the EAT holds that, while no court short of the Court of Appeal can discard the range or band of reasonable responses test as a determinative test, a tribunal is free to substitute its own views for those of the employer as to the reasonableness of dismissal as a response to the reason shown for it.
Free Online Library: Vitamin Es bloody role. (massive doses of vitamin E increases propensity toward bleeding, Biomedicine, Brief Article) by Science News; Science and technology, general Blood clotting Health aspects Blood coagulation
Liver Health Supplements - Liver illness treatment, Liver vitamins, Liver disease cure, Liver cleanse, Liver pain relief, Liver enzyme...Detoxify and support your liver health with a supplement.
Several studies have shown that klf2 activates the expression of vascular genes including endothelial NO synthase (eNOS).16,30,34 NO is involved in several physiologic and pathologic events. In particular, NO produced by the eNOS is a fundamental determinant of cardiovascular homeostasis, including systemic blood pressure, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis.35 In cultured endothelial cells, shear stress and other factors have been shown to increase eNOS expression.36 To determine whether NO signaling was altered in tnnt2a- and klf2a-deficient embryos, we first used NO imaging to visualize NO production in live embryos. DAF-FM staining showed that NO production was reduced in the tnnt2a- and klf2a-deficient embryos (Figure 7B-C red arrows), compared with that in controls. To further test whether NO signaling was involved in the blood flow response required for HSC development, we examined nos1 and nos2a/2b expression in klf2a-deficient embryos. nos1 and nos2b expression was significantly ...
The use of psychotropic prescription medications to treat mental health disorders in very young children is stabilizing, according to a study published in
Among the most underrated areas of fitness is that great nights sleep! If you arent well-rested do you expect to get lively and motivated the following moment, enough to your work out? Additionally, it is understood by a lot of people which you really burn calories while sleeping, actually more than you do watching tv! Not many multivitamins are made equal. Consequently, youre ensuring that youre receiving all the crucial nutrients you ought to be receiving out of a multivitamin. Occasionally, our fiscal condition keeps us from eating correctly. Vitamins and antioxidants help to eliminate all the toxins inside the body. Its unsafe to take more than the suggested price of the majority of vitamins, so be certain you avoid that. 1 case of that is iron, which is Codeage Exogenous Ketones Capsules Customer Reviews harmful to the liver if taken in massive doses. Should you really feel as if you arent receiving the best benefit from the vitamins, you should probably consult with a dietician about ...
Vitamin A deficiency is occasionally seen in chickens and turkeys (insufficient vitamin A during 1-7 weeks of age). As in the case of other nutritional deficiencies, classic signs of deficiency are very rare in commercial poultry fed complete diets ...
When my 83-year-old mom-in-law was dying of bowel cancer, her doctor could not use the D word with her, either.. Somehow, she was under the impression that all these last ditch efforts they were making-the massive doses of antibiotics to hold back her pneumonia, the surgery to insert a shunt to because her kidneys were failing-well, she thought all these things were done because there was hope. Thing was, hope had left the building a month ago. The cancer had spread to her kidneys. It was a race between the kidney cancer and the pneumonia. Her kidneys quit first. Her doctor was straight with us, but not with her.. When her doctor finally screwed up the courage to tell her that she was in palliative care, that nothing more could be done, she made her peace with dying, said her good-byes, lapsed into a coma and died peacefully within 36 hours.. I have seen three parents through palliative care for cancer now-my father, my dad-in-law and my mom-in-law. The doctors were quite forthcoming with both ...
Dh was discussing ds (3.5) with his sister. She mentioned Steve Budulph , and his theory that boys have a massive dose of testosterone at aged 3.5 an
In the 1940s and 50s, psychiatrists often used insulin-shock therapy to treat mental illness. In this barbaric treatment, which disappeared by 1970, the doctor would give the patient a massive dose of insulin to cause low-blood sugar. The insulin would put the patient into a coma. After about an hour, the doctor would administer glucose to bring the patient out of the coma.
That is until I saw the slide - the one with a giant sledge hammer that represented the effect of massive doses of high-potency chemo that precede the SCT. Geesh, could the doctor, a transplant specialist from the University of Minnesota Medical Center, have been any more subtle? I thought to myself that she should have used a slide of a giant anvil falling on an unsuspecting road runner. That would have gotten her point across ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Few plant species can have been better studied than rice. There is a wealth of information out there; Ive picked a few interesting and enlightening extracts- a résumé of rice if you like.. ...
There are 16 fourteen-letter words containing A, H, M, T and X: ANTIHOMOSEXUAL CHEMOTAXONOMIC DEXAMETHASONES ... XANTHOCHROMIAS XANTHOMELANOUS XEROPHTHALMIAS. Every word on this site is valid scrabble words. See other lists, beginning with or ending with letters of your choice.
Our All Trans Retinol Cream with 2.0% retinol is the best over the counter retinol cream available. Firm your skin and fight wrinkles now - try it today!
Our All Trans Retinol Cream with 2.0% retinol is the best over the counter retinol cream available. Firm your skin and fight wrinkles now - try it today!
Strengthen Wood, formerly Strengthen Liver from Kan Herbs. The Liver stores and nurtures the Blood, spreads the Qi, and maintains the evenness of both our emotional and mental life.
向图书馆借! Rabbit, run. [John Updike] -- Twenty-two-year-old Rabbit Angstrom is a salesman in a local department store, father of a preschool-age son, and husband to an alcoholic wife who was his second-best high school sweetheart. The ...
The idea of a link between inadequate vitamin A and hearing disorders was initially treated with suspicion, reflected by its being confined to animal studies and observations
Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer
I usually have door stops for biscuits. Ive worked on it and tonight I ended up with very light, soft biscuits. I CAREFULLY spooned flour into the cup and leveled it off with a knife. Usually I just
With this easy biscuit wand recipe, you can have heaps of fun baking with your little fairy. Weve made wands in the shapes of stars, hearts and circles but you could cut out biscuit wands in any shape that takes your fancy!
Finding the best retinol cream (drugstore or high end) can get tricky, not to mention pricey! These wont-break-the-bank retinol treatments actually work to turn back the clock!
Lies 32 Testberichte und finde den günstigsten Preis für Sony SA VAD900. Insgesamt wurde diese(r) Heimkino System mit 76/100 Gut bewertet.
Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency[edit]. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal-recessive ... Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... Spinazzi M, Angelini C, Patrini C (May 2010). "Subacute sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy with thiamine deficiency". Nature ...
Vitamin D deficiency[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D deficiency. Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D which is naturally ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... Shah BR, Finberg L (September 1994). "Single-day therapy for nutritional vitamin D-deficiency rickets: a preferred method". The ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is ...
Vitamin, mineral, and enzyme deficiencies[edit]. Certain vitamin and minerals deficiencies are commonly found in people with ... vitamin A[9] and vitamin C. Beta-Carotene is required to synthesize vitamin A and vitamin A is needed to synthesize retinol. A ... vitamin E, and vitamin C. Supplementation of these three vitamins has been shown to decrease these oxidative effects and ... While a deficiency in this enzyme is the direct cause leading to this disorder, there are a number of both genetic and ...
Malnutrition can lead to vitamin and other deficiencies and to inactivity, which in turn may pre-dispose to other problems, ... Pathak, K.; Soares, M. J.; Calton, E. K.; Zhao, Y.; Hallett, J. (1 June 2014). "Vitamin D supplementation and body weight ... Though hypothesized that supplementation of vitamin D may help, studies do not support this.[11] The majority of dieters regain ...
Vitamin deficiency. B vitamins. *B1: Beriberi / Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Wernicke's encephalopathy ...
Vitamin deficiency. B vitamins. *B1: Beriberi / Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Wernicke's encephalopathy ...
The gold standard for the diagnosis of Vitamin B12 deficiency is a low blood level of Vitamin B12. A low level of blood Vitamin ... specifically vitamin B12 deficiency or folate deficiency. Loss of micronutrients may also be a cause. Copper deficiency ... Vitamin B12 is one necessary prosthetic group to the enzyme methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase. Vitamin B12 deficiency is but one ... The Schilling test was performed in the past to help determine the nature of the vitamin B12 deficiency. An advantage of the ...
Vitamin D production[edit]. Concerns have also been raised about potential vitamin D deficiency arising from prolonged use of ... Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266-281. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553 ... Typical use of sunscreen does not usually result in vitamin D deficiency; however, extensive usage may.[18] Sunscreen prevents ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure thanks to an equilibrium the skin reaches in which vitamin D degrades as ...
Novembrino, C.; De Giuseppe, R.; De Liso, F.; Bonara, P.; Bamonti, F. (2010). "Vitamin deficiency and renal cortical necrosis ...
"Benzopyrene and Vitamin A deficiency". Researcher links cigarettes, vitamin A and emphysema. Retrieved March 5, 2005.. ... A link between vitamin A deficiency and emphysema in smokers was described in 2005 to be due to BaP, which induces vitamin A ... deficiency in rats.[16] A 1996 study provided molecular evidence linking components in tobacco smoke to lung cancer. BaP was ...
Vitamin D deficiency can occur. Vitamin D binding protein is lost.. *Hypocalcaemia: lack of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (the way ... In addition to these key imbalances, vitamin D and calcium are also taken orally in case the alteration of vitamin D causes a ... Hypothyroidism: deficiency of the thyroglobulin transport protein thyroxin (a glycoprotein that is rich in iodine and is found ... Microcytic hypochromic anaemia: iron deficiency caused by the loss of ferritin (compound used to store iron in the body). It is ...
... iron deficiency or deficiency of B vitamins are involved. Nutritional deficiencies may be a more common cause of AC in Third ... Vitamin B12 deficiency is sometimes responsible for AC, and commonly occurs together with folate deficiency (a lack of folic ... Biotin (vitamin B7) deficiency has also been reported to cause AC, along with hair loss (alopecia) and dry eyes. Zinc ... Vitamin B2 deficiency (ariboflavinosis) may also cause AC, and other conditions such as redness of mucous membranes, magenta ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency or pernicious anaemia. *Myasthenia gravis. Misdiagnosis[edit]. Historically, misdiagnosis rates have ...
... and can be used to prevent or treat pathology arising from a lack of vitamin B12 intake (vitamin B12 deficiency). ... Vitamin B12. References[edit]. *^ L. R. McDowell. Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. Retrieved 28 January ... According to one author, it is important to treat vitamin B12 deficiency with hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin or a ... This vitamer is one of two active coenzymes used by vitamin B12-dependent enzymes and is the specific vitamin B12 form used by ...
"Global Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Populations at Risk 1995-2005". WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency. ... Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Peru and impact human well-being. The World Health Organization (WHO) found that 15 ... Anemia is a condition linked with iron deficiency, which is linked to an increased risk of maternal mortality and impaired ... of preschoolers in Peru were deficient in vitamin A. They also found that the levels of anemia in preschoolers and pregnant ...
"Vitamin deficiency". The Guardian, 6 January 2005. Retrieved 6 January 2007. Goldacre, Ben. "Working papers". The Guardian, 20 ... The real crime here is that no full-scale human trials have been funded on vitamin C to follow up Jariwalla's important finding ... Goldacre writes that Holford based this conclusion on a non-clinical study where "you tip lots of vitamin C onto HIV-infected ... He argues that "Holford was guilty of at least incompetence in claiming that this study demonstrated vitamin C to be a better ...
Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ... Vitamin D deficiency (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 2007, 357 (3): 266-81 [2012-09-01]. PMID 17634462. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. (原始內容 ... A: 維生素A缺乏症(英語:Vitamin A deficiency)/比奧斑(英語:Bitot's spots) ... Hereditary pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets in a Pakistani infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1973, 48 (10): 814-6. ...
Vitamin A deficiency may also cause color blindness.[34] Some subtle forms of color blindness may be associated with chronic ... Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.[2] ... "Types of Color Deficiencies". Konan Medical. Archived from the original on 2015-04-26. Retrieved 2014-04-26.. ... "Colour vision deficiency - Causes". NHS Choices. 2012-12-14. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-05-24.. ...
Vitamin A deficiency may also cause color blindness.[23] Some subtle forms of color blindness may be associated with chronic ... same color deficiency of mother Affected. Affected. Affected. different color deficiency of mother Carrier. with 2 defective X ... same color deficiency of mother Affected. Carrier Affected. Unaffected Affected. different color deficiency of mother Carrier. ... "Color vision deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2019-05-06.. *^ Wong, Bang (2011-06-01). "Points of view: Color ...
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to depression. As it is a condition which comes from lack of exposure to sunlight, anyone ... Vitamin B12 was, in the 1990s, suggested as a remedy for DSPD, and is still recommended by some sources. Several case reports ... ...
Vitamin D natural selection hypotheses: Rickets is often a result of vitamin D3 deficiency. The vitamin D natural selection ... Glorieux FH, Pettifor JM (2014). "Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets". ... The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency. This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too ... The primary cause of congenital rickets is vitamin D deficiency in the mother's blood, which the baby shares. Vitamin D ensures ...
Holick, M. F (2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266-81. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. PMID ... 7-Dehydrocholesterol from lanolin is used as a raw material for producing vitamin D3 by irradiation with ultraviolet light. ... also used in vitamins" (PDF). American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). Volume-03, Issue-07: 33-43. ,volume= has extra ...
Specific cases include: Vitamin K deficiency: In the liver, vitamin K plays an important role in the synthesis of coagulation ... The liver synthesizes inactive precursor proteins in the absence of vitamin K (liver disease). Vitamin K deficiency leads to ... "Factor II Deficiency: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments". Healthline. Retrieved 2017-12-12. "Vitamin K Deficiency". ... Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors have a very short half-life, sometimes leading to a deficiency when a depletion of ...
Vitamin D deficiency in Australia has also greatly increased, since sunblock also reduces vitamin D production in the skin. ... It did not find a significant link between Vitamin D deficiency and melanoma risk. Health effects of sun exposure Skin cancer ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is ... Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266-281. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553 ...
"Vitamin Deficiency Anemia". Mayo Clinic. Pirklbauer M (July 2020). "Hemodialysis treatment in patients with severe electrolyte ... Folate deficiency can occur in some patients having hemodialysis. Although a dyalisate fluid, which is a solution containing ...
Many South Africans also have a Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency. A serious deficiency in this vital nutrient can cause ... due to the detrimental effects of Vitamin A on the immune system. Vitamin C deficiency also has detrimental effects on the ... It is estimated that South Africa loses about US$1.1 billion every year in GDP to vitamin and mineral deficiencies arising from ... An additional malnutrition problem is a deficiency in vitamin A. It is especially prominent in the Northern Province, the ...
Vitamin E deficiency, Vitamin C deficiency. Delayed wound healing, scarring. → Vitamin C deficiency. According to Moerman, ... Citric acid deficiency, Riboflavin deficiency. Apathy, lack of motivation, reduced vitality. → Vitamin B deficiency. Bleeding ... Vitamin A, Vitamin D and Vitamin E. Soon Moerman also added vitamin C to this list. He argued that cancer does not begin as a ... Vitamin C deficiency. Strong stone formation. → Pantothenic acid deficiency. Capillary weakness. → ...
Mayo Clinic staff (March 4, 2011). "Vitamin deficiency anemia". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Mayo Clinic ... "Folate-deficiency anemia". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 31 January 2010. ... Hall, C. A. (November 1975). "Transcobalamins I and II as natural transport proteins of vitamin B12". J. Clin. Invest. 56 (5): ... Griffin JH, Evatt B, Zimmerman TS, Kleiss AJ, Wideman C (1981). "Deficiency of protein C in congenital thrombotic disease". J. ...
It demonstrates the ability for humans to develop and innovate themselves out of problems, such as the deficiency of vitamin A ... "Vitamin A Deficiency". Retrieved 2015-10-31. "NPIC - National Pesticide Information Centre" (PDF). "The DDT ... GM crops can create many advantages, such as higher food fields, added vitamins and increased farm profits. Depending on the ... a precursor of vitamin A). This enables healthier and fulfilling lifestyles for these individuals and consequently helps to ...
... but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency: Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or ... The most specific screening test for vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals is a serum 25(OH)D level. Less ... ISBN 978-0-07174889-6. Kennel, KA; Drake, MT; Hurley, DL (August 2010). "Vitamin D deficiency in adults: when to test and how ... Nursing home residents and the homebound elderly population are at particular risk for vitamin D deficiency, as these ...
While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 ... Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[60 ... Vitamin D supplementation to people with type 2 diabetes may improve markers of insulin resistance and HbA1c.[119] ... Testosterone deficiency is also associated with type 2 diabetes.[48][49] Eating disorders may also interact with type 2 ...
Piot concluded that Belgian nuns had inadvertently started the epidemic by giving unnecessary vitamin injections to pregnant ... clotting factor deficiencies/platelet disorders, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, ...
Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ... Researchers are investigating methods to increase the skin's production of retinoic acid to address this deficiency.[10] A ... Brescoll J, Daveluy S (February 2015). "A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology ( ... Vitamin B12 may trigger skin outbreaks similar to acne (acneiform eruptions), or worsen existing acne when taken in doses ...
Vitamin C and vitamin K deficiency. *Von Willebrand's disease. *Hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome), a rare ... Chronic liver disease-cirrhosis causes deficiency of factor II, VII, IX,& X ...
Vitamin K deficiency *Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. *HDN *ABO. *Anti-Kell ...
Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) d) Control of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) e) Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA ... iron and vitamin A deficiency. Each type of malnutrition wrecks its own particular havoc on the human body, and to make matters ... Micro-nutrient deficiencies are widespread, with almost half of pregnant women and children under five, as well as 35 percent ... These include high coverage of semiannual vitamin A supplementation and deworming; CB-IMCI; high rates of full child ...
Some sources state that deficiencies of vitamin A or pyridoxine are also linked. There is limited evidence that a diet high in ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. ...
... sclera which later proved to be a manifestation of hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency following fava bean consumption. ... "Narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation increases the serum level of vitamin D3in patients with neurofibromatosis 1". The Journal ...
A: Vitamin A deficiency *Bitot's spots. *C: Scurvy. *D: Vitamin D deficiency *Rickets ... The deficiency may be genetic. Among children without growth hormone deficiency, short stature may be caused by Turner syndrome ... Human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency may occur at any time during infancy or childhood, with the most obvious sign being a ... About half of them do not have growth hormone deficiency, and consequently benefited very little, if at all, from the hormone ...
Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of vitamin C which is necessary for the synthesis of collagen. ...
Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press. 18 May 1976. pp. 682-. ISBN 978-0-08-086630-7.. ... Eberhard Nieschlag; Hermann M. Behre; Susan Nieschlag (26 July 2012). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution. Cambridge ...
St Claire MB, Kennett MJ, Besch-Williford CL (July 2004). "Vitamin A toxicity and vitamin E deficiency in a rabbit colony". ... Vitamin A is fat-soluble and high levels have been reported affect metabolism of the other fat-soluble vitamins D,[23] E, and K ... Vitamin K prevents hypoprothrombinemia in rats and can sometimes control the increase in plasma/cell ratios of vitamin A.[49] ... Cod liver oil is particularly high in vitamin A.. *Medications - at high doses of vitamin A - are often used on long-term basis ...
Niacin is a vitamin that lowers cholesterol levels. It is also called Vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid. Severe niacin deficiency in ... However, less bad deficiency of niacin can cause high blood pressure, weight gain, and hypercholesterolemia. So sometimes ...
Xerophthalmia, often due to vitamin A deficiency, is estimated to affect 5 million children each year; 500,000 develop active ... vitamin A deficiency, or meningitis.[41] If left untreated during childhood, amblyopia is currently incurable in adulthood ...
selenium deficiency selenosis Cobalt none NE; NE Trace Required in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are ... Micronutrient deficiency. References[edit]. *^ a b c Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Heber, David (2013). Handbook of ... IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum ... zinc deficiency zinc toxicity Manganese 00002.3002.3 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, ...
B vitamins have moderate to rich content (19 to 48% DV). ... "Diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency". American Family ...
A: 维生素A缺乏症(英语:Vitamin A deficiency)/比奥斑(英语:Bitot's spots) ... 某些生理或心理疾病以及治疗它们的药物會增加患者罹患肥胖症的風險。生理疾病包括上述的罕见遗传病,以及一些先天或後天疾病,比如甲状腺功能低下、库欣综合征、生长激素缺乏症(英
... deficiency. Med Pro 357:266-281. *↑ (ing basa Inggris). "Analysis of SNPs and Haplotypes in Vitamin D Pathway Genes ... Vitamin D minangka pepanthan vitamin prohormone larut lemak . [1] Vitamin D uga dikenal minangka kalserolol . [2] Jeneng iki ... Ana rong bentuk aktif vitamin iki, yaiku vitamin D2 (ercalcitriol) lan vitamin D3 (calcitriol). Aktivitas Vitamin D ditindakaké ... Wujud vitamin D[besut , besut sumber]. Vitamin iki dhéwé minangka turunan molekul steroid sing asale saka kolesterol . [5] ...
In the Southeastern United States, nickel deficiency in C. illinoinensis produces a disorder called mouse-ear in trees ... and B vitamins. Their fat content consists principally of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (57% of total fat), ... fertilized with urea.[26] Similarly, zinc deficiency causes rosetting of the leaves. Various other disorders are documented, ...
Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients (Meta-analysis). 2015, 7 ... 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency. ... Krul-Poel YH, Snackey C, Louwers Y, Lips P, Lambalk CB, Laven JS, Simsek S. The role of vitamin D in metabolic disturbances in ...
A K-vitamin hiány vagy a warfarin (és hasonló gyógyszerek) inaktív X-es faktor termelődéshez vezetnek. A warfarinos kezelés ... Cooper DN, Millar DS, Wacey A, et al. (1997). „Inherited factor X deficiency: molecular genetics and pathophysiology". Thromb. ... Marchetti G, Castaman G, Pinotti M, et al. (1995). „Molecular bases of CRM+ factor X deficiency: a frequent mutation (Ser334Pro ... A X-es faktor a májban szintetizálódik; a szintéziséhez K-vitamin szükséges. ...
Such results can be seen in peoples with liver disease, PAI-1 deficiency or alpha 2-antiplasmin deficiency. Similar results are ... Vitamin K antagonists. (inhibit II, VII, IX, X). *Coumarins: Acenocoumarol. *Coumatetralyl. *Dicoumarol ...
Vitamin D at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Professional Edition *↑ Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The ... August 2009). "Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (183): 1- ... Vieth R (May 1999). "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" (PDF). The American Journal of ... Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G (February 2003). "Intestinal calcium absorption: Molecular vitamin D mediated ...
Deficiency diseases[edit]. Citrus plants can also develop a deficiency condition called chlorosis, characterized by yellowing ... They are also good sources of vitamin C. The content of vitamin C in the fruit depends on the species, variety, and mode of ... Fruits produced with organic agriculture have been shown to contain more vitamin C than those produced with conventional ... Soil testing may be necessary to properly diagnose nutrient-deficiency diseases.[44] ...
Deficiency of plasmalogens causes profound abnormalities in the myelination of nerve cells, which is one reason why many ... such as vitamins A and K. Skin disorders are features of genetic disorders affecting peroxisome function as a result. ... Peroxisomes also play a role in the production of bile acids important for the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, ...
... the only clearly inherited risk factor is alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT).[60] This risk is particularly high if someone ... In those with low levels of vitamin D, supplementation reduces the risk of exacerbations.[156] ... In areas of the world where alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is common, people with COPD (particularly those below the age of 45 ... The effectiveness of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation treatment for people who have alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is unclear.[ ...
A deficiency is responsible for pentosuria. The insufficiency of L-xylulose reductase activity causes an inborn error of ... Vitamin K epoxide reductase. *Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-insensitive). 1.1.5: quinone/similar acceptor. *Malate ...
In cases of Keratomalacia, where the corneal ulceration is due to a deficiency of Vitamin A, supplementation of the Vitamin A ... In developing countries, children afflicted by Vitamin A deficiency are at high risk for corneal ulcer and may become blind in ... Proper nutrition, including protein intake and Vitamin C are usually advised. ...
... sometimes becoming terminal Vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to blindness or a weakened immune system Iodine deficiency, ... Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), also known as protein-calorie malnutrition Iron deficiency: nutritional anaemia which can ... which can lead to serious mental or physical complaints Foliate deficiency can lead to insufficient birth weight or congenital ...
Although the mechanistic role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia is not well understood, vitamin D ... CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is common in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, and a low 25(OH)D level is ... Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity. Clin Nutr 2007; 26: 573- 580. ... Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a worldwide concern (1). A growing body of evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D ...
Water-soluble vitamins[edit]. See also: B vitamins § Deficiencies. *Thiamine (Vitamine B1) deficiency is especially common in ... vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin E. As of December 21, 2018, 81 countries required food fortification ... Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified ... Vitamin D deficiency is common. Most foods do not contain vitamin D, indicating that a deficiency will occur unless people get ...
Hypervitaminosis D Vitamin D deficiency in Australia Holick, Michael F.; Chen, Tai C. (1 April 2008). "Vitamin D deficiency: a ... Some studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in immunity. Those with vitamin D deficiency may have ... Vitamin D deficiency can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D, disorders limiting vitamin D absorption ... Sunscreen can also reduce vitamin D production. Medications may speed up the metabolism of vitamin D, causing a deficiency. ...
... deficiency) can affect your bones and overall health. Learn who is at risk, how much vitamin D you need, and how to get enough. ... What is vitamin D deficiency?. Vitamin D deficiency means that you are not getting enough vitamin D to stay healthy. ... What causes vitamin D deficiency?. You can become deficient in vitamin D for different reasons:. *You dont get enough vitamin ... What problems does vitamin D deficiency cause?. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density, which can contribute ...
Vitamin D deficiency will become more prevalent over the years as jobs will use more brain than brawns. This is vitamin D ... 1. Vitamin D Deficiency Presented by Essence Perry * 2. History Vitamin D is one of the 13 vitamins discovered in the early ... Vitamin D deficiency will become more prevalent over the years as jobs will use more brain than brawns. This is vitamin D ... 4. How does it work?-Step 1 Vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be created inside the body. vD is not one chemical but many ...
Find links to other websites with information about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding. ... Evidence for the Vitamin K Shot in Newborns - Exclusive Q&A with Rebecca Dekker on her New Research; March 18th, 2014 by Sharon ... Evidence for the Vitamin K Shot in Newborns; March 18, 2014 by Rebecca Dekker, PhD, RN, APRN of Evidence Based Birth®; In ... Where We Stand on Administration of Vitamin Kexternal icon. Backed by 60,000 American Academy of ...
... speaks about vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants, the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis at birth, and how healthcare ... Talk with Expectant Parents about Late Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding Among Infants ...
We searched PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "vitamin B12 deficiency" and "cobalamin deficiency", and hand selected ... What causes vitamin B12 deficiency?. Foods containing vitamin B12 are … ... This review presents a concise summary of the most up to date evidence on how to diagnose and manage vitamin B12 deficiency. ... Vitamin B12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences ...
There are two major forms of vitamin D: D2 or ergocalciferol and D3 or cholecarciferol. ... Vitamin D Description Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is essential for strong teeth and bones. ... Vitamin D deficiency. Definition. Vitamin D deficiency exists when the concentration of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) in the ... Vitamin D Deficiency. Definition. Vitamin D deficiency exists when the concentration of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) in the ...
Vitamin K: Vitamin K deficiency causes impaired clotting of the blood and internal bleeding, even without injury. Due to poor ... transport of vitamin K across the placenta, newborn infants in developed countries are routinely given the vitamin ... Other articles where Vitamin K deficiency is discussed: nutritional disease: ... In blood disease: Vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency leads to a deficiency of the proteins that require vitamin K for ...
these two vitamins are needed to make red blood cells. ... vitamin-deficiency anemia may occur when you dont enough ... What causes vitamin-deficiency anemia?. ANSWER Vitamin-deficiency anemia may occur when you dont enough vitamin B12 and folate ... vitamin b12 and folate in your system. ... Slideshow Vitamins You Need as You Age * Slideshow Supplements ...
Vitamin A Description Vitamin A is one of four fat-soluble vitamins necessary for good health. It serves an important role as ... Vitamin A Deficiency. Definition. Vitamin A deficiency exists when the chronic failure to eat sufficient amounts of vitamin A ... Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency is not a problem for healthy people in most industrial countries. However, the ... Vitamin A deficiency can be prevented or treated by taking vitamin supplements or by getting injections of the vitamin. The ...
... but its roots as a symptom of vitamin D deficiency began only in the 17th century, when Francis Glisson published his findings ... Reasons for vitamin D deficiency. The chief causes for low vitamin D levels include:. *poor dietary sources, such as in ... Risk groups for vitamin D deficiency. *Exclusively breastfed infants, unless mothers supplement with vitamin D in high doses, ... Conditions caused by vitamin D deficiency. Rickets and osteomalacia are the classical deficiency diseases caused by inadequate ...
... and decreased resistance to infections are some among the general signs of vitamin A deficiency. ... Deficiency of vitamin A is commonly prevalent in malnourished, elderly, and chronically sick populations in the United States ... treatment of vitamin A deficiency,symptoms of vitamin A deficiency,signs of vitamin A deficiency,causes of vitamin A deficiency ... Tags: effects , of , vitamin , A , deficiency , symptoms of vitamin A deficiency , treatment of vitamin A deficiency ...
Deficiency, Vitamin A, Deficiencies, Vitamin A, vitamin A deficiencies, VAD (en); کمبود ویتامین ا (fa); 維生素A缺乏症, 缺乏維生素A, 維他命A缺乏 ... vitamin a (te); Thiếu vitamin A (vi); vitamin A deficiency (en); manko de vitamino A (eo); 維生素A缺乏 (zh); 비타민 A 결핍 (ko) lack of ... vitamin A in blood and tissues (en); بیماری کمبود ویتامین آ (fa); Vitamin A deficiency (fr) hipovitaminosi A, deficiència de ... desieases caused due to the deficiency of vitamins (ml); کمبود ویتامین آ (fa); carència de vitamina A (ca
Learn about vitamin K in adults and infants. ... The main symptom of a vitamin K deficiency is excessive ... A person with vitamin K deficiency may bruise easily. There are several symptoms associated with vitamin K deficiency, but the ... Vitamin K deficiency in adults is rare but does occur in infants. The main symptom of a vitamin K deficiency is excessive ... However, vitamin K deficiency is much more likely to occur in infants. When it does, it is known as vitamin K deficiency ...
New research confirms that there is a link between vitamin D deficiency in early life and an increased risk of developing ... investigated the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia.". Preventing vitamin D deficiency in women ... What are the health benefits of vitamin D? The body produces vitamin D in response to sun exposure. Vitamin D has a range of ... We look at how much vitamin D a person should have, where to find it, and how to recognize a deficiency. Learn more here. Read ...
Diseases of nutritional deficiency: Avitaminosis (vitamin lack) may be encountered when there are increased losses of vitamins ... such as occur with chronic severe diarrhea or excessive sweating or when there are increased requirements for vitamins during ... Other articles where Vitamin deficiency disease is discussed: human disease: ... sources of vitamin D, a deficiency of the vitamin can occur when exposure to sunlight is limited. Lack of vitamin D in children ...
Vitamin D deficiency is a condition that happens when a person isnt getting enough vitamin D, which is needed for strong bones ... A to Z: Vitamin D Deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is a condition that happens when a person isnt getting enough vitamin D, ... Vitamin D deficiency can occur in people who dont get enough vitamin D in their diet, have limited exposure to sunlight, have ... Doctors usually diagnose vitamin D deficiency by measuring levels of the vitamin in the blood. Other blood tests and X-rays to ...
Vitamin D3 Deficiency. Vitamin D3 deficiency can lead to a lot of health problems that you should be aware of. This vitamin, is ... Ways to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency. Vitamin D, also known as the Sunshine Vitamin is one of the most essential vitamins ... Vitamin B6 Deficiency Symptoms in Women. Vitamins contribute to a healthy living. Deficiency of any one vitamin has a negative ... Vitamin K Deficiency Symptoms. Vitamin K is particularly beneficial for normal blood clotting. Deficiency of this vitamin can ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. ... Shots of vitamin B12 can prevent anemia if youve had a surgery known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency. ... Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent if you do not start treatment within 6 months of ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia most often responds well to treatment. It will likely get better when the underlying cause of the ...
Depression, osteoporosis, allergies, and certain cancers have been tied to vitamin D deficiency. ... Read about vitamin D deficiency treatment, causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, and daily limits chart. ... Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough?. What does vitamin D do? Learn about vitamin D benefits and discover foods ... vitamin D (Drisdol (Vitamin D2), Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2), Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3). *calcium supplement/vitamin d - ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia can make you feel tired, weak, and short of breath. Learn what triggers this type of anemia, and ... Mayo Clinic: "Vitamin deficiency anemia: Diagnosis." "Vitamin deficiency anemia: Overview." "Vitamin deficiency anemia: ... What Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia?. You can get vitamin B12 deficiency anemia if you dont get enough vitamin B12 in ... What Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia?. In this Article. In this Article In this Article * What Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency ...
A large prospective study has found that vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with fatal, but not nonfatal, CVD ... Vitamin-D deficiency is much more strongly linked to fatal than nonfatal CV events, results of a large prospective study ... "Although our results were able to confirm an approximately 27% increased total CV risk in subjects with vitamin D deficiency, ... Overall, the proportion of individuals who had no events was significantly lower among those with vitamin-D deficiency. The ...
... deficiency can occur in any age group but is encountered most often in infancy. VK, an essential, lipid-soluble vitamin that ... Vitamin K Deficiency) and Vitamin K Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Vitamin K ... Vitamin K prophylaxis for prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a systematic review. J Perinatol. 2016 May. 36 Suppl 1: ... Takahashi D, Shirahata A, Itoh S, Takahashi Y, Nishiguchi T, Matsuda Y. Vitamin K prophylaxis and Late Vitamin K deficiency ...
Severe deficiency, as may occur in persons with abetalipoproteinemia or fat malabsorption, profoundly affects the central ... Vitamin E, one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrients, is found in nut oils, sunflower seeds, whole grains, ... Vitamin E Deficiency) and Vitamin E Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Vitamin E ... Vitamin E Deficiency. Updated: Sep 30, 2016 * Author: Gary E Caplan, MD, MPH, FACOEM; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more ...
Vitamin B3 is found in a large variety of foods in small amounts. However, large amounts of vitamin B3 can be found in meat and ... Vitamin B3 is a water soluble nutrient. It is another important member of the B-complex family. Vitamin B3 facilitates the ... Vitamin,B3,deficiency,signs,vitamin B3 deficiency diseases,vitamin B3 deficiency causes,vitamin B3 deficiency symptoms,vitamin ... Tags: Vitamin , B3 , deficiency , signs , vitamin B3 deficiency diseases , vitamin B3 deficiency causes , vitamin B3 deficiency ...
Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia occurs when a lack of either of these vitamins affects the bodys ability to produce ... Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency. Pernicious anaemia. Pernicious anaemia is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in ... Functional vitamin B12 deficiency. Some people can experience problems related to a vitamin B12 deficiency, despite appearing ... Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia occurs when a lack of either of these vitamins affects the bodys ability to produce ...
Thiamin, or vitamin B 1 , is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in energy production (through the synthesis of adenosine ... Beriberi is a clinical manifestation of thiamin deficiency. Symptoms include nervous system abnormalities (e.g., leg cramps, ... In contrast, polished (white) rice, white flour, refined sugars, fats, and oils are foods lacking this vitamin. People at risk ... for thiamin deficiency include those who consume large quantities of alcohol and those who live in impoverished conditions, for ...
Read about the symptoms of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia, which usually develop gradually, but can worsen if the ... Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. If you have anaemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency, you may have other symptoms, such ... Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia can cause a wide range of symptoms. These usually develop gradually, but can worsen if ... Its important for vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. ...
  • Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, leading to bone softening diseases as rickets in children. (
  • Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D. The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. (
  • In the United States, milk has been fortified with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart since the 1930s, leading to a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases. (
  • 6. Symptoms ● Bone pain ● Muscle weakness ● Hypertension: high blood pressure ● Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease ● Cognitive impairment in older adults ● Severe asthma in children ● Rickets: Bone tissue isn't mineralized (child) ● Osteomalacia: Softening of bones (rickets as an adult) Vitamin D has also been linked to… ● Cancer ● Asthma ● Type-II diabetes ● Hip or Non-Spinal fractures ● Depression ● Alzheimer's ● Autoimmune diseases: ○ Multiple sclerosis (MS) ○ Crohn's ○ Type-I diabetes. (
  • Osteomalacia and rickets are also effectively prevented and treated through adequate vitamin D supplementation. (
  • Rickets has been around for centuries, but its roots as a symptom of vitamin D deficiency began only in the 17th century, when Francis Glisson published his findings on the disease and proposed that it was a disease of the rich rather than the poor. (
  • Mellanby and McCollum pioneered the discovery of vitamin D as the effective agent in cod liver oil which prevented and treated rickets, which led to the addition of this vitamin to milk and other foods as a means of fortification against this disfiguring disease. (
  • Rickets and osteomalacia are the classical deficiency diseases caused by inadequate vitamin D. (
  • Lack of vitamin D in children causes rickets, a disease characterized by inadequate mineralization of bone, growth retardation, and skeletal deformities such as bowed legs. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets (in children), osteomalacia, and osteoporosis (in adults). (
  • This article talks about the development of rickets in adults, which is a disease that develops because of the deficiency of vitamin D and inadequate exposure to sunlight. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets , cancer , cardiovascular disease , severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. (
  • Rickets is a disease of the growing bones among children that is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin D mainly due to lack of sunlight exposure. (
  • Deficiencies in vitamin D and calcium can cause soft, thin, brittle bones-a condition known as rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. (
  • We know that vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets. (
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem, very often unrecognized and untreated, associated with rickets, dental caries, and growth retardation in children and osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, falls, and increased risk of fracture in adults. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can also cause rickets in children and a condition called osteomalacia in adults. (
  • Although there are genetic and metabolic causes of rickets, the most common cause is a lack of vitamin D . This is also called nutritional rickets. (
  • Your doctor may also check the level of '25 hydroxy' vitamin D. On occasion, further blood testing is necessary to diagnose other forms of rickets. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency has traditionally been linked to rickets, a condition characterized by underdevelopment of the bone tissues resulting in skeletal defects and soft bones. (
  • A condition linked to rickets and other musculoskeletal and health complications, vitamin D insufficiency was found to be widespread among women during pregnancy, particularly in the northern latitudes. (
  • Vitamin D also helps protect people from getting diseases such as osteoporosis and rickets. (
  • While severe vitamin D deficiency cases, such as getting rickets, are rare today, people can still get symptoms. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency may result in rickets (a disease affecting the skeletal system). (
  • Vitamin D is helpful in the treatment of hypocalcemia (low calcium levels), hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels), osteodystrophy (defective bone development), rickets, certain types of tetany (abnormal muscle contractions), osteomalacia, and vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Very powerful synthetic forms of vitamin D have been used to treat "renal rickets," a condition caused either by severe kidney disease or by an inherited disorder of renal calcium/phosphorus absorption. (
  • When a deficiency of vitamin D occurs during infancy or childhood, the skeletal system develops abnormally, resulting in a condition called rickets. (
  • Although it rarely occurs in tropical climates, rickets was common among children in northern cities of the United States and among African American children until milk became fortified with vitamin D supplements. (
  • The New York Times reports that scientists have found a new marker for rickets, a childhood disease that can lead to bowed legs and hip deformities and results from deficiencies in vitamin D (which can be taken in by the diet or manufactured from exposure to the sun). (
  • Vitamin-D deficiency rickets, a disorder that becomes apparent during infancy or childhood, is the result of insufficient amounts of vitamin D in the body. (
  • Major symptoms of vitamin D deficiency rickets include bone disease, restlessness, and slow growth. (
  • If vitamin D deficiency rickets is not treated, the ends of the long bones may become enlarged, the legs may become bowed and knock-knees may result. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency rickets can be caused by a lack of vitamin D in the diet, a lack of exposure to the sun, or malabsorption syndromes in which there is an inability of the intestines to adequately absorb nutrients from foods. (
  • Nursing mothers who have a diet deficient in vitamin D may get rickets themselves and pass this condition on to the newborn child. (
  • In areas of the world where cultural habits limit exposure to sun, or the amount of sun in a day or season is limited, Vitamin D deficiency rickets tends to be more prevalent. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency rickets affects males and females in equal numbers. (
  • Although vitamin D deficiency rickets is rare in the United States, children who are dark skinned and living in cloudy northern cities as well as children on restricted diets due to cultural or religious beliefs are more likely to develop this disorder. (
  • Northern Yemen and Kuwait are also areas where Vitamin D deficiency rickets are prevalent due to lack of exposure to the sun because of cultural practices. (
  • Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of vitamin D deficiency rickets. (
  • Fanconi's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and bone abnormalities similar to those of vitamin D deficiency rickets. (
  • According to doctors, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is assumed to result from inadequate exposure to the sun, which results in the development of osteoporosis - weakening of bones and it also leads to rickets - a bone disease among children resulting in bow legs. (
  • You can get vitamin D in three ways: through your skin, from your diet, and from supplements. (
  • There are also vitamin D supplements, both in pills and a liquid for babies. (
  • If you have vitamin D deficiency, the treatment is with supplements. (
  • In contrast, most dietary supplements are manufactured by exposing a plant sterol to ultraviolet energy, thus producing vitamin D2. (
  • This disease is essentially the result of depleted calcium, but calcium supplements alone will not prevent it since vitamin D is required to properly absorb and utilize calcium. (
  • Oral supplements of vitamin D are not effective for psoriasis. (
  • Dietary supplements of vitamin A and multivitamin tablets or capsules also contain this form of vitamin A. Americans who eat meat get about 70% of the vitamin A in their diet from animal sources. (
  • To manage this deficiency, vitamin A supplements can be taken orally or, if the symptoms are rigorous, parenteral administration can be tried. (
  • Treatment includes vitamin D supplements to raise the body's levels to normal, which helps to prevent or reverse bone problems. (
  • Some people may respond to treatment by taking vitamin B12 supplements by mouth. (
  • Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements , diet , or exposure to sunlight. (
  • Usually, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is easy to treat with diet and vitamin supplements . (
  • Vitamin E has been demonstrated to inhibit platelet adhesion, as measured by a laminar flow chamber when blood from patients who have taken vitamin E supplements is tested. (
  • On average, U.S. adults are thought to get 160 to 400 IU per day of vitamin D, which increases to 300 to 900 IU daily when supplements are used, according to the Dietary References for Calcium and Vitamin D from the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine. (
  • People who are pregnant, obese or dark skinned may need more vitamin D than the average person and may also need to take supplements to get their required daily intake. (
  • Egg yolks, fatty fish such as salmon , fortified dairy products and beef liver are also excellent sources of vitamin D. For those who can't raise their levels via the sun, foods or oral supplements, vitamin D injections are available with doctor recommendation. (
  • Whether it's from the sun or supplements, remember to give your body the vitamin D it needs to keep you happy and healthy. (
  • A widely anticipated study has concluded that neither vitamin D nor fish oil supplements prevent cancer or serious heart-related problems in healthy older people, according to research presented Saturday at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. (
  • Certain people may not get enough vitamin D and may need to take supplements. (
  • Depending on the cause of your vitamin B 12 deficiency, you may need to take vitamin B 12 supplements for the rest of your life. (
  • We would not advise that people look to vitamin supplements to reduce their risk of complications at this stage. (
  • Barclay AJG, Foster A and Sommer A (1987) Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. (
  • WHO/UNICEF/IVACG Task Force (1997) Vitamin A Supplements: a Guide to Their Use in the Treatment and Prevention of Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia, 2nd edn. (
  • Infants often receive little sun exposure and do not ingest much vitamin D from their diets, especially if they're breastfed and do not take any supplements. (
  • Even as summer ends, you might want to think about taking vitamin D supplements to help protect against these serious diseases, another Oxford researcher suggested . (
  • You may need to take these vitamin B12 supplements for the rest of your life. (
  • Vitamin D3, "the sunshine vitamin," is synthetized in the human epidermis via ultraviolet irradiation, or it may be consumed in the form of oily fish or supplements. (
  • You can get vitamin D through sun exposure, foods, and supplements. (
  • Supplements - Vitamin D supplements are available for both vitamin D2 and D3. (
  • Regulations mandating vitamin supplementation in food products, adequate food security, and availability of vitamin supplements make vitamin deficiencies less common in developed countries. (
  • Ingesting large and varied amounts of vitamin supplements increases risk of toxicity and drug-drug interactions and is not recommended. (
  • USPSTF recommends against the use of β -carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer ( 2 ). (
  • [9] Vitamin B 12 deficiency is preventable with supplements containing the vitamin: this is recommended in pregnant vegetarians and vegans , and not harmful in others. (
  • Vitamin D supplements will be weighed before dispensing and again when the empty and half-empty containers are returned. (
  • In this article you'll find information about the different medicines that are commonly used as dietary supplements, or to prevent and treat problems caused by deficiencies of vitamins or minerals. (
  • Iron supplements are prescribed to treat iron deficiency anaemia . (
  • Specific deficiencies of various other minerals, including magnesium, zinc, potassium and phosphorous, can be treated with various other mineral supplements such as these. (
  • Folic acid is needed for the production of blood cells and folic acid supplements are prescribed to treat folate deficiency anaemia . (
  • Multivitamin supplements can be given to supplement the diet and help prevent vitamin deficiency disorders. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause anaemia and vitamin B12 supplements are used to treat this type of anaemia. (
  • Deficiencies of other B vitamins are relatively rare, but these are some of the supplements used to treat specific deficiencies. (
  • Vitamin K supplements are used to prevent bleeding caused by vitamin K deficiency, which may occur in newborn babies, people with malabsorption syndromes and people with liver disease or obstruction of the bile ducts. (
  • B6 supplements can help to correct a deficiency. (
  • More details can be found in the Vitamin B6 section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review (also see our T op Picks among B6 supplements). (
  • Vitamin K2 as MK-7 supplements are truly changing the face of global health, benefiting old and young alike. (
  • Treatment may include vitamin B-12 supplements. (
  • Most of these symptoms can be reversed by introducing vitamin-rich foods or supplements to the diet, and there aren't usually any long-term consequences. (
  • Even regular use of prenatal multivitamin supplements is not adequate to prevent vitamin D insufficiency, University of Pittsburgh researchers report in the current issue of the Journal of Nutrition, the publication of the American Society for Nutrition. (
  • A study, published in the October issue of the Journal of Nutrition ​ (Vol. 136, pp. 2562-2567), reported that concentrations of vitamin A in the liver of gerbils eating the high-beta-carotene maize group was 150 per cent that of the control group (0.25 versus 0.10 micromoles/gram, respectively), and equalled that of the group receiving the beta-carotene supplements. (
  • One way of getting vitamin D is through either consuming certain foods or taking dietary supplements. (
  • Therefore, older adults may benefit from supplemental vitamin D. People with darker skin are less able to make vitamin D from sunlight so it is important that they get recommended amounts of vitamin D from foods or supplements. (
  • Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may need to take vitamin supplements, but must consult a physician before doing so. (
  • It may be difficult, especially for vegans or people who are lactose-intolerant, to get enough vitamin D from their diets, which is why some people may choose to take supplements. (
  • The team also said that there has been little research on the effect of taking vitamin B12 supplements during pregnancy. (
  • However, because the body cannot produce this important vitamin itself, he advises vegans to "consume B12 by drinking products such as soy milk or rice milk with added B12" or to take vitamin supplements. (
  • If this is the cause of the hearing loss , it is possible that supplementation of vitamin D can act to reverse the situation. (
  • According to Prof. McGrath, "As the developing fetus is totally reliant on mother's vitamin D stores, our findings suggest that ensuring pregnant women have adequate levels of vitamin D may result in the prevention of some schizophrenia cases in a manner comparable [with] the role [that] folate supplementation has played in the prevention of spina bifida. (
  • Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis. (
  • Despite routine oral supplementation, intake of vitamin D is often inadequate [ 10 ]. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation may help depression. (
  • It's important to note that vitamin D supplementation needs to be monitored by blood testing every few months. (
  • Although vitamin D supplementation may improve mood, vitamin D is only a small, but critical, part of treatment as depression has myriad causes. (
  • Since you have been taking vitamin D supplementation for awhile, suggest getting retested. (
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate whether vitamin supplementation is effective in migraine patients in general, and whether patients with mild deficiency are more likely to benefit from supplementation,' says Suzanne Hagler , MD, a Headache Medicine fellow in the division of Neurology at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and lead author of the study. (
  • Many were put on preventive migraine medications and received vitamin supplementation, if levels were low. (
  • 1992) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity in northern Ghana. (
  • 1992) Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. (
  • Coutsoudis A, Kiepiela P, Coovadia HM and Broughton M (1992) Vitamin A supplementation enhances specific IgG antibody levels and total lymphocyte numbers while improving morbidity in measles. (
  • 1999) Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or β carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. (
  • 1986) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality: a randomised controlled community trial. (
  • Although this study cannot establish a direct cause and effect relationship, it would have a huge public health implication if vitamin D supplementation could be shown to improve cognitive performance over time because deficiency is so common in the population. (
  • Wilson said randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can prevent cognitive decline and definitively establish a causal relationship. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation should further consider additional factors, such as phosphates, parathormone, renin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. (
  • Samavat says, 'Our findings reinforce the need for vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and make a strong case for funding further studies and introducing public health policies, to help tackle obesity. (
  • Our data highlights that B12-deficiency has profound effects on adipocyte dysfunction, opening new insights into the pathogenesis of maternal obesity and the relevance of micronutrient supplementation for pregnant mothers. (
  • The USPSTF concludes that there is insufficient evidence to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of daily supplementation with doses greater than 400 IU of vitamin D and greater than 1,000 mg of calcium for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling, postmenopausal women ( 3 ). (
  • The USPSTF also concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of vitamin D and calcium supplementation, alone or combined, for the primary prevention of fractures in men and premenopausal women ( 3 ). (
  • In Holick's experience, prescription therapeutic supplementation of this kind can return blood serum levels of the vitamin to normal. (
  • [8] If no reversible cause is found - or when found it cannot be eliminated - lifelong vitamin B 12 supplementation is usually recommended. (
  • The full vascular profile is also novel and has the potential to improve therapeutic management of the participants independent of the outcomes with the vitamin D supplementation. (
  • Supplementation with vitamin D may be beneficial for MS patients, but the dose is yet to be determined. (
  • More research is needed to determine if vitamin D supplementation can help people with type 2 diabetes. (
  • A new study has linked vitamin D and a reduction of chronic pain, lending to voices calling for increased fortification or supplementation of the nutrient in diets. (
  • The condition is most commonly diagnosed through blood testing, and it's usually treated with controlled supplementation and, in some cases, other vitamin therapies and dietary changes. (
  • Note: Adults can meet the requirement for vitamin D without supplementation by exposing their face, hands, arms, or back, without sunscreen, to the sun for 10 to 15 minutes a least two times a week. (
  • Yet while B12 deficiency can carry severe consequences, it is relatively easy to correct with supplementation. (
  • He was exclusively breastfed and received a daily oral supplementation with 25 μg of vitamin K. A late onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding was suspected. (
  • The VKDB is a disorder of hemostasis in which coagulation parameters are quickly corrected by vitamin K supplementation. (
  • The findings, published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology , suggest that vitamin D supplementation could be effective in combating some cases of hypertension. (
  • Further studies using randomised controlled trials are also needed to confirm causality and the potential clinical benefits of vitamin D supplementation. (
  • Finally, randomised intervention trials will be needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can be used to prevent or treat hypertension before such a strategy can be used clinically. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation may be a relevant strategy for preventing prostate cancer incidence and/or tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. (
  • The signs and symptoms of niacin deficiency start to revert within days of oral supplementation with large amounts of the vitamin. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can also be caused by inadequate nutritional intake of vitamin D, disorders limiting vitamin D absorption, and conditions impairing vitamin D conversion into active metabolites-including certain liver, kidney, and hereditary disorders. (
  • In addition, a vitamin D deficiency may lead to decreased absorption of calcium by the intestines, resulting in increased production of osteoclasts that may break down a person's bone matrix. (
  • For these conditions, the vitamin is given in conjunction with a phosphate supplement to aid in absorption. (
  • Certain medications and medical conditions can reduce vitamin K production and inhibit absorption, meaning adults can become deficient. (
  • Human sources and absorption of vitamin K in relation to anticoagulation stability. (
  • Some stomach conditions or stomach operations can prevent the absorption of enough vitamin B12. (
  • Dark-skinned individuals have high levels of melanin which impairs absorption of vitamin D, which is made when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation found in natural sunlight. (
  • Vitamin D as a hormone assists with the absorption of calcium, helping to build strong bones, teeth and muscles. (
  • In addition to its well-known role in calcium absorption, vitamin D activates genes that regulate the immune system and release neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine , serotonin) that affect brain function and development . (
  • Plus, the body is good at recycling its existing supply of vitamin K. However, certain conditions and some drugs can interfere with vitamin K absorption and creation, making it possible to become deficient. (
  • For low absorption deficiency , you may need several high doses of vitamin B12 to increase your levels. (
  • Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. (
  • Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, binds to vitamin D receptors in the intestines, bones, and kidneys to increase calcium absorption from the intestines, promote calcium deposition in bones, and decrease parathyroid hormone concentrations (PTH). (
  • Some of the other causes of vitamin b12 deficiency are alcoholism, intestinal mal-absorption disorders, etc. (
  • People who have other problems like lack of intrinsic factor, mal-absorption of Vitamin B12, such people can only be treated, most of the times this deficiency is treated by giving Vitamin B12 injections. (
  • When conditions like mal-absorption, etc improve these injections are stopped, so that the body can make Vitamin B12 all by itself. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that regulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus as well as facilitates normal immune system function. (
  • In addition, vitamin D helps with the absorption of calcium, and calcium helps manage sugar in the blood. (
  • Vitamin E deficiency may occur if there is a problem with absorption of fat (malabsorption disorders), such as in premature babies or cystic fibrosis, or in conditions where there is a problem with the production of bile, for example in certain liver diseases, or if there is a blockage of the bile duct. (
  • Getting enough vitamin D is important, since it promotes and regulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus as well as facilitates in normal functioning of the immune system. (
  • Either formed through the exposure of sunshine on the skin or obtained through the diet, vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine and aids in the reabsorption of phosphorus from the kidney. (
  • The researchers found that metformin seems to inhibit the intestine's absorption of vitamin B12. (
  • it has an incidence of 1/15.000-1/20.000 births and it is typical of exclusive breastfed infants or newborns with malabsorption or cholestasis because vitamin K absorption is closely dependent on the intestinal availability of bile. (
  • Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium absorption and bone mineralization, the process in which bones are formed. (
  • Application of sunscreen prevents vitamin D absorption, Pandey said. (
  • Causes are categorized as decreased absorption of vitamin B12 from the stomach or intestines, deficient intake, or increased requirements. (
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a generally accepted indicator of vitamin D status, is inversely associated with adiposity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, and blood pressure along with its classic role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density , which can contribute to osteoporosis and fractures (broken bones). (
  • Vitamin D is important not only to the maintenance of proper bone density, but to the many calcium-driven neurologic and cellular functions, as well as normal growth and development. (
  • Occurring in children with vitamin D deficiency, this is caused by failure of mineralization of bone, leading to soft, pliable and eventually deformed bones. (
  • Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels. (
  • Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health by helping the body absorb calcium and phosphorous, two of the basic building blocks of bone. (
  • Besides aiding bone health, vitamin D supports the brain, muscles, and immune system . (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in calcium metabolism and bone growth. (
  • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to bone and joint pain, muscle pain, weakening and softening of bones, etc. (
  • Bone pain is one of the vitamin D deficiency symptoms in women. (
  • Not to mention that low vitamin D levels have also been linked to osteoporosis and bone fractures. (
  • Natural News) Vitamin K is an essential vitamin that plays a vital role in bone and heart health. (
  • It is one of the main vitamins responsible for blood coagulation and bone mineralization and also helps maintain brain function, boost metabolism, and protect against certain cancers. (
  • A new in-depth study of bone structure in people with vitamin-D deficiency reveals changes that can dramatically increase the risk of fractures. (
  • In a study published today in Science Translational Medicine , German researchers show that vitamin-D deficiency increases both the start and spread of bone fractures by up to 31 percent. (
  • Björn Busse and colleagues analyzed bone samples from 30 subjects ages 57 to 60, half of whom were deficient in vitamin D. All of the people selected for the study were healthy and had died of unnatural or accidental causes. (
  • What this means is that vitamin-D deficiency is not just associated with a loss of bone density. (
  • This type of bone damage can occur at any age as the result of vitamin-D deficiency. (
  • Balancing vitamin-D levels not only improves mineralization of bone, but by reintegrating old bone into the physiological process of bone remodeling, an improvement of bone quality and fracture rates can be achieved," he said. (
  • While it is important to protect your skin from the sun's rays, which greatly increase your risk of skin cancer, vitamin D deficiencies can cause health problems such as loss of bone density and might contribute to diabetes , high blood pressure , cancer, and some autoimmune disorders, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine . (
  • Symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency include impaired cognitive function, muscle weakness and bone pain. (
  • Normal bone aging is significantly accelerated with vitamin D deficiency, according to researchers at University of California Berkley. (
  • Previous research tells us that vitamin D deficiency contributes to reduced bone density. (
  • The German and American research team demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency also reduces bone quality. (
  • We hypothesized that restoring the normal level of vitamin D not only corrects the imbalance of mineralized and non-mineralized bone quantities, but also initiates simultaneous multiscale alterations in bone structure that affects both the intrinsic and extrinsic fracture mechanisms," explains Robert Ritchie, who led the US contingent of the research team. (
  • The researchers collected bone core samples from 30 participants, 15 of whom were vitamin D deficient and showed early signs of osteomalacia. (
  • The researchers found that cracks in the bone were larger and more common in the vitamin D deficient participants. (
  • Vitamin D deficient participants' bone displayed structural characteristics of older, brittle bones. (
  • Simply increasing vitamin D intake won't necessarily reverse your deficiency, says Michael Holick, M.D., a Bone Health Care Clinic director at Boston University Medical Center. (
  • [13] Maternal vitamin D deficiency may affect the baby, causing overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth. (
  • Adverse health outcomes such as preeclampsia, low birthweight, neonatal hypocalcemia, poor postnatal growth, bone fragility, and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases have been linked to low vitamin D levels during pregnancy and infancy. (
  • Vitamin B12 is needed to produce an adequate amount of healthy red blood cells in the bone marrow. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can cause bone loss, low bone density, and increase your chances of breaking bones. (
  • Vitamin D is a substance that the body needs to help absorb calcium from the gut and regulate how much calcium and phosphorus gets stored in the bone and how much gets let out of the body in urine by the kidneys. (
  • However, one must be exposed to the right wavelength of sunlight for a substantial period of time to make enough vitamin D for bone health. (
  • The presence of muscle weakness and bone pain may indicate vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Weakness of muscles, bone pain, muscle fatigue, and recurrent fracture are widely observed in women with vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Symptoms and problems which are well-documented from significant vitamin D deficiency can include bone discomfort in the low back or legs, increased risk of falls and possibly fractures and muscle aches. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for bone growth and development. (
  • Vitamin D, in conjunction with the parathyroid hormone, regulates calcium balance in the body and maintains normal serum calcium levels and bone density. (
  • Vitamin D is essential for normal bone growth and for repairing bones after a fracture. (
  • Since vitamin D is necessary to maintain normal bone strength, deficiencies of vitamin D in an adult can lead to loss of calcium and contribute to osteomalacia (softening of bones) as well as osteoporosis (thinning of the bones). (
  • Signs of vitamin D3 deficiency include bone pain and muscle weakness, according to MedicineNet. (
  • Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include bone pain, muscle weakness, high blood pressure and bladder problems. (
  • Although many symptoms of vitamin D deficiency are mild and go unnoticed, the most common symptoms include muscle weakness or bone pain, according to WebMD. (
  • Humans receive vitamin D partially through diet but mostly from exposure to the ultra-violet radiation from the sun, which allows the body to produce its own vitamin D. It is used by the body for many functions, like bone metabolism, immunity, nerve function, and now scientists believe it may also play a role in the function of pancreas and insulin sensitivity, malfunction of which are linked to diabetes. (
  • But there are other, less-talked-about nutrients like vitamin D that are also essential for bone and muscle health. (
  • When you have sufficient levels of vitamin D, you're at a lower risk of developing stress fractures , Lewin explained, because the vitamin optimizes your bone density. (
  • While bone strength is the most lauded benefit of vitamin D, the nutrient can also help fight inflammation, improve muscle strength, and even reduce allergy symptoms, Lewin says. (
  • Vitamin D is necessary for bone density growth to increase immunity and to fight pneumonia. (
  • Tissue deficiency resulting in negative effects in nerve cells, bone marrow, and the skin. (
  • When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency . (
  • Vitamin D deficiency means that you are not getting enough vitamin D to stay healthy. (
  • Vitamin-deficiency anemia may occur when you don't enough vitamin B12 and folate in your system. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is a condition that happens when a person isn't getting enough vitamin D, which is needed for strong bones and overall health. (
  • Without enough vitamin D, bones can grow too slowly and become soft, weak, or deformed. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can occur in people who don't get enough vitamin D in their diet, have limited exposure to sunlight, have kidney or liver disease, are obese, or have conditions or take medicines that prevent their bodies from absorbing enough vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in people who don't eat or drink dairy foods. (
  • Your body must absorb enough vitamin B12. (
  • Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. (
  • You can get vitamin B12 deficiency anemia if you don't get enough vitamin B12 in your diet from foods like milk, eggs, and meat. (
  • Some people can develop a vitamin B12 deficiency as a result of not getting enough vitamin B12 from their diet. (
  • A diet that includes meat, fish and dairy products usually provides enough vitamin B12, but people who do not regularly eat these foods, such as those following a vegan diet or who have a generally very poor diet, can become deficient. (
  • For example, Crohn's disease , a long-term condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system, can sometimes mean your body does not get enough vitamin B12. (
  • Those who are vegan or lactose tolerant and certain types of vegetarians could struggle to get enough vitamin D, Hardie says. (
  • Chances are you are not getting enough vitamin D. (
  • Many people do not get enough vitamin D. Brittle bones and an increased risk of respiratory diseases can be the result of a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Sit at a window with the sun shining in for about 1/2 hour (few times a week) and that will help you get enough Vitamin D. Glad to hear your calcium is within normal limits. (
  • The best way to find out if you're getting enough vitamin D is to have a blood test that measures 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the metabolized form of vitamin D. (
  • In fact, British researchers found that not getting enough vitamin D can make you more susceptible to diseases down the line. (
  • Your body cannot absorb enough vitamin B12 from foods. (
  • Your body may not absorb enough vitamin B12 if you are elderly or you have certain medical conditions. (
  • So how can you make sure you are both protecting your skin from skin cancer and premature aging while getting enough vitamin D? (
  • Many people do not receive enough vitamin D from food alone. (
  • indicating that those volunteers carrying the genetic variation were not eating enough vitamin A-rich foods to reach the optimum level their body required to function. (
  • If you are unable to obtain enough vitamin D from sun exposure, there are foods containing this vitamin that can start kick-start your day. (
  • He or she can help ensure that you get enough vitamin B-12 and other vitamins. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency means that you do not have enough vitamin D in your body. (
  • Getting enough vitamin D may also play a role in helping to keep you healthy by protecting against the following conditions and possibly helping to treat them. (
  • What does sunlight have to do with getting enough vitamin D? (
  • The deformities revealed themselves in slices of teeth like circles of bark in a tree-a year-by-year history of when a person was not getting enough vitamin D from the sun or food. (
  • Severe vitamin D deficiency can also lead to other diseases. (
  • In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to osteomalacia. (
  • Many older adults are deficient in vitamin D. This can affect hearing by causing poor function of the small bones in the ear that transmit sound. (
  • A report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that 8.1% of Americans are deficient in vitamin D, although other studies and estimates cite a much higher percentage. (
  • For example, Cleveland Clinic Mercy Hospital, a ministry of the Sisters of Charity Health System, based in Ohio, estimates that 42% of the U.S. population is deficient in vitamin D. In the CDC study, the highest deficiency was found among Black people, with 31% found to be vitamin D deficient. (
  • People deficient in Vitamin D can compensate with a diet with rich in vitamin D (seafood, fish, etc.) and/or food fortification with vitamin D," Busse told Healthline. (
  • A]dults in the study who were moderately deficient in vitamin D had a 53 percent increased risk of developing dementia of any kind, and the risk increased to 125 percent in those who were severely deficient. (
  • We discovered the vitamin D signaling through its receptor (VDR) directly inhibits the expression of the ID1 gene and when you are deficient in vitamin D this repression is released allowing this tumor promoting gene to be expressed at higher levels, promoting tumor progression. (
  • People who are deficient in vitamin D are between 8 and 14 percent more likely to suffer from depression, notes MedicineNet. (
  • People who are deficient in vitamin D are more likely to have problems with their hearts and circulatory systems and may experience conditions such as high blood pressure. (
  • Babies of nursing mothers whose diet is deficient in vitamin D can be affected with this disorder. (
  • Unfortunately, you can be deficient in vitamin D without even knowing it . (
  • A number of regions have published guidelines defining vitamin deficiencies and advising specific intakes for healthy people, with different recommendations for women, men, infants, the elderly, and during pregnancy and breast feeding including Japan , the European Union , the United States, and Canada. (
  • Breastfed infants, because human milk is a poor source of vitamin D. If you are breastfeeding , give your infant a supplement of 400 IU of vitamin D every day. (
  • In this podcast, Dr. Lauren Marcewicz, a pediatrician with CDC's Division of Blood Disorders, speaks about vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants, the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis at birth, and how healthcare providers can provide the best information to their expectant parents. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency in adults is rare but does occur in infants. (
  • However, vitamin K deficiency is much more likely to occur in infants. (
  • Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries. (
  • Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. (
  • Takahashi D, Shirahata A, Itoh S, Takahashi Y, Nishiguchi T, Matsuda Y. Vitamin K prophylaxis and Late Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants: The 5th nation-wide survey in Japan. (
  • That's because breast milk is not a good source of vitamin D, and infants shouldn't be exposed directly to the sun, Webster says. (
  • Breastfed infants should receive a 400 IU vitamin D supplement a day until they can consume 1,000 milliliters of vitamin D-fortified formula or whole cow's milk daily, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency is much more common in infants. (
  • In infants, the condition is called VKDB , for vitamin K deficiency bleeding. (
  • Blackfan K and Wolbach SB (1933) Vitamin A deficiency in infants. (
  • Infants born to or breastfed by a woman with a vitamin B12 deficiency may also have low levels of vitamin B12. (
  • All infants should receive 400 IU/day of vitamin D soon after birth whether breast or formula fed ( 5 ). (
  • Breastfed infants living in a northern location (41 degrees N) are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter. (
  • It is increasingly being recognized that infants and children living at northern latitudes are at risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially if their skin is darkly pigmented. (
  • The study by the PI (Pediatrics 2006;118:603) was the first to demonstrate that infants with light skin pigmentation living at 41 degrees north are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • During winter (December - April) a full 78% of infants were vitamin D deficient if they did not receive vitamin D from an external source. (
  • Infants who are breastfed and who are not given extra vitamin D are at highest risk. (
  • All breastfed infants should receive 400 international units of vitamin D daily. (
  • Similarly, deficiency in infants can lead to craniotabes (soft skull). (
  • Intestinal conditions that result in malabsorption of nutrients may also contribute to vitamin D deficiency by decreasing the amount of vitamin D absorbed via diet. (
  • Patients with chronic liver disease or intestinal malabsorption disorders may also require larger doses of vitamin D (up to 40,000 IU or 1 mg (1000 micrograms) daily). (
  • Vitamin A deficiency can result from insufficient intake of vitamin A rich foods, a liver disorder, or fat malabsorption. (
  • Severe deficiency, as may occur in persons with abetalipoproteinemia or fat malabsorption, profoundly affects the central nervous system and can cause ataxia and a peripheral neuropathy resembling Friedreich ataxia. (
  • Vitamin deficiencies related to cystic fibrosis, chronic cholestatic liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia, short-bowel syndrome, isolated vitamin E deficiency syndrome, and other malabsorption syndromes may lead to varying degrees of neurologic deficits. (
  • Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency causes intestinal malabsorption of all fat soluble vitamins. (
  • Food-cobalamin malabsorption, which has only recently been identified as a significant cause of cobalamin deficiency among elderly people, is characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or a deficiency of intestinal cobalamin transport proteins or both. (
  • We review the epidemiology and causes of cobalamin deficiency in elderly people, with an emphasis on food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome. (
  • 2. King CE, Leibach J, Toskes PP. Clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to malabsorption of protein-bound vitamin B12. (
  • Malabsorption syndromes, especially those associated with increased fat loss in the stool (steatorrhea), can cause an increased need for vitamin D. These syndromes include lactose intolerance, tropical and non-tropical sprue, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pancreatitis. (
  • induce vitamin B12 malabsorption, which may increase the risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency -- a clinically important and treatable condition,' the researchers wrote. (
  • The vitamin deficiency may be caused by poor nutrition, a lack of exposure to the sun, or malabsorption syndromes in which the intestines do not adequately absorb nutrients from foods. (
  • Even though the underlying mechanism has not been well understood, vitamin D appears to exert effects through direct modulation of gene expression via vitamin D receptors (VDRs) ( 1 ) and through regulation of extra- and intracellular calcium ( 1 , 7 ). (
  • To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly kidney dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or with hypoparathyroidism. (
  • Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium . (
  • A slightly higher dose of vitamin D, even as little as a total of 700 IU for those over age 65, can significantly reduce age-related fractures when taken with 500 mg of calcium per day. (
  • Taking vitamin D without the calcium is also ineffective. (
  • Severe calcium deficiency due to low vitamin D intake may also occur in the period of infancy. (
  • Vitamin D helps calcium absorb into our intestines and also keeps our bones strong. (
  • Do i have to tak calcium if i'm vitamin d3 deficiency? (
  • The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • Vitamin D is also essential for your body to absorb calcium and phosphorous. (
  • Women who are athletes may be more susceptible to certain nutrient deficiencies (such as iron, calcium, and vitamin D ) than men, according to new research . (
  • They found that female athletes were much more susceptible to iron , calcium , and vitamin D deficiencies than their male counterparts. (
  • Vitamin D is an essential fat soluble vitamin and a key modulator of calcium metabolism in children and adults. (
  • Because calcium demands increase in the third trimester of pregnancy, vitamin D status becomes crucial for maternal health, fetal skeletal growth, and optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. (
  • Your body needs vitamin D to help absorb the calcium and phosphorus in your diet that makes for strong bones. (
  • Vitamin D and calcium may act as an appetite suppressant as well. (
  • Vitamin D helps the body in using calcium available in the diet, and thus facilitates the growth of strong bones. (
  • Because vitamin D is essential for the body's utilization of calcium, a deficiency may result in severe loss of calcium and consequently a softening and weakening of bones. (
  • You need vitamin D so that calcium and phosphorus can be used to build bones. (
  • Vitamin D, along with calcium, helps build bones and keep bones strong and healthy. (
  • When there is sufficient calcium in the diet and sufficient active Vitamin D, dietary calcium is absorbed and put to good use throughout the body. (
  • If calcium intake is insufficient, or vitamin D is low, the parathyroid glands will 'borrow' calcium from the skeleton in order to keep the blood calcium in the normal range. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency leads to the synthesis of under-carboxylated proteins called PIVKA (protein induced by vitamin K absence), that are unable to bind calcium and therefore inactive. (
  • Occasionally, when there is too little calcium in the blood due to the lack of vitamin D (hypocalcemia), mental retardation may occur. (
  • Lewin noted that all athletes should still have adequate amounts of calcium, vitamin K, and minerals like magnesium in their diets to promote healthy bones. (
  • Ever since, scientists have defined vitamins as organic (carbon-containing) chemicals that must be obtained from dietary sources because they are not produced by the body's tissues. (
  • In order to avoid deficiency, recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) have been worked out, and range from 400 to 800 IU (10-20 mcg) based on the age. (
  • Vitamins are vital part of our dietary intake. (
  • [ 6 , 7 ] Several epidemiologic studies have indicated that high dietary intake of vitamin E is associated with high serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol, as well as with lower rates of ischemic heart disease. (
  • Stores of vitamin B12 in the body can last around 2 to 4 years without being replenished, so it can take a long time for any problems to develop after a dietary change. (
  • Folate deficiency caused by a lack of dietary folate is more common in people who have a generally unbalanced and unhealthy diet, people who regularly misuse alcohol, and people following a fad diet that does not involve eating good sources of folate. (
  • When skin is exposed to the sun, it can make vitamin D. Vitamin D is alsoavailable as a dietary supplement. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency prevalence is increased in individuals with darker skin pigmentation, obesity, low dietary intake of vitamin D, or low sunlight exposure. (
  • You may not have a specific vitamin deficiency that causes your body odor, but dietary intervention could help clean up your scent. (
  • Dietary deficiency - Vegans (strict vegetarians who do not eat any meat, fish, egg or dairy products) can develop vitamin B12 deficiency because they lack vitamin B12 in their diets. (
  • The entire SHAPE population should be aware of the risk for vitamin D deficiency and be proactive in environmental, dietary, and supplemental approaches to prevention and treatment. (
  • Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 due to vegetarianism is increasing and causes hyperhomocysteinemia. (
  • Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is a severe problem in the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, Central and South America, and selected areas in Africa. (
  • Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is not prevalent in Asia, except in vegetarians. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays). (
  • Inadequate intake of a specific vitamin results in a characteristic deficiency disease (hypovitaminosis), the severity of which depends upon the degree of vitamin deprivation. (
  • The study, presented at the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2007 Annual Meeting in San Francisco, found that one in four patients who suffer from chronic pain also have inadequate blood levels of vitamin D. As such, the researchers put forth that the vitamin D deficiency possibly contributed to the patients' ongoing pain. (
  • However, inadequate levels of vitamin D has long been associated with causing pain and muscle weakness and studies have suggested that pain-related symptoms of vitamin D inadequacy respond poorly to pain medications. (
  • The daily dose of vitamin D recommended for healthy adults with normal sun exposure is 400 IU (international units) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day and 600 IU if [experiencing] inadequate sun exposure,' said Jeffords. (
  • Osteomalacia refers to the softening of the bones that occurs in adults that are vitamin D deficient. (
  • Four out of five persons visiting public hospitals for treatment are diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency, which causes osteomalacia - the softening and weakening of bones. (
  • However, little is known regarding whether vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in the heightened prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other metabolic disorders among Asian individuals. (
  • The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in chronic gastrointestinal disorders. (
  • Epidemiological studies show a prevalence of cobalamin deficiency of around 20% (between 5% and 60%, depending on the definition of cobalamin deficiency used in the study) in the general population of industrialized countries. (
  • Researchers from the Medical College of Wisconsin analyzed the prevalence of a vitamin D deficiency in IBD patients and found that 50 percent were deficient at some point and 11 percent had severely low levels. (
  • There is a need to inform and motivate governments and agencies to collect, and report to WHO, national data on the prevalence of deficiency and, whenever possible, vitamin A programme coverage conditions prevailing at the time that population assessment data were collected. (
  • "…this is the first time that we have established the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among a diverse group of chronic pain patients," ​ said study author, Michael Hooten, medical director and anesthesiologist at the Mayo Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Center. (
  • The unprecedentedly high prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among Emiratis may be linked to a genetic inability to metabolize Vitamin D properly, research at Abu Dhabi's Khalifa University has indicated. (
  • The study reveals that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found to be higher in females i.e. 95.2 per cent. (
  • To be on the safer side, go through various symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. (
  • Scroll down to know the causes and symptoms of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. (
  • See a GP if you're experiencing symptoms of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia. (
  • What are the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia? (
  • The signs of vitamin B deficiency vary depending on the type of B vitamin that is lacking, but symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency typically include confusi. (
  • The symptoms of vitamin B-12 anemia may look like other blood conditions or health problems. (
  • Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency can include muscle weakness, pain, fatigue and depression. (
  • The history of the discovery of vitamin deficiencies progressed over centuries from observations that certain conditions - for example, scurvy - could be prevented or treated with certain foods having high content of a necessary vitamin , to the identification and description of specific molecules essential for life and health. (
  • You can also get vitamin D from fortified foods. (
  • Humans cannot make vitamin A, so they must get it from foods in their diet. (
  • Some manufactured foods such as breakfast cereals and fat-free milk are fortified with vitamin A in the form of retinol. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble substance, and is therefore found in few foods of plant origin. (
  • Vitamin K is found in some plant foods, such as leafy green vegetables, and is also produced by the body. (
  • Most adults obtain an adequate supply of vitamin K through the foods they eat and through what their body naturally produces. (
  • Foods that are high in vitamin K include green, leafy vegetables, prunes, and fermented dairy products. (
  • Vitamin B3 is found in a large variety of foods in small amounts. (
  • If you do not regularly eat these types of foods, you may develop a folate deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D is an important vitamin that you get through some of the foods you eat and through sun exposure. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in a few foods but mostly produced by the sun and absorbed into the skin. (
  • But since your body is unable to produce the vitamin on its own, you need to follow a nutritious diet full of vitamin A-rich foods to prevent deficiency. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency is rare in adults because many of the foods we eat contain adequate amounts of K1, and because the body makes K2 on its own. (
  • Vitamin D is available through our foods - Fortified milk, breakfast cereals, egg yolks, fatty fish, and fish oils. (
  • Vitamin D is a nutrient found in very few foods. (
  • Vitamin B12 is only found in foods that come from animal sources such as fish, beef, dairy products, and eggs. (
  • You eat few or no foods that contain vitamin B12. (
  • For low intake deficiency , you may need to eat more foods that contain or are fortified with vitamin B12. (
  • What foods are good sources of vitamin B12? (
  • Not eating enough foods that contain vitamin B12. (
  • A vegetarian or vegan diet can cause deficiency because vitamin B12 is only found in foods of animal origin, such as meat, fish, eggs and milk. (
  • Food - There are a number of foods that are fortified with vitamin D , including milk, yogurt, orange juice, and breakfast cereals. (
  • Diets high in carbohydrates and highly processed foods provide poor nutrition and can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • However, main causes can be classified as, diet which is low in vitamin B12, that is low intake of fish, dairy products, meat, eggs, etc. all these foods are a rich source of vitamin B12. (
  • For people, where the real cause is their diet can try and include foods which are rich in Vitamin B12. (
  • A magnesium deficiency doesn't mean you'll develop body odor, but consuming foods rich in this mineral can help you deodorize more efficiently, according to research done by Dr. Pierre Delbet way back in 1928. (
  • Again, a deficiency may not have caused the disorder, but extra riboflavin in your diet, along with reduction of trimethylamine-containing foods, such as cruciferous vegetables and seafood, could help. (
  • Vitamin D is also found in foods such as fish and fish oils, and in smaller amounts in sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, mushrooms, and many types of sprouts. (
  • Vitamin B12 is available only in animal foods (meat and dairy products) or yeast extracts (such as brewer's yeast). (
  • Feldman believes that people should be aiming for 30-50 ng/mL of vitamin D. Other than getting some sunshine many foods have vitamin D. Fatty fish like salmon, trout, mackerel, tuna, and eel all contain vitamin D. Other examples include Portobello mushrooms, tofu, cod liver oil and fortified cereals. (
  • Vitamin D has 2 forms: D2 (obtained from foods you eat) and D3 (obtained from sun exposure). (
  • Most foods that contain vitamin D only contain small amounts and won't give you the total amount your body needs. (
  • Many foods typically eaten for breakfast are fortified with vitamin D. Read labels to find out how much vitamin D is in the food you eat for breakfast. (
  • Vitamin D also naturally occurs in varied foods such as egg yolks, certain fish, fortified grain and dairy products, and fish liver oils. (
  • Most researchers believe that people need a more or less constant supply of vitamin-rich foods in order to get the most benefits. (
  • Healthcare professionals usually recommend that people eat foods high in this vitamin every day. (
  • Certain foods naturally have some vitamin D, such as egg yolks, mushrooms, cheese, beef liver and fatty fish like salmon, tuna and mackerel. (
  • Areas for research include intermittent vitamin B12 supplement dosing and better measurements of the bioavailability of B12 in fermented vegetarian foods and algae. (
  • Freezing foods with high vitamin D content (salmon or mackerel) does not reduce their vitamin D content. (
  • Vitamin D content generally remains high even when foods are cooked. (
  • Liver diseases such as cirrhosis or renal failure can cause vitamin D deficiencies, as can the ingestion of large amounts of snack foods containing the fat substitutes Olestra or Olean, or the chronic use of mineral oil. (
  • Vitamin D doesn't occur naturally in many foods. (
  • That's why certain foods have added vitamin D. In fact, newer food nutrition labels show the amount of vitamin D contained in a particular food item. (
  • The vitamin content of various foods is shown in the following table. (
  • Pregnant women who consume too few animal-derived foods increase their risk of developing a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is essential for strong teeth and bones. (
  • People who get too much vitamin A have weaken bones that tend to break easily and have a chronic feeling of illness, including headache, nausea, irritability, fatigue, and muscle and joint pain. (
  • Some of the low vitamin D symptoms in women are weak bones, fatigue and blurred vision. (
  • Isn't vitamin D only important for healthy bones? (
  • Vitamin D is already well known for its benefits in building healthy bones. (
  • Scientists also believe that vitamin K helps bones grow and stay healthy, but they continue to study that relationship. (
  • The researchers discovered that vitamin D-deficient patients had less mineralization on the surface of their bones. (
  • The authors recommend vitamin D levels are checked and well monitored to ensure the structural integrity of bones and prevent future fractures. (
  • This vitamin is an essential nutrient important for strong bones. (
  • A child who shows increased irritability and suffers from soft bones, fatigue, weakness, and less than normal overall development right from infancy, is mostly likely to have low levels of vitamin D in the blood. (
  • The vitamin also helps keep teeth and bones strong, and plays a very important role in immune strength - it boosts the immune system and helps people ward off sicknesses more effectively. (
  • Vitamin D helps with strong bones and may help prevent some cancers. (
  • You need vitamin D to help support those bones and muscles. (
  • Of course, vitamin D is not the only driver of strong bones. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency results in weakening of muscles, abnormal contraction, muscle cramps and pain in the bones. (
  • Muscle weakness is also a common symptom of vitamin D deficiency, further increasing the risk of fall and fracture in adults. (
  • Older adults, because your skin doesn't make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight as efficiently as when you were young, and your kidneys are less able to convert vitamin D to its active form. (
  • The recommended daily allowance for vitamin D for children and adults is 600 IU (15 mcg) until age 70. (
  • This is one reason why higher vitamin D amounts are recommended for adults age 70 or older. (
  • The number one reason most adults are vitamin D deficient is because we simply don't get enough sunlight. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common health problems among adults, but it doesn't have to be. (
  • Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included more than 15,000 adults, indicated that individuals with darker skin have lower vitamin D levels . (
  • In one study adults with vitamin D deficiency who received high doses of the vitamin saw an improvement in their depressive symptoms after two months. (
  • Reviewing medical information gathered on more than 6,000 adults over a 10-year period, Johns Hopkins researchers have found that lower than normal blood levels of vitamin D were linked to increased risk of early signs of interstitial lung disease. (
  • CINCINNATI , June 10, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A high percentage of children, teens and young adults with migraines appear to have mild deficiencies in vitamin D, riboflavin and coenzyme Q10 - a vitamin-like substance found in every cell of the body that is used to produce energy for cell growth and maintenance. (
  • Elderly people require more vitamin D than younger adults and may not spend enough time outdoors due to limited mobility. (
  • Newswise - WINSTON-SALEM - April 15, 2014 - Vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in older adults, but there isn't a lot of conclusive research into whether there's a relationship between the two. (
  • Wilson and colleagues were interested in the association between vitamin D levels and cognitive function over time in older adults. (
  • Low vitamin D levels have been linked to cancer, cognitive impairment in older adults, and increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, according t. (
  • If you do not have enough butter, milk and other dairy products in your daily diet, you could have a deficiency of vitamin A . Vitamin A quantities that are less than 1mg per day for adults and 0.8mg per day for kids may cause night blindness, bitot spots, dry skin and hair and brittle fingernails. (
  • While most healthy adults will get all the vitamins they need from a good diet, growing children have higher vitamin requirements, which may not always be met by their diet, particularly if they are going through a fussy stage. (
  • As adults grow older, their kidneys have decreased ability to turn vitamin D to its active form. (
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood levels of vitamin B12 below 120-180 pmol/L (170 to 250 pg/mL) in adults. (
  • Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia occurs when a lack of either of these vitamins affects the body's ability to produce fully functioning red blood cells. (
  • Most people with vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia have underdeveloped red blood cells that are larger than normal. (
  • Like vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia, folate deficiency anaemia can develop for a number of reasons. (
  • Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia can cause a wide range of symptoms. (
  • It's important for vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. (
  • Your intestines absorb vitamin B12 from food. (
  • Pernicious anaemia causes your immune system to attack the cells in your stomach that produce the intrinsic factor, which means your body is unable to absorb vitamin B12. (
  • It's harder to absorb vitamin D as you age. (
  • Those with inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis because these diseases make it harder for the body to absorb vitamin D. (
  • It is needed to absorb vitamin B 12 . (
  • Inability of the small intestine to absorb vitamin B12. (
  • The stomach produces a substance called intrinsic factor to absorb vitamin B12 from food. (
  • The Schilling test measures the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 from the bowel. (
  • For the body to absorb vitamin b12 better there is a requirement of a protein called intrinsic factor, lack of this protein too can cause deficiency. (
  • The presence of certain conditions like cystic fibrosis, Crohn's disease, and celiac disease may adversely affect the ability of the intestines to absorb vitamin D from the consumed food. (
  • When the digestive tract cannot adequately absorb vitamin D, chances of vitamin D deficiency increases," said Dr Binod Kumar Yadav, chief of Department of Biochemistry at the Institute of Medicine, TUTH. (
  • Researchers are studying vitamin D for its possible connections to several medical conditions, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis. (
  • The researchers analyzed vitamin D levels in blood samples from babies born in Denmark in 1981-2000. (
  • Although our results were able to confirm an approximately 27% increased total CV risk in subjects with vitamin D deficiency, they indicate that the risk is much stronger for (and possibly even confined to) fatal CVD events," write the researchers, led by co-first authors Laura Perna, PhD, and Ben Schottker, PhD, from the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg. (
  • In our sample, one third of people were vitamin D deficient at the time," write the researchers. (
  • Researchers have found vitamin D receptors on a handful of cells located in regions in the brain-the same regions that are linked with depression. (
  • A new study by researchers from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing at Trinity College Dublin has shown for the first time in Ireland that a deficiency in vitamin D was associated with a substantial increased risk of depression (+75%) over a four-year follow up period. (
  • Researchers from Warwick Medical School have found a new way to test accurately for levels of vitamin B1. (
  • Researchers are already looking into the effect of giving people the vitamin in tablet form to see if early kidney damage can be reversed. (
  • Because few received vitamins alone, the researchers were unable to determine vitamin effectiveness in preventing migraines. (
  • Oxford researchers have shown how vitamin D interacts with our DNA and how a deficiency in it brings on a slew of serious diseases. (
  • Evolutionarily speaking, researchers think that as people migrated to parts of the world with less sun, they had to adapt with lighter skin, so they could produce more vitamin D. (
  • Researchers estimate that half of the general population is at risk of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. (
  • Researchers also believe that optimal vitamin D levels boosts levels of important brain chemicals, and protect brain cells by increasing the effectiveness of glial cells in nursing damaged neurons back to health. (
  • The link between low vitamin D and dementia has again been confirmed with the publication of a robust six-year long study 4 conducted by an international team of researchers. (
  • When it comes to vitamin D, you really want to be in the optimal or clinically relevant range, and as the years have gone by, researchers have progressively moved that target range upward. (
  • Kim Pfotenhauer, D.O., one of the researchers of the study, explains, "People are spending less time outside and when they do go out, they're typically wearing sunscreen, which essentially nullifies the body's ability to produce vitamin D. (
  • Researchers reviewed 42 studies that assessed the effect of deficits on calories, protein, minerals, and vitamins on performance. (
  • These athletes also need to be aware of a greater need for magnesium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 , the researchers added. (
  • Most chronic liver disease patients also have low levels of vitamin D, says University of Tennessee researchers from the same conference. (
  • Researchers at the US Department of Agriculture s Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University just released its study linking low levels of vitamin D to diabetes in the June 2010 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition . (
  • Researchers note that a deficiency in this important vitamin, which actually acts like a hormone in your body, may result in a greater risk of contracting flu viruses. (
  • Researchers are looking into whether vitamin D can help regulate blood sugar levels. (
  • A recent study, for example, indicated that the median adult intake of vitamin D in the US is only 230 IU per day, versus the researchers' recommended 2000 IU per day. (
  • The researchers recorded their serum vitamin D levels, pain medication (morphine), as well as general health, and found patients lacking sufficient vitamin D also required higher doses of morphine for a longer period of time. (
  • Our study shows that it is reasonable to assume harm will eventually occur in some patients with metformin-induced low vitamin B12 levels,' the researchers wrote. (
  • The researchers suggested that all patients taking metformin have their vitamin B12 levels tested regularly to avoid potentially severe consequences. (
  • Researchers used two common genetic variants that affect circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D concentrations (which are generally used to determine a person's vitamin D status), to measure the causal effect between vitamin D status and blood pressure and hypertension risk. (
  • Researchers say they can't be sure if depression causes lower vitamin D levels or if lowered vitamin D levels cause depression. (
  • A new study links low levels of vitamin D to depression, but the researchers caution that the relationship between the two is still unclear. (
  • Researchers are investigating whether vitamin D deficiency could also leave people vulnerable to pneumonia, urinary tract infections and infections after surgery. (
  • Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology looked at levels of vitamin B12 in more than 11,000 expectant mothers from 11 countries and found that low levels of vitamin B12 are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. (
  • Avitaminosis (vitamin lack) may be encountered when there are increased losses of vitamins such as occur with chronic severe diarrhea or excessive sweating or when there are increased requirements for vitamins during periods of rapid growth, especially during childhood and pregnancy. (
  • sources of vitamin D, a deficiency of the vitamin can occur when exposure to sunlight is limited. (
  • [ 4 ] Complete blindness, cardiac arrhythmia, and dementia may occur in patients in whom vitamin E deficiency has been prolonged and severe. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur together and can be hard to tell apart. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency in the US and the UK is estimated to occur in about 6 percent of those under the age of 60, and 20 percent of those over the age of 60. (
  • Because similar symptoms often occur in diabetics and the elderly, deficiency may be hard to detect in such populations. (
  • The term VKDB replaced the wording of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn since vitamin K deficiency bleeding may also occur in the postnatal period. (
  • In moderate deficiency, soreness of the tongue, apthous ulcers, breathlessness, jaundice, hair fall and severe joint pain (arthralgia) may occur, and the beginning of neurological symptoms, including abnormal sensations such as pins and needles, numbness and tinnitus. (
  • Because of ethnic differences in vitamin D metabolism and its nutritional status indicated by previous studies ( 3 , 13 ), it is not clear whether the findings from western populations could be extrapolated directly to Asian individuals. (
  • Medications may speed up the metabolism of vitamin D, causing a deficiency. (
  • People who take medicines that affect vitamin D metabolism, such as cholestyramine (a cholesterol drug), anti-seizure drugs, glucocorticoids , antifungal drugs, and HIV/AIDS medicines . (
  • Vitamins play a crucial role in our body's metabolism, but only tiny amounts are needed to fill that role. (
  • Vitamin B 12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell metabolism, thus a deficiency may lead to disruption of DNA and cell metabolism and thus have serious clinical consequences. (
  • Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirement: Current Concept and Future Research. (
  • Furie B. Vitamin K: metabolism and disorders. (
  • However, another effect of vitamin E in vitro is modulation of prostaglandin metabolism, leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation. (
  • In spite of a century of intensive research by prominent scientists, huge gaps exist in our knowledge of how the function and the structure of the nervous system are affected by alterations in vitamin metabolism. (
  • Cobalamin metabolism is complex and requires many processes, any one of which, if not present, may lead to cobalamin deficiency. (
  • Fig. 1: Cobalamin metabolism and corresponding causes of deficiency. (
  • Vitamin D is also involved in glycemic control, lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and sensitivity, explaining the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency impairs fat metabolism and may be associated with obesity during pregnancy, according to findings presented by a University of Warwick researcher at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference. (
  • Previous studies suggest B12 deficiency increases the risk for metabolic complications such as obesity or diabetes but the underlying mechanisms affecting fat metabolism remain poorly understood. (
  • Markers of fat metabolism in both lab-grown fat cells, low in vitamin B12, and samples from vitamin B12 deficient pregnant women indicated that fat tissue function was abnormal, with increased fat production, reduced ability to breakdown fat for energy and increased inflammation, which causes further damage. (
  • Although these findings suggest how fat metabolism may be impaired in vitamin B12 deficiency, particularly in pregnant women, larger studies are needed to confirm this and further explore the underlying mechanisms, to identify intervention strategies and help prevent obesity. (
  • The team now plan to investigate genetic factors that affect fat metabolism and how deficiency in pregnancy may affect the future metabolic health of children. (
  • Given the key metabolic role of adipose tissue, we investigated whether B12 deficiency may affect triglyceride synthesis and lipid metabolism leading to adipose tissue inflammation. (
  • Vitamins are essential micronutrients required for normal metabolism, growth, and development. (
  • This review discusses vitamin D metabolism and the implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation. (
  • We will next evaluate genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of vitamin D metabolism to better understand the risk alleles underlying this association," said Murphy. (
  • 2. History Vitamin D is one of the 13 vitamins discovered in the early 20th century by doctors studying nutritional deficiencies. (
  • While enormous technological strides have been made in recent decades, nutritional depletion and vitamin deficiencies continue to plague large segments of the world's population. (
  • However, the potential seriousness of the complications (particularly neuropsychiatric and hematological) 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 requires investigation of all patients who present with vitamin or nutritional deficiency. (
  • Bloating as a symptom of another condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome, may have a link to a nutritional deficiency. (
  • A deficiency increases the risk of this type of cancer, but there is no advantage to taking more than the AI level. (
  • For example, a gastrectomy , a surgical procedure where part of your stomach is removed, increases your risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • What causes or increases my risk for vitamin B12 deficiency? (
  • The findings also suggest there's a threshold level of circulating vitamin D, below which your risk for dementia increases. (
  • vitamin D deficiency increases both the initiation and propagation of cracks by 22- to 31-percent," the authors explain. (
  • Blood test to measure methylmalonic acid level - The blood level of methylmalonic acid increases when a person has B12 deficiency. (
  • Results from observational studies have suggested a strong association between low vitamin D levels and increases in blood pressure and hypertension, but randomized trials have not provided consistent evidence. (
  • Kidneys and liver help in absorbing vitamin D. But when there are problems with kidneys and liver, vitamin D deficiency increases. (
  • The second is known as vitamin K-2 or menaquinone and is found in the body and created naturally in the intestinal tract. (
  • Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is naturally created in the intestinal tract and works similarly to K1. (
  • Overgrowth of bacteria - Some people develop vitamin B12 deficiency as a result of conditions that slow the movement of food through the intestines (diabetes, scleroderma, strictures, diverticula), allowing intestinal bacteria to multiply and overgrow in the upper part of the small intestine. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency , or hypovitaminosis D is defined as a vitamin D level that is below normal. (
  • Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels between 25 and 50 nmol/L, and vitamin D deficiency was defined as levels lower than 25 nmol/L. (
  • Like with non-CF individuals, the 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level determines the degree of vitamin D insufficiency and, following data published outside CF, a 25OHD level 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) is considered insufficient. (
  • Ingested vitamin D is often not absorbed due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, present in 85% to 90% of individuals with CF [ 12 ]. (
  • An estimated one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency . (
  • They were 11.2 percent more likely than placebo participants to suffer from B12 insufficiency and 7.2 percent more likely to suffer from deficiency. (
  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce or prevent complications related to a low vitamin B12 level. (
  • What were your symptoms associated with a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency? (
  • Learning about the risk factors and possible symptoms can help you decide if you should request medical testing to confirm a diagnosis of low vitamin D. (
  • High homocysteine levels (hyperhomocysteinemia) may also be caused by folate or vitamin B 6 deficiencies, and these should be excluded as causes of cobalamin deficiency before a diagnosis is made. (
  • [1] Diagnosis is typically based on blood levels of vitamin B 12 . (
  • Indeed, we found that this relationship between vitamin D levels in the whole body and ID1 levels in the tumor was present in human patients at the time of their diagnosis. (
  • Once we identified a pathway dysregulated by vitamin D deficiency we than confirmed that this pathway was conserved in humans by examining human breast cancer cells as well as patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer. (
  • In our study, vitamin D deficiency seemed to be a predictor of aggressive forms of prostate cancer diagnosis in European-American and African-American men. (
  • While no association was found between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer diagnosis in European-American men, this association was significant in African-American men. (
  • associated with a lack of vitamin K, which is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver cells. (
  • You can prevent anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12 by eating a well-balanced diet. (
  • Anemias caused by a lack of vitamin B 12 or a lack of folate are 2 types of megaloblastic anemia. (
  • Anaemia due to a lack of vitamin B12 is also called pernicious anaemia. (
  • Lack of Vitamin B12 makes it difficult for the nervous system to produce red blood cells, and so arises the deficiency. (
  • Almost half of UK women could be suffering from a lack of vitamin A due to a previously undiscovered genetic variation, scientists at Newcastle University have found. (
  • Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia). (
  • Pregnant women suffering from lack of vitamin D may elicit depressive behavior, extreme mood swings, and chronic pain. (
  • Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C. (
  • It is caused by a lack of vitamin D in the body. (
  • Infantile scurvy is a disease that is caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet. (
  • Evidence does not support the use of vitamin D to treat alcoholism, acne , arthritis, cystic fibrosis , or herpes. (
  • Your body forms vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. (
  • This is due to a difficulty in quantifying the amount of the vitamin that is produced by the body with exposure to sunlight. (
  • Exposure to sunlight is the primary method of obtaining vitamin D. In clear summer weather, approximately ten minutes per day in the sun will produce adequate amounts, even when only the face is exposed. (
  • A 10 - 15 minutes exposure to sunlight is enough to synthesize the daily requirement of vitamin D (200 IU). (
  • Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity . (
  • We therefore expected that vitamin D levels may be somewhat low even in early psychosis, as people may be less engaged in their day-to-day activities in the period before their first presentation and so may have less exposure to sunlight," he added. (
  • People can also produce vitamin D naturally after direct exposure to sunlight, landing its nickname the 'sunshine vitamin. (
  • Direct exposure to sunlight is another way people can get vitamin D as the body forms the 'sunshine vitamin' when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis, according to the NIH. (
  • Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin because in humans the biologically active form, calciferol (vitamin D-3) is formed after exposure to sunlight. (
  • Exposure to sunlight and consumption of milk, milk products, fish and egg yolk helps maintain vitamin D levels, advised doctors. (
  • Mineral deficiencies, particularly of zinc and magnesium, are more likely to cause body odor. (
  • [9] Severe deficiency causes beriberi , which became prevalent in Asia as more people adopted a diet primarily of white rice. (
  • Niacin deficiency is a consequence of a diet low in both niacin and the amino acid tryptophan , a precursor for the vitamin. (
  • Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body in the presence of sunlight, as opposed to being required in the diet. (
  • Eggs, beans, nuts, and lean meats should be added to the diet in order to decrease the effects of vitamin A deficiency. (
  • Excluding fruits and vegetables from your diet can lead to vitamin C deficiency. (
  • You're more likely to be low in this vitamin if you're older, or you eat a vegetarian diet . (
  • This means you need folate in your daily diet to ensure your body has sufficient stores of the vitamin. (
  • Natural News) Following a balanced diet helps your body get the vitamins and minerals it needs to function well. (
  • After it is consumed in the diet or absorbed (synthesized) in the skin, vitamin D is then transported to the liver and kidneys where it is converted to its active hormone form. (
  • If your deficiency is due to a restrictive diet, you may want to work with a nutritionist. (
  • The research showed that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have a vitamin B1 deficiency of 76 and 75 per cent, respectively, and that this deficiency was not due to diet, but to the rate at which the vitamin was cleared from the body. (
  • These findings highlight the importance for pregnant women to consume a diet rich in vitamin B12 to help prevent obesity and its related adverse health complications in the long term. (
  • In patients with bulimia or anorexia nervosa, vitamin B12 deficiency also can be related to diet. (
  • However, your liver can store vitamin B12 for up to five years, so it's rare for diet to cause this anemia. (
  • B12 deficiency is quite common on a vegetarian diet, so it is important to know your best B12 food sources and the B12 deficiency symptoms. (
  • poetryman, When I went on a vegetarian diet I did some research to see if we can get all our vitamins and minerals, so I thought this information would be helpful to other vegetarians. (
  • The body manufactures vitamin D as a response to sunlight and hence the vitamin is also referred to as the sunshine vitamin.Individuals who avoid sunlight, stick to a strict vegetarian diet, or have milk allergies may be vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. (
  • It is therefore very important for pregnant women to ensure that their diet does not lack vitamin D. (
  • Individuals who adhere to a stick vegetarian diet for many years are less likely to consume the recommended levels of vitamin D and thus at increased risk to vitamin D deficiency. (
  • The elderly often suffer from Vitamin C deficiency, so should make sure they eat a balanced diet. (
  • The human body converts beta-carotene in the diet into vitamin A. (
  • We report here that feeding male C57BL6/J mice a B-vitamin-deficient diet for 10 weeks induced hyperhomocysteinemia, significantly impaired spatial learning and memory, and caused a significant rarefaction of hippocampal microvasculature without concomitant gliosis and neurodegeneration. (
  • Some types of liver diseases and kidney diseases can decrease vitamin D production leading to a deficiency. (
  • Some metabolic diseases are responsive to treatment with specific doses and forms of vitamin D. These include Fanconi syndrome and familial hypophosphatemia, both of which result in low levels of phosphate. (
  • Although deficiency diseases have been described in laboratory animals and humans deprived of single vitamins, in human experience multiple deficiencies are usually present simultaneously. (
  • Low vitamin D level is highly prevalent in humans and is said to be a possible risk factor for various diseases. (
  • Aside from just feeling all around crummy, a vitamin D deficiency can result in some serious health problems including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, depression , fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and neuro-degenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Meanwhile, insufficient vitamin D is associated with the increased risk of non-communicable diseases, such as osteoporosis, some cancers and cardiovascular disease. (
  • The aim of the present paper was to review the most important mechanisms explaining the possible association of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data. (
  • What Diseases Does Riboflavin Deficiency Cause? (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with certain digestive diseases. (
  • Other research found that vitamin D plays a critical role in activating the body s immune system against infectious diseases like the flu . (
  • Vitamin D deficiency - which can lead to osteopenia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, fractures, common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases - s been found to be lacking particularly in inhabitants of colder climates. (
  • The present trial is designed to determine whether a dose of 200 IU/day is effective or whether doses of 400 IU/day, 600 IU/day or 800 IU/day are required to prevent vitamin D deficiency reliably. (
  • This is distinct from anemia caused by deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B 12 . (
  • Folic acid, also called folate, is another B vitamin. (
  • Treatment may include vitamin B 12 shots (injections) and folic acid pills. (
  • The body needs iron , vitamin B12 and folic acid (one of the B group of vitamins) to produce more red blood cells. (
  • Vitamin B 12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences. (
  • We searched PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "vitamin B 12 deficiency" and "cobalamin deficiency", and hand selected the most relevant and appropriate articles. (
  • We also review diagnostic and management strategies for cobalamin deficiency. (
  • Vitamin B 12 or cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients, 1 but it is often unrecognized or not investigated because the clinical manifestations are subtle. (
  • We summarize the current state of knowledge on cobalamin deficiency, with a particular focus on deficiency in elderly people. (
  • Cobalamin deficiency is defined in terms of the serum values of cobalamin and of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, 2 components of the cobalamin metabolic pathway. (
  • The definitions of cobalamin deficiency used in this review are shown in Box 1 . (
  • 4 , 13 , 14 , 15 The causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in Fig. 1 and listed in Table 1 . (
  • Causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in blue. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency , also known as cobalamin deficiency , is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B 12 . (
  • The action of at least one chemotherapeutic drug, tamoxifen, appears to be improved with small added doses of vitamin D. Tamoxifen is commonly used to treat ovarian, uterine, and breast cancers. (
  • These doses of vitamin B12 may be given as a shot or pill. (
  • Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. (
  • Treatment requires high doses of either ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) to build up the body stores of the vitamin. (
  • While a vitamin C deficiency can lead to serious health problems, large doses of vitamin C may cause nausea and headaches. (
  • Prescription doses of vitamin D are available to treat true vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Vitamin A affects many different systems of the body. (
  • Vitamin A deficiency primarily affects the retinas and skin, but components of the vitamin B group are essential for normal development and functioning of the nervous system. (
  • This is because vitamin B12 deficiency affects the way certain cells (epithelial cells) in the cervix look. (
  • Vitamin D has been shown to improve a number of brain disorders, including dementia and its most severe form, Alzheimer's disease, 1 the latter of which now affects an estimated 5.2 million Americans. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency affects about 50 percent of people worldwide and roughly 75 percent of Americans, according to 'Scientific American' magazine. (
  • Another cause of vitamin b12 deficiency is surgery, if a person had to undergo any surgery which affects production of intrinsic factor, it might cause deficiency. (
  • Our studies indicate that a deficiency in vitamin D directly affects the breast cancer tumor itself, promoting tumor progression. (
  • Deficiency in vitamin D affects inhabitants of colder climates, because sunlight induces synthesis of vitamin D in humans. (
  • Thiamine (Vitamine B 1 ) deficiency is especially common in countries that do not require fortification of wheat and maize flour and rice to replace the naturally occurring thiamine content lost to milling , bleaching and other processing. (
  • Thiamine or vitamin B1 belongs to the group of water-soluble vitamins, and is required to carry out several vital processes within the body. (
  • Find out more information about the effects of thiamine deficiency, through this article. (
  • A deficiency of vitamin B1 (thiamine) in people with diabetes could increase the risk of complications such as heart disease, kidney disease, retinopathy and nerve damage. (
  • The liver is required to transform vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is an inactive metabolite of vitamin D but is a necessary precursor (building block) to create the active form of vitamin D. In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Your liver or kidneys cannot convert vitamin D to its active form in the body. (
  • Step 2 When your skin is exposed to the sun, it produces vitamin D and sends it to your liver. (
  • In patients with severe liver disease, factor V and VK-dependent factors are low, but in VK deficiency, the factor V level is within the reference range. (
  • Individuals at high risk for vitamin D deficiency , include those living far from the equator, those with medical conditions (such as obesity, liver disease, celiac and renal disease), the elderly, and those with darker skin. (
  • The vitamin is converted in the liver and kidney to calcidiol and calcitriol, respectively, and acts on specific target tissues via vitamin D receptors. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver. (
  • In the liver, vitamin D is converted into calcitriol, which is the main circulating form of the nutrient. (
  • In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • The older generations tend to eat more eggs, milk and liver which are naturally rich in vitamin A whereas the health-conscious youngsters on low-fat diets are relying heavily on the beta-carotene form of the nutrient. (
  • Most natural sources of vitamin D come from the animals, such as egg yolks,fish oils and some fishes, cheese, beef liver, and fortified milk. (
  • Vitamin D is also deficient in kidney and liver patients. (
  • Ultraviolet B rays from sunlight is a large source of vitamin D. Salmon, herring, and mackerel, are also sources of Vitamin D. Milk is often fortified with vitamin D and sometimes bread, juices, and other dairy products are also fortified with vitamin D as well. (
  • However, large amounts of vitamin B3 can be found in meat and dairy products. (
  • Vitamin B12 is a micronutrient found in seafood, meat and dairy products that is essential for many metabolic reactions that keep our bodies functioning normally. (
  • Milk is often fortified with vitamin D and sometimes bread, juices, and other dairy products are fortified with vitamin D as well. (
  • Vegetarians aren't as likely to have a B12 deficiency because they consume dairy products or eggs, explained information officer Paul W. Thorbjörnsen from the Norwegian Vegetarian Association. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency leads to a deficiency of the proteins that require vitamin K for their synthesis, including prothrombin, factor X, factor IX, and factor VII. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin A can have a harsh effect on the health of nails, as this vitamin provides the body nutrients and proteins for development. (
  • Both vitamin K-1 and vitamin K-2 produce proteins that help the blood to clot. (
  • While vitamin K deficiency is rare, it means a person's body cannot produce enough of these proteins, increasing the risk of excessive bleeding. (
  • Vitamin B3 facilitates the processes involved in metabolizing fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. (
  • This can happen as the result of a problem known as functional vitamin B12 deficiency, where there's a problem with the proteins that help transport vitamin B12 between cells. (
  • Your body needs vitamin K in order to produce the proteins that go to work during the clotting process. (
  • If you're vitamin K deficient, your body doesn't have enough of these proteins. (
  • The history of vitamin B12 deficiency goes back to almost hundred years, when it was found that it causes pernicious anemia. (
  • When you don't have enough, you have a type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia called "pernicious anemia. (
  • Pernicious anaemia is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in the UK. (
  • This type of B 12 deficiency anemia is called pernicious anemia. (
  • If the blood test shows a low vitamin B12 count, it must be established whether it is pernicious anaemia or if there is some other cause. (
  • The main type of vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia is pernicious anemia . (
  • Vitamin B12 is combined with a protein called intrinsic factor in your stomach. (
  • This mix of vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor is then absorbed into the body in part of the gut called the distal ileum. (
  • In the UK, the most common cause of B12 deficiency is a lack of intrinsic factor. (
  • Intrinsic factor attaches to vitamin B12 and takes it to the intestines to be absorbed. (
  • Vitamin B3 is a water soluble nutrient which means that the body does not naturally store it. (
  • Further, patients with Crohn's disease who were vitamin D deficient had a worse quality of life compared to those who had normal levels of the nutrient. (
  • Body odor isn't always about poor hygiene -- sometimes people have disorders or nutrient deficiencies that cause them to have an excessive, unpleasant smell. (
  • Beta-carotene, however, was deemed to be safe and this led to the general advice that we should eat more of this nutrient, allowing the body to convert what it needs into vitamin A. (
  • It's important to get enough of this vital nutrient so you don't end up with a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Eating oranges, which are a good source of vitamin C, will help prevent a deficiency of the nutrient. (
  • Vitamin B-12 is an essential nutrient found only in products of animal origin, such as meat, milk and eggs," said study author Dr. Tormod Rogne in a statement. (
  • Here, Lewin helps us break down what vitamin D is, what it does for you, the warning signs of a vitamin D deficiency, and how we can get more of this essential nutrient in our diets. (
  • [2] Countries do not always agree on the amounts of vitamins needed to safeguard against deficiency. (
  • Many multivitamins now contain vitamin D in different amounts. (
  • People with a darker pigment of skin or increased amounts of melanin in their skin, may have decreased production of Vitamin D. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production. (
  • There are many chemical forms of vitamin D, which have varying amounts of biological activity. (
  • Hair follicles require certain amounts of vitamin A to carry on their constant function of regeneration and growth. (
  • Although, it is required in small amounts to our body, its deficiency can lead to some serious. (
  • Natural News) People around the world are not getting adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals from their diets. (
  • The team, led by Dr Georg Lietz, has shown that almost 50 per cent of women have a genetic variation which reduces their ability to produce sufficient amounts of vitamin A from beta-carotene. (
  • Vitamins are other essential nutrients your body needs in small amounts to work properly. (
  • Individuals with a BMI of 30 or more generally tend to have reduced amounts of vitamin D in their blood. (
  • Melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color, can reduce the skin's ability to make vitamin D. Individuals with darkly pigmented skin who are unable to get adequate sun exposure and/or consume recommended amounts of vitamin D may need a vitamin D supplement. (
  • UVB from sunlight is a large source of vitamin D. Oily fish such as salmon , herring , and mackerel are also sources of vitamin D, as are mushrooms . (
  • What are the sources of vitamin D? (
  • Vitamin B refers to a group of eight water-soluble vitamins that are essential for the healthy functioning of the human body. (
  • Thiamin, or vitamin B 1 , is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in energy production (through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) and nerve conduction. (
  • Abnormalities relating vitamin E deficiency progress from hyporeflexia, ataxia, limitation in upward gaze, and strabismus to long-tract defects, including visual-field constriction and profound muscle weakness. (
  • One possible outcome is supplementing patients with vitamin D. "The implications are that in chronic pain patients, vitamin D inadequacy is not the principal cause of pain and muscle weakness, however, it could be a contributing but unrecognized factor," ​ said Hooten. (
  • These RDAs do not allow for sunlight exposure, to prevent deficiency in case of limited outdoors activity. (
  • The kidneys are responsible for converting 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is the active form of vitamin D in the body. (
  • High levels of vitamin D can be toxic and cause weight loss, heart arrhythmias, and lead to damage to the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys, according to the NIH . (
  • [1] Governments guidelines on vitamin deficiencies advise certain intakes for healthy people, with specific values for women, men, babies, the elderly, and during pregnancy or breastfeeding . (
  • But too much sun exposure can lead to skin aging and skin cancer, so many people try to get their vitamin D from other sources. (
  • People at high risk of vitamin D deficiency may need more. (
  • People with dark skin, which has less ability to produce vitamin D from the sun. (
  • People with disorders such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease who don't handle fat properly, because vitamin D needs fat to be absorbed. (
  • People who have obesity , because their body fat binds to some vitamin D and prevents it from getting into the blood. (
  • Many people don't get that amount of winter exposure, but are able to utilize the vitamin that was stored during extra time in the sun over the summer. (
  • In most people, vitamin D is synthesized in the skin on exposure to a narrow wavelength band of ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Older people produce the vitamin less efficiently than younger people. (
  • Other people who may be diagnosed with vitamin K deficiency have a condition that results in the body being unable to absorb fat properly. (
  • Although our body can prepare vitamin D on its own, its levels are found to be low in some people. (
  • Some people can experience problems related to a vitamin B12 deficiency, despite appearing to have normal levels of vitamin B12 in their blood. (
  • Some of these symptoms can also happen in people who have a vitamin B12 deficiency but have not developed anaemia. (
  • It is known that people in long-stay psychiatric wards have high rates of vitamin D deficiency, possibly related to spending long periods indoors," said Dr. Lally. (
  • Some people have gene variants that make it hard for their bodies to produce vitamin D, even if their skin is exposed to ultraviolet light. (
  • In the CDC study, the highest deficiency was found among Black people, with 31% found to be vitamin D deficient. (
  • More than a billion people in the world are vitamin D deficient. (
  • An English study that included 2070 people ages 65 and older concluded that vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression in northern countries although major depression was only seen in individuals with the most severe deficiencies. (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. (
  • It is the first time a deficiency of the vitamin has been identified in people with diabetes. (
  • More research needs to be done into the link between vitamin B1 deficiency and people with diabetes developing complications such as kidney and retina damage, heart disease and stroke. (
  • The reasons behind why the body removes such a staggering amount of vitamin B1 in people with diabetes also need to be investigated to see if it's a problem that can be tackled. (
  • People should consume between 200 and 600 international units of vitamin D daily, according to a U.S. Institute of Medicine guideline, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends 400 international units daily. (
  • Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, although it may also be present in the young women. (
  • Using sunscreen blocks short wave ultraviolet B (UVB) rays from reaching your skin, causing vitamin D deficiencies in almost 1 billion people worldwide, according to a study published in May 2017 in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association . (
  • People with certain health conditions, such as diabetes or kidney disease, might be at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency and require higher daily intakes. (
  • Sun exposure - Dr. Photenhauer indicates "there are healthy, moderate levels of unprotected sun exposure that can be very helpful in boosting vitamin D ." Because different skin types absorb the sun's rays at different rates, for example, people with light skin absorb the sun's rays very quickly, while dark skinned individuals absorb the UV rays much more slowly, there isn't a specific amount of time that is universal. (
  • Deficiency is even more common in people with chronic pain. (
  • Not getting enough of a certain vitamin, such as B-12, can cause some people to have excessive, odorous gas -- but not necessarily an unpleasant body odor. (
  • New evidence shows that people with higher levels of vitamin D experienced a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. (
  • Removal or destruction of the stomach - Vitamin B12 deficiency can develop in people who have had surgery to remove part or all of the stomach. (
  • Although more research needs to be done Brian Feldman , MD, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics at Stanford, is "very optimistic that restoring physiological levels of vitamin D in people that are deficient and at risk for developing breast cancer will have some beneficial impact. (
  • We are very optimistic that restoring physiological levels of vitamin D in people that are deficient and at risk for developing breast cancer will have some beneficial impact. (
  • How much vitamin D do people need? (
  • MS is more common in areas north of the equator, suggesting that the amount of sunshine one receives is connected to their likelihood of developing MS. People are less likely to develop MS if they have higher vitamin D levels. (
  • Studies have found people with vitamin D deficiency have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life, but the link is not conclusive. (
  • People who don't get much sun exposure are advised to take a vitamin D supplement, as are pregnant women and children aged under five years. (
  • People with certain medical conditions and those who take certain antibiotics or anti-epileptic medications may be at greater risk of deficiency. (
  • It is recommended for people aged 1 to 70 years to consume at least 600 International Units of vitamin D on a daily basis, while people older than 70 years require about 800 IUs per day. (
  • Older people with dark skin are at a greater risk to vitamin D deficiency. (
  • People who don't get enough are at risk for short-term problems like fatigue and certain skin problems, but longer-term deficiencies can lead to more serious conditions like anemia and scurvy . (
  • Maize is the preferred staple food of more than a billion people ranging from Latin America to Sub-Saharan Africa, and with an estimated 50 million people in these regions being vitamin A deficient biofortification of this crop could have profound effects. (
  • One affect is vitamin D deficiency, which can prevent people from staying healthy as their nervous, muscle and immune systems are impacted. (
  • People over the age of 50 may be at increased risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. (
  • As people age, skin cannot synthesize vitamin D as efficiently and the kidney is less able to convert vitamin D to its active hormone form. (
  • Our findings suggest that screening for vitamin D levels in depressed patients - and perhaps screening for depression in people with low vitamin D levels - might be useful," said Dr. E. Sherwood Brown, professor of psychiatry at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. (
  • In studies of depressed people, scientists found that the people with the lowest vitamin D levels were most likely to commit suicide. (
  • Our results demonstrate a possible link between specific vitamin D receptor (VDR) in a common type of genetic variation among people and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the Emirati population," she revealed. (
  • Even if sunscreen does block a percentage of UVB rays, though, the National Institute of Health points out that most people don't apply sunscreen perfectly or forget to reapply it, so even when you're wearing sunscreen, your skin is likely still making vitamin D. (
  • The colour of the skin of the Nepali people is darker, because of which there is less penetration of sunlight leading to vitamin D deficiency, said Bhusal. (
  • There are at least 30 people visiting the medical store daily to buy vitamin D tablets. (
  • Doctors advise people to sit under the sun to minimise the risk of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Though the number of people with vitamin D deficiency is on the rise, the government has yet to take any initiative to curb this. (
  • While as of 2015 the deficiency of any one vitamin is not a known cause of fasciculations, or benign muscle twitches, a lack of the mineral magnesium is a cause, according to Popular Science. (
  • What Kinds of Effects Result From a Magnesium Deficiency? (
  • A magnesium deficiency can initially result in weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, according to the National Institutes of Health Off. (
  • Due to older research suggesting that schizophrenia might be more prevalent in regions with less sun , some scientists have hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency may also be a risk factor for this condition. (
  • How prevalent is vitamin D deficiency? (
  • The signs of vitamin A deficiency are listed below. (
  • Teeth and oral mouth problems are the most common signs of vitamin A deficiency. (
  • Some possible signs of vitamin D deficiency include frequent infections, depression and cardiovascular disease. (
  • What Are Some Signs of Vitamin D3 Deficiency? (
  • The following table shows the levels of the vitamin associated with health risks. (
  • Doctors usually diagnose vitamin D deficiency by measuring levels of the vitamin in the blood. (
  • Although "there were trends" toward higher levels of the vitamin when the blood sampling was performed in summer/autumn months than in winter/spring months in both groups, this was not found to be statistically significant. (
  • The body can usually function on low or reduced levels of the vitamin for a short while, but the longer the shortage goes, the worse the symptoms usually become. (
  • Earlier, short-term studies had found that use of the drug might lead to insufficient levels of the vitamin in the body. (
  • Riboflavin deficiency also causes anemia with red blood cells that are normal in size and hemoglobin content, but reduced in number. (
  • What causes vitamin-deficiency anemia? (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12 . (
  • Treatment depends on the cause of B12 deficiency anemia. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia most often responds well to treatment. (
  • Shots of vitamin B12 can prevent anemia if you've had a surgery known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency. (
  • This type of anemia means that your body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells because you're low in vitamin B12 . (
  • Who is at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia? (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is drop in number of red blood cells in body. (
  • Prevention of Vitamin B12 anemia is possible. (
  • [4] In mild deficiency a person may feel tired and have a reduced number of red blood cells (anemia). (
  • Vitamin B 12 deficiency can lead to anemia and neurological disorders . (
  • [10] A mild deficiency may not cause any discernible symptoms, but as the deficiency becomes more significant, symptoms of anemia may result, such as weakness, fatigue, light-headedness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing and pale color to the skin. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is defined by low levels of stored B12 in the body that can result in anemia, a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells. (
  • One of the more serious consequences is anemia, which is clinically defined as an iron shortage in the blood but is linked to vitamin C because the vitamin plays a part in helping manufacture red blood cells. (
  • The breast-fed infant of a vitamin B12-deficient mother is at risk for severe developmental abnormalities, growth failure, and anemia. (
  • Symptoms of deficiency include anemia, fatigue, nerve damage and cognitive changes. (
  • Ozdemir MA, Karakukcu M, Per H, Unal E, Gumus H, Patiroglu T. Late-type vitamin K deficiency bleeding: experience from 120 patients. (
  • What surprised us was the degree of difference between the patients and their matched controls, with patients being nearly 3 times as likely to have full-blown vitamin D deficiency," co-first author John Lally, MRCPsych, clinical research fellow in the IMPACT project at the Institute of Psychiatry in London, UK, and in the UK's National Psychosis Unit, told Medscape Medical News . (
  • All CF patients should have vitamin D levels checked annually, ideally by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mass spectrometry test. (
  • 25OH vitamin D levels in CF patients. (
  • The multifactorial etiology of low vitamin D levels in CF patients is illustrated in Figure 1 . (
  • Scientists have discovered that in rheumatoid arthritis patients, lower levels of vitamin D are associated with increased disease severity. (
  • These deficiencies may be involved in patients who experience migraines, but that is unclear based on existing studies. (
  • Dr. Hagler's study drew from a database that included patients with migraines who, according to Headache Center practice, had baseline blood levels checked for vitamin D, riboflavin, coenzyme Q10 and folate, all of which were implicated in migraines, to some degree, by previous and sometimes conflicting studies. (
  • Patients with chronic migraines were more likely to have coenzyme Q10 and riboflavin deficiencies than those with episodic migraines. (
  • Vitamin D deficit was associated in some studies with the number of affected coronary arteries, postinfarction complications, inflammatory cytokines and cardiac remodeling in patients with myocardial infarction, direct electromechanical effects and inflammation in atrial fibrillation, and neuroprotective effects in stroke. (
  • Not sure where to post this but have found two of my 50 yo patients who have been on anti seizure medications for years who have abnormally low blood levels of Vitamin D3 despite my supplementing them heavily with 30K a day for years! (
  • However, 'anywhere from 40 to 60 percent of patients benefit by correcting their vitamin D deficiency,' according to a 2008 interview with Holick in 'Alternative Therapies. (
  • Riboflavin, or vitamin B-2, has been shown in preliminary research to potentially help restart enzyme activity in patients with trimethylaminuria. (
  • The team also studied 34 human breast cancer patients and found that levels of vitamin D affected expression levels of ID1 protein in their tumors. (
  • Vitamin D itself may not ward off depression, but patients who are taking antidepressants along with vitamin D may help reduce symptoms of depression. (
  • Of these patients, 26 per cent had vitamin D inadequacy and needed almost twice the dose of morphine of the group with adequate vitamin D levels. (
  • NaturalNews) Long-term use of the popular diabetes drug metformin (originally marketed as Glucophage) may cause patients to develop a steadily worsening vitamin B12 deficiency, Dutch scientists have found. (
  • For every 8.9 patients treated with metformin, one would develop insufficient vitamin B12 levels. (
  • The results found that high levels of vitamin D were associated with lower chances of developing depression, especially among those patients who had a prior history of depression. (
  • Dr Al Safar recently co-authored a paper titled 'Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms among Emirati patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus' that was published in the Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (
  • A study carried out by Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital among 182 patients (106 male and 76 female) visiting the out-patient department from September 2014 to December 2015 revealed that 81 per cent had vitamin D deficiency. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is common in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, and a low 25(OH)D level is significantly associated with an increased risk of having metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. (
  • Vitamin A deficiency is common among children in developing countries, and is responsible for one to two million deaths and half a million new cases of blindness every year. (
  • They concluded that these common deficiencies may play a significant role in what's been called Female Athlete Triad syndrome, which is comprised of osteoporosis, amenorrhea (an abnormal absence of menstruation), and low energy availability. (
  • Deficiencies are less common in the Western world, but certain populations are at increased risk. (
  • Vitamin A - also known as retinol - plays a vital role in strengthening our immune system, protecting us against common infections such as flu and winter vomiting. (
  • Deficiency, depending on how you define it, is not uncommon and is particularly common in the populations at risk for developing breast cancer. (
  • We hope that readers will find this report useful and feel free to share any comments with us ([email protected]). We also hope that this information will contribute to our common goal to eliminate vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency among women of childbearing age is quite common. (
  • This is certainly a common complaint here at SHAPE and it seems that normal vitamin D levels are less common than insufficient or deficient levels,' said Army Maj. (
  • The needed amount of vitamin D is expressed as an Adequate Intake (AI) rather than an Required Daily Amount (RDA). (
  • As such, if a consumer is not getting adequate exposure to the sun for vitamin D and its subsequent impact on their serum 25 (OH)D levels, they should be supplementing with vitamin D. Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. (
  • It is also important for pregnant women to consume adequate quantities of vitamin D for proper growth and development of the fetus. (
  • Usually, a level of 20 nanograms/milliliter to 50 ng/mL is considered adequate, while less than 12 ng/mL indicates a deficiency in vitamin D. Lewin noted that she does not abide by these guidelines, however, and recommends that her athletes have levels in the upper 40s to 50s. (
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that the average intake of vitamin D from food range from 144 IU to 288 IU per day. (
  • Vitamin D is found in milk, eggs and fish. (
  • For this reason, in the United States and many industrialized nations, cow milk (and infant formula ) is fortified with extra vitamin D. Human milk is often very low in vitamin D. (
  • The classic form is related to the low placental transfer of vitamin K, low concentration in breast milk, lack of gastrointestinal flora in the newborn gut, and poor oral intake that commonly occurs in the newborn period as breastfeeding is initiated. (
  • Vitamin D may also reduce your risk of multiple sclerosis and depression. (
  • Higher blood levels of vitamin D seem to be associated with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent study shows vitamin D may slow the progression of the disease, though the connection between the vitamin and MS is not clear. (
  • However, of late it has been found that vitamin D protects the body against many health anomalies.Different studies have pointed out that vitamin D also plays an important role in preventing and treating varied disorders like hypertension, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and intolerance to glucose. (