Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Coloration of the skin.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Breaks in bones.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/3171)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (2/3171)

The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (3/3171)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Effect of vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation on women's health.(4/3171)


Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (5/3171)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

Vitamin A is linked to the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in familial combined hyperlipidemia. (6/3171)

There is growing evidence of the capacity of vitamin A to regulate the expression of the genetic region that encodes apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, C-III, and A-IV. This region in turn has been proposed to modulate the expression of hyperlipidemia in the commonest genetic form of dyslipidemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). The hypothesis tested here was whether vitamin A (retinol), by controlling the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, plays a role in modulating the hyperlipidemic phenotype in FCHL. We approached the subject by studying three genetic variants of this region: a C1100-T transition in exon 3 of the apoC-III gene, a G3206-T transversion in exon 4 of the apoC-III gene, and a G-75-A substitution in the promoter region of the apoA-I gene. The association between plasma vitamin A concentrations and differences in the plasma concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III based on the different genotypes was assessed in 48 FCHL patients and 74 of their normolipidemic relatives. The results indicated that the subjects carrying genetic variants associated with increased concentrations of apoA-I and C-III (C1100-T and G-75-A) also presented increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A. This was only observed among the FCHL patients, which suggested that certain characteristics of these patients contributed to this association. The G3206-T was not associated with changes in either apolipoprotein concentrations or in vitamin A. In summary, we report a relationship between genetically determined elevations of proteins of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and vitamin A in FCHL patients. More studies will be needed to confirm that vitamin A plays a role in FCHL which might also be important for its potential application to therapeutical approaches.  (+info)

Lipoprotein lipase expression level influences tissue clearance of chylomicron retinyl ester. (7/3171)

Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons were injected intravenously into induced mutant mice and nutritionally manipulated rats. The tissue sites of uptake of 3H label by wild type mice and LpL-null mice overexpressing human LpL in muscle indicate that LpL expression does influence accumulation of chylomicron retinoid. Skeletal muscle from mice overexpressing human LpL accumulated 1.7- to 2.4-fold more 3H label than wild type. Moreover, heart tissue from mice overexpresssing human LpL, but lacking mouse LpL, accumulated less than half of the 3H-label taken up by wild type heart. Fasting and heparin injection, two factors that increase LpL activity in skeletal muscle, increased uptake of chylomicron [3H] retinoid by rat skeletal muscle. Using [3H]retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable analog retinyl [14C]hexadecyl ether incorporated into Intralipid emulsions, the importance of retinyl ester hydrolysis in this process was assessed. We observed that 3H label was taken up to a greater extent than 14C label by rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that retinoid uptake requires hydrolysis. In summary, for each of our experiments, the level of lipoprotein lipase expression in skeletal muscle, heart, and/or adipose tissue influenced the amount of [3H]retinoid taken up from chylomicrons and/or their remnants.  (+info)

Plasma-soluble CD30 in childhood tuberculosis: effects of disease severity, nutritional status, and vitamin A therapy. (8/3171)

Plasma-soluble CD30 (sCD30) is the result of proteolytic splicing from the membrane-bound form of CD30, a putative marker of type 2 cytokine-producing cells. We measured sCD30 levels in children with tuberculosis, a disease characterized by prominent type 1 lymphocyte cytokine responses. We postulated that disease severity and nutritional status would alter cytokine responses and therefore sCD30 levels. Samples from South African children enrolled prospectively at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed. (Patients were originally enrolled in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of oral vitamin A supplementation on prognosis of tuberculosis.) Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 weeks later (during antituberculosis therapy) were analyzed. sCD30 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The 91 children included in the study demonstrated high levels of sCD30 at diagnosis (median, 98 U/liter; range, 11 to 1,569 U/liter). Although there was a trend toward higher sCD30 levels in more severe disease (e.g., culture-positive disease or miliary disease), this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were demonstrated in the presence of nutritional compromise: the sCD30 level was higher in patients with a weight below the third percentile for age, in those with clinical signs of kwashiorkor, and in those with a low hemoglobin content. There was minimal change in the sCD30 level after 12 weeks of therapy, even though patients improved clinically. However, changes in sCD30 after 12 weeks differed significantly when 46 patients (51%) who received vitamin A were compared with those who had received a placebo. Vitamin A-supplemented children demonstrated a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) decrease in sCD30 by a factor of 0.99 +/- 0.02 over 12 weeks, whereas a factor increase of 1.05 +/- 0.02 was demonstrated in the placebo group (P = 0.02). We conclude that children with tuberculosis had high sCD30 levels, which may reflect the presence of a type 2 cytokine response. Nutritional compromise was associated with higher sCD30 levels. Vitamin A therapy resulted in modulation of sCD30 levels over time.  (+info)

Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50-80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid
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Results of this study indicate that arctic animals possess the intralobular heterogeneity of vitamin A-storage capacity in the hepatic stellate cells.. In earlier studies, a specific zonality for intralobular vitamin A-storage was reported. Although our results agree with other reports as to the presence of the heterogeneity of vitamin A-storing lipid droplets in the hepatic stellate cells in the liver lobule [4, 5], the location of the highest-storage zone disagree with these reports. This discrepancy might be explained by the observation methods used in the earlier studies. Whereas those authors used only the light microscopical method [4, 5], in the present study we examined all tissues by electron microscopy. Moreover, we certified that the tendency of vitamin A storage observed in liver lobules by light microscopy strongly supported that of intralobular heterogeneity revealed by electron microscopical morphometry.. The existence of the intralobular heterogeneity of vitamin A storage would ...
Person receiving radiotherapy. The study, carried out in association with Wellingtons Malaghan Institute was recently published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine.. Lead author Dr Patries Herst together with Dr Melanie McConnell investigated how combining high dose vitamin C with radiation affected survival of cancer cells isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumours, and compared this with the survival of normal cells.. They found that high dose vitamin C by itself caused DNA damage and cell death which was much more pronounced when high dose vitamin C was given just prior to radiation.. Herst says GBM patients have a poor prognosis because the aggressive GBM tumours are very resistant to radiation therapy. We found that high dose vitamin C makes it easier to kill these GBM cells by radiation therapy.. She says there has long been debate about the use of high dose vitamin C in the treatment of cancer. High dose vitamin C specifically kills a range of cancer cells in the ...
Given the grim prognosis of septic and hypovolemic shock, we aim to study the efficacy on an alternative treatment modality by implementing high dose vitamin C therapy in our patient population. Through previous investigations, especially research in the burn patient population, we expect that high dose vitamin C therapy will be beneficial to patients with hypovolemic or septic shock ...
Human epidermis utilizes retinol as precursor for local production of a range of bioactive vitamin A metabolites including 3,4-didehydroretinol, retinoic acid, and 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid. These endogenously formed retinoids bind to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), thereby altering gene transcription. Because 9-cis-retinoic acid receptors (RXRs) form heterodimers both with RARs and the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR), it is plausible that vitamin D3 may affect retinol metabolism if altered transcription is involved in the regulation of vitamin A-metabolizing enzymes. To investigate the potential effect of vitamin D on retinol metabolism in human skin keratinocytes, HaCaT cells were preincubated with various vitamin D3-analogs at 10(-7)M for 24 h followed by the addition of [3H]retinol for another 24 h period. The uptake and metabolism of the radioactive tracer was monitored by HPLC-radiochromatography. It was found that all synthetic vitamin D-analogs tested (MC903, KH1060, EB1089, and ...
Researchers discovered that a highly-concentrated dose of vitamin C is selectively toxic to cancer cells, meaning the high dose of vitamin C harms cancer cells but not healthy tissue. Yet, when this treatment was coupled with the addition of the enzyme catalase the cancer-killing effect of the treatment was reduced significantly. This led researchers to believe that the high dose vitamin C infusion resulted in the production of large quantities of hydrogen peroxide, which initially caused a cancer killing effect that was then neutralized by the addition of the enzyme catalase. This suggested that cancer cells do not produce a sufficient amount of catalase to neutralize high levels of hydrogen peroxide on their own.. In fact, we now know that a large number of cancer cells produce small amounts of catalase in order to sustain low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. This creates the cancer friendly environment of mild oxidative stress that encourages malignant cells to grow rapidly and become ...
Observational studies suggest that moderate intakes of retinol and increased circulating retinol levels may increase fracture risk. Easy access to supplements, combined with an aging population, makes this a potentially important association. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma retinol and total carotene concentrations in relation to fracture risk after long-term supplementation with retinol and/or beta-carotene in 998 adults between 1990 and 2007. Methods: Participants were 663 men and 335 women in a cancer prevention program who were initially randomized to a retinol (7.5 mg RE/d) or beta-carotene (30 mg/d) supplement between 1990 and 1996. After 1996, all participants received the retinol supplement only. Plasma retinol and total carotene, medication use and various lifestyle factors were measured at annual clinic visits. Fractures were identified by self-report in 2007. The risk for any fracture or osteoporotic fracture was modeled using Cox proportional hazard models.Results: ...
Adapted from UK Medical News 17 July 2018 Several different health measures, all which improve your cardiovascular outcomes, have been found to result from high dose vitamin D supplementation. You are likely to need to take at least 4,000 iu a day though, depending on how much extra sunshine you are exposed to regularly. A…
Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalent in Breastfeeding Arab Women and Infants Physician Calls for Supplementation Beginning in Pregnancy. Astaxanthin Ucinky Implant Dictation Glaucoma professor: Haruki SENOO: *Stellate cells: Vitamin A-storing cells in liver (hepatic stellate cells I do have very sensitive skin. Vitamin D Myths Facts and Statistics by graphs + Follow.. D and recurrent ear infections may be helped by vitamin D Retinol is a form of vitamin A that has similar but milder effects Vitamin D-3 can come from animal-based foods How Much Vitamin D3 Should a Person Take? Alcoholics are at risk for vitamin B deficiencies According to a study published in 1986 in Alcohol and Alcoholism alcohol increases vitamin C excretion in I was working at a magazine at the time and the skin care oil trend was blowing up all the Sudden vision loss is resulting in temporary or acne treatments and skin care from Dr both over-the-counter and prescription varieties. Maximum Hair Regrowth Treatment for ...
Our bodys requirement for vitamins and minerals varied accordingly. And, going the same way, a sufficient amount of Vitamin A is needed to keep the body, as well as the skin healthy. While in-taking Vitamin A, you need to be careful about its benefits, drawbacks, and effects that you may face by its deficiency or overdose. To know more about the same, read the following.. What defines Vitamin A Retinol?. Vitamin A Retinol is a supplement of vitamin that remains available on almost every over-the-counter as a nutrient, or in the form of prescription injection Aquasol A in case the high dosage is required.. It is one of four fat-soluble vitamins, and the best way to intake is to have it with food.. The liver approx. 90% of the bodys vitamin A.. Vitamin A exists in various forms, that can be divided into two categories: preformed vitamin A that comes in animal products like dairy and meat, and provitamin A in plants. Provitamin A is being converted to vitamin A in our body.. Deficiency of Vitamin ...
Full Text - Objective: The current study evaluated the relationship between circulating fat soluble vitamin status and cognition in aging Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1754 community residents aged 55-80 years aiming to evaluate the relationship between circulating α-tocopherol and retinol status and cognition. The effect of ApoE genetic polymorphism on the relationship between vitamins and cognition was also explored.Results: Our results indicated that serum retinol status positively correlated with cognitive performance; while, serum α-tocopherol (α-TOH)/retinol ratio negatively correlated with cognitive performance. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subject demonstrated higher serum α-TOH status (P < 0.05), α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01) and lower retinol status (P < 0.01) than normal subjects. Subjects with ApoE4 genotype have lower serum retinol level (P < 0.05) and higher α-TOH/retinol ratio (P < 0.01)
Bhat, P V. and Luca, L M., Enzymatic conversion of retinol to anhydroretinol in spontaneously transformed mouse fibroblasts (balb/c 3t12-3 cells). Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1255 ...
Sixty young adult Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups. Group 1 and Group 2 animals were treated with 0.25% dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), painted on their left buccal pouches thrice weekly for 20 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, at which time there was clinical evidence of leukoplakia and initial tumor formation, Group 2 animals received 10 mg retinyl acetate 3 times/week in a 5% solution in peanut oil, while Group 1 animals received only peanut oil. Two animals in Group 1 and two animals in Group 2 were sacrificed weekly from week 12 to week 20. Left buccal pouches were examined, tumors were counted, and tumor size was measured. Group 3 animals were untreated controls, Group 4 animals were retinyl acetate controls, and Group 5 animals received only peanut oil. It was found that DMBA-treated animals receiving retinyl acetate from week 12 to week 20 developed fewer tumors, and their average tumor size was less than that in DMBA-treated animals not receiving retinyl acetate. It appears ...
This blinded randomised trial has shown that oral supplementation of vitamin A in a dose of 5000 IU/day did result in an increase in plasma retinol concentrations but did not decrease the incidence of CLD in preterm infants of less than 1000 g birth weight. In addition, mortality and the incidence of other complications such as ROP, IVH, NEC, and PDA were unaffected by vitamin A supplementation. The results of this study of oral supplementation are in contrast with previous studies, which used intramuscular supplementation of vitamin A and showed a significant decrease in the incidence of oxygen dependency at 1 month of age and/or death.6-12 Although most of these studies were performed before the routine use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant, the most recent study was performed after the introduction of these important interventions, which may influence the incidence of CLD.6 This study is the first randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation, and it has been ...
Vitamin A is essential to human health in multiple ways. However, recent evidences show that needless and excessive vitamin A supplementation can affect bone health. Animal-sourced vitamin A (preformed vitamin A), and not plant-derived vitamin A (provitamin A), was shown to be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures. But before you go cutting off vitamin A from your diet and supplements, know that low vitamin A levels have also been linked with osteoporosis. This article discusses the effect of vitamin A on bone health, how excessive intake of the vitamin A can lower bone mineral density and just how much vitamin A is too much for your bones.
Vitamin A palmitate 1.5MIU/g is the Corrective Vitamin otherwise known as Retinol Palmitate or Retinyl Palmitate. Retinyl palmitate can be used as an additive in skin care formulations or can be applied directly onto the skin. After its absorption into the skin, retinyl palmitate is converted to retinol, and ultimately to retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A present in Retin-A). Only retinoids such as retinoic acid have a direct effect on skin and can adjust to help the skin achieve a more youthful look.. ...
Finding the best retinol cream (drugstore or high end) can get tricky, not to mention pricey! These wont-break-the-bank retinol treatments actually work to turn back the clock!
Todays post from (see link below) looks at something which will directly affect many people living with HIV and other complications such as neuropathy and that is vitamin intake. Many people supplement their diets with vitamins: some will take too little to have any noticeable effect and others will take too many, resulting in possible toxicity and liver and kidney problems. You will find articles all over the Net advising this that or the other for your immune system and also a great deal of supplement advice for your neuropathy problems. The studies mentioned here suggest that high-dosage vitamin supplementation may not be a good idea at all but as the author says, the jury is still out in most cases. Part of the problem for HIV-patients is that they may be reluctant to stop one supplement because theyre not sure if its doing them any good or not but are reluctant to stop and in the meantime, they take on further supplements possibly building up a dangerous and unnecessary ...
Estimation of functional liver reserve in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis is of paramount importance to properly select candid
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For years I have been taking vitamin C in high doses (around 5 000-6 000 mg) on occasion to heal wounds Whenever I bite my lip by accident a very large dose of Vitamin C almost always heals the wound up like magic I have long been a big believer in the magical powers of Vitamin C so it never occurred to me that it could be so dangerous during pregnancy Request A Quotation! ...
The American Bone Health organization, says Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important to build strong, healthy bones.. Both osteoblasts (bone building cells) and osteoclasts (bone breaking down cells) are influenced by vitamin A. Despite its good effects, most clinical research links higher vitamin A levels with lower bone density and fractures.. Sources of Vitamin A. One source of vitamin A is retinol, found in meat and fish, fortified breakfast cereals, and vitamin supplements. Vitamin A is fat-soluble and stored in our livers. So, the liver of fish and animals are particularly rich in vitamin A.. Another source of vitamin A is beta-carotene, found in dark green and orange fruits and vegetables. Beta-carotene is generally considered safe. According to the National Institutes of Health, the RDA is 2,330 IUs for women in the age range 19+.. Amanda A. Kostro Miller, RD, LDN, who serves on the advisory board for Fitter Living points various food sources of Vitamin A: meat, dairy, eggs, ...
In developing Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens Formula, Garden of Life paid special attention to the complexities of a womans body in this changing stage of life. Providing select nutrients to support breast health with added vitamins D and E, bone strength* with vitamins A, C, D, calcium, magnesium and zinc, and cardiovascular support* by adding vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E*, Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens formulation delivers the appropriate nutrients to support these key health areas.Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens Formula is a comprehensive multi-vitamin with RAW Food-Created Nutrients offering an extreme synergistic blend of vitamins and minerals for extraordinary health and vitality. This specialized formula for maturing women addresses nutritional needs to support the following areas:Breast Health* - Vitamins D and E Bone Strength* - Vitamins A, C, D, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc Heart Health* - Vitamin B Complex, Vitamins C and E Optimal Digestion* - Live Probiotics and Enzymes, Vitamin
Multi vitamins are so common these days you wouldnt even think of them as a supplement. A multi vitamin is defined in the dictionary as a preparation intended to supplement a human diet with vitamins, minerals and other nutritional elements. The US government categorizes multi vitamin under food, because it contains 3 or more vitamins or minerals but does not contain herbs, hormones, or drugs.. The multi vitamin can come in many forms such as tablets, capsules, packs, powders, liquids and even injections; however, injections can only be prescribed by a doctor. There are many different combinations and doses of vitamins and minerals and many of them exceed the 100% recommended daily allowance. Depending on your physical needs, many of the excess vitamins and minerals that cannot be digested are harmlessly excreted out of the body. There are a few that will not exceed the RDA such as Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Iron, and many of the trace elements because they are not easily depleted unless under ...
Multi vitamins are so common these days you wouldnt even think of them as a supplement. A multi vitamin is defined in the dictionary as a preparation intended to supplement a human diet with vitamins, minerals and other nutritional elements. The US government categorizes multi vitamin under food, because it contains 3 or more vitamins or minerals but does not contain herbs, hormones, or drugs.. The multi vitamin can come in many forms such as tablets, capsules, packs, powders, liquids and even injections; however, injections can only be prescribed by a doctor. There are many different combinations and doses of vitamins and minerals and many of them exceed the 100% recommended daily allowance. Depending on your physical needs, many of the excess vitamins and minerals that cannot be digested are harmlessly excreted out of the body. There are a few that will not exceed the RDA such as Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Iron, and many of the trace elements because they are not easily depleted unless under ...
90% of women and 71% of men get less than the RDA for vitamin B6. Dietary vitamin B-6 intake and food sources in the US population: NHANES II, 1976-1980. Kant AK, et al. 1990.. Men with the lowest amount of vitamin C have a 62% increased risk of cancer and a 57% increased risk of dying from any cause. Vitamin C status and mortality in US adults. Loria CM, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 72:139-45, 2000.. Lutein and zeaxanthin reduce the incidence of cataract by 22%. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Chasan-Taber L, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 70:509-16, 1999.. People with low levels of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and selenium are more likely to get cancer. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and selenium as related to subsequent cancer of specific sites. Comstock GW, et al. Am J Epidemiol 135:115-21, 1992.. Supplemental vitamin D reduces the risk of colon cancer by half compared to dietary vitamin D which reduces it 12%. Calcium, ...
Gout and Vitamin C. Theres a favourable connection. The last major study on this subject concluded that Vitamin C does reduce uric acid levels. Taking
Vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to daytime sleepiness, depression, autoimmune disease, insulin resistance, complications during pregnancy, muscle and joint pain, obesity, and problems with the thyroid.
This study was done with people who were infected with HIV and needed to start treatment for their HIV disease. The purpose of this study is to see if taking vitamin D and calcium will help prevent the bone loss that sometimes happens when people start HIV treatment. For this study, the following HIV treatment (or HAART) were provided in the form of a single tablet that contains three different drugs: efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF). These drugs are approved by the FDA to treat HIV infection. The HIV treatment provided is common for people who are taking HIV drugs for the first time. The risks seen with this HIV treatment are the same that you would encounter when taking these drugs outside of the study. The lists of risks of this HIV treatment are included in this document because the drugs are provided by the study, not because the drugs are being tested. The purpose of the study is only to look at the impact of high doses of vitamin D and calcium in preventing bone loss. There ...
In developing Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens Formula, Garden of Life paid special attention to the complexities of a womans body in this changing stage of life. Providing select nutrients to support breast health with added vitamins D and E, bone strength* with vitamins A, C, D, calcium, magnesium and zinc, and cardiovascular support* by adding vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E*, Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens formulation delivers the appropriate nutrients to support these key health areas. Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Womens Formula is a comprehensive multi-vitamin with RAW Food-Created Nutrients offering an extreme synergistic blend of vitamins and minerals for extraordinary health and vitality. This specialized formula for maturing women addresses nutritional needs to support the following areas: Breast Health* - Vitamins D and E Bone Strength* - Vitamins A, C, D, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc Heart Health* - Vitamin B Complex, Vitamins C and E Optimal Digestion* - Live Probiotics and
Your body requires nutrition from the food you eat to carry out every body function and process. Vitamins and minerals must first be absorbed from the digestive tract by complex mechanisms. Sometimes, you may have a deficiency of a certain nutrient because your body is unable to absorb and use it properly. VItamin and minerals deficiencies can cause several types of symptoms.. Check your skin, scalp and eyes for dryness and itchiness. Also check to see if your lips are dry and cracked. A lack of moisture in your skin may indicate low vitamin A or vitamin E levels. These vitamins also aid skin healing. Check your skin for slow-healing wounds. Look for flakiness and dandruff in your scalp; this may indicate a deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin B6 or the mineral zinc.. Inspect your tongue and gums. Canker sores or a sore tongue can indicate low levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B3 or vitamin B12. Tender, bruised or bleeding gums may be due to a deficiency of vitamin C.. Observe the inner lining of your ...
Treating cancer with high-doses of vitamin C is a zombie idea that began with Linus Pauling, and has failed to die ever since. But has new research vindicated this idea? No. No in any meaningful way. This work is the very definition of a long run for a short slide.. ...
Success in health is something elusive to many. They may start to eat a cleaner diet and even work out a few times per week, but they never feel theyve achieved optimal health. What they are missing is vitamins and minerals, and the following tips and tricks should help you learn about this topic. If you are feeling like you need a bit of a boost you need to increase your vitamin intake. Vitamin C not only aids in fighting off infection, it also gives you additional energy by supplementing what you may be lacking. The main reason we feel less than ideal is that we are deficient in vitamins and minerals. Men require different vitamins and minerals than women. A daily vitamin for men should have higher concentrations of B12 and B6. Another helpful vitamin to prevent hair loss is vitamin H. Along with folic acid, vitamin H will help regenerate cells and reduce the signs of aging. Vitamin E and lycopene are also beneficial for male prostrate health. If you
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Not only is medical imaging worthless in determining which cases will benefit from Vitamin B12 therapy, but blood testing has little value either. Since the 1950s, several studies have shown that cases of dementia that respond well to vitamin B12 therapy often have completely normal Vitamin B12 blood tests. Yet 50 years later, doctors still rely EXCLUSIVELY on blood testing and medical imaging to determine the need for Vitamin B12 therapy. These studies are clearly showing that a trial regimen of high dose vitamin B12 is absolutely warranted with cases of new onset dementia regardless of the results of medical testing. Yet modern medicine is simply NOT paying attention, and this extraordinarily safe therapy that costs less than $100 is virtually NEVER instituted. As a result, Alzheimer`s patients who COULD have benefited if B12 therapy were instituted soon after diagnosis are left with no memory and no hope ...
If you search for vitamins in google you will end with millions of results, there are various types of vitamins each one have a unique difference in you. One can increase your energy , and one can stimulate your brain cells and even your sex vitality. The name vitamins came from they are vital for your health. But it is more important to get from right place and in right amount.. There are 13 essential vitamins to human health have been discovered so far. And the most important is , they are classified in to fat soluble and water soluble. The B vitamins and C vitamins are fat soluble and easily absorbed. We all worry about the vitamin D levels and its deficiency. But vitamin B12 deficiency is the most worrying factor for your health. About 40% of the worlds population have a low level of Vitamin B12. With low B12 levels, your brain doesnt work quite right and more often than not youre suffering from chronic fatigue. But vitamin B12 does more than just support healthy energy levels. Its ...
In addition, infants receiving unfortified formula may need vitamin A supplements. Vitamin A absorption will be decreased in any condition in which fat is poorly absorbed. Increased need for vitamin A should be determined by your health care professional. Claims that vitamin A is effective for treatment of conditions such as acne or lung diseases, or for treatment of eye problems, wounds, or dry or wrinkled skin not caused by lack of vitamin A have not been proven. Although vitamin A is being used to prevent certain types of cancer, some experts feel there is not enough information to show that this is effective, particularly in well-nourished individuals. Injectable vitamin A is given by or under the supervision of a health care professional. Other forms of vitamin A are available without a prescription. For good health, it is important that you eat a balanced and varied diet. Follow carefully any diet program your health care professional may recommend. For your specific dietary vitamin and/or ...
Your body needs vitamins and nutrients for so many reasons. Vitamins and minerals help your body perform daily functions that you take for granted. Understanding how vitamins work and what vitamins help with what functions is important when planning a healthy diet. Keep reading to learn more about giving your body the nutrients it needs.. Schedule your supplement doses for mealtimes when any supplements have fats that need to be taken along with food. Some of the best vitamins to take with food are vitamins K and E. They are best absorbed when consumed along with fat.. Thiamine, or vitamin B1, deficiency can cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms can include weight loss, weakness, irregular heart rate and psychosis. A vitamin B complex can ensure you receive the vitamin B1 you need, or you can eat pork, brown rice, liver, oatmeal, leafy vegetables, eggs and potatoes.. Coenzyme Q-10 is used to treat heart and vessel conditions, including angina, congestive heart failure, ...
deficiency in the body.. Vitamin C is another vitamin that you should consider giving to your child. Studies show that a lack of Vitamin C can result in confusion and disorientation, for just about anyone. Hence, it goes to show that that vitamin C has a major effect on how a persons brain functions. Although there have been relatively few studies on how vitamin C affects autism, the few that there have been have been successful. Most of the children tested showed similar result conclusions to the B6. After a period of taking Vitamin C, these children started showing fewer autistic signs.. There are also a number of other herbs, vitamins and supplements that you can include. These include folic acid, St. Johns wort and Ginko Biloba. While no single item has a major positive effect on its own, studies do show that several vitamins taken together can produce great results.. Do consult your childs doctor about adding vitamins to his diet. It is a good idea to make a note to monitor your childs ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. AU - Mitchell, C.A.. AU - Thompson, Philip. AU - Ruffin, R.E.. AU - Walters, E.H.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 28(2). SP - 261. BT - Annual Scientific Meeting of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand. A2 - Macdonald, G.. PB - Adis International Ltd. CY - Sydney. T2 - Terbutaline via turbuhaler¿ and pMDI: a study of the relative dose response in patients with asthma. Y2 - 1 January 1998. ER - ...
Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins. Hypervitaminosis A is believed to have occurred in early humans, and the problem has persisted throughout human history. Toxicity results from ingesting too much preformed vitamin A from foods (such as fish or animal liver), supplements, or prescription medications and can be prevented by ingesting no more than the recommended daily amount. Diagnosis can be difficult, as serum retinol is not sensitive to toxic levels of vitamin A, but there are effective tests available. Hypervitaminosis A is usually treated by stopping intake of the offending food(s), supplement(s), or medication. Most people make a full recovery. High intake of provitamin carotenoids (such as beta carotene) from vegetables and fruits does not cause hypervitaminosis A, as conversion from carotenoids to the active form of vitamin A is ...
The major source of retinoids from the diet are plant pigments such as carotenes and retinyl esters derived from animal sources. Retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to yield free retinol and the corresponding fatty acid (i.e. palmitate or stearate). After hydrolysis, retinol is taken up by the enterocytes. Retinyl ester hydrolysis requires the presence of bile salts that serve to solubilize the retinyl esters in mixed micelles and to activate the hydrolyzing enzymes [3]. Several enzymes that are present in the intestinal lumen may be involved in the hydrolysis of dietary retinyl esters. Cholesterol esterase is secreted into the intestinal lumen from the pancreas and has been shown, in vitro, to display retinyl ester hydrolase activity. In addition, a retinyl ester hydrolase that is intrinsic to the brush-border membrane of the small intestine has been characterized in the rat as well as in the human. The different hydrolyzing enzymes are activated by different types of bile ...
Until recently, it was thought that the sole important retinoid delivery pathway to tissues involved retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP4). More recent findings, however, indicate that retinoids can be delivered to tissues through multiple overlapping delivery pathways, involving chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), retinoic acid bound to albumin, water soluble β-glucuronides of retinol and retinoic acid, and provitamin A carotenoids.[29]. The range of serum retinol concentrations under normal conditions is 1-3 μmol/l. Elevated amounts of retinyl ester (i.e., , 10% of total circulating vitamin A) in the fasting state have been used as markers for chronic hypervitaminosis A in humans. Candidate mechanisms for this increase include decreased hepatic uptake of vitamin A and the leaking of esters into the bloodstream from saturated hepatic stellate cells.[20]. ...
The effect of excess vitamin A on the oesophageal epithelium of late foetal rats has been studied in organ culture.. In explants kept in normal medium the epithelium is, at first, higher and the keratinisation increased as compared with the development of the organ in vivo. At the later stages of growth, the acceleration of keratinisation leads to an extreme thinning of the epithelium.. Excess vitamin A completely inhibits keratinisation and induces a transformation of the cells lining the oesophageal lumen into mucin-secreting elements. In vitamin A-treated cultures the epithelium remains high throughout the whole period of cultivation.. The amount of secretory matter and the height of the epithelium seem to depend on an adequate supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide to the cells.. ...
Define fat-soluble vitamin. fat-soluble vitamin synonyms, fat-soluble vitamin pronunciation, fat-soluble vitamin translation, English dictionary definition of fat-soluble vitamin. Noun 1. fat-soluble vitamin - any vitamin that is soluble in fats vitamin - any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal...
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Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) work together to create balance in your system. How well vitamin E is absorbed and utilized, for example, depends on the other fat-soluble vitamins and vice versa. Vitamins A, D, E and K have an important synergistic relationship. They are also vital in ensuring proper absorption and bioavailability of calcium from the foods we eat.. Vitamin A, for example, works with vitamin D to support your immune system and bone and teeth health. In addition, vitamin A is an important antioxidant that may improve vision and skin.. Studies have demonstrated this checks and balances system that exists between vitamin A and vitamin D in that vitamin A also reduces D toxicity levels and vice versa. This goes for all fat-soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins, therefore, work like hormones in our system. One is linked strongly with the other. In lab rats given 10 times the normal amount of Vitamin A, for example, blood levels of vitamin E and D dropped, as a result. When given ...
VITAMINS. Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all.. There are two types of vitamins:. Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. Fat-soluble vitamins are easier to store than water-soluble ones and can stay in the body as reserves for days, some of them for months. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (lipids). Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.. Water-soluble vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins do not get stored in the body for long - they soon get excreted in urine. Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat-soluble ones. Vitamins C and all the B vitamins are water-soluble.. Vitamin A. Chemical names - retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene). Good sources include: liver, ...
Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Roswell that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of humans, and include vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and many more. See below for local businesses in Juneau that give access to vitamins as well as advice and content on fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Think for a while. Do you think you are fit enough? What are the problems you are suffering from? Do you know the reasons behind them? Wait. Have a close look at your diet chart and discover the lack in it. See whether you are getting an adequate amount of vitamins from your daily diet or not. Vitamins play a very important role in your growth, health, and well being.. Vitamins can be broadly categorized into two parts. These are fat soluble vitamins and the water soluble vitamins. The fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.. The main thing you should know about these fat soluble vitamins is that these vitamins are not like the water soluble vitamins that pass through the forms of sweat or urine. The fat-soluble vitamins on the other hand are stored in your body. These remain stored in the liver and the fatty tissues. That is why these vitamins are needed in a very small amount in your body.. ...
Additionally, excessive vitamin A intake has been linked to several CNS-associated disturbances, including headache, pseudotumor cerebri and confusion, as well as cognitive impairments, such as irritability, anxiety and depression (Fenaux et al., 2001, Allen and Haskell, 2002 and Myhre et al., 2003). On learn more the other hand, vitamin A supplementation,. like retinyl palmitate in doses as high as 10,000 IU/daily (200 IU/kg/Day), seems to be safe by many authors to fertile women, at any time during pregnancy, independently of their vitamin A status, and others suggest higher levels of safety (Dolk et al., 1999, IVACG, 1998 and Ross et al., 2000). According to this contradictory data, retinoid research in pregnancy is of great value to truly elucidate this confused panel. Furthermore, vitamin A is also a redox-active molecule and has been demonstrated to play a potential pro-oxidant effect in concentrations slightly above the physiologic levels in ...
Press Release issued Nov 20, 2014: Vitamins supplements are non-drug and non-hormone based nutritional products that can be consumed as powders, pills, liquids or by injection. There are various types of vitamins supplements such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. supplements are broadly classified under multivitamins and individual vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.
The administration of 2.5 mg retinyl acetate daily in the diet to female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning 7 days after the intragastric instillation of either 2.5, 5, or 15 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (CMBA) resulted in a reduction in the incidence of benign mammary tumors of 37, 30, and 31%, respectively. An equally significant reduction in the number of tumors was also evident. Although no difference was noted in the percentage incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas between the placebo and 2.5 mg retinyl acetate-treated groups at the 2.5-mg DMBA level, the percentage incidence was reduced by 52 and 39% in these groups at the 5- and 15-mg DMBA dose. Furthermore, the number of adenocarcinomas was also significantly reduced. Although both the percentage incidence and number of tumors were reduced by treatment with 1 mg retinyl acetate, these differences were not statistically significant. Liver histology and liver function tests of rats of the retinyl acetate groups did not differ from that of the
Liver has enormous capacity to store vitamin A which is stored in the form of retinol palmitate. Under normal condition, a well fed person has enough vitamin A storage to meet his needs for 6-9 months. Free retinol is highly active but toxic and is therefore transported within the blood stream in association with retinol binding protein which is produced by the liver. In case of severe deficiency, decreased production of retinol binding protein prevents the mobilization of liver retinol reserves.. ...
Breakfast cereals advertise that they re packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy with a jolt of vitamins or minerals (sorry, but even powerful vitamins and minerals can t act that fast!). You know vitamins and minerals are good for you. But which ones does your body really need? And is it possible to get too much of a good thing? Vitamins and minerals make peoples bodies work properly. Although you get vitamins and minerals from the foods you eat every day, some foods have more vitamins and minerals than others. Vitamins fall into two categories: fat soluble and water soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of this, your body cant store these vitamins. Any vitamin C or B that your body doesnt use as it ...
This study determines the effect of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in mixed micelles on beta-carotene and retinyl palmitate levels in rats in order to delineate the role of micellar phospholipids in the intestinal uptake of beta-carotene and its conversion into vitamin A. The rats were fed a single dose of beta-carotene solubilized in lysoPC (LPC group), PC (PC group) or no phospholipids (NoPL, control group) in micellar form. The level of beta-carotene and retinyl palmitate in plasma and beta-carotene in liver was analyzed by HPLC after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 h of feeding. The postprandial levels of beta-carotene in plasma (599.9 pmol/mL, Area Under Curve (AUC)) and in liver (1,161.3 pmol/g) were significantly (p,0.05) higher in the LPC group compared with its level in plasma (207.2 pmol/mL) and in liver (616.5 pmol/g) of the PC group and in plasma (119.1 pmol/mL) and in liver (626.2 pmol/g) of the NoPL group. No difference was seen between the PC and NoPL groups. The ...
If these strategies do not work, poor vitamin A status should be considered a possible explanation. This interpretation is strengthened if you have poor night vision (for example, if you strain your eyes or have trouble seeing when driving down an unlit road with your headlights alone but can see fine without any eyestrain during the day) or dry eyes. This interpretation is also strengthened if you have serum retinol near or below the bottom of the reference range, or if you track your vitamin A intake and your daily average is below the RDA.. It is important to note that any of these additional pieces of evidence strengthen the interpretation of poor vitamin A status, but their absence does not rule it out. If circadian rhythm disruption is more sensitive to deficiency than night blindness, then it may occur in the absence of other clinical signs, at serum retinol concentrations within the reference range, and at vitamin A intakes above the RDA.. The best way to ensure basic adequacy of vitamin ...
There is no audible B vitamin, but rather there are eight baptize acrid vitamins, anniversary of which plays an important role in the corpuscle metabolism process, authoritative up what is accepted as the B-Complex vitamin. While the B vitamins were already believed to be aloof a audible vitamin, analysis has showed that these are eight chemically audible vitamins that can coexist in the aforementioned foods, but that can additionally be begin alone in added accomplished aliment sources as well. While these eight vitamins can be accumulated in a supplement accepted as the vitamin B complex, alone B vitamin supplements are additionally available. Anniversary of the Vitamin B vitamins is differentiated by a number, and additionally has its own altered name.. Vitamin B1 - Vitamin B1 is additionally referred to as Thiamine, and is a baptize acrid vitamin that is capital for advantageous neural function, and metabolism of carbohydrates. The aftereffect of a thiamin absence in best cases is Beriberi, ...
There is no audible B vitamin, but rather there are eight baptize acrid vitamins, anniversary of which plays an important role in the corpuscle metabolism process, authoritative up what is accepted as the B-Complex vitamin. While the B vitamins were already believed to be aloof a audible vitamin, analysis has showed that these are eight chemically audible vitamins that can coexist in the aforementioned foods, but that can additionally be begin alone in added accomplished aliment sources as well. While these eight vitamins can be accumulated in a supplement accepted as the vitamin B complex, alone B vitamin supplements are additionally available. Anniversary of the Vitamin B vitamins is differentiated by a number, and additionally has its own altered name.. Vitamin B1 - Vitamin B1 is additionally referred to as Thiamine, and is a baptize acrid vitamin that is capital for advantageous neural function, and metabolism of carbohydrates. The aftereffect of a thiamin absence in best cases is Beriberi, ...
SAFETY. Toxicity: The condition caused by vitamin A toxicity is called hypervitaminosis A. It is caused by overconsumption of preformed vitamin A, not carotenoids. Preformed vitamin A is rapidly absorbed and slowly cleared from the body, so toxicity may result acutely from high-dose exposure over a short period of time, or chronically from much lower intake (8). Vitamin A toxicity is relatively rare. Symptoms include nausea, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, and dry skin. Signs of chronic toxicity include, dry itchy skin, loss of appetite, headache, and bone and joint pain. Severe cases of hypervitaminosis A may result in liver damage, hemorrhage, and coma. Generally, signs of toxicity are associated with long-term consumption of vitamin A in excess of 10 times the RDA (8,000 to 10,000 mcg/day or 25,000 to 33,000 IU/day). However, there is evidence that some populations may be more susceptible to toxicity at lower doses, including the elderly, chronic alcohol users, and some people ...
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1. Vitamin C: Case HS (2018) Vitamin C questions answered. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Gonzalez MJ, Berdiel MJ, Duconge J (2018) High dose vitamin C and influenza: A case report. J Orthomol Med. June, 2018, 33(3). Gorton HC, Jarvis K (1999) The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. J Manip Physiol Ther, 22:8, 530-533. Hemilä H (2017) Vitamin C and infections. Nutrients. 9(4). pii:E339. Hickey S, Saul AW (2015) Vitamin C: The real story. Basic Health Pub. ISBN-13: 978-1591202233. Levy TE (2014) The clinical impact of vitamin C. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, OMNS (2007) Vitamin C: a highly effective treatment for colds. ...
Vitamins for cardiac health are specific vitamins which contribute to overall heart health and function, while helping prevent heart disease and other cardiovascular issues.. The most important group of vitamins specifically for heart health is the B Vitamin Family. These vitamins serve specific functions that can significantly reduce your risk of developing heart disease.. The B Vitamins, specifically folic acid (Vitamin B9), Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 are all responsible for helping the body remove homocysteine from the blood. High levels of homocysteine can cause artery damage. Meat is a good source of B vitamins, which is why vegetarians have an increased risk of dangerous homocysteine levels. It is especially important that they supplement these important vitamins for cardiac health.. Vitamin B3, known more commonly as niacin, may also reduce cholesterol in high concentrations, although further testing is needed to prove this conclusively. As far as other heart vitamins are concerned, ...
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The Vitamin alphabet. The naming of vitamins began with Funk s isolated concentrate. The molecule present here was called vitamin B, since it cured Beri beri disease. Following this, vitamins were name alphabetically: vitamin A was discovered in 1913-1914, and then in chronological order, vitamin C, vitamin D which could cure rickets disease, and vitamin E which was important to fertility. The later discovery of a vitamin required for blood clotting led to the naming of vitamin K where the K denotes koagulation.. One particular group of vitamins was found to have similar properties and functions, in that they are all coenzymes (aids to enzymes). These are the B group vitamins, which are all water-soluble. Initially, they were given numbers, but as their chemical structures were determined, they were given names which are now increasingly used. A list of the main B vitamins is given below:. ...
Vitamins are essential for the body to be able to put the nutrients in food to use.. Because vitamins are not produced by the body, we have to get them through the food that we also eat!. Our bodies only need a certain amount of vitamins, which can be provided by eating reasonable amounts of foods that contain those vitamins.. This certainly makes more sense to me than eating all kinds of refined, vitamin-depleted foods and then guzzling vitamin supplement pills to make up for it.. The amounts of vitamins found in foods in their fresh, natural state are enough to supply our bodies nicely, provided we are not eating foods which, in the digestion process, deplete vitamins from our bodies, including anti-calorie foods such as white sugar, or living in environments which deplete our bodies of vitamins. Under these circumstances, vitamin supplements may be necessary.. If there is a bad vitamin deficiency from prolonged depletion, vitamins may also be necessary. But that is vitamin therapy, and ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD. In a vitamin A supplementation trial in rural Guinea-Bissau, children aged 6 months to 2 years who were missing one or more vaccines were enrolled, vaccinated and randomized to vitamin A or placebo. Provided consent, a dried blood spot (DBS) sample was obtained from a subgroup of participants prior to supplementation. Vitamin A status and current infection was assessed by an ELISA measuring retinol-binding protein (RBP) and C-reactive protein (CRP). VAD was defined as RBP concentrations equivalent to plasma retinol |0.7 μmol/L; infection was defined as CRP |5 ml/L. In Poisson regression models providing prevalence ratios (PR), we investigated putative risk factors for VAD including sex, age, child factors, maternal factors, season
Vitamin A deficiency is estimated to affect approximately one third of children under the age of five around the world.[11] It is estimated to claim the lives of 670,000 children under five annually.[12] Approximately 250,000-500,000 children in developing countries become blind each year owing to vitamin A deficiency, with the highest prevalence in Southeast Asia and Africa.[13] Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, according to UNICEF.[14][15] It also increases the risk of death from common childhood conditions such as diarrhea. UNICEF regards addressing vitamin A deficiency as critical to reducing child mortality, the fourth of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.[14]. Vitamin A deficiency can occur as either a primary or a secondary deficiency. A primary vitamin A deficiency occurs among children and adults who do not consume an adequate intake of provitamin A carotenoids from fruits and vegetables or preformed vitamin A from animal and ...
Vitamin A is the immune systems defensive line and it keeps germs and infections from entering the bodies. It is responsible for keeping the mucous membranes lining the nose, mouth, and throat moist and soft so that they can trap the germs, ceasing their infiltration. Moreover, this vitamin helps in generating enzymes that look out for germs that manage to enter the body and kill them. People deficient in this vitamin can consume vitamin A rich food sources like carrot, sweet potatoes, liver, dried herbs, lettuce, dried apricots, and cantaloupe.. Vitamin B Boosts Up Your Energy Level. Vitamin B usually boosts the energy levels, thereby boosting the immunity system. These vitamins are available in the form of vitamin supplements, including B6, B12, and foliate. Studies have revealed that vitamin B6 can also strengthen the immunity system to a great extent.. Vitamin C Generates Antibodies and WBC. Vitamin C is equally important for enhancing the immunity system of the body. It assists the body to ...
Purpose: : The RPE65 gene knockout (Rpe65-/-) mouse lacks isomerohydrolase activity in the visual cycle and lacks of 11-cis retinal, the chromorphore for rod and cone visual pigments. It has been suggested that the Rpe65-/- mouse is a model for vitamin A deficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotypes of the Rpe65-/- mouse with that in mice with vitamin A deficiency. Methods: : The mice (129sv) were fed with a vitamin A-deprived diet for 6 months. The age-matched control mice and Rpe65-/- mice were maintained under normal vitamin A-containing diet. The isomerohydrolase and LRAT activities were measured using an in vitro enzymatic activity assay. Endogenous retinoid profiles were analyzed by HPLC in mouse eyecup homogenates. Photoreceptor-specific gene expression was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Cone degeneration was determined by cone-specific staining and counting cones in the flat-mounted retina. The structure of photoreceptor outer segment was compared using SEM. ...
Hills Pet Nutrition has recalled certain dog foods because they potentially contain excess vitamin D resulting from a supplier error.
Vitamins are essential for the normal functioning of our body, as they play a vital role in cell functions, growth, and development. Vitamins can be grouped into two types: water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. Out of the 13 essential vitamins, four vitamins, namely, vitamins A, D, E and K, are fat soluble vitamins, while the other 9 vitamins, including vitamins C and the B vitamins, are water soluble vitamins.
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human need for vitamins is low.And to maintain good health need good vitamins and regular flow of the body in the optimum volume.As with vitamin deficiency (absence of any one or more vitamins, which is typical in the monotonous diet), hypovitaminosis (vitamin deficiency), and in hypervitaminosis (excess of vitamins) in the body comes characteristic pathological change, impending disease.So you need to know what products and to what extent they are - good vitamins, what is the daily need for them.For a balanced diet, and even more so to comply with any diet, it is now very fashionable, it is important to know the role of each vitamin.. problems are solvable order to maintain good physical health and a fruitful mental activity a person needs to live in a clean environment, regularly eat a properly balanced high-quality natural food containing good vitamins to lead an active and healthy lifestyle, to fully relax, relate to lifepositively.. But the modern pace of life and lack a clean environment ...
Leutein. Zeaxanthin Some plant foods contain darkly colored pigments called Pro-vitamin A Carotenoids that can be converted to retinol during digestion. Two parts of carotene are required to form one part of retinol. Grass contains carotene so during the summer when more carotene is present, milk from cows will contain more vitamin A than in winter. Approximately 26% and 36% of vitamin A consumed by men is provided by Pro-vitamin A carotenoids.. Beta-Carotene is a Pro-Vitamin A carotenoid that is more efficiently converted to retinol than carotenoids. For example, alpha carotenoid and B-Cryptoxanthin are also converted to vitamin A but only half as efficiently as beta-carotene (1). Lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids commonty founds in food. they are not sources of Vitamin A but may have other health promoting properties.. IMPORTANCE OF VITAMIN ...
Leutein. Zeaxanthin Some plant foods contain darkly colored pigments called Pro-vitamin A Carotenoids that can be converted to retinol during digestion. Two parts of carotene are required to form one part of retinol. Grass contains carotene so during the summer when more carotene is present, milk from cows will contain more vitamin A than in winter. Approximately 26% and 36% of vitamin A consumed by men is provided by Pro-vitamin A carotenoids.. Beta-Carotene is a Pro-Vitamin A carotenoid that is more efficiently converted to retinol than carotenoids. For example, alpha carotenoid and B-Cryptoxanthin are also converted to vitamin A but only half as efficiently as beta-carotene (1). Lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids commonty founds in food. they are not sources of Vitamin A but may have other health promoting properties.. IMPORTANCE OF VITAMIN ...
Because active dogs require specialized vitamins and antioxidants, we loaded Revive with the finest of their kind.. We started with Vitamin C. Vitamin C is used to boost the immune system, promote healing and fight off illness and remove waste from cell membranes. Conventional, non-stabilized forms of vitamin C function in the body for a short amount of time, which is roughly 4 hours.. At that time, it is secreted from the body in the urine. The Vitamin C we use in Revive is an esterified vitamin C that lasts in the body for 18 hours and is very bioavailable. Imagine it as a timed release of vitamin C that your dog benefits from for 18 hours. Thats almost a full day of vitamin C!. We also provide high levels of vitamin E in Revive. Vitamin E is know as an extremely effective antioxidant that directly supports immune function and helps reduce the risk of immune collapse in active dogs. Vitamin E is also very effective at removing waste from stressed tissue such as skeletal and organ ...
Because active dogs require specialized vitamins and antioxidants, we loaded Genesis with the finest of their kind.. We started with Vitamin C. Vitamin C is used to boost the immune system, promote healing and fight off illness and remove waste from cell membranes. Conventional, non-stabilized forms of vitamin C function in the body for a short amount of time, which is roughly 4 hours.. At that time, it is secreted from the body in the urine. The Vitamin C we use in Genesis is an esterified vitamin C that lasts in the body for 18 hours and is very bioavailable. Imagine it as a timed release of vitamin C that your dog benefits from for 18 hours. Thats almost a full day of vitamin C!. We also provide high levels of vitamin E in Genesis. Vitamin E is know as an extremely effective antioxidant that directly supports immune function and helps reduce the risk of immune collapse in active dogs. Vitamin E is also very effective at removing waste from stressed tissue such as skeletal and organ ...
Our Liquid B-Complex includes the following nutritional supplements: Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folacin, Vitamin B12, Biotin and Vitamin B5.. The B-Complex vitamins are active in providing the body with energy. These vitamins are vital in the metabolism of fats and protein. The B vitamins are necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system and may be the single most important factor for health of the nerves. They are essential for maintenance of muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract and for the health of skin, hair, mouth and liver.. Because of the water-solubility of the B-Complex vitamins, any excess is excreted and not stored by the body. Therefore, they must be replaced daily. Many have reported an almost instant ?pick up? of energy when taking our liquid B-Complex.. The most important thing to remember is that the B vitamins work together, and therefore should be taken together. They are interrelated in function. As long as you take the B-Complex ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Balazs Kutasy, Lara Pes, Florian Friedmacher, Francesca Paradisi, Prem Puri].
These are broken down in nutrition as either water-soluble (Vitamin C) or fat-soluble (Vitamin E). An adequate supply of ... vitamins can prevent diseases such as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of vitamins can produce nausea and ... Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
However the interconnected relationships between vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin K, outlined in a 2007 paper[4] published in ... Vitamin D toxicity, or Hypervitaminosis D is the toxic state of an excess of vitamin D. The normal range for blood ... A mutation of the CYP24A1 gene can lead to a reduction in the degradation of vitamin D and to hypercalcaemia (see Vitamin_D: ... Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity appear several months after excessive doses of vitamin D are administered. In almost every case ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency[edit]. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause, among several neurological abnormalities, overlapping ... Diseases include vitamin E deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C disease, ... and a combination of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.[42] ...
... vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased mortality, but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[41 ... Vitamin E[edit]. Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat- ... Vitamin C[edit]. Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals ... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oils, nuts, and ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. Vitamins are essential nutrients,[72] necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D ... In 1913, Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A, then water-soluble vitamin B ... Subcommittee on Vitamin Tolerance, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (1987). "Vitamin E, in Vitamin ... Vitamin C Scurvy Diarrhea causing dehydration Vitamin D Rickets, Hypovitaminosis D Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, ...
Vitamin D2[edit]. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ... Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced ... Vitamin B12[edit]. According to the United States National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants ...
Increased production of vitamin D[edit]. Vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet light. Thus, higher UVB exposure ... Ozone depletion would magnify all of the effects of UV on human health, both positive (including production of vitamin D) and ... In particular, in the U.S. population, the lowest quarter of vitamin D (,17.8 ng/ml) were found using information from the ... Webb, Ann R.; Engelsen, Ola (2006). "Calculated Ultraviolet Exposure Levels for a Healthy Vitamin D Status". Photochemistry and ...
Vitamin D deficiency[edit]. Main article: Vitamin D deficiency. Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D which is naturally ... Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin when exposed to ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is ... Whether cholecalciferol and all forms of vitamin D are by definition "vitamins" can be disputed, since the definition of ...
Flintstones vitamins and One-A-Day vitamins, and Cutter insect repellent.[53] ... One A Day Vitamins[edit]. In 2019, a federal jury in San Francisco CA sided with Bayer in a $600 million (US) class action suit ... in 2017 the US District Court in San Francisco said subclasses of purchasers of the vitamin in Florida, New York, and ... alleging that the company misinformed consumers by promoting its One A Day vitamins as supporting cardiac health, vigorous ...
Vitamins[edit]. Vitamins are one of many of the nutritional factors that change the outward appearance of a dog. The fat ... A deficiency in vitamin A can lead to scaly of skin and other dermatitis-related issues like alopecia.[15] Vitamin E is an ... Vitamin A, which can also be supplemented as beta-carotene, prevents the deterioration of epithelial tissues associated with ... Baviskar, S; Jayanthy, C: Nagarajan, B (2013). "Vitamin A responsive dermatosis in a dog". Intras Polivet. 14 (2): 210.. CS1 ...
27 Vitamins and minerals. *28 Ear, nose and throat medicines. *29 Medicines for diseases of joints *29.1 Medicines used to ...
Vitamin D production[edit]. Concerns have also been raised about potential vitamin D deficiency arising from prolonged use of ... Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure thanks to an equilibrium the skin reaches in which vitamin D degrades as ... and even moderate protection can substantially reduce vitamin D synthesis.[19][20] However, adequate amounts of vitamin D can ... "Are Vitamin D Levels Jeopardized by Sunscreen?". GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May ...
... vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin K includes vitamin K1 and K2). The list: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ... and Vitamin B12. Vitamin intake below recommended amounts can result in signs and symptoms associated with vitamin deficiency. ... Main article: Vitamin. A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts.[12] An ... For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for anthropoid primates, humans, guinea pigs and bats, but not for other ...
Vitamin B12[edit]. Spirulina does not contain vitamin B12 naturally (see table), and spirulina supplements are not considered ... Watanabe, F (2007). "Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 232 (10): 1266-74. doi:10.3181/0703- ... The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans.. ... B vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin, 207% and 306% DV, respectively), and dietary minerals, such as iron (219% DV) and manganese ...
Vitamin B12 structure[edit]. In 1948, Hodgkin first encountered vitamin B12,[33] and created new crystals. Vitamin B12 had ... Rickes, E. L.; Brink, N.G.; Koniuszy, F.R.; Wood, T.R.; Folkers, K. (16 April 1948). "Crystalline Vitamin B12". Science. 107 ( ... "Beginning to work on vitamin B12". Web of Stories. Retrieved 14 October 2014.. ... Brink, C.; Hodgkin, D.C.; Lindsey, J.; Pickworth, J.; Robertson, J.H.; White, J.G. (1954). "Structure of Vitamin B12: X-ray ...
Researchers vitamin-enriched corn derived from South African white corn variety M37W, producing a 169-fold increase in Vitamin ... provides greater amounts of Vitamin A targeted at reducing Vitamin A deficiency.[108][109] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. In 2013 the leaders of ...
... and vitamin C. Beta-Carotene is required to synthesize vitamin A and vitamin A is needed to synthesize retinol. A lack of ... vitamin E, and vitamin C. Supplementation of these three vitamins has been shown to decrease these oxidative effects and ... Vitamin, mineral, and enzyme deficiencies[edit]. Certain vitamin and minerals deficiencies are commonly found in people with ... The most frequently cited deficiencies are those of beta-Carotene,[7] retinol,[8] vitamin A[9] ...
... vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as coenzymes themselves (e.g., vitamin C). However, vitamins do have other ... Vitamins and derivatives[edit]. Cofactor. Vitamin. Additional component. Chemical group(s) transferred. Distribution ... Vitamin K. None. Carbonyl group and electrons. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes Ascorbic acid [38]. Vitamin C. None. Electrons ... Organic cofactors are often vitamins or made from vitamins. Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part ...
Vitamins[edit]. The evidence linking vitamin C supplements with an increased rate of kidney stones is inconclusive.[33] The ... The link between vitamin D intake and kidney stones is also tenuous. Excessive vitamin D supplementation may increase the risk ... Some studies[which?] suggest people who take calcium or vitamin D as a dietary supplement have a higher risk of developing ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-16394-1.. ...
Mehta Saurabh; Fawzi Wafaie (2007). "Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients". Vitam Horm. Vitamins & ... Example: vitamin E[edit]. Orthomolecular proponents claim that even large doses of vitamin E pose no risk to health and are ... Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteoporosis in adults or rickets in children. Too much vitamin D can make the intestines ... Some vitamins are toxic in high doses[70] and nearly all (with the possible exception of Vitamin C[85]) will cause adverse ...
Vitamin D:. Vitamin D insufficiency is common in diabetics.[60] Observational studies show that serum vitamin D is inversely ... Vitamins[edit]. Many observational and clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of vitamins on diabetic ... these vitamins include folate,[48] thiamine,[42] β-carotene, and vitamin E,[54] C,[58] B12,[59] and D.[60] ... "Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels". Diabetic Medicine ...
... vitamins and minerals[edit]. Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamine, vitamin B6, folate ... vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K in the ... All of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are found in the egg yolk. Egg yolk is one of the few foods naturally ... As food, the chicken egg yolk is a major source of vitamins and minerals. It contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, and ...
Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2] The ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes[edit]. The cobalt-containing Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) catalyzes the transfer of ...
Vitamins[edit]. Main article: Vitamin. *Vitamin B complex *Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ...
... provides greater amounts of vitamin A targeted at reducing vitamin A deficiency.[116][117] As of January 2016, golden rice has ... Vitamin enrichment[edit]. Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ... Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. ...
Vitamin D Influence on Immune Response[edit]. Vitamin D is known as an immune regulator that assists in the adaptive and innate ... Vitamin or hormone supplements for what the body is lacking due to the disease (insulin, vitamin B12, thyroid hormone, etc.) ... With Vitamin D present, vitamin D response elements (VDRE) are encoded and expressed via pattern recognition receptors (PRR) ... sun exposure, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (8). doi ...
Vitamin D[edit]. Reasonable exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can be a good source of vitamin D. One minimal ... UVB induces production of vitamin D in the skin at rates of up to 1,000 IUs per minute. This vitamin helps to regulate calcium ... A combination of lower ultraviolet radiation with insufficient vitamin D in a diet leads to vitamin D deficiency. Individuals ... Weller, RB (23 December 2016). "The health benefits of UV radiation exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D ...
Lack of vitamin D[edit]. The hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency has a role in autism is biologically plausible, but not ... Kočovská E, Fernell E, Billstedt E, Minnis H, Gillberg C. Vitamin D and autism: clinical review. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(5): ...
Thus, it is very important that all babies get a vitamin K shot to prevent VKDB. ... Babies do not have enough vitamin K atbirth and are, therefore, at risk for having seriousbleeding. ... What is vitamin K?. Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. We get vitamin K ... Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally. Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can ...
This article explains exactly how much vitamin D you should be taking. ... The amount of vitamin D you need depends on several factors. ... What is vitamin D?. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin thats ... Vitamins D and K are crucial for your health, but some say vitamin D is harmful to those low in vitamin K. Heres a look at the ... Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( ...
Vitamin E overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Making Decisions , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin E , Vitamin E - Health Professional Vitamin E. Fact Sheet ... 500 mg vitamin C daily, both vitamins, or placebo [27]. During a mean follow-up period of 8 years, intake of vitamin E (and/or ... Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2002; ...
It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in ... applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin ... Related topics: Research, Views, Vitamins & premixes Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe Related news. * Vitamin K, ... and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. Vitamin D helps us absorb ...
Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation. Importantly, we need to tell patients that, to date, no controlled,prospective study ... Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... What do we tell our patients? First, there is no evidence that the intake ofselenium and vitamin E will retard the growth of ...
McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Dutta SK: Editorial: vitamin B 12 malabsorption and omeprazole therapy. J Am Coll Nutr 1994, 13:544-545.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Termanini B, Gibril F, Sutliff VE III, et al.: Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B 12 ... Koop H, Bachem MG: Serum iron, ferritin, and vitamin B 12 during prolonged omeprazole therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992, 14: ...
Read chapter 4 Vitamin A: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of ... µg RAE/day of vitamin A 51â 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A , 70 years 500 µg RAE/day of vitamin A The RDA for vitamin ... VITAMIN A 117 RDA for Pregnancy 14â 18 years 750 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 19â 30 years 770 µg RAE/day of vitamin A 31â 50 ... VITAMIN A 113 Vitamin A EAR and RDA Summary, Ages 1 through 18 Years EAR for Children 1â 3 years 210 µg RAE/day of vitamin A ...
There are 13 vitamins your body needs; Each has specific jobs. ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and ... Vitamin K. You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who ... B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate) ... Vitamin A prevents night blindness.. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In ...
Vitamin C overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Health Information , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Vitamin C , Vitamin C - Health Professional Vitamin C. Fact Sheet ... Vitamin C status is typically assessed by measuring plasma vitamin C levels [4,14]. Other measures, such as leukocyte vitamin C ... vitamin A, or vitamin E) prevents gastrointestinal cancers [39]. A similar review by Coulter and colleagues found that vitamin ...
We call these chemical signals vitamins, because humans extract the vitamins from the bacterial biofilms that always line the ... Thank You so much for helping me find out about vitamin D3 I feel I may finally get over this eczema Ive had since last Easter ... I have been taking vitamin D3 since Monday and I think that it may have boosted my skins healing! My diet is already like your ... Gut flora can produce all of the vitamins that we need, so it is not surprising that multivitamins do not provide any health ...
... vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or ... Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7 Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified. as Vitamin B ... vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and ... Vitamin L2[58] Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body Vitamin M or Bc[59] Folate Reclassified as Vitamin B ...
"Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Further information: Vitamin C megadosage. Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ... of adults reported they consumed a vitamin C dietary supplement or a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that included vitamin C, ...
... wonder vitamin, but most teens arent getting enough. Find out why vitamin D is important and how to get the right amount. ... including vitamin D. And because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that gets stored in the bodys fat cells, obesity increases ... As with all vitamins, its best to get our D through the foods we eat. The best sources of vitamin D are:. *fatty fishes and ... Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it gets stored in the body. In rare cases extremely large doses could build up to ...
Do infants get enough Vitamin K from breast milk? The answer is no. Learn more. ... Facts About Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding - CDC. *Frequently Asked Questions: Vitamin K and the Vitamin K Shot Given at Birth ... No. Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Breast milk from mothers who are taking vitamin K supplements is also low in vitamin K. ... A vitamin K shot given at birth is the best way to prevent low amounts of vitamin K and VKDB in infants. ...
vitamin D (uncountable) *Any of a number of fat-soluble vitamins, required for normal bone development and that prevents ... Retrieved from "" ...
Vitamin K makes proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. There are different types of ... You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. Vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. ... Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... There are different types of vitamin K. Most people get vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables, and dark berries. ...
High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? Not so fast.... ... Vitamin C for cancer: Trying to rise from the grave once again. ...
WebMD provides information on popular vitamins and supplements including side effects, drug interactions, user ratings and ... Slideshow Vitamins & Minerals From A - Zinc * Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Diet, Food & Fitness. * Diet & ...
2)Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: A nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 100: 796-804, 2008 ... Differences in Vitamin D levels were thought to offer an explanation. Two studies where then published which suggested there ... In this study, Vitamin D levels were measured in 160 patients with advanced prostate cancer. The patients were stratified into ... The risk of death during that time was found to be significantly less for those in the medium and high Vitamin D groups. The ...
vitamin D2 (CHEBI:28934) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). vitamin D4 (CHEBI:33237) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). vitamin D5 (CHEBI ... vitamin D (CHEBI:27300) has role fat-soluble vitamin (CHEBI:24020) vitamin D (CHEBI:27300) is a hydroxy seco-steroid (CHEBI: ... D3 vitamins (CHEBI:73558) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). dihydrotachysterol (CHEBI:4591) is a vitamin D (CHEBI:27300). ... fat-soluble vitamin Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. Unlike the water-soluble ...
It was identified in 1934 by Danish biochemist Henrik Dam . Two types of K vitamins have been isolated: K 1, an oil purified ... Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. ... which produce most of the bodys supply of vitamin K). Vitamin K is required for the synthesis in the liver of several blood ... Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. It was identified in 1934 by Danish biochemist ...
... is a member of the water-soluble family of B vitamins. It is a key factor in the bodys proper use of iron and formation of red ... Vitamin B12 Description Cobalamin, also known as B12, ... Vitamin B12, along with vitamin B6 and folic acid help reduce ... Vitamin B12 Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 was discovered simultaneously by two ... Vitamin B12 is different from other vitamins in several ways. It is the only vitamin not made by any plant or animal, but only ...
People of all ages need adequate vitamin D. It may protect against some diseases. ... Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone and teeth health. ... Vitamin D has other health benefits, as well. Vitamin D may ... Vitamin D is sometimes called the "sunshine vitamin." Thats because your body create its own vitamin D when you are exposed to ... A low level of vitamin D in the body is referred to as a "vitamin D deficiency." Children who dont get enough vitamin D are at ...
... may increase the risk of stroke.. Special Point. *Natural vitamin E supplements that are derived from plant oils ... However, initial data from the large-scale SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention) Trial shows vitamin E taken alone ... Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a natural antioxidant that is found in foods such as plant oils, eggs, nuts, ... Vitamin E also lessens the bloods ability to clot by suppressing the number of adhesion molecules on the lining of the blood ...
... and vitamin K work together to help keep the rate of bone production and breakdown in balance. Low vitamin K levels ... The relationship between vitamin D and bone metabolism is more complicated than you might guess. As a hormone, vitamin D acts ... As vitamin D research has expanded in scope, researchers have been less certain about optimal amounts of vitamin D necessary to ... Then, theres vitamin D. Vitamin D is a nutrient particularly dependent on specific foods and food groups. Youll have to ...
Vitamin D biochemistry, RAS and ARDS. Summary of findings in this section. *Chronic Vitamin D deficiency induces lung fibrosis ... Vitamin D and comorbidities associated with covid-19 case fatalities. Summary of findings in this section. *Vitamin D is causal ... Vitamin D acts to rebalance RAS and attenuates lung injury.. *Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute respiratory ... Vitamin D deficiency occurs during winter since Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during summer exposure to UVB rays. ...
What causes vitamin B12 deficiency?. Foods containing vitamin B12 are … ... Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell ... This review presents a concise summary of the most up to date evidence on how to diagnose and manage vitamin B12 deficiency. ... Vitamin B12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences ...
What are the lessons that can be learned from the high rate of Vitamin D deficiency through out the world? What are the ... Table 1 demonstrates how easy it is to become deficient in this vitamin. For example, just getting older can reduce vitamin D ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where ... The Vitamin D Blood Test (25-OH Vitamin D): Who, How, When, and Where ...
Heres how to make sure kids get enough vitamin D. ... Vitamin D is needed for strong bones, but is hard to come by ... To get enough vitamin D, children often need to take a multivitamin with vitamin D or a vitamin D supplement. Vitamin D is ... Vitamin D also helps bones heal after an injury or surgery.. Where Does Vitamin D Come From?. The Sun. Our bodies make vitamin ... What Is Vitamin D?. Vitamin D is a nutrient that helps the body take in calcium from the foods that we eat. Together, calcium ...
There are two major forms of vitamin D: D2 or ergocalciferol and D3 or cholecarciferol. ... Vitamin D Description Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is essential for strong teeth and bones. ... Fat-soluble vitamin- A vitamin that dissolves easily in fat or oil, but not in water. The fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins D, ... Vitamin D Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Vitamin D. Vitamin D is one of the four fat-soluble vitamins. It is ...
  • In that case, you may need to rely on your diet (or supplements) for vitamin D as well as on vitamin D that's stored in body fat ( 15 ). (
  • Therefore, there is little justification for the use of vitamin D supplements to maintain or improve musculoskeletal health, and clinical guidelines should reflect these findings. (
  • To conclude that we should stop researching vitamin D supplements and that they are of no value for bone health does a disservice to consumers, many of whom are at risk of insufficiency and deficiency for significant portions of the year. (
  • Some may now decide against exploring vitamin D-containing supplements to fill nutrient gaps. (
  • Many of these studies do not assess baseline levels (to be fair, the vitamin D studies in the new meta-analysis did), or don't fully discuss how many people actually took the supplements (compliance). (
  • In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. (
  • For information on vitamin C and COVID-19, see Dietary Supplements in the Time of COVID-19 . (
  • [ citation needed ] This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements , including multivitamins , to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population. (
  • Problems with vitamin D toxicity happen when people take supplements with megadoses of the vitamin or lots of different supplements containing the vitamin. (
  • No. Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Breast milk from mothers who are taking vitamin K supplements is also low in vitamin K. (
  • You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. (
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, which can be obtained from sun exposure, food and supplements. (
  • You can get Vitamin D from certain foods, sunlight, and dietary supplements. (
  • Breast milk only has a small amount of vitamin D. Talk to your family doctor before giving older children vitamin supplements. (
  • Are there any side effects to vitamin D dietary supplements? (
  • Tocopherol esters, present in processed foods and vitamin supplements, must be hydrolysed in the small intestine before absorption. (
  • Large population-based studies in Finland found that taking vitamin E supplements reduced the risk of prostate and colorectal cancers in male smokers. (
  • Several clinical trials have shown that vitamin E supplements may be helpful in preventing LDL oxidation in patients with diabetes, which may help prevent progression to atherosclerosis. (
  • Breastfed infants may need to receive drops containing vitamin D from one month of age if their mother has not taken vitamin D supplements throughout pregnancy. (
  • There are many different types of vitamin D supplements available, which are in different forms such as tablets, capsules or drops. (
  • Evidence strongly suggests Vitamin D supplements could be effective in preventing Covid-19, and play a key role in treating patients if added to existing treatment plans, especially if this is done early in the disease progression. (
  • If you are able to get exposure to natural sunlight then your body will synthesize Vitamin D and you are less likely to need supplements to maintain healthy levels. (
  • This disease is essentially the result of depleted calcium, but calcium supplements alone will not prevent it since vitamin D is required to properly absorb and utilize calcium. (
  • Oral supplements of vitamin D are not effective for psoriasis. (
  • There are very few foods in nature that contain vitamin D, but this new science-based vitamin D analysis from ARS will advance the analytical values of foods and supplements that were previously unavailable. (
  • By 10 years of age (double figures) nutritional intake should include approximately 1,000 mg of calcium a day total (from diet and supplements) and close to 1,000 IU of vitamin D (from diet and supplements after blood testing) for the rest of one's life, regardless of gender. (
  • Healthy individuals who eat plenty of fruits and vegetables each day rarely need vitamin C supplements. (
  • If you do take a supplement or multivitamin, you should not consume more than 2,000 mg/day of vitamin C from foods and supplements. (
  • Although vitamin C is a popular remedy for the common cold, research shows that vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk. (
  • Based upon vitamins and supplements sales since 5/23/14 combined with estimates of outreach. (
  • To manage this deficiency, vitamin A supplements can be taken orally or, if the symptoms are rigorous, parenteral administration can be tried. (
  • Don't believe the hype: vitamin D supplements unlikely to prevent chest infections. (
  • The team at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences in Oslo argued vitamin supplements were readily taken and available, but were unsure if they affected athletic ability. (
  • Dr Goran Paulsen, one of the researchers, said: 'Our results show that vitamin C and E supplements blunted the endurance-training-induced increase of mitochondrial proteins, which are needed to improve muscular endurance. (
  • Our results indicate that high dosages of vitamin C and E, as commonly found in supplements, should be used with caution, especially if you are undertaking endurance training. (
  • Vitamin E oil is distinct from vitamin E supplements because it is applied directly to the skin. (
  • Vitamin E supplements may prevent coronary heart disease , support immune function, prevent inflammation , promote eye health, and lower the risk of cancer. (
  • Some research suggests that vitamin E supplements may promote wound healing. (
  • A 2013 study found that mice given supplements containing vitamin E were less likely to develop skin cancer , even when exposed to large quantities of ultraviolet light. (
  • These results prompted some supporters of vitamin E oil and supplements to claim that it can prevent skin cancer. (
  • One study found that oral vitamin E supplements could produce significant improvements in eczema symptoms. (
  • For these reasons, taking high-potency vitamin supplements does not guarantee that all of the included nutrients will enter one's system. (
  • Such millimolar concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved in humans by i.v. infusion but not by diet or supplements ( 4 ). (
  • A study by the National Eye Institute , however, did find that an intake of 500 mg per day of vitamin C, along with beta-carotene, vitamin E and zinc supplements, slowed the progression of advanced age-related macular degeneration by about 25 percent. (
  • A study by Johns Hopkins found that vitamin C has a "modest" effect on lowering high blood pressure and does not currently suggest supplements as a treatment option. (
  • We believe there is no justification for more trials of vitamin D supplements with musculoskeletal outcomes because there is no longer equipoise about the effects of vitamin D on these outcomes. (
  • however, in vitamin supplements, pyridoxine is the form used because it is the least expensive to produce commercially. (
  • Vitamin D supplements can be used to help treat inherited disorders resulting from an inability to absorb or process vitamin D, such as familial hypophosphatemia. (
  • Vitamin D supplements are used to treat adults with severe vitamin D deficiency, resulting in loss of bone mineral content, bone pain, muscle weakness and soft bones (osteomalacia). (
  • If you don't get enough vitamin D through sunlight or dietary sources, you might need vitamin D supplements. (
  • However, taking too much vitamin D in the form of supplements can be harmful. (
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements doesn't appear to offer the same benefit. (
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements won't prevent the common cold. (
  • However, there's some evidence that when people who regularly take vitamin C supplements get a cold, the illness lasts fewer days and symptoms are less severe. (
  • Taking oral vitamin C supplements in combination with other vitamins and minerals seems to prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from worsening. (
  • However, people with gastrointestinal conditions and some types of cancer might be susceptible to vitamin C deficiency and benefit from the use of oral supplements. (
  • Taking vitamin C supplements also might have other protective benefits. (
  • When taken at appropriate doses, oral vitamin C supplements are generally considered safe. (
  • Long-term use of oral vitamin C supplements over 2,000 milligrams a day increases the risk of significant side effects. (
  • Tell your doctor that you're taking vitamin C supplements before having any medical tests. (
  • WATCH Are Vitamin Supplements Necessary? (
  • I had already asked my patients to stop their vitamin supplements four to five years ago, with the exception of those with a deficiency of vitamin D, ... pregnant patients [who should get] folate and prenatal multivitamins, or those with cognitive impairment, when I would recommend a vitamin B complex," Albert Levy, MD, a primary care physician in New York, said in an email to MedPage Today and ABC News. (
  • The researchers called their findings striking, but said more information is needed before recommending that people take vitamin B12 supplements to guard against the loss of brain volume and possibly prevent declines in thinking and memory. (
  • The study, published in the journal Neurology, did not look at whether taking vitamin B12 supplements would slow the rate of brain shrinkage, Smith said. (
  • They added that current vitamin supplements for pregnant women might not contain sufficient levels of Vitamin B3. (
  • Our standards can be used in quality control analysis of vitamin-based dietary supplements, fortified foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations, or the diagnostic testing of vitamin deficiencies. (
  • Maternal intake of vitamin D from supplements was significantly linked to CB vitamin D levels whereas dietary vitamin D had no influence. (
  • Vitamin E is a vital nutrient for good health, and it's found in a wide variety of foods and supplements. (
  • Most people are able to get enough vitamin E from a healthy diet and do not need supplements. (
  • Some people may be sensitive to vitamin E supplements, according to the Mayo Clinic. (
  • Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements , diet , or exposure to sunlight. (
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with vitamin k-injection? (
  • Do vitamin supplements really do any good? (
  • During the trials they were given both vitamin D and calcium supplements and were followed for a mean period of four years. (
  • Oily fish such as salmon, sardines, and oysters are good sources of vitamin D. Supplements are another way to boost your intake. (
  • Data from 81 RCTs totaling almost 54,000 participants indicated that vitamin D supplementation did not significantly impact fracture, falls, or bone mineral density. (
  • "Vitamin D supplementation did not have meaningful effects on fracture, falls, or bone mineral density, and future trials are unlikely to alter these conclusions," ​wrote the authors, affiliated with the University of Auckland (NZ) and the University of Aberdeen (UK). (
  • Infants who receive the vitamin K shot do not require further supplementation. (
  • Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on lung, urinary tract, pancreas, mouth or stomach cancer risks. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute respiratory tract infection. (
  • The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN, 2016) does not recommend routine monitoring of serum vitamin D levels during long-term supplementation with vitamin D. Furthermore, expert opinion in the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group 2017 ( NOG 2017 ) is that routine monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels is unnecessary for people on long-term maintenance doses of vitamin D (up to 2000 IU a day). (
  • Why increase a person's risk for melanoma just to improve vitamin D levels, when supplementation is generally simplistic and cost effective? (
  • the responsible recommendation lies in proper sun protection and potential vitamin D supplementation. (
  • Osteomalacia and rickets are also effectively prevented and treated through adequate vitamin D supplementation. (
  • If this is the cause of the hearing loss , it is possible that supplementation of vitamin D can act to reverse the situation. (
  • In a four-week randomised controlled trial evaluating vitamin C and E supplementation among female athletes, supplementation reduced markers of oxidative stress compared with a placebo tablet and reduced muscle damage markers associated with aerobic exercise. (
  • However, the research on these benefits is varied, and vitamin E supplementation is not right for everyone. (
  • The fact that patients with a healthy weight derived a much greater benefit - a 38% reduced risk for metastatic cancer and death compared to 17% overall - suggests your body weight may play a significant role in whether vitamin D supplementation will provide you with the anticancer benefits you seek. (
  • To assess whether vitamin D supplementation might improve survival in these patients, they reviewed the findings of seven trials, three of which included patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer from the outset and four population trials that reported survival in incident cases. (
  • You may have seen recent news claiming vitamin D supplementation fails to prevent osteoporosis, fractures or falls. (
  • Now personally, I owe my interest in vitamin D supplementation to my good friend Dr William Grant of SunArc. (
  • Effects of Vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. (
  • More studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of certain cancers. (
  • However, more studies are needed to determine the benefits of vitamin D supplementation for cognitive health. (
  • Research suggests that long-term vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of multiple sclerosis. (
  • Prenatal vitamins and folic acid supplementation are also on that list. (
  • Study after study has shown that the majority of Americans are deficient in vitamin D, and the supplement study flood included more positive findings for folic acid supplementation around the time of conception. (
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate whether vitamin supplementation is effective in migraine patients in general, and whether patients with mild deficiency are more likely to benefit from supplementation,' says Suzanne Hagler , MD, a Headache Medicine fellow in the division of Neurology at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and lead author of the study. (
  • Many were put on preventive migraine medications and received vitamin supplementation, if levels were low. (
  • The long-term safety of high-dose supplementation with vitamin D has been backed up by trial data from a four-year study, say researchers. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of infants being small for gestational age and improve growth during infancy, according to a meta-analysis published this week. (
  • The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued its latest recommendations on vitamin D, calcium supplementation and interventions to prevent falls in which it partially acknowledges that clinical decisions should be patient and situation specific. (
  • Data supporting supplementation of humans with vitamin E. Nutrition 1991;121:424 29. (
  • Many different factors can contribute to problems with this conversion, including: a person's inherited genetic tendencies, digestive problems, bacterial imbalances in the digestive tract, excessive use of alcohol, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals, imbalanced intake of vitamin A and vitamin D as a result of high-dose supplementation, and the use of certain over-the-counter and/or prescription medications. (
  • Longitudinal studies may also be required to ex amine the effects of fat-restricted diets as well as vitamin D and K2 supplementation on the progression and man agement of the scoliosis curves. (
  • Despite many claims, there is no convincing evidence that vitamin C supplementation decreases the rate of cancer, heart attacks or strokes or prevents common colds or other viral infections. (
  • Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (
  • In vitro studies have found that oxidized vitamin C, or dehydroascorbic acid, enters cells via some facilitated glucose transporters and is then reduced internally to ascorbic acid. (
  • Results from pharmacokinetic studies indicate that oral doses of 1.25 g/day ascorbic acid produce mean peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 135 micromol/L, which are about two times higher than those produced by consuming 200-300 mg/day ascorbic acid from vitamin C-rich foods [ 10 ]. (
  • l -ascorbic acid , is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement . (
  • Vitamin C , also called ascorbic acid , water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. (
  • Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, has many uses in the human body. (
  • Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is important to many functions in the body. (
  • Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is a very important essential nutrient-that is, we must obtain it from diet. (
  • Ascorbic acid was not isolated from lemons until 1932, though the scourge of scurvy, the vitamin C deficiency disease, has been present for thousands of years. (
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a vitamin your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. (
  • This tech tip reports the results of a series of dechlorination tests using two forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate. (
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin found in citrus fruits and green vegetables and deficiency of which is the cause of scurvy. (
  • Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin known chemically as L-ascorbic acid (as kore' bik as' id). (
  • Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, is a condition that occurs when the baby does not have enough Vitamin K. (
  • Without enough vitamin K, your baby has a chance of bleeding into his or her intestines, and brain, which can lead to brain damage and even death. (
  • The intestine of the newborn baby has very little bacteria so they do not make enough vitamin K on their own. (
  • Without enough vitamin K, blood cannot clot well. (
  • Babies do not have enough vitamin K at birth and are, therefore, at risk for having serious bleeding. (
  • For example, if you don't get enough vitamin C, you could become anemic. (
  • Research done in adults suggests that getting enough vitamin D may help lower the chances of developing heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious diseases like diabetes. (
  • Where we live makes a difference, too: If you live in northern U.S. and Canada, it's possible you're not getting the UV exposure required for your body to make enough vitamin D. (
  • Experts recommend eating vitamin D-rich foods as the best way to get enough vitamin D. But many of the best foods - like fatty fish and oil - are not the most popular. (
  • Do infants get enough Vitamin K from breast milk? (
  • If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. (
  • If you are concerned that you are not getting enough vitamin D, talk to your doctor. (
  • Children who don't get enough vitamin D are at risk for rickets. (
  • Adults who do not get enough vitamin D are at risk for osteomalacia (weak bones), osteoporosis (thin bones), and muscle weakness. (
  • Talk to your doctor to make sure you're getting enough vitamin B12. (
  • Am I getting enough vitamin B12? (
  • It's hard to get enough vitamin D from the sun, though. (
  • To get enough vitamin D, children often need to take a multivitamin with vitamin D or a vitamin D supplement. (
  • How Can I Help My Child Get Enough Vitamin D? (
  • Health care providers might order a blood test if they think a health problem is keeping a child from getting enough vitamin D. If doctors don't think your child has a health problem, there's no need for a blood test. (
  • Got (Enough) Vitamin D? (
  • How Can We Get Enough Vitamin C? (
  • In the United States, healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely do not get enough vitamin C. (
  • Many older adults don't get regular exposure to sunlight and have trouble absorbing vitamin D. If your doctor suspects you're not getting enough vitamin D, a simple blood test can check the levels of this vitamin in your blood. (
  • Studies suggest that people who get enough vitamin D and calcium in their diets can slow bone mineral loss, help prevent osteoporosis and reduce bone fractures. (
  • Most people get enough vitamin C from a balanced diet. (
  • What can happen if I don't get enough vitamin E? (
  • There are two main ways for people to get enough vitamin D - through food and from the sun. (
  • Vitamin E is found naturally in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (
  • Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. (
  • Most people who eat foods rich in vitamin D, who get normal sun exposure, and who take a 600 IU supplement will not get toxic buildup of vitamin D in their bodies. (
  • If you are a senior, a vegetarian or vegan, a nursing mother, or a pregnant woman, talk to your doctor about whether you should take a vitamin D supplement. (
  • If you breastfeed your baby, your doctor may prescribe a vitamin D supplement. (
  • You also can get vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement. (
  • In addition to diet , you may need to take a supplement of vitamin B12. (
  • Do I need a vitamin D supplement? (
  • The Department of the Health recommends that these groups of people should take a vitamin D supplement daily. (
  • All pregnant and breastfeeding women should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. This will help to ensure the mother's requirements for vitamin D are met and build adequate stores of vitamin D in the unborn baby for use during the first six months of life. (
  • All babies and young children aged 6 months to 5 years should take a daily supplement containing vitamin D in the form of vitamin drops. (
  • People aged 65 years and over and people not exposed to much sun should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (
  • People with dark skin, such as people of African, African Caribbean and south Asian origin should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D. (
  • People who are not in the any of the groups mentioned above may take a vitamin D supplement daily, but this should not be more that 25 micrograms (1000 units) daily. (
  • Young people with known Vitamin D deficiency and those older than 60 and should supplement with 2,000iu/d during winter. (
  • If your baby takes only breast milk or gets less than 32 ounces of formula each day, ask your health care provider about giving your baby a vitamin D supplement. (
  • Your health care provider can talk to you about whether your child needs a vitamin D supplement. (
  • Giving your child a daily supplement or a multivitamin with vitamin D is the easiest way to do this. (
  • For these conditions, the vitamin is given in conjunction with a phosphate supplement to aid in absorption. (
  • It is difficult today, however, to find a calcium supplement without vitamin D in it. (
  • Some research does suggest that the length of a cold might be reduced slightly by taking a vitamin C supplement. (
  • Vitamin A also helps supplement her daily diet of cassava, bananas and fish, which are high in calories but lack the vitamin A she needs to grow up healthy. (
  • Treatment for dry, itchy skin by taking a vitamin A supplement may help the skin bounce back to health easily and quickly. (
  • When there is a lot of vitamin B2 in the diet (or in a supplement), your urine turns bright yellow to show you it is there. (
  • Taking some types of vitamin supplement may make it harder to train for big endurance events like marathons, researchers in Norway suggest. (
  • However, if they have a hectic training schedule, particularly for those doing endurance training who are not able to eat as well as they should, a multivitamin and mineral supplement provides a method of ensuring that the intakes of these essential nutrients, including vitamin C and E, follow recommended guidelines. (
  • Folk wisdom has long suggested that vitamin E, applied to the skin, taken as a supplement, or both, might treat scars, or prevent them from forming in the first place. (
  • I looked over their supplement facts, and No, centrum does not chelate their vitamins and minerals. (
  • If you want a looking for a high quality multivitamin supplement that does chelate most of their vitamins and minerals, check out Multissentials Complete Wellness Formula, the best multivitamin supplement i have found this far. (
  • Go here for more information: Hope this helps! (
  • Often, doctors will suggest a vitamin C supplement to smokers to prevent or cure a deficiency. (
  • An estimated 40 percent of men and 38 percent of women are getting insufficient amounts of vitamin C. If you're not eating your fruits and veggies, it's a good idea to supplement," said Dr. Brian Dixon, an expert in molecular and cellular biology and executive director of Health and Science Education at USANA Health Sciences . (
  • Ask your doctor if you need a calcium and vitamin D supplement to prevent or treat osteoporosis. (
  • Are you currently taking a Vitamin D supplement? (
  • In one small study of adults age 60 years and older being treated for dementia, researchers found that taking a vitamin D supplement helped improve cognitive function. (
  • Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets. (
  • If you take vitamin C for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food. (
  • Starting a vitamin C supplement only after you develop a cold is of no help. (
  • Here's a sample of the supplement headlines over recent weeks: B12 deficiency leads to cognitive decline, vitamin D helps fight off tuberculosis, vitamin E ups the risk of prostate cancer, calcium won't improve outcomes for Mom or baby. (
  • Taking a common vitamin supplement could significantly reduce the number of miscarriages and birth defects worldwide, Australian scientists said Thursday, in what they described as a major breakthrough in pregnancy research. (
  • The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that deficiency in a key molecule among pregnant women stopped embryos and babies' organs from developing correctly in the womb, but could be treated by taking the dietary supplement vitamin B3, also known as niacin. (
  • With Vitamin B3 -- found in meat and vegetables -- needed to make NAD, they tested the effect of taking the supplement on developing mice embryos that had similar NAD deficiencies as human ones, and found a significant change. (
  • Breastfed infants up to 12 months should receive a daily vitamin D supplement according to a report by the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) that details feeding in the first year of life. (
  • She noted that women in particular should get their levels detected so they can figure out if they need to take in more vitamin D either through food or a supplement. (
  • Vitamin D helps us absorb calcium while vitamin K helps 'fix' calcium in our bones (and keeping calcium out of our arteries). (
  • An insufficiently studied area receiving much attention is the long-term effect of chronic acid suppression on the absorption of vitamins and nutrients. (
  • In addition to its biosynthetic and antioxidant functions, vitamin C plays an important role in immune function [ 4 ] and improves the absorption of nonheme iron [ 5 ], the form of iron present in plant-based foods. (
  • The intestinal absorption of vitamin C is regulated by at least one specific dose-dependent, active transporter [ 4 ]. (
  • In the case of pernicious anemia, intake may be appropriate but absorption is poor due to a lack of normal stomach substance, called intrinsic factor, that facilitates absorption of vitamin B 12 . (
  • Absorption of vitamin E from the intestine depends on adequate pancreatic function, biliary secretion, and micelle formation. (
  • There is some debate about how this occurs, with some scientists believing that vitamin B2 is necessary to mobilize iron from storage to incorporate into cells, and others believing that vitamin B2 deficiency impairs iron absorption. (
  • Research 6 published in 2010 found that dietary fructose inhibits intestinal calcium absorption, thereby inducing vitamin D insufficiency in people with chronic kidney disease. (
  • The anticonvulsants phenobarbital and phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) increase the breakdown of vitamin D and reduce calcium absorption. (
  • Vitamin C is also used to increase iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Taking vitamin C can increase your absorption of aluminum from medications containing aluminum, such as phosphate binders. (
  • Vitamin D has a role in the proper absorption of calcium and phosphorous , is essential in normal cell growth , and is needed for a healthy nervous system as calcium is vital for normal nerve impulses and muscle contractions. (
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in developed countries but is an issue among the elderly due to problems in vitamin absorption and among vegetarians whose dietary intake may be low, the researchers said. (
  • However, considering that sufficient vitamin D is usually produced by daily exposure to sunlight, it is not surprising that the body has not evolved a more efficient mechanism for dietary vitamin D absorption (Collins and Norman, 1991). (
  • Vitamin D metabolism in ruminants begins prior to absorption in that rumen microbes are capable of degrading vitamin D to inactive metabolites (Sommerfeldt et al. (
  • Like most other B vitamins, thiamine is needed in regular supply, though after its absorption from the upper and lower small intestine, some B1 is stored in the liver, heart, and kidneys. (
  • Vitamin C also plays a role as a cofactor in many biochemical synthetic reactions, in collagen cross linking, the synthesis of neuropeptides and hormones, and in non-heme iron absorption. (
  • Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. (
  • bBut for vitamins and minerals, it is important to assess the totality of the evidence. (
  • Early studies on vitamin D and disease often focused on prevention of rickets (a disease involving bone formation related to deficiency of vitamin D and bone-related minerals). (
  • This fact sheet is one in a series containing information to help you select foods that provide adequate daily amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fi ber. (
  • Although they might be fortified with vitamin C, they lack the other vitamins and minerals that fruits and vegetables supply. (
  • Walgreens' partnership with Vitamin Angels is providing millions of children with life- changing vitamins and minerals. (
  • Others contain mostly vitamins and minerals--sometimes in heavy dosages. (
  • He said the company's products, which contain no ephedrine, are regularly tested for purity and dosage, offer a balance of vitamins and minerals, and are distributed at some military bases, fire and police departments. (
  • Uptime makes a variety of preparations, none with ephedrine, which contain vitamins, minerals and herbs. (
  • Long-term effects of lack of vitamins and minerals can prove to be life-threatening. (
  • Alpha tocopherol is the most common and most potent form of the vitamin," said Elizabeth Somer, registered dietitian and author of "The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals" (HarperTorch, 1993). (
  • Individual vitamins and minerals haven't fared much better under scientific scrutiny , with research debunking some of the reputed benefits of vitamin B6, calcium, niacin, and others. (
  • These observations make a certain intuitive sense, since vitamins and minerals play an important role in the replication of healthy cells-why shouldn't they be doing the same for cancerous cells? (
  • does not discuss vitamins and minerals). (
  • The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. (
  • It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. (
  • Despite that, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. (
  • Governments mandated addition of vitamins to staple foods such as flour or milk, referred to as food fortification , to prevent deficiencies. (
  • For these people, prescription vitamin B12 shots can treat some deficiencies. (
  • In this context, it might seem odd that deficiency of vitamin B1 is among the more common nutrient deficiencies in the U.S. (
  • Scroll down to know the causes and symptoms of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. (
  • The body actually stores vitamin B12, so any deficiencies may take several years to develop. (
  • CINCINNATI , June 10, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A high percentage of children, teens and young adults with migraines appear to have mild deficiencies in vitamin D, riboflavin and coenzyme Q10 - a vitamin-like substance found in every cell of the body that is used to produce energy for cell growth and maintenance. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that certain vitamins and vitamin deficiencies may be important in the migraine process. (
  • Deficiencies of vitamin E have been linked to heart disease. (
  • This is only a partial list of factors that help determine the amount of vitamin D a person needs. (
  • The amount of vitamin D your body needs can vary depending on your weight, your genes, your skin color, whether you have any chronic conditions, and even where you live and how much sun exposure you get. (
  • Your body needs a certain amount of vitamin B12 to stay healthy. (
  • Check the nutrition fact label for the amount of vitamin B12. (
  • The needed amount of vitamin D is expressed as an Adequate Intake (AI) rather than an Required Daily Amount (RDA). (
  • The amount of vitamin C you need each day depends on your age and gender. (
  • The amount of vitamin C added to each product will vary. (
  • Next to each food name, you'll find the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition, the calories contained in the serving, the amount of vitamin B1 contained in one serving size of the food, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. (
  • Sunbeds of course can be used to make vitamin D. It has been one of the ways that we have measured the amount of vitamin D that the skin has the capacity to make," stated Dr. Reinhold Vieth, a professor at the University of Toronto in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology. (
  • Smoking cigarettes can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are more prone to a deficiency, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center . (
  • The amount of vitamin D your skin makes depends on many factors, including the time of day, season, latitude and your skin pigmentation. (
  • The recommended daily amount of vitamin D is 400 international units (IU) for children up to age 12 months, 600 IU for people ages 1 to 70 years, and 800 IU for people over 70 years. (
  • The recommended daily amount of vitamin C for adult men is 90 milligrams and for adult women is 75 milligrams. (
  • There are four important variables that collectively determine the amount of vitamin D3 that will be photochemically produced by an exposure of skin to sunlight (Norman and Henry, 2007). (
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K in their bodies which can lead to serious bleeding problems. (
  • Significant amounts of vitamin D can also be made in your skin when exposed to UV rays from sunlight. (
  • People who are overweight or have obesity may also need higher amounts of vitamin D ( 27 , 28 ). (
  • Babies are born with very small amounts of vitamin K stored in their bodies, which can lead to serious bleeding problems like vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). (
  • A diet containing adequate amounts of vitamin E is important in maintaining general health, and may prevent against some forms of cancer. (
  • As vitamin D research has expanded in scope, researchers have been less certain about optimal amounts of vitamin D necessary to prevent unwanted problems in these many body systems. (
  • Relatively large amounts of vitamin C are required-for instance, an adult man is said to need about 70 mg (1 mg = 0.001 gram) per day. (
  • Hair follicles require certain amounts of vitamin A to carry on their constant function of regeneration and growth. (
  • Very small amounts of vitamin B1 are found in virtually all foods, and many commonly eaten foods contain substantial amounts. (
  • In earlier times, humans consumed large amounts of vitamin C in their fresh and wholesome native diet, as apes (another species that does not make vitamin C) still do. (
  • Some people taking massive amounts of vitamin E have reported experiencing fatigue, nausea and diarrhea. (
  • Intake recommendations for vitamin E and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [ 6 ]. (
  • It was supposed to be the final word on vitamin D for bone health, but a new meta-analysis does more to illustrate the flaws in applying a drug model to essential nutrients than it does to dismiss the potential bone health benefits of the sunshine vitamin. (
  • Some health conditions, like cystic fibrosis or inflammatory bowel disease , affect how well the body absorbs nutrients, including vitamin D. And because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that gets stored in the body's fat cells, obesity increases a person's risk for vitamin D deficiency. (
  • You may need even more than 600 IU if you have darker skin, live in areas with limited sunshine, have a condition that affects how well your body absorbs nutrients, or if tests show you have low vitamin D levels. (
  • Vitamin D is one of the most intensely studied yet widely debated nutrients in health research over the past decades. (
  • Of the World's Healthiest Foods, we list one excellent, two very good, and three good sources of vitamin D. Needless to say, this is a much shorter list than we see with other nutrients and will present a challenge to the goal of meeting needs with diet alone. (
  • Luckily, however, unlike other nutrients, vitamin D is a nutrient that we have the opportunity to increase by increasing our exposure to sunlight, and for some people, this combination of diet-plus-sunlight might provide an acceptable amount of this vitamin. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin A can have a harsh effect on the health of nails, as this vitamin provides the body nutrients and proteins for development. (
  • Vitamin B1 is among the nutrients most prone to destruction by our modern food production system. (
  • Additionally, vitamin B2 plays a role in the chemistry of other nutrients involved in energy production, including folate and vitamin B6 . (
  • Vitamin B2 is one of many nutrients required to recycle glutathione, which is one of the most important antioxidants in the human body. (
  • In addition to leafy greens, which are rich sources of a wide array of nutrients, we see other Brassica vegetables (including broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts), peppers, root vegetables, and squash on the list of vitamin B2-rich foods. (
  • For vitamin D to be most effective, other nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K need to be available. (
  • Chelation of individual nutrients is rather expensive, so most cheaper mult … ivitamins do not use cheleated vitamins due to the costs associated with doing do. (
  • When nature's most powerful vitamins and nutrients are boosted with modern science, the result is deeply nourished, supple skin with a dewy glow. (
  • Vitamin A is a broad group of related nutrients. (
  • Most carotenoid forms of vitamin A function as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients. (
  • Vitamins-with their promise to bridge the gap between the nutrients our bodies need and those they get-have always seemed reassuringly simple: Just pop a multivitamin and let your body soak in those extra nutrients. (
  • The action of at least one chemotherapeutic drug, tamoxifen, appears to be improved with small added doses of vitamin D. Tamoxifen is commonly used to treat ovarian, uterine, and breast cancers. (
  • A new study suggests giving some cancer patients high doses of vitamin C intravenously - as opposed to orally - alongside conventional chemotherapy, may help kill cancer cells and also reduce some of its toxic side effects. (
  • They all underwent conventional chemotherapy with paclitaxel or carboplatin, but some also received high doses of vitamin C intravenously. (
  • All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate … Obese people need higher loading doses of vitamin D to achieve the same serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as normal weight. (
  • 1 ) show that i.p. injection of "pharmacologic doses" of vitamin C decreases the growth and weight of human, rat, and murine tumor xenografts in athymic, nude mice. (
  • Research shows that most people taking high doses of Vitamin C still get the common cold just as often as those who don't take high doses. (
  • High doses of vitamin C might reduce your response to this anticoagulant. (
  • Higher doses of vitamin C can be associated with diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, flushing, dizziness and headache and may be associated with transient serum aminotransferase elevations. (
  • High doses of vitamin C, however, can have pro-oxidant activity and have been associated with exacerbation of hemolysis and worsening of oxalate renal stone formation. (
  • Single large doses of vitamin C can cause symptoms of nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea and higher doses have been reported to result in serum ALT elevations, but not to clinically apparent liver injury with jaundice. (
  • The serum ALT elevations that occur with extremely high doses of vitamin C are likely due to a direct but minimal toxic effect on the liver. (
  • Vitamin E' is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds with distinctive antioxidant activities [ 1 ]. (
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation. (
  • In addition to its activities as an antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in immune function and, as shown primarily by in vitro studies of cells, cell signaling, regulation of gene expression, and other metabolic processes [ 1 ]. (
  • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant [ 3 ] and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) [ 4 ]. (
  • Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a causal role. (
  • [3] Another biochemical role of vitamin C is to act as an antioxidant (a reducing agent ) by donating electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. (
  • Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant defence system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. (
  • Vitamin E is an example of a phenolic antioxidant. (
  • Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a natural antioxidant that is found in foods such as plant oils, eggs, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and whole grains. (
  • Vitamin E is not a single vitamin, but rather a group of fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant effects. (
  • Many supporters of vitamin E oil argue that it is a potent antioxidant, but research on its benefits is mixed . (
  • Vitamin E oil's potential benefits derive from two key features: its antioxidant properties, which could fight inflammation and slow the effects of free radicals, and its moisturizing properties. (
  • Vitamin C is a vital antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals that we are exposed to in the environment such as air pollution, cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light from the sun," said Dr. Sherry Ross, OB/GYN and Women's Health Expert at Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California. (
  • An antioxidant, vitamin C might help protect your cells against the effects of free radicals - molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. (
  • In its role as an antioxidant, vitamin E helps neutralize unstable particles called free radicals which damage cell membranes. (
  • Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). (
  • As a fat-soluble nutrient, vitamin E functions mainly as an antioxidant, which means it helps protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals. (
  • Indeed, in many animal models, vitamin C is protective against hepatotoxic substances and provides antioxidant and cytoprotective activity to hepatocytes. (
  • Blood levels of vitamin D are assessed by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the storage form of vitamin D in the body ( 28 ). (
  • When certain wavelengths of ultraviolet B (UVB) light from the sun land on our skin cells, a molecule in our skin cells called 7-dehydrocholesterol can be converted into a preliminary form of vitamin D called cholecalciferol. (
  • In other words, even though we know that our skin cells can make this preliminary form of vitamin D from sunlight, it is not easy for us to predict how much will get made. (
  • This second transfer allows our kidney cells to take 25(OH)D and convert it into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1,25(OH)D. It's this more complicated form of vitamin D that is active as a regulator of certain immune system activities. (
  • In studies among more than 25,000 people during the early 1990s, researchers found that high doses of beta carotene--the plant form of vitamin A--appeared to increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers. (
  • An advanced form of vitamin C is combined with a proprietary energy complex to recharge skin's battery while targeting damaged skin for accelerated improvement of a dry, tired, uneven complexion. (
  • Phytonadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K that is chemically identically to the naturally occurring vitamin K. Vitamin K is found in many foods from both plant and animal sources. (
  • Warfarin inhibits vitamin K reductase, the enzyme responsible for reducing vitamin K. The reduced form of vitamin K is used by the liver to make blood clotting factors. (
  • As a result, blood and cellular concentrations of other forms of vitamin E are lower than those of alpha-tocopherol and have been the subjects of less research [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • To estimate the a-TE of mixed diet containing natural forms of vitamin E, the number of milligrams of b-tocopherol should be multiplied by 0.5, g-tocopherol by 0.1, and a-tocotrienol by 0.3. (
  • There are two major forms of vitamin D: D 2 or ergocalciferol and D 3 or cholecarciferol. (
  • There are many chemical forms of vitamin D, which have varying amounts of biological activity. (
  • Some metabolic diseases are responsive to treatment with specific doses and forms of vitamin D. These include Fanconi syndrome and familial hypophosphatemia, both of which result in low levels of phosphate. (
  • A rich and restorative eye cream featuring eight peptides, five forms of vitamin C, and cucumber extract for visibly firmer, brighter-looking skin. (
  • Power Five C Vitamin Complex: A complex of five forms of vitamin C that work together to balance uneven tone and visibly firm. (
  • The two most prominent forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). (
  • Important note: we want to make it clear that we added up all forms of vitamin A (including carotenoids like beta-carotene) when we created the list of vitamin A-rich foods below. (
  • Here is a summary chart showing basic relationships between the forms of vitamin A. (
  • Once a food has been consumed, these carotenoid forms of vitamin A may be converted by the body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (
  • As you can see in the chart above, there are two basic forms of vitamin A: retinoids (found in animal foods) and carotenoids (found in plant foods). (
  • Yet even if we are not faced with any of these special conditions, each of us needs retinoid forms of vitamin A. (
  • Like the retinoid forms of vitamin A, the carotenoid forms also provide us with unique health benefits. (
  • At first glance, it looks like we need to eat both animal and plant foods in order to get both retinoid and carotenoid forms of vitamin A. In some instances, that is true. (
  • In the bodies of many individuals, carotenoid forms of vitamin A can be effectively converted into retinoid forms, therefore providing the physiological functionality noted above. (
  • Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are three carotenoid forms of vitamin A that can be converted by our body into retinoid forms under certain conditions. (
  • We use this phrase-"under certain conditions"-to refer to the fact that the bodies of many individuals may not be well equipped to convert carotenoid forms of vitamin A into retinoid forms. (
  • If you are a person who avoids animal foods and you are trying to obtain more retinoid forms of vitamin A by consuming plant foods that are high in carotenoids, you might get a very large amount of carotenoids yet still be unable to convert these carotenoid forms of vitamin A into the retinoid form that is also required by the body for proper physiological functioning. (
  • It's often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" and is made in your skin when exposed to sunlight. (
  • That's because your body create its own vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. (
  • During some times of the year, especially in northern states, there may not be enough of the right sunlight to make vitamin D. This is true even if you are outside all day. (
  • First is the long-known fact that human skin cells can make vitamin D from sunlight. (
  • Vitamin D (or cholecalciferol) is produced in the skin, when it is exposed to sunlight, but as we get precious few glimpses of the sun during the cold, winter months, we are unlikely to meet our needs for vitamin D. (
  • Most people should be able to get all the vitamin D they need by exposing themselves to enough sunlight and eating a healthy balanced diet. (
  • Thus, wearing sunscreen, and sun-protective clothing, or avoiding sunlight all have the ability to result in lower blood levels of vitamin D. However, no clinician should recommend trading one condition for another, and it is a concern that some clinicians advise regular sun exposure several times a week. (
  • Vitamin D can be synthesized by the body in the presence of sunlight, as opposed to being required in the diet. (
  • This is due to a difficulty in quantifying the amount of the vitamin that is produced by the body with exposure to sunlight. (
  • Exposure to sunlight is the primary method of obtaining vitamin D. In clear summer weather, approximately ten minutes per day in the sun will produce adequate amounts, even when only the face is exposed. (
  • Vitamin D can only be made by the body when sunlight falls on skin unprotected by sunscreen. (
  • Most of the vitamin D used by our bodies is made by our skin when it's exposed to sunlight. (
  • We've known for the best part of a century that sunlight makes vitamin D and that means healthy bones. (
  • I think we've always thought that it couldn't happen in Australia - we're too sunny a country but people in institutions often don't get sunlight for various reasons and if you don't get some sunlight you don't make vitamin D and we don't get it much in our food any more so for that reason it's quite common. (
  • The good news is that there are many benefits to sunlight besides making vitamin D. Vitamin D is made by a narrow band of the sun's radiation and there are many other regions in that visible light that produce all kinds of good effects. (
  • Vitamin D is also known as the sunshine vitamin, as it can be synthesized by living organisms with the help of sunlight. (
  • A 10 - 15 minutes exposure to sunlight is enough to synthesize the daily requirement of vitamin D (200 IU). (
  • This article talks about the development of rickets in adults, which is a disease that develops because of the deficiency of vitamin D and inadequate exposure to sunlight. (
  • Vitamin B6 is stable in acid, somewhat less stable in alkali, and is fairly easily destroyed with ultraviolet light, such as sunlight, and during the processing of food. (
  • Your body also makes vitamin D when direct sunlight converts a chemical in your skin into an active form of the vitamin (calciferol). (
  • Many older adults don't get regular exposure to sunlight and have trouble absorbing vitamin D, so taking a multivitamin with vitamin D will likely help improve bone health. (
  • It is the only vitamin that can be made in the body through sunlight action. (
  • Some medical sources deem vitamin D to be a hormone rather than a vitamin, as it is produced by all vertebrate species exposed to sunlight. (
  • Exposure to sunlight is one of the main sources of vitamin D. Ultraviolet radiation is what stimulates the body to create vitamin D. Babies under 12 months of age have been shown to have vitamin D stored in their bodies from when they were in the womb . (
  • Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity . (
  • Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. (
  • Some people have low vitamin B12 levels due to folate deficiency. (
  • I suggest you get a complete Iron profile blood work, which includes MCV, Serum B12, MMA, serum folate, and RBC folate so you can see if you are really deficient in any vitamin Bs or not. (
  • Dr. Hagler's study drew from a database that included patients with migraines who, according to Headache Center practice, had baseline blood levels checked for vitamin D, riboflavin, coenzyme Q10 and folate, all of which were implicated in migraines, to some degree, by previous and sometimes conflicting studies. (
  • Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, widespread connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 6-9 ]. (
  • The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g [ 4 ]. (
  • In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, contributing to the more severe symptoms of scurvy . (
  • Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, since without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function. (
  • Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy , a disease characterized by soreness and stiffness of the joints and lower extremities, rigidity, swollen and bloody gums, and hemorrhages in the tissues of the body. (
  • First isolated in 1928, vitamin C was identified as the curative agent for scurvy in 1932. (
  • An extreme lack of vitamin C for long periods of time can cause scurvy. (
  • Other cultures of the world discovered their own sources of vitamin C. Powdered rose hips, acerola cherries, or spruce needles were consumed regularly, usually as teas, to prevent the scurvy disease. (
  • Severe vitamin C deficiency can lead to a disease characterized by anemia, bleeding gums, bruising and poor wound healing (scurvy). (
  • As well, certain vitamins are established treatments for a host of diseases, from vitamin C in scurvy to B12 in pernicious anemia. (
  • Scurvy (hemorrages, loose teeth, gingivitis (bad breath), bone disease), bleeding gums, increased chance for infection, colds or respiratory infections can be unpleasant consequences of vitamin C deficiency. (
  • During the early 20th century, diseases like scurvy and rickets were common until researchers began to isolate compounds in food-which became known as vitamins-that could altogether cure these ailments. (
  • Vitamin C deficiency is the cause of scurvy which is marked by fatigue, spongy gums, loss of teeth, ecchymosis, petechiae and excessive bleeding including bleeding from the gums, into joints and into internal organs. (
  • Vitamin K is a vital nutrient that our body needs for blood to clot and stop bleeding. (
  • Serum concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) depend on the liver, which takes up the nutrient after the various forms are absorbed from the small intestine. (
  • [2] Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters . (
  • Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. (
  • Vitamin D is an important nutrient. (
  • Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient for your body. (
  • Since vitamin D was first recommended as an essential nutrient for the U.S. public in 1943, recommendation levels for this nutrient have varied. (
  • Although vitamin D is also available from dietary sources such as oily fish, eggs and fortified cereals, nutritional research suggests that daily requirements for this key nutrient cannot be met through diet alone. (
  • Vitamin D is a nutrient that helps the body take in calcium from the foods that we eat. (
  • This report also reveals a single nutrient, thiamine (thii-ah-meen) vitamin B1, by virtue of its ability to facilitate the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin (the red oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells), as the antidote to eye, nerve, heart, brain and lung disorders. (
  • Because of the central role of vitamin B1 to energy metabolism, deficiency of this nutrient impairs nearly every important function in the body. (
  • That said, vitamin D tends to be lower in obese people in general, for the fact that it's a fat-soluble nutrient and when you're obese, the vitamin D ends up being "volumetrically diluted. (
  • Vitamin D is a nutrient your body needs for building and maintaining healthy bones. (
  • A powerful two-step peel packed with super-nutrient vitamin C to exfoliate, brighten, and moisturize skin. (
  • Powered by super-nutrient vitamin C, this clarifying two-step peel gently polishes skin as it fades dark spots and discoloration. (
  • A recent mainstream press article that calls vitamin D research into question is a low blow that hinges on an attack on a prominent researcher's character rather than a sober assessment of the science behind the nutrient, experts say. (
  • The term "vitamin A" makes it sound like there is one particular nutrient called "vitamin A," but that is not true. (
  • A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. (
  • Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is arguably the only vitamin that gives you a visual cue as to its passage through your body. (
  • Scientists are investigating whether, by limiting free-radical production and possibly through other mechanisms, vitamin E might help prevent or delay the chronic diseases associated with free radicals. (
  • The major biologic role of vitamin E is to protect PUFAs and other components of cell membranes and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation by free radicals. (
  • The major function of vitamin E is to act as a free-radical scavenger, meaning that it neutralizes free radicals and protects cells from their damaging effects. (
  • Vitamin C may also prevent cancer by blocking the damage made by free radicals. (
  • Breastfed babies are low in vitamin K for several weeks until they start eating regular foods, usually at 4-6 months, and until the normal intestinal bacteria start making vitamin K. (
  • Two types of K vitamins have been isolated: K 1 , an oil purified from alfalfa concentrates, and K 2 , synthesized by the normal intestinal bacteria. (
  • The best sources are leafy green vegetables, such as cabbage and spinach, and intestinal bacteria (which produce most of the body's supply of vitamin K). Vitamin K is required for the synthesis in the liver of several blood clotting factors, including prothrombin. (
  • Intestinal bacteria produce some Vitamin K2, although the degree to which bacteria-produced intestinal K2 is absorbed appears to be under debate. (
  • Vitamin D from the diet is absorbed from the intestinal tract, and is more likely to be absorbed from the ileal portion in greatest amounts due to the longer retention time of food in the distal portion of the intestine (Norman and DeLuca, 1963). (
  • Vitamin D is absorbed from the intestinal tract in association with fats, as are all the fat-soluble vitamins. (
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). (
  • Deficiency of vitamin A may cause trouble in meting out the protein requirement, resulting in hangnails and weak nails. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets (in children), osteomalacia, and osteoporosis (in adults). (
  • Many reactions, including the conversion of tryptophan to niacin and arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 require vitamin B6. (
  • Taking vitamin C with niacin, which might benefit people with high cholesterol, could reduce niacin's effect. (
  • What Are Good Sources of Vitamin C? (
  • Many of the World's Healthiest vegetables rank as good sources of vitamin B1. (
  • Very good sources of vitamin B1 in the seeds group include sunflower seeds and flax seeds. (
  • If you look at the chart below, you'll see milk and yogurt represented as good sources of vitamin B2. (
  • Other good sources of vitamin C include tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage. (
  • Nuts such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts are good sources of vitamin E. (
  • Good sources of vitamin B1 include the germ and bran of wheat, rice husks (outer covering), and the outer portion of other grains. (
  • Impaired oxygen delivery can emanate from a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) required for cell energy and oxygen delivery on hemoglobin. (
  • They contain varied amounts of different vitamins, depending on formulation they can contain A … scorbic Acid (C), Thiamine, Folic acid, Vit A, Vit E, B-12, it depends on the brand. (
  • Thiamine or vitamin B1 belongs to the group of water-soluble vitamins, and is required to carry out several vital processes within the body. (
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine or thiamin) , the first B vitamin by Earl Mindell in Vitamin Bible (Warner Books, 1979) because of the support it gives to the nervous system and mental attitude. (
  • Many dried fruits contain some thiamine, though the sulfur dioxide often added as a preservative seems to destroy this vitamin. (
  • Pyrithiamine, a synthetic compound, has a molecular structure similar to thiamine, vitamin B1, and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine. (
  • For example, crimini mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin B2, and many leafy green vegetables also end up as good to excellent sources, as well. (
  • Examples of good vitamin B2 sources that would fit this description include spinach , beet greens , and broccoli , among others. (
  • Sunflower seeds and green, leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli also contain vitamin E. (
  • In children, a severe vitamin D deficiency can cause delays in growth and rickets, a disease where the bones become soft. (
  • Rickets has been around for centuries, but its roots as a symptom of vitamin D deficiency began only in the 17th century, when Francis Glisson published his findings on the disease and proposed that it was a disease of the rich rather than the poor. (
  • Mellanby and McCollum pioneered the discovery of vitamin D as the effective agent in cod liver oil which prevented and treated rickets, which led to the addition of this vitamin to milk and other foods as a means of fortification against this disfiguring disease. (
  • Rickets and osteomalacia are the classical deficiency diseases caused by inadequate vitamin D. (
  • A deficiency in vitamin D can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. (
  • Some of the benefits of Vitamin D are the prevention of rickets , promotion growth and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones, maintainance of the cardiovascular system including regulation of the heart beat , support of the nervous system - particularly the transmission of nerve impulses , increases a person's ability to withstand pain , relief of muscle spasms , and the relief of menstrual cramps. (
  • Effective treatment of rickets by rubbing cod liver oil on the skin, indicates that vitamin D can be absorbed through the skin. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets , cancer , cardiovascular disease , severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. (
  • Vitamin D is crucial for bone health and immune system function. (
  • Almost every cell in your body has a receptor for vitamin D. It's essential to many processes, including bone health, immune system function, and can help protect against cancer ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • Vitamin D alone may not directly boost our bone mineral density, although some RCTs do show a benefit. (
  • They also work together, and so vitamin D plus calcium plus vitamin K could reasonably be expected to support bone health. (
  • And when it comes to vitamin D and bone health, the totality of the evidence strongly says it helps. (
  • Vitamin D plays a part in the bone-building process by helping the body to absorb calcium. (
  • Vitamin B12 has a major influence on the function of neurons and also on the ability of the bone marrow to make red blood cells. (
  • Recent studies on vitamin D and disease have focused on many health problems not specific to bone, including problems involving our immune, cardiovascular, and blood sugar regulating systems. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency can lead to softening or malformation of bone. (
  • Individuals with low vitamin D levels are at risk of developing health problems linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as osteomalacia , which causes bone pain and tenderness. (
  • Vitamin D is important not only to the maintenance of proper bone density, but to the many calcium-driven neurologic and cellular functions, as well as normal growth and development. (
  • Occurring in children with vitamin D deficiency, this is caused by failure of mineralization of bone, leading to soft, pliable and eventually deformed bones. (
  • Immune function needs a regular supply of vitamin D, bone function does not. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in calcium metabolism and bone growth. (
  • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to bone and joint pain, muscle pain, weakening and softening of bones, etc. (
  • Bone pain is one of the vitamin D deficiency symptoms in women. (
  • That's because your body can only absorb calcium, the primary component of bone, when vitamin D is present. (
  • Taking a multivitamin with vitamin D may help improve bone health. (
  • Vitamin D provides a hormone-like function, regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. (
  • Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. (
  • Together, calcium and vitamin D build bones and keep them strong. (
  • Kids need vitamin D to build strong bones . (
  • Vitamin D also helps bones heal after an injury or surgery. (
  • Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium , a building block for strong bones. (
  • Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, is essential for strong teeth and bones. (
  • Osteomalacia refers to the softening of the bones that occurs in adults that are vitamin D deficient. (
  • Many older adults are deficient in vitamin D. This can affect hearing by causing poor function of the small bones in the ear that transmit sound. (
  • It also uses this vitamin to repair and maintain cartilage, bones and teeth, to heal wounds and to form scar tissue. (
  • Some of the low vitamin D symptoms in women are weak bones, fatigue and blurred vision. (
  • Isn't vitamin D only important for healthy bones? (
  • Without vitamin D your bones can become soft, thin and brittle. (
  • Vitamin D is necessary for building and maintaining healthy bones. (
  • Vitamin C maintains collagen, a protein necessary for the formation of skin, ligaments and bones. (
  • We know vitamin D keeps bones strong and it has an important role in normal cell growth," Dr. Marissa Weiss, chief medical officer and founder of, told Healthline. (
  • Other roles of cobalamin include working with pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 and folic acid to reduce harmful homocysteine levels, participating in the metabolization of food, and keeping the immune system operating smoothly. (
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a very important B vitamin, especially for women. (
  • Vitamin B6 is actually three related compounds, all of which are found in food--pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. (
  • whole wheat flour contains nearly 0.5 mg. of pyridoxine (wheat germ and wheat flakes have much more), while refined wheat flour has almost none, and even whole wheat bread has lost nearly all of its vitamin B6. (
  • Below is the daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 in micrograms (mcg). (
  • A few population-based studies have suggested that high intake of vitamin E in the diet is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Finally, recommended daily intake of vitamin D is controversial because scientists aren't certain about the relationship between blood levels of this vitamin and disease risk. (
  • Fortification of some foods and beverages have not solved the vitamin D deficiency problem, and recent studies suggest that the regular intake of vitamin D may increase blood levels greater than weekly or monthly oral intakes of equivalent doses (Chel, Wijnhoven, Smit, Ooms, & Lips, 2008). (
  • Vitamin A deficiency can result from insufficient intake of vitamin A rich foods, a liver disorder, or fat malabsorption. (
  • Ask your healthcare provider about the benefits of Vitamin K before your delivery. (
  • Health benefits of vitamin C that have been proposed but not scientifically proven include a lower risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and cataracts," said Ross. (
  • The medical community is split over the benefits of vitamin C on the heart. (
  • Findings on the benefits of vitamin D for cancer prevention are mixed. (
  • There are some specific immune, inflammatory, genetic, and reproductive-related benefits of vitamin A that can only be obtained from the retinoid forms of the vitamin. (
  • Vitamin C is one of the least stable vitamins, and cooking can destroy much of this water-soluble vitamin from foods. (
  • High levels of vitamin C (millimolar concentrations) are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain. (
  • Vitamins like A, D, E and K that dissolve in fats and are stored in body tissues. (
  • Coumarin derivatives, used in medicine to prevent blood coagulation in certain cases, act by antagonizing the action of vitamin K. In the deficiency state an abnormal length of time is needed for the blood to clot, and there may be hemorrhaging in various tissues. (
  • What we've discovered is that, because of its pharmacokinetic differences, intravenous vitamin C, as opposed to oral vitamin C, kills some cancer cells without harming normal tissues. (
  • Reason for such wide range is due to vitamin B12 are in our tissues plus in the blood so it is difficult to have a true reading. (
  • Retrieved on June 18, 2021 from (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that's involved in many essential body functions. (
  • Any excess vitamin D is stored in your body fat for later use. (
  • Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. (
  • There are 13 vitamins your body needs. (
  • Oral vitamin C produces tissue and plasma concentrations that the body tightly controls. (
  • Vitamin D is needed for a healthy immune system - helping the body to fight off infections and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • When the sun's ultraviolet rays penetrate bare skin, it sets off a process in the body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it gets stored in the body. (
  • Vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. (
  • As this was a prospective study and showed a strong dose response it adds considerable strength to the body of data on Vitamin D. We now have similar effects demonstrated in all four of the most common and dangerous forms of cancer: prostate, breast, colon and lung cancer. (
  • Vitamin D is biologically inactive and converted into the biologically active calcitriol via double hydroxylation in the body. (
  • Unlike the water-soluble vitamins, these are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess. (
  • Depending on where you live, you might only need 10 minutes of sunshine 3 to 4 times a week to help your body create the vitamin D it needs. (
  • A low level of vitamin D in the body is referred to as a "vitamin D deficiency. (
  • The research debate over vitamin D has focused partly on its roles in the body, and more recently on its optimal levels in the body and on the relationship of those levels to dietary intake. (
  • For example, just getting older can reduce vitamin D levels because the mechanisms needed to synthesize its structure from cholesterol become less efficient through time, as is the case with most intrinsic synthesizing methods in the human body. (
  • Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from plant foods. (
  • As carotenoids such as beta-carotene are converted to vitamin A in the body, researchers have attempted to establish how much of the carotenoids in the diet are equal to a certain amount of retinol. (
  • Vit A is one of 4 vitamins (A,D,E,K) that can be toxic as it is fat soluble and gets stored in your body if you take an overdose. (
  • For example, one study 8 , 9 found that for every 10% increase in body-mass index, there's a 4.2% reduction in blood levels of vitamin D. According to the authors of that particular study, obesity may in fact be a causal factor in the development of vitamin D deficiency. (
  • The body uses vitamin C in many different ways. (
  • Vitamin C is needed by the body to form collagen. (
  • According to the NIH, the body also uses vitamin C to make skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. (
  • Vitamins are organic substances essential for the normal functioning of the body. (
  • Since the body does not produce most of these vitamins, it is important we provide them to our bodies through the food we eat. (
  • Vitamin D is useful for our body in many ways. (
  • Although our body can prepare vitamin D on its own, its levels are found to be low in some people. (
  • Vitamin B refers to a group of eight water-soluble vitamins that are essential for the healthy functioning of the human body. (
  • This vitamin, is indeed one of the most vital vitamins our body needs. (
  • Sulfa antibiotics increase elimination of vitamin C from the body by two to three times. (
  • Vitamin D also regulates many other cellular functions in your body. (
  • Taking vitamin D might affect the way your body processes this cholesterol drug. (
  • It was later found that a mucoprotein enzyme produced by the stomach (by the parietal cells that also make hydrochloric acid) was also needed for vitamin B12 to be absorbed into the body from the intestines. (
  • Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron. (
  • Because your body doesn't produce vitamin C, you need to get it from your diet. (
  • Vitamin D is fat-soluble in the body. (
  • Vitamins are organic molecules and essential micronutrients required in small quantities for the proper functioning of body metabolism. (
  • Infants, people with fat malabsorption and abetalipoproteinemia (a condition that prevents the body from completely absorbing certain dietary fats) are more likely to have vitamin E deficiency. (
  • Vitamin E plays an important role in the production of hormone-like substances called prostaglandins, which are responsible for regulating a variety of body processes, such as blood pressure and muscle contraction. (
  • As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin E is stored in the body, and excess is not washed out through the urinary tract, as does happen with water-soluble vitamins, according to Georgia Highlands College . (
  • During the past few years, study after study has raised doubts about what, if any, good vitamins actually do a body. (
  • Vitamin D is also produced in the body and stored in its inactive form, predominately in the skin. (
  • In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. (
  • Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. (
  • If your vitamin B12 level is a little low, you might not have any symptoms. (
  • orthomol symptoms of vitamin d deficiency where I can read about it? (
  • At least one study has linked topical vitamin E to a reduction in psoriasis symptoms. (
  • Explained below are a few causes and symptoms occurring due to the deficiency of this vital vitamin. (
  • Keep reading this article to get details about the symptoms and treatment for vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Today, vitamin D deficiency symptoms in men are discussed with a lot of interest. (
  • Bring back the sunshine in your life with the sunshine vitamin D to nip the vitamin D deficiency symptoms in the bud. (
  • This Buzzle write-up lists out the functions of each of these B vitamins, along with the symptoms of. (
  • To be on the safer side, go through various symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. (
  • Previous research suggested that among people with the joint disorder, those with higher levels of vitamin D in their blood tended to have a slower progression of symptoms. (
  • The aim of the present analysis is to investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and self-reported current symptoms of pain in a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 2070 adults aged = 65 years living in the community in England in 2005. (
  • What were your symptoms associated with a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency? (
  • The tricky thing about vitamin D deficiency is that there aren't any symptoms, Weiss added. (
  • Vitamin B1 is, of course, used to treat any of the symptoms of its deficiency or its deficiency disease beriberi (discussed below). (
  • Approximately 70%-90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30-180 mg/day. (
  • Vitamin C blood levels of smokers are much lower than those of nonsmokers given the same intakes. (
  • Neither normal nor moderately high intakes of vitamin C are associated with liver injury or liver test abnormalities. (
  • High doses of some vitamins can cause problems. (
  • Generally a balanced B-complex vitamin is preferable to taking high doses of cobalamin unless there is a specific indication for it, such as megaloblastic anemia. (
  • Although excess vitamin C will mostly be eliminated in urine, high doses can cause headaches, diarrhea, frequent urination and nausea. (
  • There is no evidence that vitamin C, in physiologic or in moderately high doses, causes acute liver injury or jaundice. (
  • Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants . (
  • Vitamin E comes from a family of eight antioxidants. (
  • There is concern that use of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, during chemotherapy might reduce the drug's effect. (
  • It is one of three vitamins which also act as antioxidants. (
  • Vitamin C is one of several antioxidants shown to play a key role in the prevention of many types of cancers. (
  • The news on antioxidants, the darlings of the vitamin menagerie, is even more troubling. (
  • Up to 42% of the American adult population has low vitamin D levels, which can cause health problems ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • D3 is the more powerful of the two types and raises vitamin D levels almost twice as much as D2 ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • However, if you live far north or south of the equator, your vitamin D levels may fluctuate depending on the season. (
  • In the same study, individuals who were vitamin D deficient needed 5,000 IU to reach blood levels above 30 ng/ml. (
  • Studies in postmenopausal women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml found that ingesting 800-2,000 IU raised blood levels above 20 ng/ml. (
  • All things considered, a daily vitamin D intake of 1,000-4,000 IU, or 25-100 micrograms, should be enough to ensure optimal blood levels in most people. (
  • What are the optimal blood levels of vitamin D? (
  • Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biological activity [ 1 ]. (
  • If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. (
  • Relatively low levels of vitamin C (micromolar concentrations) are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva [ 4 ]. (
  • Differences in Vitamin D levels were thought to offer an explanation. (
  • Two studies where then published which suggested there was no association between Vitamin D levels and prostate cancer. (
  • But somewhat concerning was a suggestion that very high levels of Vitamin D were associated with an increased risk of aggressive disease. (
  • Then in early 2009 The British Journal of Cancer published some very positive findings showing high Vitamin D levels had a very positive effect on the risk of death from prostate cancer. (
  • In this study, Vitamin D levels were measured in 160 patients with advanced prostate cancer. (
  • 20ng/ml), medium (20-32ng/ml) or high (>32ng/ml) Vitamin D levels. (
  • This is almost a seven fold increase in the risk of death in those with low compared to high vitamin D levels. (
  • After noting a prostate cancer patient PSA levels had dropped after the patient's wife had given him Vitamin D, Waxman started a small trial to study the effect in advanced prostate cancer. (
  • These two trials strongly suggest that at the very least, no prostate cancer patient should be left in a state of Vitamin D insufficiency and all patients should talk to their physician and ensure they have their levels checked. (
  • 1) Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case control study in the nordic countries. (
  • Most people with low vitamin B12 levels don't get enough from food sources. (
  • The 2012 results of an ongoing survey carried out by the Department of Health and the Food Standards Agency revealed that a quarter of the people who took part had low levels of vitamin D in their blood. (
  • It has become difficult to identify a population of individuals that has sufficient blood levels of vitamin D. Why are so many people vitamin D deficient? (
  • Low levels of vitamin D are also found in individuals with larger amounts of belly fat or visceral obesity (Aasheim, Hofso, Hjelmesaeth, Birkeland, & Bohmer, 2008). (
  • Numerous theories abound as to why this is the case, such as hemodilution from greater blood volumes or the finding that adipose tissue is a greater storage site for vitamin D. Higher cholesterol levels may be associated with lower vitamin D blood levels, and conversely, cholesterol-lowering medications, such as statins, may increase vitamin D synthesis (Perez-Castrillon et al. (
  • The lack of reliable dietary sources that contain consistently higher levels of vitamin D has been an issue. (
  • however, it has not been substantiated through recent research demonstrating low blood levels of vitamin D in individuals residing in Florida and southern Arizona (Jacobs et al. (
  • 2005). Perhaps regular sun avoidance, aging, and obesity are independently or synergistically involved in lowering vitamin D levels in some of these geographic areas. (
  • The data suggests that those with low levels of sun exposure needed additional vitamin D to reach a target blood level of 50 nanomoles of vitamin D per liter of plasma. (
  • Even more amazing, one expert believes 25 per cent of breast cancer deaths could be avoided if the women had maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life. (
  • In Europe it's estimated that 25% of women that die of breast cancer may not have died of breast cancer if they would have maintained adequate vitamin D levels throughout their life and have had some sun exposure. (
  • We think now that being able to maintain adequate vitamin D levels may be important for decreasing your risk of getting prostate cancer and breast cancer and colon cancer. (
  • After a month, the patients blood pressure had returned to normal and their blood levels of vitamin D had doubled. (
  • Glucose tolerance is restored when vitamin D levels return to normal. (
  • The following table contains fruits and vegetables with high levels of vitamin C. (
  • People with a history of kidney stones should avoid high levels of vitamin C. (
  • The following table shows the levels of the vitamin associated with health risks. (
  • Today we want to make you aware of a paper from Europe that challenged the age old myth that there is a U or J-shaped curve with respect to vitamin D at physiological levels - meaning that vitamin D helps conditions up to a point, but then if you have too much it makes the condition worse or increases the risk. (
  • Are results reported by vitamin D levels, instead of or in addition to dosage groups? (
  • We would love to publish some of the ways which testing and raising your vitamin D levels has made a change in your life. (
  • In this case, the authors standardized individual participant vitamin D levels from eight independent studies for their analysis on vitamin D and mortality. (
  • As shown in table 3 of the paper, there was a continued decrease in cardiovascular death as vitamin D levels increased. (
  • On the other side are vitamin D advocates, scientists and doctors who believe that sensible, non-burning sun exposure helps you achieve adequate vitamin D levels, which reduces your risk of a number of serious diseases without increasing your risk of skin cancer. (
  • Seminar attendees heard from Dr. Robert Heaney and Dr. Michael Holick, featured in the video, and other experts on the importance of sun exposure for maintaining optimal levels of vitamin D necessary for human health. (
  • What Causes Low Vitamin D Levels? (
  • a diet that includes foods with high levels of vitamin C can provide several grams or more per day. (
  • Research shows that low levels of vitamin D in the blood are associated with cognitive decline. (
  • Taking vitamin D and aluminum-containing phosphate binders, which may be used to treat high serum phosphate levels in people with chronic kidney disease, might cause harmful levels of aluminum in people with kidney failure in the long term. (
  • Taking vitamin D and aluminum-containing phosphate binders long term might cause harmful levels of aluminum in people with kidney failure. (
  • Some studies also suggest that people who have higher levels of vitamin C in their diets have a lower risk of developing cataracts. (
  • High levels of vitamin C might interfere with the results of certain tests, such as stool tests for occult blood or glucose screening tests. (
  • Taking vitamin C with oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy might increase your estrogen levels. (
  • McAlindon, however, disagreed, saying that while it's possible the higher levels of vitamin D in the blood could help knee pain, so far the results don't support that idea. (
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Having higher vitamin B12 levels may protect against brain shrinkage in elderly people, according to a study published on Monday. (
  • In the study led by David Smith and Anna Vogiatzoglou of the University of Oxford in Britain, people in the upper third of vitamin B12 levels were six times less likely to experience brain shrinkage than those in the lowest third. (
  • The study involved 107 healthy people ages 61 to 87 who underwent scans to measure brain volume and gave blood samples to assess vitamin B12 levels once a year for up to five years. (
  • All of those in the study had vitamin B12 levels classified in what is considered the normal range, the researchers said. (
  • Smith said another study from Oxford that came out last year showed that lower vitamin B12 levels - but still within the normal range - were linked to cognitive impairment and a higher risk of later cognitive decline. (
  • A separate study led by Harvard University scientists in the journal Nature Genetics showed that common variations of a gene called FUT2 influence B12 vitamin levels in the blood. (
  • The researchers said the next step was to develop a test to measure NAD levels to identify which women were most at risk from having a baby with a birth defect, and to then ensure they had sufficient Vitamin B3. (
  • Children with coeliac disease may benefit from routine evaluation of their vitamin A and D levels as they tend to lack both, say researchers in Turkey. (
  • People with extremely low blood levels of vitamin E may be also be at higher risk for cancer. (
  • Although lower vitamin D levels are correlated with the Cobb angle, the relationship between vitamin D and AIS may not be casual. (
  • They found that those individuals with vitamin D levels BELOW 50 (nanomoles per liter) experienced a 53 percent increased risk for all-cause dementia, and a 69 percent increased risk for Alzheimer s disease. (
  • Particular advantages of the present study were the presence of directly measured vitamin D levels and a large and nationally representative sample. (
  • However, this activation requires sufficient levels of vitamin D to be effective. (
  • A 2015 study by the Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics of the Qingdao University Medical College found that vitamin E intake and high serum-tocopherol levels were linked to a decreased risk of age-related cataracts. (
  • This trait means that vitamin E can accumulate to toxic levels over time, so it's possible to overdose on this vitamin. (
  • Vitamin D Mode: Free roam the levels and find the exit. (
  • Data has shown that women with low levels of the vitamin are at higher risk for developing the cancer. (
  • But there isn't enough evidence yet to directly link high levels of vitamin D to a decreased risk for breast cancer. (
  • We've gone from [thinking] vitamin D may help to maybe now there are different levels that can help," he said. (
  • The authors concluded that women with a higher concentration of vitamin D in their blood had a lower risk for breast cancer compared with women who didn't have these higher levels. (
  • The deficiency is invisible so the only way to find out is through a blood test that checks vitamin D levels. (
  • The following conditions also make it hard to absorb vitamin B12. (
  • Pregnancy, absorb this important vitamin. (
  • Thanks to the meals provided at her preschool, as well as multivitamins, vitamin A and deworming treatments provided by Vitamin Angels, Ana Estela now plays with vibrancy and smiles , even participating in her school's traditional dance group. (
  • Multivitamins is a contraction of "Multiple Vitamins" and they are exactly that. (
  • The one that garnered particular attention reported an increased risk of death in postmenopausal women taking multivitamins, as well as vitamin B6, folic acid, iron, magnesium, zinc, and copper. (
  • Vitamin C is available in many over-the-counter forms in concentrations ranging from 25 to 1000 mg and is a component of virtually all multivitamins, typically in concentrations of 60 to 180 mg. (
  • A study from the early 1990's found a possible link between getting vitamin K and developing childhood cancer. (
  • The risk of death during that time was found to be significantly less for those in the medium and high Vitamin D groups. (
  • Vitamin B12 is found naturally in some foods and is added to other fortified foods. (
  • Another trial in patients with head and neck cancers found that patients who received vitamin E had a higher rate of second primary cancers compared with those on placebo, and that vitamin E may interfere with radiation therapy. (
  • A review of the various factors that can cause vitamin D deficiency are found in Table 1 (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). (
  • It is of interest that the highest concentration of vitamin D is found in some heart-healthy fish, so patients can get "two for the price of one" by consuming fish high in omega-3 and vitamin D, such as salmon. (
  • They found giving infused vitamin C together with carboplatin and paclitaxel - two conventional chemotherapy drugs - stopped ovarian cancer in the lab and also reduced toxic side effects of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. (
  • However, although complementary and alternative therapy doctors continued to use it to combat cancer, conventional oncologists abandoned its use after clinical trials of orally administered vitamin C found it was ineffective against cancer. (
  • The researchers found that, compared with the patients who did not receive vitamin C in addition to conventional chemotherapy, the toxic effects of the therapy tended to be less in the patients given vitamin C. (
  • In another experiment, the researchers found vitamin C killed cancer cells in mice with ovarian cancer, but only at concentrations that can be achieved if given intravenously. (
  • When they looked at what was happening at the molecular level, they found vitamin C in the fluid surrounding tumor cells acts as a "pro-oxidant," spurring formation of hydrogen peroxide, which kills cancer cells. (
  • On further investigation of this path, the researchers found a number of mechanisms through which, acting as a pro-oxidant, vitamin C induced cell death in ovarian cancer cells, including promoting damage to their DNA, without affecting healthy tissue. (
  • Vitamin C is found in the vegetables and fruits groups of MyPlate. (
  • The earliest clues to be discovered that led to the identification of Vitamin A and its deficiency date back as far as 1819, when a physiologist called Magendie found that malnourished dogs tended to develop corneal ulcers and their risk of death was increased. (
  • Vitamin D is a fat-soluble substance, and is therefore found in few foods of plant origin. (
  • Marginal vitamin B2 status has been found to impair the ability to make red blood cells, leading to a condition called anemia. (
  • Vitamin K2 is found in fermented products, organ meats, and high-fat dairy products or eggs from animals fed on green grass and plants. (
  • Vitamin E is found in many moisturizers, and the oil may be used as a moisturizer to prevent or treat dry, flaking skin. (
  • However, studies on humans have not found any skin cancer prevention benefits associated with vitamin E. (
  • The VITAL study itself, which followed patients for an average of 5.3 years, found no statistical difference in overall cancer rates among those who took vitamin D3, but there was a reduction in cancer-related deaths, which is what prompted this secondary analysis. (
  • The history of vitamin B12 deficiency goes back to almost hundred years, when it was found that it causes pernicious anemia. (
  • C also stands for citrus, where this vitamin is found. (
  • Vitamin D isn't naturally found in many foods, but you can get it from fortified milk, fortified cereal, and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines. (
  • Vitamin B12 is found in significant amounts only in the animal protein foods. (
  • Found in North West Florida Vitamin P plays a big role in making sure you and all your friends are always having a great time. (
  • A vitamin C price fixing case that has found its way into the US Supreme Court could have wide ranging effects for the price of other vitamins and ingredients as well, experts say. (
  • Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils (most notably wheat germ oil), sweet potatoes, avocados, nuts, sunflower seeds and soybeans. (
  • However, little 7-dehydrocholesterol is found in the skin of cats and dogs (and likely other carnivores), and therefore little vitamin D3 is produced in the skin (How et al. (
  • Also, a 2015 study published by the U.S. National Library of Medicine found that vitamin E aids in muscle repair after exercise, said Somer. (
  • The crux of the study is the concentration of vitamin D found within blood. (
  • Vitamin C is found in many foods, particularly citrus fruits, green vegetables, tomatoes and potatoes. (
  • Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to the sun. (
  • In the video, Dr. Robert Heaney, John A Creighton University Professor Emeritus, addresses a question on the natural way to make vitamin D, "The most natural way to make vitamin D is to expose our skin to the sun particularly around midday when the intensity of the sun's rays will be at their maximum, particularly in the summertime. (
  • Another important question addressed in the video is, can sunbeds be used to make vitamin D, especially in winter? (
  • The small amount of UVB is all it takes to make vitamin D in your skin. (
  • During spring/summer the best time to make vitamin D is between 10 am and 2 pm. (
  • The current recommended daily allowance of vitamin D for U.S. children and adults (1 - 70 yr of age) is 600 international units. (
  • For most adults, the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D is 600 to 800 IU. (
  • The current recommended daily allowance of vitamin D for people ages 1 to 70 is 600 International Units (IU). (
  • The recommended daily allowance of vitamin C is 90 mg in adult men and 70 mg in women, an amount that is provided by most American diets. (
  • Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (and humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis. (
  • Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen , a protein important in the formation of connective tissue and in wound healing. (
  • C+ Collagen Deep Cream features 3-O vitamin C technology that quickly absorbs into skin to correct the appearance of dark spots and wrinkles while helping prevent the formation of future damage. (
  • Carrot seed oil balances dry or chapped skin, while helping fight age spots and sun damage, and vitamin C the formula's star multitasker visibly reduces dark spots and dullness, lightens skin, and jump-starts the natural collagen production process. (
  • The FNB's vitamin E recommendations are for alpha-tocopherol alone, the only form maintained in plasma. (
  • Also known as tocopherol or alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns, whether breastfed or formula fed, receive a one-time intramuscular shot of vitamin K 1 (phytonadione) at a dose of 0.5 to 1.0 milligrams shortly after birth (this is usually given during the birth hospitalization). (
  • An oral dose of vitamin K is not recommended. (
  • High dose vitamin C can cure Ebola virus disease? (
  • A clinical trial in prostate cancer is being conduced in Canada using a dose of 40,000IU Vitamin D3 per day. (
  • The dose of vitamin D required for these groups is outlined below. (
  • A slightly higher dose of vitamin D, even as little as a total of 700 IU for those over age 65, can significantly reduce age-related fractures when taken with 500 mg of calcium per day. (
  • He told the BBC: 'The bottom line is studies show changes in the ability to adapt to exercise could be impaired by high-dose vitamins, but until there are studies showing them affecting athletic performance people shouldn't be worried. (
  • First, it is stated that there was no difference between high-dose vitamin D and low dose vitamin D. What defines high-dose and low dose? (
  • What would be the ideal dose of vitamin D? (
  • I was wondering if you think that Vitamin B12 is needed and what kind and what dose would you recommend. (
  • Prolintane is often referred to as Vitamin P and can go for as much as $20 dollars per 40mg dose. (
  • For the new study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, he and his colleagues randomly assigned 156 of their patients with knee osteoarthritis to take a daily dose of vitamin D or a vitamin-free placebo for two years. (
  • It has been reported that only 50% of an oral dose of vitamin D is absorbed. (
  • Thus, it is very important that all babies get a vitamin K shot to prevent VKDB. (
  • Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. (
  • Can Vitamins Help Prevent a Heart Attack? (
  • Early Detection Is Critical: It is critical that a vitamin B12 deficiency is detected as early as possible in order to prevent permanent damage to the nervous system. (
  • You can prevent a vitamin B12 deficiency by eating foods rich in B12. (
  • The ability of vitamin E to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or heart disease requires further study. (
  • One clinical trial showed that vitamin E helped prevent progression of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Data from clinical trials show that vitamin E does not help prevent heart disease. (
  • Trouble is, slapping on the sunscreen doesn't just help prevent skin cancer, it also stops your skin making vitamin D. (
  • The vitamin is added to certain fruits to prevent browning. (
  • Together, we're providing vitamin A to children unable to obtain sufficient amounts from their diet to help prevent blindness and strengthen the immune system. (
  • Some studies suggest that vitamin C may prevent heart attacks by slowing down hardening of the arteries by preventing LDL ("bad") cholesterol. (
  • Other studies show that vitamin C does not prevent heart attacks. (
  • Vitamin C is often taken to prevent or cure the common cold. (
  • With Linus Pauling and others claiming that vitamin C has the potential to prevent and treat the common cold, flus, and cancer, all of which plague our society, concern has arisen in the medical establishment about these claims and the megadose requirements needed to achieve the hoped-for results. (
  • Sunscreen, while important to prevent skin cancer, also can decrease vitamin D production. (
  • Supplementing with vitamin D can prevent and treat the problem. (
  • Research suggests that vitamin D, especially when taken with calcium, might help prevent certain cancers. (
  • Studies using vitamins to prevent migraines, however, have had conflicting success. (
  • Our study suggests, but does not prove, that by modifying our vitamin B12 status we might be able to protect our brain and so possibly prevent cognitive decline," said Smith, who heads the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing. (
  • In 2006, the National Institutes of Health convened an independent panel of experts to evaluate the evidence that vitamins could prevent chronic disease. (
  • That's because there are very few foods that contain vitamin D. Foods that naturally contain vitamin D include fatty fish, fish oil, eggs, cheese, and butter. (
  • The term vitamin E refers to a family of eight naturally occurring homologues that are synthesised by plants from homogentisic acid. (
  • Vitamin D is a steroid hormone naturally produces in the skin in summer exposure to UVB light. (
  • Very few foods have vitamin D naturally. (
  • Cobalamin is the naturally occurring vitamin B12. (
  • Read the food nutrition labels to learn if the products you choose are sources of vitamin D. (
  • In order to consume more of the vitamin, known to reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other health conditions to which African-Americans already have a higher predisposition, diets must be rich in foods containing vitamin D. It's important to read the nutritional labels on sources of vitamin D such as milk and fruit juices to determine the amount supplied. (
  • Citrus fruits and fresh vegetables are the best dietary sources of the vitamin. (
  • Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources of vegetable (vitamin D 2 , also known as ergocalciferol) or animal origin (vitamin D 3 , also known as cholecalciferol). (
  • Human and cows' milk are poor sources of vitamin D. In many parts of the world, especially North America, fluid and dried milk, as well as some margarines, butter and cereals are supplemented with vitamin D. However, the real vitamin D content is frequently quite different from the labelling standard and often insufficient to reach the daily requirements for vitamin D (400-600 IU/day). (
  • Of the foods listed on our site, we have one excellent source of vitamin B1 (asparagus), 10 very good sources, and 39 good sources. (
  • As a rule of thumb, legumes and vegetables are the richest whole food sources of vitamin B1. (
  • We rate five of our foods as excellent sources of vitamin B2. (
  • We would encourage you, though, to explore other sources of vitamin B2. (
  • Some sources consider fish eggs to also be a good source of vitamin K2. (
  • Citrus fruits are excellent sources of vitamin C. (
  • Dietary sources of vitamin C include many fruits and vegetables. (
  • Both are superb sources of ongoing vitamin D research. (
  • The best sources of vitamin B6 are meats, particularly organ meats, such as liver, and the whole grains, especially wheat. (
  • Each pad delivers a powerful punch of kakadu plum, one of the richest natural vitamin C sources known on Earth. (
  • Good dietary sources of vitamin E include nuts, such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, and vegetable oils, such as sunflower, wheat germ, safflower, corn and soybean oils, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). (
  • Including sources of vitamin E in your diet brings many benefits. (
  • To improve the innate immune system of AD patients, we studied immune stimulation of macrophages by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3(1,25D3) in combination with curcuminoids. (
  • Scientists think that vitamin E also inhibits a molecule called protein kinase C, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in smooth muscle, platelets, and monocytes (a type of immune cell). (
  • The vitamin also helps in stimulating the immune system . (
  • Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and receptors for its activated form-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -have been identified in both beta cells and immune cells. (
  • In addition to providing cell protection, vitamin E is vital to a functioning immune system. (
  • You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. (
  • The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. (
  • [15] [16] Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits , kiwifruit , broccoli , Brussels sprouts , raw bell peppers , and strawberries . (
  • [5] Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods. (
  • As with all vitamins, it's best to get our D through the foods we eat. (
  • Most people get very little vitamin D from the foods they eat. (
  • There are also foods and drinks that have been fortified with vitamin D, such as milk, milk alternatives, some brands of orange juice, and some vitamin-fortified breakfast cereals. (
  • Babies and toddlers who are given non-milk food products or foods that are not fortified with vitamin D. (
  • What foods should I eat to get more vitamin B12? (
  • What foods can I eat that are high in vitamin B12 if I'm vegetarian or vegan? (
  • Adding vitamin D to foods is called "fortifying. (
  • Because vitamin C is easily destroyed by reactions with oxygen , especially in neutral or alkaline solution or at elevated temperatures, it is difficult to preserve in foods. (
  • Eating a variety of foods containing vitamin C is the best way to get enough each day. (
  • Vitamin C can be lost from foods during preparation, cooking or storage. (
  • Yet there is a very simple reason for this high risk of deficiency despite the widespread availability of vitamin B1 in foods, and that reason is food processing. (
  • At each step along the way, from storage though refining up through cooking, we lose a big portion of the vitamin B1 content of foods. (
  • For these reasons, vitamin B1 makes a good case study for the wisdom of the World's Healthiest Foods approach of minimal processing and low impact cooking techniques. (
  • All of the World's Healthiest Foods, with the exceptions of a few spices and sweeteners, contain at least some vitamin B1. (
  • Below are some further details about vitamin B1 and the World's Healthiest Foods. (
  • The following chart shows the World's Healthiest Foods that are either an excellent, very good, or good source of vitamin B1. (
  • The World's Healthiest Foods are generally very rich in vitamin B2. (
  • In fact, well over half of the foods profiled on our site contain at least 5% of the Dietary Recommended Intake (DRI) for vitamin B2. (
  • In terms of food groups, we see almost all of them containing foods that are contributors to vitamin B2 nutrition. (
  • The best women's mufti-vitamins are those that are derived from whole foods. (
  • Many foods contain vitamin C, and many important functions are mediated by it as well. (
  • The mineral copper, in the water or in the cookware, diminishes vitamin C content of foods. (
  • Vitamin B6 in its several forms is widely available in nature, though not many foods have very high amounts. (
  • Since it is lost in cooking and in the refining or processing of foods, it is not the easiest B vitamin to obtain in sufficient amounts from the diet, especially if we eat much processed food, as it is not one of the vitamins replaced in "enriched" flour products such as cereals and pastries. (
  • People living in the higher latitudes (areas more than 52 degrees) are not exposed to enough UV radiation in the winter months for sufficient vitamin D production, and so fortified foods are necessary. (
  • Smith said that could be achieved by eating plenty of foods that are a good source of vitamin B12 such as milk and other dairy products, fish, meat and fortified breakfast cereals. (
  • Anyone needing to focus on vitamin A benefits related to eye health (for example, prevention of age-related macular degeneration) would need to develop a meal plan that not only included foods that were rich in vitamin A, but more specifically, rich in these two specific carotenoid forms of the vitamin. (
  • If the tests show you are deficient in vitamin B12 injections work the best. (
  • Prenatal Vitamins: OK for Women Who Aren't Pregnant? (
  • Can you take prenatal vitamins with multi vitamin? (
  • But the prenatal vitamin space targeting expectant mothers has been slow to innovate in this area, according to prenatal. (
  • K-vitamintilskud fremmer ogs det generelle knoglestofskifte hos aktive kvinder og forbedrer knoglegeometri og -styrke hos kvinder, der har overst et overgangsalderen.K1 vitamin findes prim rt i m rkegr nne gr ntsager som gr nk l, spinat, broccoli, avocado og i ganske sm m ngder i kornprodukter, k d, lever, nyre, mejeriprodukter og frugt som vindruer. (
  • the liver metabolizes and excretes the other vitamin E forms [ 2 ]. (
  • Deficiency occurs in hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant, in liver damage, and in cases where the vitamin is not absorbed properly by the intestine. (
  • In short: the role of our liver cells and kidney cells in creating fully active vitamin D adds further complications when researchers try to predict vitamin D status. (
  • associated with a lack of vitamin K, which is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver cells. (
  • it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency … Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. (
  • People with Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis or an inability to secrete bile from the liver into the digestive tract may need to take water-soluble, supplementalforms of vitamin E to avoid digestive problems, according to the NIH. (
  • Vitamin K is necessary for the production of clotting factors in the liver including active prothrombin (factory II), proconvertin (factor VII), plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX), and Stuart factor (factor X). The FDA approved phytonadione 1940. (
  • Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. (
  • Originally, recommended intake for vitamin D by the National Academy of Sciences was approximately 200 IU (5 micrograms of cholecalciferol). (
  • Second is our knowledge that cholecalciferol from our skin cells is not the same as fully active vitamin D. Fully active vitamin D requires two additional steps. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is likely when the serum level of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol drops below 30 nmol/L. This is the inactive storage form of the vitamin. (
  • The cholecalciferol formed by the UV irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is removed from the skin into the circulatory system by the blood transport protein for vitamin D, the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) (Norman and Henry, 2007) then becomes immediately available for further metabolism (Imawari et al. (
  • This review provides an overview of the data available on the role of vitamin D in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and discusses possible applications of the molecule or its synthetic analogues [ 9 , 10 ] in clinical disease. (
  • Research on the role of vitamin D and its influence on breast cancer isn't new. (
  • He likened it to an "informational advancement" on the role of vitamin D in relation to the development of breast cancer. (
  • It certainly raises some very provocative questions about the role of vitamin D. (
  • Many types of vegetables are rich in vitamin B2. (
  • Our Ginger Yogurt with Fruit is quite rich in vitamin B2, providing almost 40% of the RDA. (
  • Medical experts around the world are talking about a new epidemic, a health concern that may be dramatically increasing our risk of cancer, hypertension and even diabetes - it's a lack of Vitamin D. (
  • There now seems to be a connection between breast, colon and prostate cancer and a lack of Vitamin D. (
  • Breast cancer is on the rise so is one reason [a lack of] vitamin D? (
  • With a lack of vitamin B1, the nerves are more sensitive to inflammation. (
  • Oral vitamin K is not consistently absorbed through the stomach and intestines, and it does not provide adequate amounts for the breastfed infant. (
  • Maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D is important for all stages of life. (
  • Adults 70 years old and younger need 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day. (
  • Adults over the age of 70 need 800 IUs of vitamin D a day. (
  • I would estimate minimum 25% of adults in the United States, Europe and probably even in Australia are vitamin D deficient. (
  • The primary message [of our study] is that vitamin D may reduce the chance of developing metastatic or fatal cancer among adults without a diagnosis of cancer,' study co-author Dr. Paulette Chandler told UPI. (
  • 2)Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: A nested case-control study. (
  • Researchers referred to it as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D, which is the main marker of vitamin D in blood. (
  • In long term clinical trials, serum enzyme and bilirubin elevations were no more frequent with vitamin C therapy than with placebo. (
  • Vitamin D is involved in many of your body's functions. (
  • However, African-Americans have more melanin in their skin, resulting in the reduction of the body's ability to make the vitamin from sun exposure. (
  • Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. (
  • Anything that blocks UV rays (such as sunscreen or smog ) can block the body's production of vitamin D. (
  • Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot normally. (
  • Vitamin-E-replete endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels are better able to resist blood-cell components adhering to this surface. (
  • Vitamin E also increases the expression of two enzymes that suppress arachidonic acid metabolism, thereby increasing the release of prostacyclin from the endothelium, which, in turn, dilates blood vessels and inhibits platelet aggregation [ 6 ]. (
  • Vitamin K is needed to form blood clots and to stop bleeding. (
  • If you take blood thinners , you need to be careful about how much vitamin K you get. (
  • Vitamin K consists of substances that are essential for the clotting of blood. (
  • Both can be derived from the synthetic compound menadione (sometimes called vitamin K 3 ), a yellow crystalline solid that is as potent in its ability to promote blood clotting as the natural vitamins. (
  • Your doctor may want to test your level of vitamin D. This can be done through a blood test (inserting a small needle into your vein and taking a sample of blood to send to a lab). (
  • Vitamin E is transported in the blood by the plasma lipoproteins and erythrocytes. (
  • and, low vitamin B12 makes red blood cells larger. (
  • A variety of studies have shown that a simple B12 blood level misses vitamin B12 deficiency over 80% of the time. (
  • Vitamin E also lessens the blood's ability to clot by suppressing the number of adhesion molecules on the lining of the blood vessel walls. (
  • In addition, vitamin E causes the release of prostacyclin, which itself dilates the blood vessels and inhibits blood clotting. (
  • However, as stated previously, the exact determination of minimum vitamin D intake should come from a blood test given in the fall or winter. (
  • Vitamin K deficiency causes impaired clotting of the blood and internal bleeding, even without injury. (
  • The "red vitamin" is very important to the blood. (
  • Vitamin B12 helps in the formation of red blood cells and is important for the maintenance of the central nervous system. (
  • Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, the Netherlands, measured vitamin B 6 in the blood of 11 men who spent successive three-week periods drinking water, red wine, Dutch gin (genever) or lager with meals. (
  • In addition, vitamin E plays an important function in the formation of red blood cells and the use of vitamin K. Some studies have shown that vitamin E may raise one's resistance to infectious diseases and protect against cataracts. (
  • Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters. (
  • This study investigated vitamin D exposure in umbilical cord blood (CB) and allergy risk in the first year of life. (
  • Vitamin K plays a crucial role in blood coagulation and the formation of blood clots . (
  • The study, published in JAMA Network Open, is a secondary analysis of the VITAL Study 4 which, in part, sought to determine whether taking 2,000 IUs of vitamin D per day would reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease or stroke in people who did not have a prior history of these diseases. (
  • For this reason, Dr. Pauling and others feel that our bodies need somewhere between 2,000 and 9,000 mg. of vitamin C daily. (
  • The vitamin D doses started at 2,000 international units (IU) per day and were increased to as high as 8,000 IU daily in some patients. (
  • Cobalamin, also known as B 12 , is a member of the water-soluble family of B vitamins. (
  • Vitamin B 12 (also referred to as cobalamin) deficiency is relatively common, with important and variable clinical consequences. (
  • We searched PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "vitamin B 12 deficiency" and "cobalamin deficiency", and hand selected the most relevant and appropriate articles. (
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is named the "red vitamin," as it is a red crystalline compound. (
  • Biotin is a B vitamin, also known as vitamin H or Vitamin B7. (
  • Small changes in diet and exercise, e.g. omega-3 oils, vitamin D, low starch, and maintaining muscle mass, can dramatically alter predisposition to disease and aging, and minimize the negative impact of genetic risks. (
  • how easy is it to get all the vitamins we need from our diet? (
  • Japan is an outlier in the north, with only a very mild outbreak and has the lowest incidence of Vitamin D deficiency thanks to its high fish-content diet. (
  • Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Western Human Nutrition Center at the University of California-Davis have a preliminary model that predicts an individual requirement of vitamin D based on diet, sun exposure and skin tone. (
  • Check the nutrition label to see how much vitamin C the product will contribute to your daily diet. (
  • Eggs, beans, nuts, and lean meats should be added to the diet in order to decrease the effects of vitamin A deficiency. (
  • People eating a standard Western diet receive about one-quarter to one-third of their dietary vitamin B2 from milk and other dairy products. (
  • Excluding fruits and vegetables from your diet can lead to vitamin C deficiency. (
  • These amounts seem a little high to me, given the basic food values of vitamin C. Some authorities feel we need 600-1,200 mg. daily based on extrapolations from the historical herbivore, early-human diet. (
  • Before vitamin B3 was introduced into the (mice) mother's diet, embryos were either lost through miscarriage or the offspring were born with a range of severe birth defects," the Victor Chang Institute said in a statement. (
  • The best way to consume this vitamin is through a healthy diet. (
  • By itself vitamin D is biologically inactive and must be converted to a hormonal form in a two-step process before it can function as the hormone 1,25-(OH)2 D3. (