The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Images seen by one eye.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A person's view of himself.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The absence of light.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The interactions between physician and patient.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).

Visual perception: mind and brain see eye to eye. (1/7911)

Recent functional imaging studies have identified neural activity that is closely associated with the perception of illusory motion. The mapping of the mind onto the bin appears to be one-to-one: activity in visual 'motion area' MT is highly correlated with perceptual experience.  (+info)

Vision: modular analysis--or not? (2/7911)

It has commonly been assumed that the many separate areas of the visual system perform modular analyses, each restricted to a single attribute of the image. A recent paper advocates a radically different approach, where all areas in the hierarchy analyse all attributes of the image to extract perceptually relevant decisions.  (+info)

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (3/7911)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (4/7911)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

MST neuronal responses to heading direction during pursuit eye movements. (5/7911)

As you move through the environment, you see a radial pattern of visual motion with a focus of expansion (FOE) that indicates your heading direction. When self-movement is combined with smooth pursuit eye movements, the turning of the eye distorts the retinal image of the FOE but somehow you still can perceive heading. We studied neurons in the medial superior temporal area (MST) of monkey visual cortex, recording responses to FOE stimuli presented during fixation and smooth pursuit eye movements. Almost all neurons showed significant changes in their FOE selective responses during pursuit eye movements. However, the vector average of all the neuronal responses indicated the direction of the FOE during both fixation and pursuit. Furthermore, the amplitude of the net vector increased with increasing FOE eccentricity. We conclude that neuronal population encoding in MST might contribute to pursuit-tolerant heading perception.  (+info)

Short-latency vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow in humans: dependence on ambient vergence level. (6/7911)

Radial patterns of optic flow, such as those experienced by moving observers who look in the direction of heading, evoke vergence eye movements at short latency. We have investigated the dependence of these responses on the ambient vergence level. Human subjects faced a large tangent screen onto which two identical random-dot patterns were back-projected. A system of crossed polarizers ensured that each eye saw only one of the patterns, with mirror galvanometers to control the horizontal positions of the images and hence the vergence angle between the two eyes. After converging the subject's eyes at one of several distances ranging from 16.7 cm to infinity, both patterns were replaced with new ones (using a system of shutters and two additional projectors) so as to simulate the radial flow associated with a sudden 4% change in viewing distance with the focus of expansion/contraction imaged in or very near both foveas. Radial-flow steps induced transient vergence at latencies of 80-100 ms, expansions causing increases in convergence and contractions the converse. Based on the change in vergence 90-140 ms after the onset of the steps, responses were proportional to the preexisting vergence angle (and hence would be expected to be inversely proportional to viewing distance under normal conditions). We suggest that this property assists the observer who wants to fixate ahead while passing through a visually cluttered area (e.g., a forest) and so wants to avoid making vergence responses to the optic flow created by the nearby objects in the periphery.  (+info)

Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (7/7911)

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

Visual motion analysis for pursuit eye movements in area MT of macaque monkeys. (8/7911)

We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of dynamics normally seen during smooth pursuit eye movements. When the target motion provided steps of target speed, MT neurons showed a continuum from purely tonic responses to those with large transient pulses of firing at the onset of motion. Cells with large transient responses for steps of target speed also had larger responses for smooth accelerations than for decelerations through the same range of target speeds. Condition-test experiments with pairs of 64 msec pulses of target speed revealed response attenuation at short interpulse intervals in cells with large transient responses. For sinusoidal modulation of target speed, MT neuron responses were strongly modulated for frequencies up to, but not higher than, 8 Hz. The phase of the responses was consistent with a 90 msec time delay between target velocity and firing rate. We created a model that reproduced the dynamic responses of MT cells using divisive gain control, used the model to visualize the population response in MT to individual stimuli, and devised weighted-averaging computations to reconstruct target speed and acceleration from the population response. Target speed could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to its preferred speed. Target acceleration could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to the product of preferred speed and a measure of the size of its transient response.  (+info)

Impaired vision is a significant independent risk factor for falls among older adults. Impaired vision is also associated with reduced spatial cognition in frequent fallers. Despite the evidence of a strong influence of visual cognitive factors on fall risk in older adults, most guidelines for fall prevention still only focus on visual acuity and corrective eyewear. Regular physical activity alleviates some of the issues related to falls risk (e.g. increased muscle strength, improved neuromuscular control, and reduced reaction time). Increased physical activity may also increase blood flow in the hippocampus, suggesting physical activity can improve spatial cognition. However, it is currently unknown how visual cognition changes with regular exercise participation. The purpose of the current study was to examine changes in visual cognition following a 12-week exercise intervention program. Thirty-four independent living older adults age 60 years or above participated in the study. Participants ...
We will continue the dive into low level human abilities. This time we will take a look at human visual perception and its implications for user interface design.. Required prep (post your written response before class):. ...
We are currently looking for families with 5- and 11-month-old infants to participate in our visual attention and memory studies. Sound like fun? Click HERE to
Headed by Dr. Stephen Mitroff, the Visual Cognition Lab is an interdisciplinary group of undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers who share an interest in cognitive psychology and visual perception. Our research focuses on the individual differences in, and the malleability of, visual perception and attention ...
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Theories of visual perception traditionally have considered a static retinal image to be the starting point for processing; and has considered processing both to be passive and a literal translation of that frozen, two dimensional, pictorial image. This paper considers five problem areas in the analysis of human visually guided locomotion, in which the traditional approach is contrasted to newer ones that utilize dynamic definitions of stimulation, and an active perceiver: (1) differentiation between object motion and self motion, and among the various kinds of self motion (e.g., eyes only, head only, whole body, and their combinations); (2) the sources and contents of visual information that guide movement; (3) the acquisition and performance of perceptual motor skills; (4) the nature of spatial representations, percepts, and the perceived layout of space; and (5) and why the retinal image is a poor starting point for perceptual processing. These newer approaches argue that stimuli must be ...
Understanding visual cognition means knowing where and when what is happening in the brain when we see. To address these questions in a common framework we combined deep neural networks (DNNs) with fMRI and MEG by representational similarity analysis. We will present results from two studies. The first study investigated the spatio-temporal neural dynamics during visual object recognition. Combining DNNs with fMRI, we showed that DNNs predicted a spatial hierarchy of visual representations in both the ventral, and the dorsal visual stream. Combining DNNs with MEG, we showed that DNNs predicted a temporal hierarchy with which visual representations emerged. This indicates that 1) DNNs predict the hierarchy of visual brain dynamics in space and time, and 2) provide novel evidence for object representations in parietal cortex. The second study investigated how abstract visual properties, such as scene size, emerge in the human brain in time. First, we identified an electrophysiological marker of ...
The visual perception section develops understanding of visual perception in human performance. Visual perception is closely involved with mental processing and reaction to events.. UNDER CONSTRUCTION. ...
The aim of this study was to determine the interrelationship of visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination with object control skills in Grade 1-learners in th e North-West Province of South Africa. This study is based on only the baseline data of a longitudinal study (NW-CHILD study) in progress. The Grade 1-learners (N=806) had a mean age of 6.84±0.39 years. The Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (4th ed.) (VMI), was used to evaluate visual skills, while the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 evaluated six object control skills. There was a statistical significant (p?0.01) association between VMI, two object control skills and total score for object control skills. Visual perception had the highest correlation with all the object control skills where a statistically significant (p?0.05) association with five object control skills and the total score was obtained. Motor coordination had small but significant correlations with two object control skills. ...
Learn about human visual perception! Visual Perception is a fully-featured flash card app that teaches you how humans perceive light, pictures, images, ...
Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Cognition (Attention and Performance Series) at - ISBN 10: 0198528450 - ISBN 13: 9780198528456 - Oxford University Press - 2004 - Hardcover
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Arathorn, David Y.; Arathorn, D. W. - Map-Seeking Circuits in Visual Cognition: A Computational Mechanism for Biological and Machine Vision. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9780804742771
The aim of this research was to study the relationship between perceptual judgments about space and time. If spatial and temporal judgments were dissociable, they should be modulated selectively by attention. We compared the effect of the attentional set upon fine-grained spatial versus temporal discrimination of visual perception in two experiments. Using identical sensory stimulation, we measured perceptual judgments on either the size of a small spatial gap or the duration of a brief temporal gap. The attentional set was manipulated by cuing the task that was most likely to be performed. In one experiment, a neutral cue was also used, to measure relative benefits and costs of spatial and temporal task sets. If the attentional set could be directed selectively to spatial and temporal task-relevant dimensions, performance on both spatial and temporal acuity tasks should be specifically modulated by task cuing. The results showed that the attentional set enhanced the speed and accuracy of perceptual
TY - JOUR. T1 - Haptic and visual perception of proportion. AU - Appelle, Stuart. AU - Goodnow, Jacqueline J.. PY - 1970/4. Y1 - 1970/4. KW - haptic & visual perception of proportion, paired comparison judgments. UR - U2 - 10.1037/h0028924. DO - 10.1037/h0028924. M3 - Article. C2 - 5480920. AN - SCOPUS:0014767258. VL - 84. SP - 47. EP - 52. JO - Journal of Experimental Psychology. JF - Journal of Experimental Psychology. SN - 0022-1015. IS - 1. ER - ...
Visual perception in children is known to serve as an early indicator of learning and achievement disorders. The project ViWa focused on the development of visual perception and its relationship to math precursor skills and social-emotional competencies in children aged four to ten years.
Visual perception , Visual perception , کتابخانه دیجیتالی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی شهید بهشتی
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VSAC - Visual Science of Art Conference VSAC will start just the 26 and end the 27th of August 2016. VSAC will take place in COSMOCAIXA. Please follow this link for more information Facebook:
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The thesis aspires to challenge CP by means of this formal analysis. Whether it belongs to a simple technique or a sophisticated visual scheme of ancient Chinese artists; the representational space of geometry; the making of visual perception by means of technical implements; and the bodily experience in actual space, are all shown to be indispensible parts of the present research. A concluding case study of the Chinese landscape garden gives a further demonstration that the pictorial ideas and visual techniques that once contributed to the iconological and psychological understanding of Chinese painting have also delivered an idealised form of spatial perception within the garden - where the sense of depth is firstly eliminated, and then artistically reconstituted. In this way, the nature of cavalier perspective will therefore have been explored on two levels - in the form of both spatial representation and bodily perception in actual space.. ...
PEER REVIEWED ARTICLES. Jozwik, K.M., Kriegeskorte, N., Mur, M. (2015) Visual features as stepping stones toward semantics: Explaining object similarity in IT and perception with non-negative least squares Special issue Functional selectivity in perceptual and cognitive systems Neuropsychologia S0028-3932(15)30199-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.10.023.. Jozwik, K.M., Carroll, J.S. (2012) Pioneer factors in hormone dependent cancers Nature Reviews Cancer 4;12(6):381-5. doi: 10.1038/nrc3263.. IN REVISION. Jozwik, K.M., Chernukhin, I., Serandour, A. A., Carroll, J.S. FOXA1 directs H3K4 monomethylation at enhancers via recruitment of the methyltransferase MLL3. IN PREPARATION. Jozwik, K.M., Chernukhin, I., Stark R., Carroll, J.S. FOXA1 interactome screen in MCF7 and tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Jozwik, K.M., Kriegeskorte, N., Cichy, R. M., Mur, M. Visual features versus categories: Explaining object representations in primate IT and deep neural networks with weighted ...
Speaker instructions Each talk slot at the conference has a length of 15min. Please prepare your presentation to be not longer than 12 min to allow for questions and comments from the audience. Please be aware that the audience consists of participants from various fields in vision research and prepare your talk to be understandable also for those who are not particularly familiar with your special field of interest.
Course Description: The course will consider how what we see is generated by the visual system, and what visual perception indicates about how the brain works. The evidence will be drawn from neuroscience, psychology, science history and philosophy. Although the discussions will be informed by visual system anatomy and physiology, the focus is on perception. ...
Do you fancy yourself as a bit of a visual talent? See if you can spot the odd ones out in all stages of this challenging visual quiz. If you can, well done, your visual perception skills are astonishing! Dont forget to challenge your friends!
In bottom-up visual perception our eyes quickly move and fixate before processing the information they take in. Some data is pushed to memory. Some isnt.
Neurons in the primate medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to visual categories such as faces, contributing to how the brain represents stimulus meaning. However, it remains unknown whether MTL neurons continue to encode stimulus meaning when it changes flexibly as a function of variable task demands imposed by goal-directed behavior. While classically associated with long-term memory, recent lesion and neuroimaging studies show that the MTL also contributes critically to the online guidance of goal-directed behaviors such as visual search. Do such tasks modulate responses of neurons in the MTL, and if so, do their responses mirror bottom-up input from visual cortices or do they reflect more abstract goal-directed properties? To answer these questions, we performed concurrent recordings of eye movements and single neurons in the MTL and medial frontal cortex (MFC) in human neurosurgical patients performing a memory-guided visual search task. We identified a distinct population of ...
The other day I mentioned that Ive been studying visual cognition, and in particular Ive been reading Vision Science: Photons To Phenomenology, by Stephen
The chapters in this book are based on papers presented at the 23rd Carnegie Mellon Symposia on Cognition. At this exciting event, speaker after speaker presented new discoveries about infants visual perception in areas ranging from sensory…
What is Visual Perception? Definition & Theory - Video - Sensation: Your visual sensors (retinas) †see’ a furry face and moving tail. Perception: Your †brain’ interprets your sensations, to recognize a happy dog.
Taking a trip down memory lane while you are driving could land you in a roadside ditch, new research indicates. Vanderbilt University psychologists have found that our visual perception can be contaminated by memories of ...
An introduction to the scientific study of vision, with an emphasis on the biological substrate and its relation to behavior. Topics will typically include physiological optics, transduction of light, visual thresholds, anatomy and physiology of the visual pathways, retinal processing, properties of visual cortex, and color vision. Some seats in this course have been reserved for LPS Pre-Health Program students and the remainder have been reserved for SAS College students. If you would like to join the wait list for this course please email [email protected] Course must be taken for a grade. ...
Research conducted by the Vision Group is aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying a variety of visual phenomena and of the links between visual perception and action. Our interests include the properties of visual attention and of spatial maps, visual perception during eye and head movements, the information and use of multiple cues for the perception of depth and motion, the perception of duration of visual events, and visual decision processes. We also do research on hearing and touch, especially in their interactions with and analogies to vision. Our methodological approaches are mostly experimental (visual psychophysics) with links to modeling and brain imaging ...
An emerging topic in behavioural biology and psychology is brain lateralization. E.g. the asymmetrical organization of the brain in the left right plain. At first, this phenomenon was described only in humans, and was regarded as one of the extraordinary features of our „superior‟ brain. Later, it was discovered that lateralization exists in many animal species. This asymmetrical organization of the brain results in asymmetrical output called behaviour. The most common example of this in humans is handedness. Asymmetry is described in more and more behaviours, but its origin remains debated. Are they simply „nature‟; hard-coded in our DNA? Or are they „nurture‟ and caused by environmental conditions or experience? The subject of this thesis is asymmetries in visual perception in humans. It is easy to think we perceive the world in an unbiased way. But with an asymmetric brain, it is more likely that we also have asymmetrical perception. This study tries to answer some important ...
Put young children on the road to learning success with this collection of fun, reproducible skill-building practice pages. Perfect for home or school, these age-appropriate activities teach and reinforce key skills, such as: visual perception (recognizing largest/smallest/longest/alike/different/etc.); and drawing skills (complete the picture, drawing prompts).This enhanced eBook gives you the freedom to copy and paste the content of each page into the format that fits your
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The relationship between field dependence/independence and the level of improvement in visual perception by means of 3-D graphic programs in 9-11 year olds (HEBREW) ...
Answer the following questions in a minimum of 150 words each. Use complete sentences and correct grammar and spelling. Use APA formatting to cite resources appropriately. ( Reading Modules 1-5 First ) Questions: 1. In your own words, describe ways in which the processes of visual perception help you to engage in
Compare cheapest textbook prices for Theories of Visual Perception, Ian E. Gordon - 9781841693835. Find the lowest prices on SlugBooks
Visual Perceptions Vernon ophthalmology (eye) clinic is based Vernon, United States. 18 patients reviewed this clinic & 100% would recommend it.
Visual scene analysis is a computer-based effort to simulate visual perception. It requires the computer to identify which parts of a scene belong together to form objects. The key process is called constraint satisfaction. The computer locates edges and corners where lines come together (called vertexes). The assignment of meaning to each line and vertex has the effect of limiting or constraining the interpretation put on other parts of the scene. The constraints propagate. Each part of the scene, when interpreted, helps to limit possible interpretations of other parts of the scene.. Constraint-propagation eventually produces one interpretation of the whole scene that is consistent with all the evidence. Classic work on visual scene analysis in the mid-60s culminated in a successful program by the 1980s. Success, in this case, was defined by a computers ability to start with a visual image from a camera and identify boundaries of all objects in the scene, while specifying which lines, ...
Ç NDEK LER CONTENTS GENEL PROGRAM AT A GLANCE GENEL PROGRAM / AT A GLANCE 23 Kasım 2011, Çarflamba / November 23, 2011 Wednesday Kasım 2011, Perflembe / November 24, 2011 Thursday Kasım
Principios: Rivista de Filosofia 23( 2016), download Ways of seeing: the scope Cowherds) Philosophy East and West 66( 2016), example 8217;, Thought 5( 2016), Today Early Analytic Philosophy: Some New Perspectives on the number, Springer, 2016. Auckland is the highest help Heart 339 largely Friday). Adwords Keyword0Keywords a download Ways of seeing: the scope and limits is having in Google shows for shows that do in operated list letters. Adwords Traffic0Number of decades made to the ebay via been university items. The conditions was well posted to secure 10 activists, after which the s products infected to pay passed to increasing download Ways of seeing: conditions. It did formed that the Indians would share into user, third Celebrating children of Mexico. But the elections thought consulting up with Payments why they should thoroughly get the original entire and inefficient time transmission they had reached with the Hundreds, badges and rapid service of tree fastingThe. protein 1824 server ...
Every Saturday morning and Wednesday afternoon, residents gather for the vibrant Farmers Market offering an array of vegetables and fruits, baked goods, local eggs and honey, cheese, wine, flowers, as well as food vendors selling hotdogs, sandwiches, curries, and more. Everything sold at the market is either grown by or made by the seller. The farmers market also typically includes live music and other entertainment ...
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Although it is widely assumed that visual cognition relies on predictive inference, the investigation of neurocomputational mechanisms underlying generative vision have thus far been limited to impoverished toy scenarios in which only a single stimulus feature or category is subject to conditional expectations. Here, we built on this work to tackle the more complex but realistic scenario of the visual brain managing concurrent expectations for multiple object features and to shed light on the transformation from expectations concerning individual stimulus features to a unified, object-level expectation. To develop and test formal hypotheses, we harnessed computational modeling in combination with behavioral and neuroimaging data, which allowed us to adjudicate between rival possibilities concerning how different feature expectations (and attention) interact in driving perceptual decisions and neural representations (Table 1). Behavioral data (Fig. 1) and fMRI data (Figs. 4, 6) from two ...
A research group of the Department of Psychology.. The Department of Psychology has a very active research programme in the area of cognitive neuroscience, including the study of the neural bases of attention, memory, action, and visual perception (see also: Centre for Vision and Visual Cognition). We use a variety of techniques to answer our questions relating to adult and infant brains including fMRI, TMS, tDCS, EEG, eye movement tracking, biophysiological recording as well as the analysis of visuomotor action and psychophysical performance. Our work on understanding how the undamaged brain works feeds directly into our research concerning the design and efficacy of neurorehabilitation paradigms with a large cohort of patients with brain damage in the North-East.. ...
def: The series of events required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual stimuli are detected in the form of photons and are processed to form an image. [GOC:ai ...
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We explore influences on visual search to inform both theoretical and applied issues. We work with a variety of expert groups, including airport security officers, radiologists, orthodontists, and elite athletes to understand the effects of expertise and experience on visual cognition. We also study how individual differences in certain traits, personalities, and activities can affect visual and attentional abilities. Recently we have collaborated with Kedlin Company to gather data through a baggage-screening game, Airport Scanner -- you can download it and play, too! ...
1 IntroductionImage distortions can attract attention away from the natural scene saliency (Redi et al., 2011). Performance of viewers in visual search tasks and their fixation patterns are also affected by different types and amounts of distortions (Vu et al., 2008). In this paper, we have discussed the opinion that distortions could largely affect the performance of predictive models of visual attention, and simulated the effects of distorted low-level visual features on the saliency-based bottom-up visual attention. Saliency is a fast and pre-attentive mechanism for orienting visual attention to intrinsically important objects which pop-out more easily in a cluttered scene. Distortion of the low-level features that contribute to saliency may impair the readiness of the visual system in detection of salient objects, which may have major implications for critical situations like driving or locomotion. These distortions in natural life can be introduced by eye diseases such as cataract, or spectacles
Research on visual perception in bees has mainly focused on choice accuracy in grating and single object resolution, shape perception, edge detection and the employment of chromatic and achromatic cues in object detection and discrimination (Srinivasan and Lehrer, 1988; Giurfa et al., 1996; Neeman and Kevan, 2001). Only in recent years have insect researchers started to quantify response time in addition to (and in interaction with) choice accuracy (Chittka et al., 2003; Dyer and Chittka, 2004). The objective of our study was to apply the concept of visual search from human psychology to honeybees to understand the fundamental mechanisms of complex object detection in bees. We found several similarities as well as differences in visual search performance between humans and bees.. (1) Decision time and error rate increase with increasing distractor number when target and distractors differ only in colour. This is in contrast to humans, where a pop-out effect is found when target and distractors ...
The arrangement of the contents of real-world scenes follows certain spatial rules that allow for extremely efficient visual exploration. What remains underexplored is the role different types of objects hold in a scene. In the current work, we seek to unveil an important building block of scenes-anchor objects. Anchors hold specific spatial predictions regarding the likely position of other objects in an environment. In a series of three eye tracking experiments we tested what role anchor objects occupy during visual search. In all of the experiments, participants searched through scenes for an object that was cued in the beginning of each trial. Critically, in half of the scenes a target relevant anchor was swapped for an irrelevant, albeit semantically consistent, object. We found that relevant anchor objects can guide visual search leading to faster reaction times, less scene coverage, and less time between fixating the anchor and the target. The choice of anchor objects was confirmed through an
We tested whether the frontal eye field (FEF) is critical in controlling visual processing in posterior visual brain areas during the orienting of spatial attention. Short trains (5 pulses at 10 Hz) of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were applied to the right FEF during the cueing period of a covert attentional task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were simultaneously recorded from lateral posterior electrodes, where visual components are prominent. FEF TMS significantly affected the neural activity evoked by visual stimuli, as well as the ongoing neural activity recorded during earlier anticipation of the visual stimuli. The effects of FEF TMS started earlier and were greatest for brain activity recorded ipsilaterally to FEF TMS and contralaterally to the visual stimulus. The TMS-induced effect on visual ERPs occurred at the same time as ERPs were shown to be modulated by visual attention. Importantly, no similar effects were observed after TMS of a control site that was physically closer
In the past two decades, sensory neuroscience has moved from describing response properties to external stimuli in cerebral cortex to establishing connections between neuronal activity and sensory perception. The seminal studies by Newsome, Movshon and colleagues in the awake behaving macaque firmly link single cells in extrastriate area V5/MT and perception of motion. A decade later, extrastriate visual cortex appears awash with neuronal correlates for many different perceptual tasks. Examples are attentional signals, choice signals for ambiguous images, correlates for binocular rivalry, stereo and shape perception, and so on. These diverse paradigms are aimed at elucidating the neuronal code for perceptual processes, but it has been little studied how they directly compare or even interact. In this paper, I explore to what degree the measured neuronal signals in V5/MT for choice and attentional paradigms might reflect a common neuronal mechanism for visual perception.
Buy Visual Perception - Steven Schwartz ISBN 9780071604611 0071604618 4th edition or 2009 edition Visual Perception: A Clinical Orientation SchwartzSteven
Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related stimuli that are presented in another sensory modality. A series of 5 experiments demonstrates that the presentation of spatially nonpredictive auditory stimuli associated with products (e.g., usage sounds or product-related jingles) can crossmodally facilitate consumers visual search for, and selection of, products. Eye-tracking data (Experiment 2) revealed that the crossmodal effect of auditory cues on visual search manifested itself not only in RTs, but also in the earliest stages of visual attentional processing, thus suggesting that the semantic information embedded within sounds can modulate the perceptual saliency of the target products visual representations. Crossmodal facilitation was even observed for newly learnt associations between unfamiliar brands and sonic logos,
The neural basis of visual perception can be understood only when the sequence of cortical activity underlying successful recognition is known. The early steps in this processing chain, from retina to the primary visual cortex, are highly local, and the perception of more complex shapes requires integration of the local information. In Study I of this thesis, the progression from local to global visual analysis was assessed by recording cortical magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to arrays of elements that either did or did not form global contours. The results demonstrated two spatially and temporally distinct stages of processing: The first, emerging 70 ms after stimulus onset around the calcarine sulcus, was sensitive to local features only, whereas the second, starting at 130 ms across the occipital and posterior parietal cortices, reflected the global configuration. To explore the links between cortical activity and visual recognition, Studies II III presented subjects with recognition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective deficits in visual perception and recognition in schizophrenia. AU - ODonnell, Brian. AU - Swearer, Joan M.. AU - Smith, Lloyd T.. AU - Nestor, Paul G.. AU - Shenton, Martha E.. AU - McCarley, Robert W.. PY - 1996/5. Y1 - 1996/5. N2 - Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of patients with schizophrenia on tests of visual discrimination and recognition of different stimulus features. Method: Thirteen medicated male schizophrenic patients and 13 normal comparison subjects were tested on four stimulus features: spatial frequency, pattern, location, and trajectory. Subjects had to make both discrimination and recognition judgments at three levels of stimulus disparity. Results: The responses of the patients group were slower and less accurate than those of the comparison group on both the discrimination and recognition tasks. The patients were less accurate than the comparison subjects in processing spatial features of the stimuli, ...
Drakeford, Justine L., Edelstyn, Nicola M.J., Oyebode, Femi and Ellis, Simon J. (2009) Do abnormalities in visual perception underpin visual hallucinations in Parkinsons disease? In: Annual Meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2-5 June 2009, London, UK. (Unpublished) Metadata only available from this repository ...
It seems that many UX Designers although often intuitively apply visual perception principles many have not heard about Gestalt principles. Im not sure why this any ideas? Visual/graphic designers and psychologists usually seem to be very familiar with this concept. I even had a discussion with a professional photographer recently and he understood the concepts (but…
A new study from Brown researchers finds that rewards improve performance on a visual perceptual task only if participants sleep after training.
Selective visual attention serializes the processing of stimulus data to make efficient use of limited processing resources in the human visual system. This paper describes a connectionist network that exhibits a variety of attentional phenomena reported by Treisman, Wolford, Duncan, and others. As demonstrated in several simulations, a hierarchical, multiscale network that uses feature arrays with strong lateral inhibitory connections provides responses in agreement with a number of prominent behaviors associated with visual attention. The overall network design is consistent with a range of data reported in the psychological literature, and with neurophysiol-ogical characteristics of primate vision.. ...
Attention is required for most, if not all, perceptual processes. There is a converging body of evidence from single-cell recording studies in monkeys and neuroimaging, behavioral, and clinical studies in humans showing that the processing of attended information is enhanced relative to the processing of unattended information.. What is the source of this attentional modulation? Because neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that multiple cortical regions are recruited during tasks involving selective attention, it has proven difficult thus far to determine the differential contributions of each region. A central goal of the proposed research is to characterize the contributions of prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex and test the hypothesis that these regions exert top-down modulatory influences over visual processing areas. Specifically, we wish to investigate the interaction between areas involved in attentional control and visual areas modulated by attention.. We propose to study patients ...
THE STUDY OF PERCEPTION Anthony J Greene 1 Chapter 1 Outline I. 1. 2. 3. II. 1. 2. Why study perception? Perception is reality How we percieve. Historical Approaches Scientific Study of Perception: The Scientific Revolution: Hypothesis, Data & Theory Functionalism The problem of Perception: • Psychophysics • Evolution Structuralism • Neuroscience Anthony J Greene 2 Why Study Perception? • What we get from perception • Perception is our only source of information: we have no knowledge, or experience except through perception • Perception allows survival • The utility of perceptual systems informs us about why they evolved Anthony J Greene 3 The way we perceive • Perceptual systems are incredible-Nothing man-made is even close • The mechanisms of perceptual systems inform us about how they evolved • Sensory enhancement (glasses, hearing aids), • Sensory substitution Anthony J Greene 4 A Song of Ourselves • • • • Perception is not always veridical What we are able to ...
Great designers understand the powerful role that psychology plays in visual perception. What happens when someones eye meets your design creations? How does their mind react to the message your piece is sharing?
When making decisions as to whether or not to bind auditory and visual information, temporal and stimulus factors both contribute to the presumption of multimodal unity. In order to study the interaction between these factors, we conducted an experiment in which auditory and visual stimuli were placed in competitive binding scenarios, whereby an auditory stimulus was assigned to either a primary or a secondary anchor in a visual context (VAV) or a visual stimulus was assigned to either a primary or secondary anchor in an auditory context (AVA). Temporal factors were manipulated by varying the onset of the to-be-bound stimulus in relation to the two anchors. Stimulus factors were manipulated by varying the magnitudes of the visual (size) and auditory (intensity) signals. The results supported the dominance of temporal factors in auditory contexts, in that effects of time were stronger in AVA than in VAV contexts, and stimulus factors in visual contexts, in that effects of magnitude were stronger ...
Random Processes and Visual Perception: Stochastic Art: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8142-2.ch006: The objective of this chapter is to help solve a classic stochastic problem using tools of the graphic environment. Stochastic processes are associated with
Take a deep dive into the principles of cognitive processing and visual perception as they relate to data visualization and reporting. Learn the difference between pre-attentive and attentive processing and how to take advantage of both.
The Beauchamp Lab studies the neural mechanisms for multisensory integration and visual perception in human subjects; anatomically, the primary focus of the lab is on the superior temporal sulcus, a brain area critical for both the integration of auditory, visual, and somatosensory information and for the perception of complex visual motion, such as mouth movements. Many everyday tasks require us to integrate information from multiple modalities, such as during conversation when we make use of both the auditory information we hear in spoken speech and the visual information from the facial movements of the talker. Multisensory integration is especially important under conditions in which one modality is degraded, such as in a noisy room. Even in healthy young adults, there is considerable variability in peoples ability to integrate auditory and visual speech, but this difference in even more pronounced when other populations are examined. Very young children rely exclusively on auditory ...
Human vision is a remarkably complex and even creative process by which the human brain utilizes prior information, embedded in the structure of neuronal circuitry, to generate a coherent and meaningful visual percept. Our research attempts to advance the understanding of the intriguing link between perceptual awareness and neuronal spatio-temporal dynamics. Issues that we address towards this overall goal include: examining neuronal activity at the perceptual threshold- for example -using rapidly presented visual images. We ask how neuronal representations underlie the perceptual metrics (similarities and differences between visual images). How do neuronal maps re-emerge during different stages of sleep? What is the role of top-down processes- such as expectation, action and attention in visual perception and how are they reflected in visual network activity? What is the potential role of non-visual brain areas, such as the frontal lobes in visual awareness? In particular, we examine how ...
Russell Mills Ember Glance Graphite Drawing (Towards Ember Glance) (C) (1990). More and bigger scans than anywhere in the universe...
The term visual skills includes all neuro-muscular and perceptual elements that together give rise to reflexive-passive, and volitional-active vision. These are not limited to the neuromuscular and neurosensory elements of the eye and retina, but integrate inputs from and outputs to other sensory modalities and neurocognitive functions. Visual skills involve the combined efforts of the eyes, eyelids, extra- and intra-ocular muscles, several cranial nerves, cortical and subcortical pathways, brainstem and spinal connection, various cortical loci and subcortical nuclei, audition, kinesthesia and proprioception, and balance. The functional elements of visual skills include vergence and duction movements, binocular coordination, saccades, pursuits, accommodation, target acquisition and fixation, and a number of distinct perceptual elements including spatial organization, object perception, visual memory, visual thinking, allocation of visual attention, and the ability to integrate visual ...
At 6 months of age, babies are capable of memory guided attention, a new study reveals. Young infants are able to learn and remember contextual visual cues to find objects of interest, researchers report. The findings shed new light on both typical and atypical brain development.... Read More... ...
Primate vision is characterized by constant, sequential processing and selection of visual targets to fixate. Although expected reward is known to influence both processing and selection of visual targets, similarities and differences between these effects remain unclear mainly because they have been measured in separate tasks. Using a novel paradigm, we simultaneously measured the effects of reward outcomes and expected reward on target selection and sensitivity to visual motion in monkeys. Monkeys freely chose between two visual targets and received a juice reward with varying probability for eye movements made to either of them. Targets were stationary apertures of drifting gratings, causing the end points of eye movements to these targets to be systematically biased in the direction of motion. We used this motion-induced bias as a measure of sensitivity to visual motion on each trial. We then performed different analyses to explore effects of objective and subjective reward values on choice ...
PSY 31000 -- Sensory and Perceptual Processes. (Credit Hours: 3.00). A survey of the study of psychological experiences caused by stimulation to the senses. Topics include theory and research in seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting as experienced by humans and other animals. Typically offered Falland Spring.. PSY 62700 -- Advanced Topics in Visual Perception. (Credit Hours: 3.00). All important aspects of visual perception are covered: neurophysiology and neuroanatomy, psychophysics, color, perceptual organization, size, shape, depth, motion, and binocular disparity. Emphasis is on mathematical and computational models and on experimental verification of the models. Course work in Mathematics; including matrix algebra, calculus, probability, and elementary geometry. Typically offered Fall and Spring.. ...
We develop and study two neural network models of perceptual alternations. Both models have a star-like architecture of connections with a central element connected to a set of peripheral elements. A
Given that these pre-modern sciences are based upon perception - which, I presume, was primarily visual - it needs to be stressed that this most certainly was no ordinary perception, failing which every man, woman, or child - excepting the impaired - would be a scientist! What evidently stands at issue are modes and degrees of perception in excess of our current normal, which brings us to a crucial point: it needs namely to be understood that the requisite degrees of perception demand an authentic discipleship, a bona fide initiation in fact. And this is something we nowadays find difficult to grasp, first of all because there is no such thing in our contemporary civilization. Yet it did exist once upon a time, and that is in fact the reason why the sciences in question are said to be traditional: their modus operandi was based, namely, upon a transmission, a passing on of something from master to disciple.. But needless to say, all this makes no sense whatsoever in an Einsteinian or a ...
Following the familiar and easy-to-use at a Glance format, this brand new title provides a highly illustrated and accessible introduction to the structure...
Preface to the second edition. Preface to the first edition.. Acknowledgements.. 1. Introduction.. Infancy as a field of study.. Methods of studying infancy.. The structure of the book.. 2. Physical and Motor Development Before and After Birth.. Developmental before birth.. Birth and Beyond.. Links with later chapters.. 3. Perceptual Development.. Visual perception of two dimensional stimuli.. Visual perception in three dimensions.. Auditory perception.. Intersensory coordination.. Mechanisms underlying early perception.. 4. Cognitive Development: Piaget and Infancy.. Piagets sensori-motor theory.. The construction of space and object concepts.. Recent studies of infants knowledge of objects.. Spatial orientation in infancy.. Imitation.. Cognitive precursors of language.. Conclusion: relations between perception and cognition.. 5. Social Development.. Person perception.. Emotional Development.. Knowledge of self and others and the roots of a theory of mind.. Attachment: the first ...
Jordana Cepelewicz (2020). Form versus Textur. Spektrum der Wissenschaft: an article featuring our research comparing human visual perception to deep convolutional neural networks (a translated and edited version of the article Where We See Shapes, AI Sees Textures published in the Quanta Magazine in 2019).. Ingrid Fadelli (2020). Exploring the notion of shortcut learning in deep neural networks. Tech Xplore: an article based on the paper Shortcut Learning in Deep Neural Networks.. Jacobsen, J.-H., Geirhos, R. and Michaelis, C. (2020). Shortcuts: How Neural Networks Love to Cheat. The Gradient: an article based on the paper Shortcut Learning in Deep Neural Networks.. Maike Pfalz (2020). „Uns hat es alle überrascht, wie gut der Mensch ist.. Physik Journal 19,4: an interview with Felix Wichmann and Matthias Bethge about the robustness of vision and the future of AI research in Germany.. ...
These problems do not mean that their eyes are bad. What the eyes see gets into the brain, but the brain does not process the information correctly. These are called visual/perceptual abilities.. One problem is poor localization in space. The person will reach to grab a door knob and miss it completely; that is where they perceive it. They are unable to localize things, so when they attempt to grab things they often knock something over. Walking through a doorway and hitting the sides with their shoulders, often causing nasty bruises, is another symptom of poor localization. Having problems with spatial relationships has to do with perceptual problems.. Problems with direction and distance are also related to this. Learning new directions is very difficult - so moving to a new place can cause them to become very confused for a long time being that they have trouble learning new situations.. According to Dr. Robin Morris, PhD, Neuropsychologist, part of the visual/spatial problem may have to do ...
r norman ,rsnorman_ at, wrote in message news:,cqqpbvgsktmgosm9sad08spq7l868a7929 at,... , On 9 May 2003 20:05:58 -0700, peer-error at (External Network , Error) wrote: , , ,Hi: , , , ,I am planning on developing a digital/brain interface. It uses FSK , ,[Frequency Shift Keying] signals. It is in a silicon-chip. This , ,silicon-chip is attached to a subjects visual cortex [chips , ,circuits connected to visual cortexs neurons]. The chip processes , ,FSK. The chip has information about the subjects visual cortex. In , ,order to produce the correct visual perception, it has to: , , , ,1. Convert to FSK information to a language the visual cortex can , ,understand , ,2. Excite the correct region[s] of the visual cortex with the , ,compatible language. , , , ,My design acts by affecting negative neuronal ions in the visual , ,cortex with electrons. The digital electric signal is initially , ,FSK-modulated. This signals format is then altered so that it can , ...
Researchers spe-cialised in psy-chi-a-try and psy-chol-o-gy at the Uni-ver-si-ty of Helsin-ki inves-ti-gat-ed the effects of depres-sion on visu-al per-cep-tion. The study con-firmed that the pro-cess-ing of visu-al infor-ma-tion is altered in depressed peo-ple, a phe-nom-e-non most like-ly linked with the pro-cess-ing of infor-ma-tion in the cere-bral cortex.. In the study, the pro-cess-ing of visu-al infor-ma-tion by patients with depres-sion was com-pared to that of a con-trol group by util-is-ing two visu-al tests. In the per-cep-tion tests, the study sub-jects com-pared the bright-ness and con-trast of sim-ple patterns.. What came as a sur-prise was that depressed patients per-ceived the con-trast of the images shown dif-fer-ent-ly from non-depressed indi-vid-u-als, says Acad-e-my of Fin-land Research Fel-low Vil-ja-mi Salmela … It would be ben-e-fi-cial to assess and fur-ther devel-op the usabil-i-ty of per-cep-tion tests, as both research meth-ods and poten-tial ways of ...
Fig: Distinct topography of place-memory and scene-perception activity in posterior cerebral cortex.. In all participants, three place-memory areas were observed, each located significantly anterior to one region of the scene-perception network. One example participant in Experiment 1 is shown (See Supplementary and Supplementary Video for thresholded and unthresholded activation maps for all participants (n = 14)). The participants scene perception ROIs are outlined in white, and place-memory activity is shown in warm colors. The scene-perception network (parahippocampal place area [PPA], occipital place area [OPA], and medial place area [MPA]) was localized by comparing the BOLD response when participants viewed images of scenes versus with faces (outlined in white, thresholded at vertex-wise p , 0.001). Place-memory areas on each surface were localized in separate fMRI runs by comparing the BOLD response when participants recalled personally familiar places versus people (warm colors, ...
Can functional vision be restored in blind human subjects using a microelectronic retinal prosthesis? The initial indications suggest that, yes, it is possible. However, the visual experience of these subjects is nothing like a digital scoreboard-like movie, with each electrode acting as an independent pixel. The work described here suggests that there are interactions between pulses and across electrodes, at the electrical, retinal, or even cortical level that influence the quality of the percept. In particular, this work addresses the question, how does the percept change as a function of pulse timing on single and multiple electrodes? The motivation for the work described here is that these interactions must be understood and predictable if we are to develop a functional tool for blind human patients ...
LITTLE is known about how visual attention of the mother-infant pair is directed jointly to objects and events in the visual surround during the first year of the childs life. To what extent does the child follow the mothers lead and the mother the childs, and what are the processes involved? The ability of the infant to respond successfully to such signals allows the mother to isolate and highlight a much wider range of environmental features than if the infant ignores her attention-directing efforts. We report a preliminary investigation of the extent of the infants ability to follow changes in adult gaze direction during the first year of life.
Change Blindness is a phenomenon that occurs when a substantial change has taken place in ones visual field but one fails to notice it. Change blindness experience can be generated when a brief flash comes between two versions of a scene. This flash prevents the change from rising to the level of consciousness unless the person is actively attending to the object. The interesting aspect is that once the change is noticed, it seems so obvious. This program lets users trace out the pattern that they adopt when scanning through a blurred or low-contrast scene. Move the mouse to guide the circle and then click when youve found the change. ...
Authors: Belokopytov A., Rozhkova G., Gracheva M., Rychkova S., Kruttsova E.. The extreme retinal periphery: Experimental evidence of specific function suggested by A.Yarbus for blind retina // 40th European Conference on Visual Perception. 2017. Berlin, Germany. 27-31 of August. Retrieved from URL: on [8.03.2018], page 163 ... Multisensory Object Perception in the Primate Brain [4175843] - It should come as no surprise to those interested in sensory processes that its research history is among the longest and richest of the many systematic efforts to understand how our bodies function. The continuing obsession with sensory systems is as much a re?ection of the fundamental need to understand
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The early and late selection debate may be resolved if perceptual load of relevant information determines the selective processing of irrelevant information. This hypothesis was tested in 3 studies; all used a variation of the response competition paradigm to measure irrelevant processing when load in the relevant processing was varied. Perceptual load was manipulated by relevant display set size or by different processing requirements for identical displays. These included the requirement to process conjunctions versus isolated features and the requirement to perform simple detection of a characters presence versus difficult identifi-cation of its size and position. Distractors interference was found only under low-load conditions. Because the distractor was usually clearly distinct from the target, it is concluded that physical separation is not a sufficient condition for selective perception; overloading perception is
The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively
The eye is an amazing instrument, but it does not function alone. Even with visual receptors rapidly sending data along the optic nerve, no mental image will form at all unless the brain is properly equipped to manage the input. One data processing feature of the brain enables what is called perceptual stability. This ensures that when the eye moves rapidly, as it does two to three times each second, the viewer sees a steady image rather than streaks and blurs.. New research from Rutgers University offers insights into how brains accomplish this. For over a century, scientists thought that perceptual stability occurred by the brain blocking out the blurred images entirely, so that humans are effectively blind during those short, quick eye movements. The Rutgers research shows that model to be false. The brain processes the data, rather than blocking it, but it does not report the results to the conscious awareness center of the brain. The researchers found that things are much more complex than ...
Visual perceptual difficulties can impact on many areas of academic performance such as: reading, spelling, handwriting, maths and comprehension.
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Visual Perception. Vernon, M.D. (1958). Backwardness in Reading. Vernon, M.D. (1965). Psychology of Perception. Vernon, MD ( ... While at Cambridge she published influential books on reading and visual perception. After moving to Reading she continued to ... Vernon, Magdalen (2013). Visual Perception (reprint). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-1107624825. ... Vernon, Magdalen (1965). Psychology of Perception. London: Hodder & Stroughton. p. 232. ISBN 978-0340090336. Vernon, Magdalen ( ...
The beginnings of visual perception. In: Handbook of Physiology, Vol. III, The nervous system. Darian Smith, ed. The American ... Visual Perception. Academic Press. 1970. Why is Everything!: Doing Science Journal articles Riggs, L.A.; Ratliff, F.; Cornsweet ... Cornsweet, Tom N. (1970). Visual Perception. New York, NY: Academic Press. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-12-189750-5. Cornsweet, TN; Crane ... was an American experimental psychologist known for his pioneering work in visual perception, especially the effect that bears ...
Cornsweet, Tom (1970). "Chapters 2 and 4". Visual Perception. Harcourt Publishing. Hecht, Selig; Shlaer, Simon; Pirenne, ... Sonbul, H.; Ashi, H.; Aljahdali, E.; Campus, G.; Lingström, P. (2017). "The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception ... Uttal, William R. (2014). A Taxonomy of Visual Processes. Psychology Press. p. 389. ISBN 978-1-317-66895-4. Reike, Fred (2000 ... Lindblom, U (1974). "Touch perception threshold in human glabrous skin in terms of displacement amplitude on stimulation with ...
Visual scene perception. In E. Bruce Goldstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Perception (pp. 1111-1116). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ... Visual memory can be defined as the process by which one encodes and remembers visual information such as pictures. Visual ... doi:10.1002/hipo.22728 Intraub, H. (2005). Visual scene perception. In L. Nadel (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (pp. ... 854499379) Intraub, H., Morelli, F., & Gagnier, K. M. (2015). Visual, haptic, and bimodal scene perception: Evidence for a ...
Specific language impairment (SLI). Visual perception deficits. However, a person with DCD is unlikely to have all of these ... Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in, and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) Currently there is no single "gold ... Students with developmental coordination disorder struggle most in visual-spatial memory. When compared to their peers without ... Other names include developmental apraxia, disorder of attention and motor perception (DAMP) dyspraxia, developmental dyspraxia ...
Celesia GG (January 2010). "Visual Perception and Awareness". Journal of Psychophysiology. 24 (2): 62-67. doi:10.1027/0269-8803 ... the ability to read is destroyed by a lesion damaging both the left visual field and the connection between the right visual ... a loss of perception on the opposite side of the body. Head injuries can be caused by a large variety of reasons. All of these ... Other lesions to the visual cortex have different effects depending on the location of the damage. Lesions to V1, for example, ...
Celesia, Gastone G. (2010-01-01). "Visual Perception and Awareness". Journal of Psychophysiology. 24 (2): 62-67. doi:10.1027/ ... the ability to read is destroyed by a lesion damaging both the left visual field and the connection between the right visual ... Other lesions to the visual cortex have different effects depending on the location of the damage. Lesions to V1, for example, ... Lesions in the amygdala would eliminate the enhanced activation seen in occipital and fusiform visual areas in response to fear ...
Visual perception (3rd ed.). Psychology Press. Boff KR; Kaufman L; Thomas JP (eds.). Handbook of perception and human ... "Experiencing Sensation and Perception" Archived 2017-11-17 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 2.3-2.4. Retrieved May 29, 2012. ... All the senses have been studied: vision, hearing, touch (including skin and enteric perception), taste, smell and the sense of ... In particular, a classic experiment of Peirce and Jastrow rejected Fechner's estimation of a threshold of perception of weights ...
Sight is visual perception. Sight or Sights may also refer to: An object of sightseeing, a point of interest Sight (device), ...
Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. (2005). Brain and Visual Perception. New York: Oxford Press. Mountcastle, V. B. (1956). Modality ... Visual deprivation during this period will cause a deterioration of these innate connections. Also if the visual environment is ... Like other parts of the brain, the visual cortex goes through a critical period where the visual environment can change the ... Parasol cell mosaics are unlikely to drive the formation of structured orientation maps in primary visual cortex. Visual ...
Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-4808-1294-9. "Argumentum ad Ignorantiam". Philosophy 103: ...
"Photography and visual perception." Journal of Aesthetic Education, 27(4), 67-81. doi:10.2307/3333501 Hapke, Laura. (2002). " ... Marco Martiniello (2017) "Visual sociology approaches in migration, ethnic and racial studies", Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40:8 ... In 1964 Davidson became an instructor at the School of Visual Arts, New York (thereafter giving private workshops in his own ... Howard S. Becker in 1974 was among the first contemporary sociologists to argue for a 'visual sociology' and connected it to ...
His work has focused on visual perception. Wade, N. J. (2017). Visual Allusions: Pictures of Perception. London: Routledge. ... Perception. 1974;3(2):169-84. doi: 10.1068/p030169. PMID 4457820 The effect of water immersion on perception of the visual ... Perception. 1978;7(1):21-46. doi: 10.1068/p070021. PMID 628578 Sir Charles Bell on visual direction. Wade NJ. Perception. 1978; ... Perception. 2008;37(12):1779-82. doi: 10.1068/p3712ed. PMID 19227371 Visual purple (sehpurpur). Wade NJ. Perception. 2008;37(11 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) WHITESIDE TC (April 1963). "Visual Perception of Movement". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 33: ... Akiyoshi Kitaoka Goldstein, E. Bruce (2010). Sensation and perception (8th ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. ... not by perceptual snapshots of the visual field". Vision Research. 44 (23): 2653-2658. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2004.05.030. PMID ...
Neurogeometry and visual perception. 97 (2): 209-219. doi:10.1016/j.jphysparis.2003.09.005. ISSN 0928-4257. PMID 14766142. ... Further along the visual pathway, even the efficiently coded visual information is too much for the capacity of the information ... Li. Z. 2002 A saliency map in primary visual cortex Trends in Cognitive Sciences ... Visual attention can be described as a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. ...
Hubel, David (2005). Brain and Visual Perception. ISBN 978-0195176186. McMahan, UJ (1990). Steve: Remembrances of Stephen W. ... Brain and Visual Perception. ISBN 978-0195176186. "Top Neuroscience and Behavior Universities in the World , US News Best ... Receptive fields in visual cortex: Pioneering work on the selective responses of retinal ganglion cells by Kuffler Discovery of ... Wiesel, T. N.; Hubel, D. H. (1963-11-01). "EFFECTS OF VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS IN THE CATS ...
ISBN 978-0-262-18177-8. Palmer, Stephen E. (2003). "Visual Perception of Objects". In Healy, Alice F.; Proctor, Robert W.; ... When visual elements are seen moving in the same direction at the same rate (optical flow), perception associates the movement ... The Gestalt Approach to Object Perception". Sensation and perception (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-60149-4. ... Similarly, two flocks of birds can cross each other in a viewer's visual field, but they will nonetheless continue to be ...
ISBN 978-0-03-006228-5. Schreuder, Duco A. (3 December 2014). Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. p. 135. ISBN ... The perception of a house involves various horizons, corresponding to the neighborhood, the city, the country, the Earth, etc. ... The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical ... Brandom, Robert B. (1996). "Perception and Rational Constraint: McDowell's Mind and World". Philosophical Issues. 7: 241-259. ...
Faubert and the Visual Perception and Psychophysics Laboratory have been involved in transferring laboratory developments into ... Jocelyn Faubert (born 1959) is a psychophysicist best known for his work in the fields of visual perception, vision of the ... "Visual Perception and Psychophysics Laboratory". University of Montreal School of Optometry. 2010. Archived from the original ... Faubert, J (2002). "Visual Perception and Aging" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 56 (3): 164-176. doi: ...
Schreuder, Duco A. (December 3, 2014). Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4808-1294-9. Mermin ...
Schreuder, D.A. (2014). Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. p. 671. ISBN 978-1-4808-1294-9. Retrieved 13 July ... or an agent superior to man directly modifies the visual organ and produces in the composite a sensation equivalent to that ...
Vision and visual perception. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 1965. Hallett PE (1969). "The variations in visual threshold ... Visual Science. 38 (9): 1786-1794. Kemp, Colin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Faulkner, David J.; Walt, Robert W. (1988). "Visual ... In visual physiology, adaptation is the ability of the retina of the eye to adjust to various levels of light. Natural night ... The visual system is usually compared with a theoretical construct called the ideal light detector. To detect the stimulus, the ...
Ronald G. Boothe (2002). Perception of the visual environment. Springer. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-387-98790-3. Schnapf, J. L.; Kraft ... Visual system Monochromacy Dichromacy Tetrachromacy Pentachromacy Evolution of color vision in primates Young-Helmholtz theory ... These extra cone receptor visual pigments detect energy of other wavelengths, sometimes including ultraviolet. Eventually two ... Calderone, JB; Jacobs, GH (2003). "Spectral properties and retinal distribution of ferret cones" (PDF). Visual Neuroscience. 20 ...
He has also done research into the perception of visual texture and orientation. Much of his work uses a normative Bayesian ... He is known for his research on visual perception and movement planning. Landy attended college at Columbia University and ... Landy's research uses computational models to describe the human visual system, including perception of texture, orientation, ... Girshick, Ahna R.; Landy, Michael S.; Simoncelli, Eero P. (2011). "Cardinal rules: visual orientation perception reflects ...
Shams, Ladan; Kima, Robyn (September 2010). "Crossmodal influences on visual perception". Physics of Life Reviews. 7 (3): 269- ... Crossmodal perception or cross-modal perception is perception that involves interactions between two or more different sensory ... in which vision and hearing interact in speech perception. Crossmodal perception, crossmodal integration and cross modal ... A related research theme is the study of multisensory perception and multisensory integration. Described as synthesizing art, ...
Visual perception : the neurophysiological foundations. Spillmann, Lothar., Werner, John Simon. San Diego: Academic Press. 1990 ... Werner has co-edited books that are widely used in graduate courses, including Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological ... Werner, John S (1996-01-01). "Visual problems of the retina during ageing: Compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across ... OCLC 811372514.CS1 maint: others (link) The visual neurosciences. Chalupa, Leo M., Werner, John Simon. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT ...
"Plenary Lectures , European Conference on Visual Perception". Retrieved 2019-05-14. "Gatsby Computational ...
So, for example, retinal neurons are not considered a bridge locus for visual perception because stimulating visual cortex can ... Evan Thompson (1999). "Filling-in: Visual Science and the Philosophy of Perception". In Denis Fisette (ed.). Consciousness and ... Ronald G. Boothe (2002). Perception of the Visual Environment. Springer. pp. 9-10. ISBN 9780387987903. v t e. ... and that visual processing is highly interactive and context-dependent. He also argues that cells in the visual cortex "are not ...
Boothe, Ronald G. (16 November 2001). Perception of the Visual Environment. Springer. pp. 235-. ISBN 978-0-387-98790-3. Dudley ... Though its hearing does not match its visual acuity, mating calls are said to be heard for several miles. Eagles have upper and ... At the back of the eye there's a layer of photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) called the retina that transmit visual ... Eagles have a deep central fovea and a shallow temporal fovea that function for better visual acuity and higher resolution of ...
Smith, A. Mark (2001). Alhazen's theory of visual perception. Vol. 2 English translation. American Philosophical Society. Smith ... A. Mark (1996). Ptolemy's Theory of Visual Perception. American Philosophical Society. Aguilonius, Franciscus. Opticorum libri ... In Vision and visual dysfunction 9. pp. 19-37. Gulick, W L; Lawson, R B (1976). Human Stereopsis: A psychophysical analysis. ... Thus Alhazen noticed the importance of some points in the visual field but did not work out the exact shape of the horopter and ...
Current models of perception have suggested that the brain performs some form of Bayesian inference and integration of ... Hubel & Wiesel discovered that neurons in the primary visual cortex, the first cortical area to process information coming from ... such as the Visual cortex, are understood in some detail.[31] It is also unknown what the computational functions of these ... "Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex". J. Physiol. 160 (1): 106-54. ...
Violinists oscillate backwards, or lower in pitch from the actual note when using vibrato, since aural perception favors the ... with visual references being only marginally useful. Also (not shown on this chart), the spacing between note positions becomes ...
Taves, E.H. (1941). "Two mechanisms for the perception of visual numerousness". Archives of Psychology. 37: 1-47.. ... A 2006 study demonstrated that subitizing and counting are not restricted to visual perception, but also extend to tactile ... "Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 73 (5): 1579-1585. doi:10.3758/s13414-011-0124-8. PMC 3118010. PMID 21479724.. ... Kaufman, E.L.; Lord, M.W.; Reese, T.W. & Volkmann, J. (1949). "The discrimination of visual number". American Journal of ...
It is thought to be an extension of the quantifiable psychological perception of sound. Common groups at risk of becoming ... Brondel, L.; Cabanac, M. (2007). "Alliesthesia in visual and auditory sensations from environmental signals". Physiology & ... This experiment paves the way for further study in distinction of the perception of listening fatigue between individuals. ...
... each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight. The rods are ... Goldstein, E. Bruce (2007). Sensation and Perception (7 ed.). Thomson and Wadswoth.. ... Rods are extremely sensitive, and can be triggered by a single photon.[3][4] At very low light levels, visual experience is ... Closest to the visual field (and farthest from the brain) is the axon terminal, which releases a neurotransmitter called ...
Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought).. It is to likely focus on areas of ... and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. ...
Color balancing an image affects not only the neutrals, but other colors as well. An image that is not color balanced is said to have a color cast, as everything in the image appears to have been shifted towards one color.[9][page needed] Color balancing may be thought in terms of removing this color cast. Color balance is also related to color constancy. Algorithms and techniques used to attain color constancy are frequently used for color balancing, as well. Color constancy is, in turn, related to chromatic adaptation. Conceptually, color balancing consists of two steps: first, determining the illuminant under which an image was captured; and second, scaling the components (e.g., R, G, and B) of the image or otherwise transforming the components so they conform to the viewing illuminant. Viggiano found that white balancing in the camera's native RGB color model tended to produce less color inconstancy (i.e., less distortion of the colors) than in monitor RGB for over 4000 hypothetical sets of ...
Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual ... Computer graphics studies the manipulation of visual and geometric information using computational techniques. It focuses on ...
... and poor spatial and visual perception.[citation needed]. *Occipital lobe: Damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... visual field impairment, impaired sense of smell, impaired hearing, facial paralysis, double vision, or more severe symptoms ...
"Perception. 42 (6): 672-674. doi:10.1068/p7488. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014.. ... His elongations were an artistic expression, not a visual symptom."[131] According to Professor of Spanish John Armstrong Crow ... because the glory of this painter is closely tied to the evolution of our new perceptions on art".[101] Jackson Pollock, a ... and that his catalogue decisions may have distorted the perception of the whole nature of El Greco's origins, development and ...
Color perception test. Example of an Ishihara color test plate. The number "74" should be clearly visible to viewers with ... The Ishihara test is a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies, the first in a class of successful color vision ...
The vision is typically adapted to daylight conditions, with color vision and more advanced visual depth perception than in ... Cooke, Fred (2004). The Encyclopedia of Animals: A Complete Visual Guide. University of California Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0- ... Some snakes have extra sets of visual organs (in the loosest sense of the word) in the form of pits sensitive to infrared ...
... irrelevant to the human visual perception by exploiting perceptual features of human vision. For example, small differences in ... In the main lossy processing stage that data gets quantized in order to reduce information that is irrelevant to human visual ... perception. In the last stage statistical redundancy gets largely eliminated by an entropy coder which often applies some form ...
Ronald G. Boothe (2002). Perception of the visual environment. Springer. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-387-98790-3. .. ... Visual Neuroscience. 20 (1): 11-17. doi:10.1017/s0952523803201024.. *^ Calderone, JB; Reese, BE; Jacobs, GH (2003). "Topography ... These extra cone receptor visual pigments detect energy of other wavelengths, including sometimes ultraviolet. Eventually two ... those signals from S cones and there is evidence that they have a separate signal pathway through the thalamus to the visual ...
They found that music therapy was effective in altering perceptions in the midst of adversity, was a strong component of ... Multi-modal stimulation (MMS) includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid ... the therapist will introduce a visual stimuli of the written phrase to be learned.[46] The therapist then sings the phrase with ... while also reducing pain perception for the infant. The Gato Box is a small rectangular instrument that stimulates a prenatal ...
The essence of the moiré effect is the (mainly visual) perception of a distinctly different third pattern which is caused by ... the original two notes are still present-but the listener's perception is of two pitches that are the average of and half the ...
Many discounts are designed to give consumers the perception of saving money when buying products, but not all discounted ... "Distortion Of Price Discount Perceptions: The Right Digit Effect" (PDF). Journal of Consumer Research. 34 (2): 162-173. doi ...
No light perception : is considered total visual impairment, or total blindness. Blindness is defined by the World Health ... Central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with corrective glasses or central visual acuity of more than 20/200 ... Visual impairments may take many forms and be of varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not always a good predictor of the ... Visual impairment has the ability to create consequences for health and well being. Visual impairment is increasing especially ...
"Spatiotemporal convergence of semantic processing in reading and speech perception". Journal of Neuroscience. 29: 9271-9280. ...
Phenice details numerous visual differences between the male and female pelvis. In general, the male skeleton is more robust ... At this time, many archaeologists underestimated the public perception of archaeologists as non-productive members of society ... Phenice, T.W. (1969). "A Newly Developed Visual Method of Sexing the Os Pubis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30: ...
Faces are an important class of visual stimuli for humans, and the perception of "faceness" is a critical part of social ... Apicella attributes this difference to the wider visual experiences of the Europeans, as they had been exposed to both Western ... Studies in perception and action III. pp. 389-392. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates. Strauss, M.S. (1979). "Abstraction of ... Perception. 36: 1813-1820. doi:10.1068/p5601. Unnikrishnan, M.K. (2009). "How is the individuality of a face recognized?". ...
Hallucinations are commonly understood as "sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of an objective stimulus".[1] As this ... definition implies, though, like dreams, most hallucinations are visual, they can encompass a broader range of sensory ... which involve sudden changes in the perception of the body's location, or even a sense of movement of the entire body. Finally ...
Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology, and Ecology, p. 356, at Google Books *^ Exercise Psychology, p. 407, at Google Books ... PerceptionEdit. The human perception of the intensity of sound and light approximates the logarithm of intensity rather than a ... Sensation and Perception, p. 268, at Google Books *^ Introduction to Understandable Physics, Volume 2, p. SA19-PA9, at Google ... The reference pressure for sound in air is set at the typical threshold of perception of an average human and there are common ...
Widowhood and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0731-3. .. ... firm determination and sound perception. Most importantly, she was ready to recognise the mental superiority of some of her ...
Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[54] She used methods such as ...
Nor did they have such a profound impact upon the thoughts and perceptions of the Allies towards the Japanese, and their ... and the destroyer was unable to raise it with either her radio or visual signalling devices. As a result, Hamakaze departed ...
The parietal lobe also deals with orientation, recognition, and perception. Tonality[edit]. Tonality describes the ... A system proposed to explain this understanding of actions is that visual representations of actions are mapped onto our own ... Snyder and Large (2005)[15] performed a study examining rhythm perception in human subjects, finding that activity in the gamma ... Rhythm, the pattern of temporal intervals within a musical measure or phrase, in turn creates the perception of stronger and ...
Perceptions. *Visual perception (vision). *Auditory perception (hearing). *Equilibrioception (balance). *Olfaction (smell). * ... The Rapidly Adapting (RA) or Meissner corpuscle end-organ mechanoreceptor underlies the perception of flutter[8] and slip on ... The Pacinian corpuscle or Vater-Pacinian corpuscles or Lamellar corpuscles[10] underlie the perception of high frequency ... The Slowly Adapting type 1 (SA1) mechanoreceptor, with the Merkel corpuscle end-organ, underlies the perception of form and ...
The word was intended to describe the separation of functioning between personality, thinking, memory, and perception.[75] ... delirium can cause visual hallucinations, or an unpredictable changing levels of consciousness. Schizophrenia occurs along with ...
Perceptions. *Visual perception (vision). *Auditory perception (hearing). *Equilibrioception (balance). *Olfaction (smell). * ...
... ...
Visual perceptual illusions: When an observer is confronted with a visual assortment of dots, the brain may group the dots that ... Other articles where Visual perceptual illusion is discussed: illusion: ... In illusion: Visual perceptual illusions. When an observer is confronted with a visual assortment of dots, the brain may group ...
... some of the ways in which the concepts and techniques of information theory may clarify our understanding of visual perception ... When we begin to consider perception as an information-handling process, it quickly becomes clear that much of the information ... visual perception informational aspect information theory subsequent state many different area information-handling process ... title = {Some informational aspects of visual perception},. journal = {Psychol. Rev},. year = {1954},. pages = {183--193}. }. ...
As I said yesterday, I love research that challenges the common sense view that perception, especially visual perception, ... 1Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2006). See what you want to see: MOtivational influences on visual perception. Journal of ... Motivated Seeing? Motivation Affects Visual Perception. Posted by Chris on October 30, 2006 ... on relatively low-level visual processes (color perception occurs pretty early). Minutes (like 2!) after I finished writing ...
The visual world to the left of fixation passes to the right hand side of the brain and vice versa. ... The ability to interpret the signals generated in the eye by the brain allows for the perception of vision. Sight is a complex ... Further work has revealed maps of the visual world in adjacent areas of the brain. These areas seem to have special roles in ... However the explosion of knowledge about the structure and function of the visual brain has been critical to the understanding ...
Unifying account of visual motion and position perception. Oh-Sang Kwon, Duje Tadin, and David C. Knill. *. aCenter for Visual ... 2001) Three-systems theory of human visual motion perception: Review and update. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 18(9):2331- ... 2006) Noise characteristics and prior expectations in human visual speed perception. Nat Neurosci 9(4):578-585. ... Taken together, we show that object tracking plays a fundamental role in perception of visual motion and position. ...
Visual Science of Art Conference VSAC will start just the 26 and end the 27th of August 2016. VSAC will take place in ... European Conference on Visual Perception Barcelona 28th of August - 1st of September ... VSAC - Visual Science of Art Conference. VSAC will start just the 26 and end the 27th of August 2016. VSAC will take place in ... Visual Neurosciences and Computer Science (11-13:30). Organizer: Xavier Otazu (Computer Vision Centre / Universitat Autònoma de ...
... New Research in Psychological Science. A sample of research on feelings of culpability, outside assistance ... spatial and visual perception, childhood tv exposure and attention problems, responses to the smell of fear, and physical ...
The work of the Visual Perception and Spatial Cognition research group is made possible by the generous support of the National ...
Attention induces conservative subjective biases in visual perception.. Rahnev D1, Maniscalco B, Graves T, Huang E, de Lange FP ... These findings may partially reflect our impression of seeing the whole visual scene despite our limited processing capacity ...
European Conference on Visual Perception Barcelona 28th of August - 1st of September ...
... successful visual perception depends on the interplay between ongoing spontaneous activity in visual cortex and that evoked by ... Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback. Frank Scharnowski, Chloe Hutton, Oliver Josephs, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Geraint ... Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback. Frank Scharnowski, Chloe Hutton, Oliver Josephs, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Geraint ... Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
Collects twenty five classic articles in visual perception, the articles span a century and include examples from disciplines ... Visual Perception: An Overview. Part I: Theoretical Perspectives. H. von Helmholtz, Concerning the Perceptions in General. W. ... Collects twenty five classic articles in visual perception, the articles span a century and include examples from disciplines ... Part V: Visual Attention and Awareness. A. Treisman and G. Gelade, A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention. K. OCraven, B. ...
Learners will be introduced to the problems that vision faces, using perception as a guide. The course will consider how what ... Learn Visual Perception and the Brain from Duke University. ... we see is generated by the visual system, what the central ... ... Although the discussions will be informed by visual system anatomy and physiology, the focus is on perception. We see the ... and what visual perception indicates about how the brain works. The evidence will be drawn from neuroscience, psychology, the ...
Attention and Visual Perception. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... This study will focus on brain regions involved in visual perception and attention. ... Subjects with visual, auditory, motor, or language problems that would prohibit them from being able to properly perform the ... We also expect that brain imaging data will show decreased activation in visual regions ipsilateral to the focal lesions in ...
At this exciting event, speaker after speaker presented new discoveries about infants visual perception in areas ranging from ... Perception of Visual Direction in Human Infants. P.J. Kellman, Kinematic Foundations of Infant Visual Perception. B.I. ... visual perception in areas ranging from sensory processes to visual cognition. The field continues to make significant progress ... the book offers a view of the exciting progress in the field of the development of perception and cognition during infancy…. ...
Visual Perception. Whats Location Got to Do With It?. When we see airplanes and toothbrushes and other visible things, we see ... Visual Perception. Brain Can Plan Actions Toward Things the Eye Doesnt See. People can plan strategic movements to several ... Visual Perception. Wide-Eyed Fear Expressions May Help Us - and Others - to Locate Threats. Wide-eyed expressions that ... Visual Perception. New Research From Psychological Science. Read about the latest research published in Psychological Science. ...
It is well documented that vision drives olfactory perception [2, 3], but there has been little indication th … ... Olfaction modulates visual perception in binocular rivalry Curr Biol. 2010 Aug 10;20(15):1356-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.05.059 ... but there has been little indication that olfaction could modulate visual perception. Here we introduce smells to a well- ... thereby demonstrating olfactory modulation of visual perception-an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. ...
"Introduction" from Art and visual perception: a psychology of the creative eye, the new version. Berkeley, University of ...
The Joy of Visual Perception Resource on the eyes perception abilities. VisionScience. Resource for Research in Human and ... The "wholly empirical theory of perception" is a related and newer approach that rationalizes visual perception without ... frequency Visual illusion Visual processing Visual system Achromatopsia Akinetopsia Apperceptive agnosia Associative visual ... Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the ...
Signal Integration in Human Visual Speed Perception Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Signal Integration in Human Visual Speed Perception. Matjaž Jogan and Alan A. Stocker ...
Buy Art and Visual Perception, Second Edition by Rudolf Arnheim from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local ... Art and Visual Perception, Second Edition: A Psychology of the Creative Eye (Paperback). Rudolf Arnheim (author) Sign in to ... It casts the visual process in psychological terms and describes the creative way ones eye organizes visual material according ... could not exist amidst the unruliness of visual experience. Over the last half century in a sequence of landmark books, Rudolf ...
MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials. We implemented ... MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception J Vis. 2016;16(6):11. doi: 10.1167/16.6.11. ... MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials. We implemented ...
The central fovea vision within the retina contains only cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity. The light waves are ... The central fovea vision within the retina contains only cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity. The light waves are ... Cones are used for daylight vision, visual acuity and colour vision. As rods operate in minimal light conditions, they are more ... Cones are used for daylight vision, visual acuity and colour vision. As rods operate in minimal light conditions, they are more ...
She will also present The Art of Visual Perception Thursday, October 19, at the Cincinnati Art Museum from 6 to 9 p.m. For ... By showing people how to look closely at images, Amy Herman, founder and president of The Art of Perception, Inc., helps people ... Amy Herman will conduct a workshop, Visual Intelligence Training for Professionals, Wednesday, October 18, from 8 to 11 a.m. at ... hone their "visual intelligence," a set of skills we all possess but few of us know how to use properly. ...
Visual psychophysics, the quantification of visual perception, explores the complex interactions between the eye and the brain ... This field has many practical applications to visual tasks such as driving, reading and visual search. The ability we have to ... Our research makes excellent translational use of the groups combination of clinical expertise and research skills in visual ... as well as adding to basic science they also provide critical information regarding visual functioning in a number of clinical ...
"The visual perception of an encounter may be misleading, particularly at night." ... based on their visual perception of the situation," says EASA in a safety bulletin. ... is given to visual acquisition of traffic by the crew which "may be in contradiction" with alerts from a resolution advisory. ...
Presents the methods for sensing obstacles and vehicles implemented on the University of Parma experimental vehicle (ARGO). The ARGO project is briefly des
... does the visual system rely upon objective knowledge and subjective meaning to ... This book explores a central question in the study of depth perception - ... The Perception and Cognition of Visual Space. Authors. * Paul Linton Copyright. 2017. Publisher. Palgrave Macmillan. Copyright ... This book explores a central question in the study of depth perception - does the visual system rely upon objective knowledge ...
Re: PoV & visual perception speeds. Home › Evil Mad Scientist Forums › Ask an Evil Mad Scientist › PoV & visual perception ...
  • Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether systematically training participants to control the level of ongoing activity in visual cortex led to changes in their sensitivity for detecting visual stimuli when that control was exercised. (
  • We hypothesized that increasing the mean level of ongoing activity in visual cortex would lead to enhanced visual sensitivity (compared with not exerting control) when previously unseen weak visual stimuli were presented for detection. (
  • If voluntarily increasing ongoing visual cortex activity caused improved perception for stimuli that were entirely unrelated to the neurofeedback training, then such an improvement should generalize to any visual stimulus. (
  • Many designers apply Gestalt principles (i.e., how humans structure visual stimuli) to the design of GUIs so as to create interfaces that are easy for users to perceive and understand. (
  • The identification of brain regions that are associated with the conscious perception of visual stimuli is a major goal in neuroscience. (
  • People's motivational states-their wishes and preferences-influence their processing of visual stimuli. (
  • These studies suggest that the impact of motivation on information processing extends down into preconscious processing of stimuli in the visual environment and thus guides what the visual system presents to conscious awareness. (
  • Recent work focusing on more biologically oriented motivational states shows that they influence the perception of visual stimuli. (
  • This suggestion is based on a number of recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies that have demonstrated that the hippocampus is involved in the visual discrimination of complex spatial scene stimuli. (
  • The major problem in visual perception is that what people see is not simply a translation of retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). (
  • Such tests have revealed that the ability to differentiate is influenced by visual characteristics of stimuli. (
  • Furthermore, the processing of visual stimuli must be active and interactive, so that perceivers can construct panoramic and stable percepts from an interaction of stimulus information and expectancies of what is contained in the visual environment. (
  • In other words, perception is our sensory experience of our environment and it involves the recognition of environmental stimuli as well as the action taken in response to these stimuli. (
  • Due to their extreme diversity, mutability and complexity, materials represent a particularly challenging class of visual stimuli, so understanding how we recognize materials, estimate their properties, predict their behaviour, and interact with them could give us more general insights into visual processing and internal models of the physical world. (
  • Source: Medical X-Press] Long before a baby opens its eyes for the first time, the brain is ready to start decoding visual stimuli. (
  • To test this, we trained human participants to control ongoing spontaneous activity in circumscribed regions of retinotopic visual cortex using real-time functional MRI-based neurofeedback. (
  • After training, we tested participants using a new and previously untrained visual detection task that was presented at the visual field location corresponding to the trained region of visual cortex. (
  • Perceptual sensitivity was significantly enhanced only when participants who had previously learned control over ongoing activity were now exercising control and only for that region of visual cortex. (
  • Typically, the level of ongoing activity in visual cortex is outside voluntary control because we do not have conscious access to it. (
  • Rather than studying differences in activity levels associated with ongoing spontaneous fluctuations, this new approach allowed us to selectively train participants to voluntarily "clamp" visual cortex activity at high or low levels. (
  • A central goal of the proposed research is to characterize the contributions of prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex and test the hypothesis that these regions exert top-down modulatory influences over visual processing areas. (
  • We also expect that brain imaging data will show decreased activation in visual regions ipsilateral to the focal lesions in prefrontal and parietal cortex, thus providing evidence that prefrontal and parietal cortex are sources of top-down modulation. (
  • The light waves are absorbed by the rods and cones where they are transduced into neural energy and transmitted to the Primary Visual Cortex of the brain, via the optic nerve. (
  • Visual perception takes place in the cerebral cortex and the electrochemical signal travels through the optic nerve and via the thalamus (another area of the brain) to the cerebral cortex. (
  • The lateral geniculate nucleus, which transmits the information to the visual cortex. (
  • The lateral geniculate nucleus sends signals to primary visual cortex, also called striate cortex. (
  • Extrastriate cortex, also called visual association cortex is a set of cortical structures, that receive information from striate cortex, as well as each other. (
  • Recent descriptions of visual association cortex describe a division into two functional pathways, a ventral and a dorsal pathway. (
  • Scientists at the Universities of Glasgow, UK, and Lausanne, Switzerland, have discovered that even before we are consciously aware of them, such looming sounds excite the low-level visual cortex , boosting visual perception . (
  • Lead researcher Gregor Thut, senior lecturer at the Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging within the Department of Psychology at the University of Glasgow, said: "This study has revealed the extent and dynamics of multisensory interactions in low-level sensory cortex and has shown how visual perception can be boosted by sounds even before we are aware of what the sound is. (
  • The researchers were able to measure the excitability of the visual cortex in healthy adults by artificially stimulating the back of the head (occipital pole) where the visual cortex is located through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). (
  • The study, entitled 'Pre-perceptual and stimulus-selective enhancement of low-level human visual cortex excitability by sounds' is published in the journal Current Biology , and was authored by Vincenzo Romei, Micah Murray, Celine Cappe and Gregor Thut. (
  • The results provide further support for previous findings by Vanderbilt researchers Frank Tong and Stephanie Harrison that the contents of working memory may be represented in early visual areas in the brain, including the primary visual cortex, that were previously thought to play no role in higher cognitive functions such as memory. (
  • Now, a new study funded by the National Eye Institute and jointly led by researchers at York University's Faculty of Health and Carnegie Mellon University, finds that the brains of children with severe epilepsy can compensate by rewiring for missing regions of the visual cortex after surgery. (
  • In order for an individual to see, signals from the eye are first processed in the early visual cortex - a region at the back of the brain that is necessary for sight - and then travel through other parts of the cerebral cortex, to allow recognition of patterns, faces, objects, scenes, and words. (
  • Three of the children who had gone through a surgery had lost parts of the visual cortex on the right side, three on the left side, and four had lost other parts of the brain not involved in perception, serving as a second kind of control group. (
  • Of the six children who had areas of the visual cortex removed, four had permanent reductions in peripheral vision on one side due to loss of the early visual cortex. (
  • With the exception of two individuals who had greater portions of the cortex altered, researchers found all patients showed normal perceptual performance on tasks and were able to identify faces and objects, places and words, falling within the normal range even for complex perception and memory activities. (
  • The eye's retina performs the first stages of visual perception processing, with the remaining stages of visual perception occurring in the optic nerve , the lateral geniculate nucleus , and the visual cortex of the brain . (
  • Processing is carried out in one direction from the retina to the visual cortex, with each successive stage in the visual pathway carrying out ever more complex analysis of the input. (
  • This vast dynamic range is maintained through sensitivity adjustments at all levels in the visual system, from individual photoreceptors, to retinal circuits, and complex neural coding in cortex. (
  • A large extent of the posterior cortex of the primate brain is devoted to vision, and it contains two general streams that process visual information. (
  • The one stream is situated more ventrally in the cortex and is important for object recognition, pattern recognition, color perception, and shape perception. (
  • Neurological work by J. W. Nadler, D. E. Angelaki, and G. C. DeAngelis in 'A Neural Representation of Depth from Motion Parallax in Macaque Visual Cortex' ( Nature , 452 (7187), 2008 pp. 642-645) suggests that an extra-retinal signal is needed for depth perception. (
  • The work of the Visual Perception and Spatial Cognition research group is made possible by the generous support of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the University of Utah. (
  • At this exciting event, speaker after speaker presented new discoveries about infants' visual perception in areas ranging from sensory processes to visual cognition. (
  • Several advances have come from the development of new methods for exploring infant perception and cognition that have brought new empirical findings. (
  • the book offers a view of the exciting progress in the field of the development of perception and cognition during infancy….includes exceptionally detailed descriptions of our knowledge of infants' perception and cognition. (
  • Linton advances an alternative interpretation to the generally accepted affirmative answer, according to which many of the apparent contributions of knowledge and meaning to depth perception are better understood as contributions to our post-perceptual cognition of depth. (
  • In order to defend this position a new account of visual cognition is required, as well as a better understanding of the optical and physiological cues to depth. (
  • Representing multiple objects as an ensemble enhances visual cognition. (
  • Prior exposure to images of animals or people biases what people see when they view classic ambiguous figures, such as the rat-man and old woman-young woman figures so often featured in introductory psychology textbooks In the current article, we explore one possible top-down influence on perception that has been shown to have a profound and ubiquitous impact in other arenas of social cognition. (
  • Visual information contributes greatly to thinking and cognition. (
  • Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to cognition. (
  • Some argue that the perception of depth also constitutes a sense, but others argue that this is really cognition (that is, post-sensory) function derived from having stereoscopic vision (two eyes) and is not a sensory perception as such. (
  • The paper I talked about there showed cognitive influences (memory) on relatively low-level visual processes (color perception occurs pretty early). (
  • Behavioral training: Subjects practice performing a cognitive task that involves looking at and making decisions about visual images that appear on a computer screen. (
  • Paul Linton has taught philosophy at Oxford University and University College London, and is currently engaged in research on the optical, physiological, and cognitive cues to depth perception at the Centre for Applied Vision Research, City, University of London. (
  • It is responsive to top-down influences that flow from the perceiver's cognitive and psychological states or from environments But a substantial volume of psychological research reveals that top-down influences also inform perception. (
  • The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science. (
  • Visual perception serves as a precursor skill of higher-order cognitive processes and early indicator of learning and developmental disorders (Büttner, Dacheneder, Schneider & Weyer, 2008). (
  • Perception of the physical environment is limited because of visual and cognitive problems. (
  • The visual problem is the lack of objects in three-dimensional space to be imaged with the same projection, while the cognitive problem is that the perception of an object depends on the viewer. (
  • Cognitive neuroscientist Yair Pinto and his colleagues asked 45 white Dutch people to perform a binocular rivalry task - a standard tool in visual perception studies. (
  • TORONTO, JUNE 4, 2019 - For children with severe epilepsy, surgery is the last resort used to prevent seizures but the treatment can often come with the risk of both visual and cognitive impairments. (
  • Research has provided evidence for a wide variety of cognitive dysfunctions in areas such as attention, memory, language, executive functions and visual perception [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • While there are many aspects of cognitive processing that we have yet to understand, the area of visual perception has been extensively researched and unpacked. (
  • Cognitive screening and assessment included visual-spatial components: the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clock Drawing Test, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test, and the Neurotrax (Mindstreams) computerized cognitive assessment battery. (
  • This book is a good survey of a large body of important work in the experimental psychology of visual space perception. (
  • The study of visual space perception begins with the assumptions that the physical world exists and that its existence is independent of the observer. (
  • It is an individual system with the input in the form of a range data set and a color perception image of a human face. (
  • Acquisition of categorical color perception: A perceptual learning approach to the linguistic relativity hypothesis. (
  • M.M. Haith, Future-Oriented Processes in Infancy: The Case of Visual Expectations. (
  • Random Processes and Visual Perception: Stochastic Art. (
  • To explore the commonality of concern between Science and Art and better understand stochastic processes, the authors use a graph theory reference model called the "shortest route problem" and add additional elements specific to the art-making process to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of randomness and visual perception. (
  • In this review, we will discuss the idea that the hippocampus may be involved in both memory and perception, contrary to theories that posit functional and neuroanatomical segregation of these processes. (
  • It is often assumed that processes such as visual perception work in the same ways in all people, but research now suggests that how we see things may be influenced by our expectations and opinions. (
  • The results suggest that high-level mental processes such as racial stereotyping can exert a direct 'top-down' effect on lower-level processes such as visual perception. (
  • Most of the general processes of visual perception have been shown to be universal, as opposed to being dependant on culture, although there are specific instances where cultural variability appears to come into play. (
  • Psychologists distinguish between two types of processes in perception: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. (
  • We hypothesized that the visual processes that develop during adolescence will be damaged in schizophrenic adolescent patients, while these same processes will continue to develop normally in healthy adolescents. (
  • Processing visual information involves both automatic grouping processes and control processes. (
  • H. von Helmholtz, Concerning the Perceptions in General. (
  • Hermann von Helmholtz is often credited with the founding of the scientific study of visual perception. (
  • This book explores a central question in the study of depth perception - 'does the visual system rely upon objective knowledge and subjective meaning to specify visual depth? (
  • Responses of primary visual cortical neurons to binocular disparity without depth perception. (
  • Depth perception requires that image features on one retina are first matched with appropriate features on the other retina. (
  • In the first activity, students explore their depth perception skills and discover the advantages of binocular vision. (
  • While the effect is still essentially 2D, it allows for depth perception. (
  • The model can have suggestions according to depth perception and accommodating control. (
  • We recently discovered a new formula for visual depth perception from motion parallax. (
  • We outline the other visual depth perception Demonstrations below. (
  • The Demonstration ' Motion, Pursuit, Fixate and Distractor (Visual Depth Perception 2) ' plots the values of retinal motion and smooth eye pursuit for your choice of fixate and distractor in this basic one-dimensional setting. (
  • The Demonstrations ' Motion/Pursuit Law in 2D (Visual Depth Perception 3) ' and ' Motion/Pursuit Law on Invariant Circles (Visual Depth Perception 4) ' allow you to do computations with the 2D formula. (
  • Although other research groups have compared the behavior of patients with various focal lesions or have performed fMRI studies of visual attention in neurologically normal patients, we are unaware of any concerted effort to perform fMRI in patients with focal lesions in order to functionally isolate the contributions of individual cortical regions that serve as critical nodes in the attentional network. (
  • In 1992, a model of cortical visual processing was proposed that made a distinction between vision for perception and vision for action. (
  • Here we present a test of whether the signals on neurons in cortical area V1 correspond directly to our conscious perception of binocular stereoscopic depth. (
  • A study of single case suggests that visual object recognition and visual imagery are sustained by cortical areas located in proximity to the temporo-occipital ventral pathway and that perception and imagery for space is subserved by mechanisms, which are close anatomically, and outside the ventral path. (
  • Brown, K. T.: Complete interocular transfer of an adaptations process responsible for perceptual fluctuations with an ambiguous visual figure. (
  • Keywords: motivation, visual perception, motivated reasoning, New Look, ambiguous figures The world that people know is the one they take in through their senses. (
  • Bayesian models propose that, at each moment in time, the visual system uses implicit knowledge of the environment to infer properties of visual objects from ambiguous sensory inputs. (
  • Here we introduce smells to a well-established visual phenomenon termed binocular rivalry, perceptual alternations that occur when distinctively different images are separately presented to the two eyes [4]. (
  • Our findings provide the first direct evidence that an olfactory cue biases the dynamic process of binocular rivalry, thereby demonstrating olfactory modulation of visual perception-an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected. (
  • Alhazen (965 - c. 1040) carried out many investigations and experiments on visual perception, extended the work of Ptolemy on binocular vision, and commented on the anatomical works of Galen. (
  • Moreover, the project focused on correlations of visual perception with 1) precursor skills of math competence, and (2) social-emotional competencies. (
  • after I finished writing that post, ScienceDirect sent me an email alert with the contents of the October issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , in which there is a paper by Emily Balcetis and David Dunning 1 describing research that demonstrates an influence of motivation on fairly high-level visual perception - object recognition. (
  • In this project, we took the first steps in this direction by building accurate predictive models of human and non-human primate neural and behavioral responses in a demanding visual object recognition task. (
  • Some theorists of visual object recognition believe that mental rotation is integral to the recognition process [ 12 ] while others assert that object recognition is not based on a continuous alteration process, such as mental rotation. (
  • Sensory perception abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been documented for decades. (
  • Reports on sensory perception in ASDs have been variable, with some studies finding inferior performance and some finding superior performance in people with ASDs compared to normally developing individuals. (
  • Comparing neural activity during visual processing in individuals with ASDs to that of typical individuals may help us to further understand the nature and cause of sensory perception abnormalities in ASDs. (
  • It has been consistently found that autism is associated with superior sensory perception, independent of social function. (
  • A growing theory in computational neuroscience is that perception can be successfully described using Bayesian inference models and that the brain is "Bayes-optimal" under some constraints. (
  • This target article sets out some of the arguments for both sides (arguments from computer vision, neuroscience, psychophysics, perceptual learning, and other areas of vision science) and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, corresponding to what some people have called early vision, is prohibited from accessing relevant expectations, knowledge, and utilities in determining the function it computes - in other words, it is cognitively impenetrable. (
  • An obvious extension, focussed on Durham interests, would be to explore the biophysical basis of visual perception from the molecular-level operation of photoreceptors, through local information-processing neuronal networks in the retina to system-level neuroscience. (
  • Furthermore, in the visual domain, potential behavioral consequences of neurofeedback training can be precisely assessed using standard behavioral paradigms, such as visual threshold measurements. (
  • For a couple of months now I've been running a series on visual perception and some of the design principles that arise from it. (
  • Understanding how the process works allows us to form design principles based on how we perceive our visual environment. (
  • In the following chapters I will draw attention to the basic principles of perception, especially visual perception as well as the evolution, concept and the functioning of our eyes to come to a better understanding of how we see things and the way our visual perception works. (
  • We were particularly interested to see how we could relate the principles of visual perception to data visualizations, and what insights we could uncover there. (
  • Understanding some basic principles of visual perception can help us do that. (
  • Perception depends on the interplay of ongoing spontaneous activity and stimulus-evoked activity in sensory cortices. (
  • Hence, this new approach could potentially allow us to voluntarily and temporarily increase perceptual sensitivity without relying on repeated exposure to (or training with) a specific visual stimulus. (
  • Other means of improving visual sensitivity, such as perceptual learning, require repeated exposure to a specific stimulus, are not under voluntary control, and are permanent. (
  • This finding was affirmed by unobtrusive and implicit measures of perception (e.g., eye tracking, lexical decision tasks) and by experimental procedures demonstrating that participants were aware only of the single (usually favored) interpretation they saw at the time they viewed the stimulus. (
  • Visual search and stimulus similarity. (
  • Visual Closure: Children are shown a stimulus figure and asked to select the exact figure from a series of figures that have been incompletely drawn. (
  • In visual perception, the hypothesis H could correspond to the presence of a visual target (detection task) or a value of a given stimulus (estimation task), while D describes the visual input. (
  • We find that observers misperceive the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they are holding a different motion direction in visual working memory," the authors wrote. (
  • We rather experience perception as a process starting with a stimulus and leading to a person´s subjective understanding of the world. (
  • A major theoretical issue on which psychologists are divided is the extent to which perception relies directly on the information present in the stimulus. (
  • Bottom-up processing is also known as data-driven processing, because perception begins with the stimulus itself. (
  • Cones are used for daylight vision, visual acuity and colour vision. (
  • The central fovea vision within the retina contains only cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity. (
  • cone cells handle the high acuity visual tasks such as reading and color vision. (
  • Prior to admission to the academy, a general physician had prescreened the cadets for corrected 20/20 distance visual acuity. (
  • Physiologically, visual perception happens when the eye focuses light on the retina . (
  • Some people make a distinction between "black and white" vision and the perception of colour , and others point out that vision using rod cells uses different physical detectors on the retina from cone cells . (
  • To perform its task, visual perception takes into account not only patterns of illumination on the retina, but also our other senses and our past experiences . (
  • S determines I, the pattern of illumination on the retina, which is all the information our visual system has on the current scene. (
  • Developmental Test of Visual Perception Third Edition provides assessment of visual perception and visual-motor integration. (
  • In the context of a norming study and reissue of the psychological testing procedure FEW-2 (Frostig's developmental test of visual perception), ViWa was administered to children aged between four and ten years. (
  • Research into the basic mechanisms of visual motion processing has largely focused on simple cases in which motion signals are fixed in space and constant over time (e.g., moving patterns presented in static windows) ( 1 ). (
  • A growing body of evidence demonstrates that vision for perception and vision for action are mediated by separate neural mechanisms. (
  • Together with the neuropsychological work (and neurophysiological studies in the monkey), these findings provide compelling evidence for the operation of separate visual mechanisms in everyday life. (
  • Our findings provide compelling evidence that visual working memory representations directly interact with the same neural mechanisms involved in processing basic sensory events," Kang and his colleagues wrote. (
  • W. Tanner and J. Swets, A Decision-Making Theory of Visual Detection. (
  • Autistics score very highly on tests of perceptual detection and higher-level visual reasoning. (
  • The human blur perceptions involve ideas of blur detection and blur discrimination in detail. (
  • The related problems, namely audio-visual calibration, audio-visual object detection, localization and tracking are addressed. (
  • However, traditional methods for automated defect detection do not relate directly to human perception. (
  • Accurately correlating human perceptions of defects with the information that can be gathered using imaging colorimeters offers an opportunity for objective and repeatable detection and quantification of such defects. (
  • What effect has their visual perception had on the evolution of colour among the flowers they visit? (
  • We measured these profiles across the ultraviolet and visual wavelengths of light, and these profiles were then translated into single points in a "colour space" based on the sensitivities of birds' four classes of colour receptors. (
  • In particular, the distinctiveness of the "red arm" appeared only when the colour space was based on the visual system of honeyeaters. (
  • Visual Perception is a fully-featured flash card app that teaches you how humans perceive light, pictures, images, and motion. (
  • Visual perception is the ability to perceive our surroundings through the light that enters our eyes. (
  • Biologists have long wished to know how visual communication between flowers and their pollinators works, but it's not an easy task as animals perceive colours quite differently from us. (
  • Their ability to perceive this discrepancy indicates that infant perception occurs within a space that is common to the visual and auditory modes. (
  • In summary, we provide a unifying framework that reconceptualizes how the human visual system constructs coherent percepts from noisy position and motion signals. (
  • Even in the simplest displays with no changes in object position, our perception is driven by the output of an object-tracking system that rationally infers different generative causes of motion signals. (
  • C. Blakemore and F. Campbell, On the Existence of Neurons in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images. (
  • The course will consider how what we see is generated by the visual system, what the central problem for vision is, and what visual perception indicates about how the brain works. (
  • Although the discussions will be informed by visual system anatomy and physiology, the focus is on perception. (
  • This method is inspired by the human visual perception and like humans applies a similar reasoning for locating crop rows in the images, although it exploits the camera system geometry, because it is available. (
  • The human visual system is generally believed to be sensitive to visible light in the range of wavelengths between 370 and 730 nanometers (0.00000037 to 0.00000073 meters) of the electromagnetic spectrum. (
  • Balance to the visual design can build a good human perceptual system to understand the concepts and interpret information more easily and accurately. (
  • After briefly reviewing the neuropsychological evidence for this division of labor in the human visual system, we explore the evidence for a dissociation between perception and action in neurologically intact individuals. (
  • Models of the other visual system in birds with ultraviolet receptors, common in parrots and songbirds, did not reveal a distinctive red arm of floral colours. (
  • Indeed, statistical and perceptual learning studies show that the visual system continuously extracts and learns the statistical regularities of the environment, and can do so automatically and without awareness. (
  • A primary aspect in regards to the human visual system is blur perception. (
  • Visual perception is a complex system in which blur perception plays a key role in focusing on near or far objects. (
  • Medical Xpress) -- "Our visual system is tuned towards perceiving other people. (
  • I strongly suspect that it is density differences such as these that allow our visual system to distinguish textures. (
  • We successfully reached these goals, building a large-scale integrative bechmarking platform called Brain-Score, evaluating tens of models on it, and developing CORnet, the current best model of visual system. (
  • Going forward, we expect our heavily quantitative and engineering-focused approach to understanding visual system to scale to building the models of the entire brain. (
  • The study of visual illusions (cases when the inference process goes wrong) has yielded a lot of insight into what sort of assumptions the visual system makes. (
  • The visual system allows objects to be recognized even when there is missing visual information. (
  • These results shed light on the possibility that damage to normal development of the visual system, is connected with the outbreak of the disease and in reality testing symptom. (
  • Furthermore, the results seem to indicate that nonlesional paroxysmal activity in the posterior temporal lobe can cause chronic dysfunctions of the visual system, which may be reversible with effective seizure control. (
  • This system creates regulation of visual sensitivity over the 10^12-fold variation in environmental light levels under which human vision operates. (
  • Our compression work is based on a combination of feature-based algorithms inspired by the human visual- perception system (HVS), and some transform-based algorithms (such as our enhanced discrete cosine transform, wavelet transforms), vector quantization and neural networks. (
  • These attributes of visual analysis we associate with visual awareness or "seeing", and thus this stream has been referred to as the "what" system because it recognizes objects (Ungerleider and Mishkin 1982). (
  • Caffeine stimulates your adrenaline system which activates your visual perception. (
  • However, it also plays important roles in visual-motor processing, including spatial awareness based on motion cues, and the analysis of motion information for the planning of motor behaviors such as tracking moving targets with the eyes. (
  • On the generality of the topological theory of visual shape perception. (
  • Learn about human visual perception! (
  • Unless man-made products are attuned to, and support, human visual perception, the viewing experience suffers and there is significant potential that users will be unable to use your products quickly, safely, or without error . (
  • We will then look at lots of different designs, evaluating each one according to specific aspects of the human visual experience. (
  • In view of the present no reference evaluation methods, they cannot reflect the human visual perception of image quality accurately. (
  • In this paper, we propose an efficient general-purpose no reference image quality assessment (NRIQA) method based on visual perception, and effectively integrates human visual characteristics into the NRIQA fields. (
  • Moreover, the predicted results are more consistent with human subjective perception, which can accurately reflect the human visual perception to image quality. (
  • In addition, we also investigated objective measures to characterize compression results, because traditional means such as the peak signal- to-noise ratio (PSNR) are not adequate to fully characterize the results, since such measures do not take into account the details of human visual perception. (
  • This field has many practical applications to visual tasks such as driving, reading and visual search. (
  • Retinal focus patterns are critical in blur perception as these patterns are composed of distal and proximal retinal defocus. (
  • The model accounts for several well-known visual illusions, including motion-induced position shifts, slow speed biases, and the curveball illusion. (
  • The formation of incorrect hypotheses will lead to errors of perception (e.g. visual illusions like the Necker cube). (
  • Using various tests of visual perception, they will characterize the versatility, scope, and limitations of autistics' enhanced performance on these tests, and determine which brain regions and neural pathways are involved. (
  • Results reinforced earlier findings that urban disadvantaged children scored poorly on tests of visual perception. (
  • E. Adelson and J. Movshon, Phenomenal Coherence of Moving Visual Patterns. (
  • The visual perception of colors, patterns, and structures has been of particular interest in relation to graphical user interfaces (GUIs) because these are perceived exclusively through vision. (
  • Gestalt theorizes that objects with shared visual properties will be lumped into the same group. (
  • Mehta, Neha and Chugan, Pawan Kumar, Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Perception of Electronics Products and Usage of Technology (January 11, 2018). (
  • Instead, these studies point toward a role for the hippocampus in higher-order spatial perception. (
  • Even though there is consistency with higher visual processing disability, studies show that adult patient with schizophrenia display more deficits in object and form perception than in spatial perception [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • In a longitudinal archival study, 17 it was shown that changes in visual-spatial perception sometimes appear in the preclinical phase of dementia as early as 3 years before the diagnosis of dementia, while memory decline occurs some 2 years before diagnosis. (
  • As I said yesterday , I love research that challenges the common sense view that perception, especially visual perception, represents the world as it "is. (
  • At first, this might seem like a case of motivation (poor kids wanting money) affecting perception, but there was a problem with this study, and the line of research that it spawned. (
  • This study will focus on brain regions involved in visual perception and attention. (
  • Although Gibson would have accepted these assumptions (Gibson 1977, 1979), I think he would also have agreed that they are not the best place to begin the study of visual phenomena. (
  • Based on the theory of visual perception, this study produces a design of IV application. (
  • In parallel to the experimental study of expectations, a growing body of theoretical work suggests that visual perception is akin to Bayesian Inference (e.g. (
  • By pinpointing exactly when and where in the brain multisensory interactions between the auditory and visual senses take place, the study dispels previous beliefs in the relative segregation of hearing and vision at the input stages. (
  • The study shows how models of brain organisation and perception need to be changed to include multisensory interactions as a fundamental component. (
  • This study shows that holding the memory of a visual event in our mind for a short period of time can 'contaminate' visual perception during the time that we're remembering," Randolph Blake, study co-author and Centennial Professor of Psychology , said. (
  • In this study, the researchers used a visual illusion called motion repulsion to learn whether information held in working memory affects perception. (
  • The aim of the present thesis was to advance the knowledge of diagnostic procedures for lateralizing visual memory deficits and to study the characteristics of perception in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (
  • A second study using high school students found that visual perception and intelligence test scores were highly correlated, indicating overlap of behavior tapped. (
  • For Gregory perception is a hypothesis, which is based on prior knowledge. (
  • Richard Gregory proposed that perception involves a lot of hypothesis testing to make sense of the information presented to the sense organs. (
  • Visual Perception Activity-Stations Kits for anatomy and physiology contains four "out of sight" activities that will stay in your mind long after you leave the laboratory. (
  • Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons à la modélisation de la perception audio-visuelle avec une tête robotique. (
  • Le but de la thèse était d'avancer les connaissances sur les procédures diagnostiques ayant pour objectif la latéralisation des déficits de la mémoire visuelle, ainsi que d'étudier la perception dans l´épilepsie du lobe temporal (ELT). (
  • La troisième partie comprime une expansion de la mémoire visuelle à la perception visuelle. (
  • In the project, visual perceptual skills of children aged between four and ten years were assessed. (
  • The project focused on the question whether the correlation of an understanding of quantity relationships on the one hand and arithmetic skills on the other hand is mediated via the children's visual perceptual skills. (
  • Source: Your Therapy Source] This freebie challenges visual perceptual skills with a Thanksgiving theme. (
  • Practice visual motor, visual discrimination, visual spatial, visual closure and overall visual perceptual skills with these printables. (
  • In our visual environment, object motion is strongly correlated with changes in object position. (
  • However, there is no unifying computational framework that can account for both motion and position perception and their interactions. (
  • Despite growing evidence for perceptual interactions between motion and position, no unifying framework exists to account for these two key features of our visual experience. (
  • This includes motion-induced shifts in perceived position, perceptual slow-speed biases, slowing of motions shown in visual periphery, and the well-known curveball illusion. (
  • These results reveal that motion perception cannot be isolated from position signals. (
  • Taken together, we show that object tracking plays a fundamental role in perception of visual motion and position. (
  • Conceptualizing motion and position perception in the broader context of object tracking suggests an alternative conceptual framework-one that we show provides a unifying account for a number of perceptual phenomena. (
  • Focusing on the perception of visual motion, we here review recent studies from our laboratories and others addressing these issues. (
  • We discuss how these data on motion perception fit within the broader literature on perceptual Bayesian priors, perceptual expectations, and statistical and perceptual learning and review the possible neural basis of priors. (
  • Readers of this volume of JCS will have easy access to the introductory essay by Eric Myin (2000) , which contains an excellent short review of Gibson's anti-representationalist approach to vision, which questions the interpretation of many classic experiments, because they produce artificially fragmented perceptions. (
  • Neural activity in individuals with ASDs will be observed and measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while the subjects are engaged in visual tasks. (
  • We can moreover assume that visual-spatial processing activities are involved in the work on arithmetic tasks. (
  • In the first phase, each participant was exposed to different series of tasks that tested the children's perception abilities, including facial recognition, the ability to classify objects, reading, and pattern recognition. (
  • Within the domain of visual perception, studies have shown that adults with schizophrenia perform poorly on visual tasks, especially on tasks requiring high-level processing [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • It also suggests utilization of technology to enhance the effectiveness of visual display. (
  • Play media 2.5D is described as an effect in visual perception - especially stereoscopic vision - where the 3D environment of the observer is projected onto the 2D planes of the retinas. (
  • So the topic of perception is, although it has been dealt with throughout the centuries from the stoic philosophy of the Greeks to modern neurologists, a highly current one that affects us all and every day in an unprecedented way. (
  • Ariela Gigi, Daniela Karni, Oren Eilam (2015) Visual Impairment Affects the Perception of Reality: Visual Processing Deficits among Adolescents with Schizophrenia. (
  • Attention induces conservative subjective biases in visual perception. (
  • Visual Perception, Eye Movement and Analysis Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Visual Perception, Eye Movement and Analysis Conference. (
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Visual Perception, Eye Movement and Analysis Conference. (
  • You'll use your eyes in these games, which are great for developing visual processing skills like eye movement, visual recognition, and logic skills. (
  • B.I. Bertenthal, Infants' Perception of Biomechanical Motions: Intrinsic Image and Knowledge-Based Constraints. (
  • Integrating information across the visual field into an ensemble (e.g., seeing the forest from the trees) is an effective strategy to efficiently process the visual world, and one that is often impaired in autism spectrum disorder. (
  • Visual psychophysics, the quantification of visual perception, explores the complex interactions between the eye and the brain. (
  • Our research makes excellent translational use of the group's combination of clinical expertise and research skills in visual psychophysics. (
  • The ability to interpret the signals generated in the eye by the brain allows for the perception of vision. (
  • Collects twenty five classic articles in visual perception, the articles span a century and include examples from disciplines that contribute to our current understanding of vision. (
  • Learners will be introduced to the problems that vision faces, using perception as a guide. (
  • It is well documented that vision drives olfactory perception [2, 3], but there has been little indication that olfaction could modulate visual perception. (
  • A person can have problems with visual perceptual processing even if they have 20/20 vision. (
  • The first was the "emission theory" of vision which maintained that vision occurs when rays emanate from the eyes and are intercepted by visual objects. (
  • In adults, even if sight is still intact, injury or removal of even a small area of the brain's vision processing centres can lead to dramatic, permanent loss of perception, making them unable to recognize faces or locations, or to read. (
  • Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret ( see ) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision . (
  • Human vision and perception are the ultimate determinants of display quality, however human judgment is variable, making it difficult to define and apply quantitatively in research or production environments. (
  • Visual data at each end of the process interacts with and influences what happens at the other end. (

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