Demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
A rare developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the THORAX. It is the result of defective fusion of the anterior chest wall. Depending on the location of the heart, ectopia cordis can be thoracic, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and cervical.
A sudden CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (e.g., VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION) caused by a blunt, non-penetrating impact to the precordial region of chest wall. Commotio cordis often results in sudden death without prompt cardiopulmonary defibrillation.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.

CD4(+) T-cells are required for the establishment of maedi-visna virus infection in macrophages but not dendritic cells in vivo. (1/207)

The role of CD4(+) lymphocytes in the establishment of lentivirus infection in macrophages has been studied in an in vivo system of lentivirus infection where CD4(+) lymphocytes are not the targets for infection. Using the non-T-cell-tropic lentivirus, maedi-visna virus (MVV), in CD4-depleted sheep, we have found that CD4(+) T cells were required for MVV infection in macrophages but not dendritic cells. CD4-depleted sheep had significantly lower levels of MVV-infected cells in lymph nodes and efferent lymph after MVV challenge in the drainage area of the lymph node. Due to the absence of virus in combination with the lack of CD4(+) T helper cells, virus-specific immune responses were reduced. There was delayed induction of cytotoxic T cell precursors, a marked reduction in virus-specific in vitro proliferative responses, and a delay in the appearance of MVV-specific antibodies. By contrast, CD4 depletion had no effect on the establishment of MVV infection in afferent lymph dendritic cells migrating from the skin infection site to the lymph node.  (+info)

Neutralizing antibody responses and evolution of antigenic variants in monozygotic twin lambs infected with phenotypically distinct ovine lentiviruses. (2/207)

Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates 85/34 (OvLV 34) and 84/28 (OvLV 28) were initially characterized as phenotypically distinct "rapid/high" and "slow/low" strains based on replication kinetics, syncytiogenesis, and cell lysis in vitro. In the present study, sera from OvLV-34- or OvLV-28-infected monozygotic twin lambs defined these virus strains as distinct neutralization serotypes. We also show that immune recognition of at least one OvLV neutralization epitope is influenced by genetic differences between lambs. Additional studies determined the neutralization phenotype of virus isolates from alveolar macrophages of OvLV-34- or OvLV-28-infected lambs, evaluated the role of neutralizing antibodies in selection and persistence of antigenic variants, and related the severity of OvLV-induced lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) to the evolution of neutralization variants. These studies demonstrate that (i) macrophage-associated OvLV neutralization variants can arise in the presence or the absence of neutralizing antibodies directed to inoculum viruses, (ii) OvLV variants persist in macrophages in the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies, and (iii) the emergence of OvLV variants is apparently unrelated to the severity of LIP.  (+info)

Conserved sequence motifs involving the tat reading frame of Brazilian caprine lentiviruses indicate affiliations to both caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus. (3/207)

The sequence variation in small ruminant lentiviruses from Brazilian herds of milking goats was sampled in a representative region of the pol gene and in a region including the entire tat open reading frame. Clones were amplified from cDNA derived from virus produced in vitro using primers targetting conserved sequences of the pol gene. Iterative sequencing of clones indicated that animals from two herds in the Minas Gerais area were infected by a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like virus and that individual animals carried variant virus populations. Sequences derived from an infected goat from a herd in Pernambuco showed no nucleic acid variation and were distant from the CAEV-type sequence but marginally closer to ovine visna-maedi virus (VMV) sequences. Sequences amplified from a region including the tat gene, amplified with a common upstream primer within the vif coding region and different downstream primers because of the local divergence between CAEV- and VMV-type sequences, confirmed the affiliation of the Minas Gerais sequences to CAEV and indicated that the Pernambuco isolate was indeed related to VMV, which had not previously been reported to cause natural caprine infection. The overlap between the vif and tat open reading frames clearly distinguished between CAEV-like small ruminant lentiviruses, which shared eight common nucleotides, and the VMV group, where the overlap was reduced to a single base; the final adenine of the vif terminator (TAA) is the initial adenine of the presumptive tat initiator codon. This may be useful for epizoological tracing of the origin of outbreaks.  (+info)

A new sensitive serological assay for detection of lentivirus infections in small ruminants. (4/207)

Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus (MVV) in sheep and to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. The solid phase is sensitized with a combination of the major core protein p25 of MVV produced in Escherichia coli and a peptide derived from the immunodominant region of the viral transmembrane protein gp46. The peptide carries an N-terminal biotin residue and is complexed with streptavidin prior to being coated. The new assay was evaluated with 2,336 sheep serum samples from different European countries with large differences in the levels of prevalence of MVV infections, and the results have been compared to those of the standard agar gel immunodiffusion test. Discrepant samples were analyzed by Western blotting with viral lysate, and most sera could be classified unambiguously. The estimated overall sensitivity of the new ELISA was 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.4 to 99. 8%) and the specificity was 99.3% (95% CI, 98.7 to 99.6%). A limited set of goat sera (n = 212) was also analyzed, with similar results. These data indicate that the new assay is a reliable tool that can be used in control and eradication programs for small ruminant lentivirus infections.  (+info)

Naturally occurring mutations within 39 amino acids in the envelope glycoprotein of maedi-visna virus alter the neutralization phenotype. (5/207)

Infectious molecular clones have been isolated from two maedi-visna virus (MVV) strains, one of which (KV1772kv72/67) is an antigenic escape mutant of the other (LV1-1KS1). To map the type-specific neutralization epitope, we constructed viruses containing chimeric envelope genes by using KV1772kv72/67 as a backbone and replacing various parts of the envelope gene with equivalent sequences from LV1-1KS1. The neutralization phenotype was found to map to a region in the envelope gene containing two deletions and four amino acid changes within 39 amino acids (positions 559 to 597 of Env). Serum obtained from a lamb infected with a chimeric virus, VR1, containing only the 39 amino acids from LV1-1KS1 in the KV1772kv72/67 backbone neutralized LV1-1KS1 but not KV1772kv72/67. The region in the envelope gene that we had thus shown to be involved in escape from neutralization was cloned into pGEX-3X expression vectors, and the resulting fusion peptides from both molecular clones were tested in immunoblots for reactivity with the KV1772kv72/67 and VR1 type-specific antisera. The type-specific KV1772kv72/67 antiserum reacted only with the fusion peptide from KV1772kv72/67 and not with that from LV1-1KS1, and the type-specific VR1 antiserum reacted only with the fusion peptide from LV1-1KS1 and not with that from KV1772kv72/67. Pepscan analysis showed that the region contained two linear epitopes, one of which was specific to each of the molecularly cloned viruses. This linear epitope was not bound by all type-specific neutralizing antisera, however, which indicates that it is not by itself the neutralization epitope but may be a part of it. These findings show that mutations within amino acids 559 to 597 in the envelope gene of MVV virus result in escape from neutralization. Furthermore, the region contains one or more parts of a discontinuous neutralization epitope.  (+info)

Subterminal viral DNA nucleotides as specific recognition signals for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and visna virus integrases under magnesium-dependent conditions. (6/207)

Many reports describe the characteristics of susceptible viral DNA substrates to various retroviral integrases during in vitro reactions in which manganese serves as the divalent cation cofactor for site-specific nicking. However, manganese is known to alter the specificity of some endonucleases and magnesium may be the divalent cation used during retroviral integration in vivo. To address these concerns, we identified conditions under which the integrases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and visna virus were optimally active with magnesium (the first time such activity was shown for visna virus integrase) and used these conditions to test the susceptibility of a series of oligodeoxynucleotide substrates. The data show that two base pairs immediately internal to the conserved CA dinucleotide near the termini of retroviral DNA are selectively recognized by the two integrases and that the final six base pairs of viral DNA contain sufficient sequence information for specific recognition and cleavage by each enzyme. The results validate the importance of the subterminal viral DNA positions even in the presence of magnesium and identify viral DNA positions that functionally interact with integrase. The data obtained under magnesium-dependent conditions, which were obtained with substrates containing single and multiple base-pair substitutions and two different retroviral integrases, are consistent with those previously obtained with manganese. Thus, the large body of manganese-dependent data identifying terminal viral DNA positions that are important in substrate recognition by various integrases likely reflects interactions that are biologically relevant.  (+info)

Characterization of a membrane-associated protein implicated in visna virus binding and infection. (7/207)

The identity of the cellular receptor(s) for visna virus, an ovine lentivirus, is currently unknown; however, previous studies from our laboratory have identified membrane-associated proteins expressed selectively in susceptible cells which bind visna virus. Moreover, a polyclonal antibody (2-23), raised against a 45-kDa visna virus binding protein, bound specifically to the surface of susceptible cells in immunofluorescence assays and significantly reduced binding of visna virus to cells (S. E. Crane et al., 1991, J. Virol., 65, 6137-6143). In this report we extend our studies of this antibody (2-23), showing both that 2-23 significantly reduces visna virus infection of susceptible cells and that 2-23 immunoprecipitates a putative protein complex consisting of a prominent 30-kDa protein, as well as the 45-kDa immunogen, specifically from radiolabeled virus-susceptible sheep cells. Further, we demonstrate that the 30-kDa protein is a membrane-associated proteoglycan substituted with a chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s) and that treatment of susceptible cells with an inhibitor of GAG synthesis significantly reduces visna virus production. Collectively, these data support a role for a proteoglycan in visna virus cell binding and infection.  (+info)

The long terminal repeat is a determinant of cell tropism of maedi-visna virus. (8/207)

Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a lentivirus of sheep, mainly affecting the lungs and the central nervous system. Long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence variability is common in tissue culture-derived isolates of MVV as well as those of other lentiviruses. The role of this sequence variation in MVV replication has not been explored. PCR amplification of the LTRs of an MVV isolate revealed two product sizes, the larger containing a 53 bp duplication. PCR products containing the two size variants of the LTRs were cloned into an infectious molecular clone of MVV and the resulting chimeric viruses were tested for growth in various cell types. The chimeric virus containing only one copy of the 53 bp sequence was found to grow more slowly in sheep choroid plexus cells, sheep fibroblasts and sheep synovial cells than the virus with the 53 bp duplication. Both viruses grew equally well in macrophages. These results indicate that the LTRs determined the extended cell tropism of MVV.  (+info)

Maedi visna virus (MVV) vertical transmission in sheep via infected colostrums is a very important route of infection in lambs. To verify colostral transmission and to study early viral entry in lambs, colostrum samples, and small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes of lambs born from experimentally infected ewes were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) studies. In particular, newborn lambs were naturally fed maternal colostrum and humanely killed at 10, 24, 48, 72, 96 h and 7 and 10 days after birth; two caesarian-derived lambs served as uninfected controls. No lesions suggestive of MVVinfection were found, but marked immunoreactions for MVV capsid antigen (CA, p28) were detected in lambs fed maternal colostrum and in macrophages cultured from colostrum. IHC results in lambs suggest a initial viral absorption by intestinal epithelial cells at the tip of the villi, passage to mononuclear cells in the lamina propria and involvement of ileum ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes progressive pneumonia or paralysis, leading to death. Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) all include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, it has been postulated that all members of the Lentivirus share a common mechanism of entry that involves the use of CXCR4. With the use of syncytia assays, infection-, inhibition- and enhancement studies, it was shown that CXCR4 is not a common lentivirus receptor. U87 and HOS cells, both celllines lacking CXCR4, were susceptible to infection. However, cells transfected with CD4 and CXCR4 showed an increased syncytia formation and the presence of CD¤ and CXCR4 augments virus-induced cell fusion. The nature of MVV receptor is still not known, but our data suggest the use of CD4 and/or CXCR4 as accessory molecules or as part of a ...
Comtet, L. (IDvet), Feliziani, F. (CEREL - IZS Umbria e Marche, Italy), Lesceu, S. (IDvet). Validation of the ID Screen® Maedi Visna Indirect ELISA: specificity on BTV-8 vaccinated sheep and detection of seroconversion. Poster presented at the 2010 EAVLD meeting, Lelystad, Holland ...
Visna virus of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats are serologically related but genetically distinct retroviruses which cause slowly progressive diseases in their natural hosts. To localize homologous regions of the DNAs of these two viruses, we constructed a physical map of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA and aligned it with the viral RNA. Cloned probes of visna virus DNA were then used to localize regions of homology with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA. These studies showed homology in the 5 region of the genome encompassing U5 and the gag and pol genes and also in a small region in the env gene. These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. Regions which did not show homology such as large sections in the env gene may represent unique sequences which control highly strain-specific characteristics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do not cause increased production of virions. AU - Jolly, P. E.. AU - Huso, D.. AU - Hart, G.. AU - Narayan, O.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. DO - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. M3 - Article. C2 - 2549189. AN - SCOPUS:0024374144. VL - 70. SP - 2221. EP - 2226. JO - Journal of General Virology. JF - Journal of General Virology. SN - 0022-1317. IS - 8. ER - ...
This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. ...
Visna - Maedi is a chronic viral disease prevalent in adult sheep. The disease is rarely found in certain species of goat. Maedi Visna virus is also referred to as ovine progressive pneumonia. (OPP ) This disease corresponds to two clinical entities caused by the same Maedi is a form that results in a chronic progressive pneumonia. Visna refers to the neurological form of the disease and predominantly causes meningoencephalitis in adult sheep. This disease has inflicted many economic losses worldwide due to the long incubation period and the high mortality rate of sheep and goats. MV virus can infect sheep of any age but clinical symptoms rarely occur in sheep less than two years old. The onset of the diseases is gradual resulting in relentless loss of weight in addition to breathing problems. Cough, abortion, rapid breathing, depression, chronic mastitis and arthritis are also additional symptoms observed. These symptoms appear mostly in animals over the age of three and therefore might spread ...
Like ependymal clumps they are infrequently seen in CSF cytospins. They tend to be observed in clusters, but it is evident that they are individual cells rather than a single multinucleated mass like ependymal clumps ...
Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of HIV. Even Charlie Sheen. Dr Sam I was with u in Mexico for 1 day. Its illegal for u to practice in U.S.A. where u treated me for 2 months © https://t.co/lKv6YPYdhm - Charlie Sheen (@charliesheen) February 1, 2016 ... But what if he could, tho? What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work? That would be a fun and educational game to play! Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a… ...
This 1362 word essay is about Lentiviruses, HIVAIDS, Animal virology, Visna virus, Human T-lymphotropic virus, Infectious causes of cancer. Read the full essay now!
The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit. The total percentage of herds exposed to CAEV was 87.71% (CI95 78.42-97.00). A total of 733 goats were seropositive with overall seroprevalence of 23.22% (CI95 21.78-24.65). The intraherd seroprevalence was 20.82%±24.07. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant association between CAEV and the next variables: (i) herd size (P,0.0001; OR: 2.07; CI95: 1.73-2.50), (ii) kidding area (P,0.0020; OR: 1.38; CI95: 1.13-1.69), (iii) cleaning and disinfection program (P,0.0067; OR: ...
CAPRINE arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is an important infectious disease that contributes to low productivity of goat herds in developing countries. Many factors, such as breed and production system, have been reported to interfere in its occurrence. Nevertheless, the effect of farmer association (cooperatives) in its control has never been investigated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to report a difference of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in associated versus non-associated farmers in the same region in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A total of 562 blood samples were sampled from 28 goat herds. Animals were randomly selected from each herd. A total 79 of 562 (14.0 per cent) serum samples were reactive for CAEV. According to the serology, 80 per cent of the herds belonging to independent farmers presented at least one seroreactive animal, with a herd level average among those of 25.7 per cent (11.1 to 62.5 per cent; median ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Visna-Maedi virus (MVV) are lentivirus that cross the species barriers between goats and sheep and are therefore referred to as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). In our laboratory we study different aspects of these fascinating viruses in various projects. ...
By Gail Bowman CAE or CAEV (Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) is a common disease of goats that is prevalent worldwide. In the United States, prevalence as high as 81% has been reported for goat herds. According to a recent study by J. D. Rowe, DVM, Infection most commonly occurs when the virus is present in colostrum…
Contributor Comment: This is the respiratory form of small ruminant lentiviruses. This respiratory disease is caused by a group of non-oncogenic exogenous retroviruses of the genus lentivirus that target immune cells, mainly macrophages. The Small Ruminant Lentiviruses are a group of highly related single stranded RNA viruses with high mutational potential that affect mainly sheep but also goats.1 These viruses induce chronic inflammation that usually remains subclinical. When it becomes clinical, the disease can express mainly in four different locations: lung, joints (mainly carpus), central nervous system and mammary gland.3 The expression of each form as well as the gravity of the lesion depends on host immune response and the viral factors. The respiratory form, termed maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia, is the most common presentation of the disease in sheep.1 The process consists of an afebrile chronic progressive pneumonia that leads to weight loss and marked dyspnea. Grossly, the ...
Summary This study describes the biological properties of a strain of virus isolated from tissues of a goat with leukoencephalomyelitis-arthritis. The agent is a retrovirus, having a virion-associated reverse transcriptase enzyme and an antigenic determinant(s) which cross-reacts with the p30 of visna-maedi viruses. Morphogenesis of the virus is also similar to visna virus in terms of virus assembly and the multinucleated giant cell formation which accompanies replication of the latter virus. Despite its cytopathogenic property the goat agent was not lytic in goat cell culture, causing instead a productive infection which persisted through multiple subcultures of the cells. The virus replicated incompletely in sheep cell cultures but could be rescued from the latter, weeks after inoculation, by co-cultivation with goat cells. Our data suggest that this strain of goat leukoencephalitis virus is a variant of the ovine retroviruses with a host range limited to the goat.
Animals, Goats, Bacteria, Human, Medicine, Peptides, Animal, Animal Model, Arthritis, Caev, Caprine Arthritis-encephalitis Virus, Cell, Cell Count, Cohort Study, Encephalitis, Encephalitis Virus, Hand, Infection, Lactose, Milk
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Dear PSGHS member,. In light of the current Coronavirus situation, please see below a statement from George Caldow, Head of SRUC Veterinary Services:. I would like to reassure the members of SRUCs Premium Sheep and Goat Health Scheme (PSGHS) and those involved in the wider sheep industry that SRUC will do everything that can be done to ensure continuity of the health scheme.. We understand the vital importance that flock health status has for the sales later this year, and that is both for our members selling stock, but also for clients who look to buy great genetics in healthy animals from flocks that are accredited free of disease. We have very effective health schemes that have allowed members to manage the risk of Maedi Visna and EAE to a very high degree. We will ensure that this continues.. Right now, farm animal vets are actively discouraged from visiting farms to collect blood samples unless they are of immediate value to manage animals that are unwell or where their welfare may be ...
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But what if he could, tho?. What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work?. That would be a fun and educational game to play!. Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a retrovirus that infects goats. It is like HIV in the sense that they are both lentiviruses, that is, more complex (more genes) retroviruses. They both share the standard gag, pol, and env genes all retroviruses have, plus a few accessory genes: rev, tat, and vif. HIV also has a few more.. But while there are similarities, CAEV and HIV are not the same any more than you and blue whales are the same (I tried to align an amino acid sequence of a CAEV Env with an HIV-1 Env, and the program was like Nuh uh. Dees dont go together.). So: How could CAEV be used to cure HIV?. 1- Anti-CAEV antibodies from goats could stop HIV!. Dr. Whatever said, specifically, that he looked for the absence of disease. ...
Lentiviruses provide a suitable starting point for the generation of viral vectors for vaccination due to their ability to transduce non-dividing cells, including dendritic cells. This allows the delivery of antigens directly to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. The most well developed and characterised lentiviral vector is based on HIV-1 which now incorporates safety features to minimise the effects of hazards such as insertional oncogenesis. These HIV-1 vectors have been shown to mediate immunity against several pathogens including: Plasmodium falciparum, the Influenza Virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse models. Our group has applied the advances in the HIV-1 system to the visna maedi virus in order to engineer vaccines suitable for sheep. The vaccines will initially be targeted against the sheep pathogens: Teladorsagia circumcinta and Louping Ill Virus; these pathogens have been chosen as current control strategies are insufficient. In this project, antigens ...
Efflux transport of adenosine across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium might contribute to the homeostasis of this neuromodulator in the extracellular fluids of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore adenosine transport across sheep CP epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture. To explore transport of adenosine across the CP epithelium, we have developed a method for primary culture of the sheep choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) on plastic permeable supports and analysed [14C] adenosine transport across this cellular layer, [14C] adenosine metabolism inside the cells, and cellular uptake of [14C] adenosine from either of the chambers. The primary cell culture consisted of an enriched epithelial cell fraction from the sheep fourth ventricle CP and was grown on laminin-precoated filter inserts. CPEC grew as monolayers forming typical polygonal islands, reaching optical confluence on the third day after the seeding. Transepithelial electrical resistance increased over the time after
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Risks for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, Caprine arthritis encephalitis treatments, recommended products for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, ways to prevent Caprine arthritis encephalitis, causes of Caprine arthritis encephalitis
Comparison of Serological and Molecular Tests for Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis and Clinical Evaluation of Mammary Glands of Infected Dairy Goats
Learn symptoms and how to treat caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), one of the most significant diseases affecting the goat industry.
Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus is a member of the small ruminant lentiviruses (also includes ovine progressive pneumonia, or OPP, of sheep), which may lead to chronic disease of the joints, and on rare occasions, encephalitis in goat kids less than six months of age. The CAE virus is intimately associated with white blood cells; therefore, any body secretions that contain blood cells are potential sources of virus to other goats in the herd. Since not all goats that become infected with CAE virus develop clinical disease, it is important to test goats routinely for infection by means of a serologic test that detects viral antibodies in the serum. (Credit: http://waddl.vetmed.wsu.edu/animal-disease-faq/cae) ...
A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats ...
Baselgia, S., Doherr, M.G., Mellor, R., Torsteinsdottir, S., Jermann, T., Zurbriggen, A., Jungi, T., and Marti, E. (2006) Evaluation of an in vitro sulphidoleukotriene release test for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 38:1, 40-46.. Baumrucker, C.R., Saurer, S., Blum, J.W., Jungi, T., and Friis, R.R. (2006) Lactoferrin (Lf): Retinoid interactions in the mammary glands of transgenic mice overexpressing human Lf. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 251:1-2, 56-66.. Fluri, A., Nenci, C., Zahno, M.L., Vogt, H.R., Charan, S., Busato, A., Pancino, G., Peterhans, E., Obexer-Ruff, G., and Bertoni, G. (2006) The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein. Vaccine 24:5, 597-606.. Franchini, M., Schweizer, M., Mätzener, P., Magkouras, I., Sauter, K.S., Mirkovitch, J., Peterhans, E., and Jungi, T.W. (2006) Evidence for ...
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What producers can do to prevent introduction and reduce transmission. Slowly progressive illnesses like Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) in goats are major production limiting diseases that can be a source of significant stress and economic loss for farmers.. Once an animal has the CAE virus, it results in a persistent, lifelong infection. Most goats dont show any symptoms but can be carriers, which means they can transmit the disease to other animals in the herd. There is currently no treatment or vaccine, and the prevalence across Ontario is unknown.. Thats why Ontario Goat has recently partially funded two research projects at the University of Guelph focused on learning more about the disease, its prevalence and how it behaves on Ontario goat farms.. Determining CAE prevalence. A preliminary study of 45 randomly selected Ontario goat herds - 30 dairy goat breeders and 15 meat goat operations - was carried out in 2012 to determine how widespread the CAE virus infection is in the ...
Difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus - posted in Microbiology: Hi, I dont know what is the difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus. Are they used in different purpose? If so, what is it? Anyone help Thanks in advance.
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4Z05 A; 3B4N A; 2O17 A; 1O88 A; 5AMV A; 4XOR A; 1IB4 A; 2O0W A; 4XON A; 3GQA A; 4XLA A; 3ZPP A; 1EE6 A; 5C1C A; 3KRG A; 1PE9 A; 2X3H A; 1O8L A; 1OFL A; 2EWE A; 3GQ7 A; 1DBG A; 2VBK A; 2O0V A; 4YEJ A; 1RU4 A; 2VJJ A; 2PEC A; 2NT6 A; 4OJ6 A; 1O8F A; 1X0C A; 1JRG A; 4YZX A; 1PXZ A; 2NZM A; 4OJP A; 2VBE A; 1IDJ A; 3VMV A; 3EQO A; 2O04 A; 2QY1 A; 2NSP A; 3GQ9 A; 1GQ8 A; 3FY3 A; 1BHE A; 2UVF A; 2X85 A; 2Z8G A; 1HG8 A; 4Z03 A; 1QCX A; 1KCD A; 1JTA A; 5C1E A; 4W8R A; 1BN8 A; 3VSU A; 3GRH A; 3ZSC A; 2BSP A; 3JUR A; 4XKW A; 1WMR A; 1O8G A; 3GQ8 A; 1O8M A; 1CZF A; 4NK6 A; 4YZA A; 4AVZ A; 4W8T A; 1RMG A; 1RWR A; 4I84 A; 4XN0 A; 3WWG A; 1AIR A; 1PLU A; 2NTB A; 1NHC A; 4XM3 A; 4W8Q A; 2IQ7 A; 4PMH A; 4XMY A; 4XR6 A; 2O1D A; 4W8S A; 2QX3 A; 3VST A; 2X6Y A; 4XLF A; 4XOP A; 1K5C A; 2NTQ A; 1IDK A; 1O8K A; 2NST A; 1DBO A; 2X6X A; 1XG2 A; 1KTW A; 1H80 A; 2ODL A; 4XKV A; 4NK8 A; 3T9G A; 4OJO A; 1OGM X; 1O8J A; 4URR A; 1VBL A; 2VJI A; 1OOC A; 1OFM A; 4Z06 A; ...
GeneCopoeia offers ultra-purified and concentrated lentivirus as pre-made and custom-made for ORF cDNA, miRNA, sgRNA, shRNA, promoter, and more.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic systemic disorder, which is associated with cyst formation in several organs, renal function decline and a higher prevalence of intracranial aneurysms. We report a 52-year-old, otherwise healthy, man with ADPKD who had asymptomatic, bilateral, multiple cysts in the choroid plexus, which ... read more is an extremely rare abnormality. Recent evidence suggests that the polycystin proteins, which are dysfunctional in ADPKD, are found in ciliated choroid plexus cells that are involved with regulation of cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis. We hypothesize therefore that choroid plexus cysts may be part of the ADPKD phenotype, which has not been described before. show less ...
Icelandic sheep were injected intracerebrally with visna virus, which produces a persistent infection of the CNS accompanied by encephalomyelitis and focal demyelinating lesions. Studies were conducted on two groups of sheep, with short-term infections (25 sheep sampled 1-3 months after infection) and long-term infections (14 sheep sampled 5-6 years after ... read more infection). Quantitative determination of CSF immunoglobulin levels 5 years after infection indicated that IgM concentrations was usually elevated, IgG2 was occasionally elevated and IgG1 was rarely elevated. CSF oligoclonal bands were seen in about half the sheep examined 5 years after infection. There was a correlation between high titers of CSF antiviral antibody and both elevated CSF IgM concentration and CSF oligoclonal bands. Serum/CSF IgG1 ratios indicated that the blood-brain barrier was apparently intact in long-term visna infection, consistent with intrathecal synthesis of IgM and of antiviral antibody. The alterations ...
The Mitchell family, who run the Borders Monitor Farm in Denholm, are turning their attention to how they can safeguard their flock from some of the main infectious diseases that can affect sheep productivity.. At the next monitor farm meeting, the family will look at some of the factors limiting flock performance on their farm.. At the meeting, the Mitchells will give an update on what has been happening on their farm since their last meeting in November.. They will be joined by Lynn Gibson from SAC Vet services at St Boswells, who will talk about the infectious iceberg diseases which could be affecting flocks without farmers realising.. The main iceberg diseases in UK sheep are Maedi Visna, Johnes disease, Jaagsiekte (OPA), Caseous Lympadenitis (CLA) and border disease. They are called iceberg diseases because there are very few diagnosed cases (tip of the iceberg) but in fact there are far more infected animals than farmers and vets recognise.. The meeting will highlight the control ...
When properly stored at -80 °C, MISSION ® lentivirus particles can effectively transduce cells even after ~2.5 years of storage.
Lentiviruses are widespread in a variety of vertebrates, often associated with chronic disease states. However, until the recent discovery of the prehistoric endogenous lentiviruses in rabbits (RELIK) and lemurs (PSIV), it was thought that lentiviruses had no capacity for germline integration and were only spread horizontally in an exogenous fashion. The existence of RELIK and PSIV refuted these ideas, revealing lentiviruses to be present in a range of mammals, capable of germline integration, and far more ancient than previously thought. Using Gag sequences reconstructed from the remnants of these prehistoric lentiviruses, we have produced chimeric lentiviruses capable of infecting nondividing cells and determined structures of capsid domains from PSIV and RELIK. We show that the structures from these diverse viruses are highly similar, containing features found in modern-day lentiviruses, including a functional cyclophilin-binding loop. Together, these data provide evidence for an ancient capsid
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Samir Sam Chachoua is an Australian alternative medicine practitioner, trained as a medical doctor. He is not actively licensed to practice medicine in Australia or the United States. Chachoua offers treatments in Mexico that he claims to be effective alternative medicine vaccine therapies for cancer and HIV, among other diseases. His claims lack scientific support, and are disputed by medical doctors. Chachouas treatments depend on theories he has named, including Induced Remission Therapy and The Nemesis Theory, i.e. for every disease there is an anti-disease organism capable of destroying it and restoring health. For treatment of HIV, Chachoua vaccinates patients with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, which is known to cross-react immunologically with HIV. He claims to have eradicated HIV from the nation of Comoros in 2006. This claim has been refuted by Savlator Niyonzima, the UNAIDS country director of Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles. As of 2012, the adult HIV ...
Shah SV, Manickam C, Ram DR, Kroll K, Itell H, Permar SR, Barouch DH, Klatt NR, Reeves RK. CMV Primes Functional Alternative Signaling in Adaptive ?g NK Cells but Is Subverted by Lentivirus Infection in Rhesus Macaques. Cell Rep. 2018 12 04; 25(10):2766-2774.e3 ...
There are 200 species of Mycoplasma. Most are innocuous and do no harm; only four or five are pathogenic. Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) probably comes from the nucleus of the Brucella bacterium. This disease agent is not a bacterium and not a virus; it is a mutated form of the Brucella bacterium, combined with a visna virus, from which the mycoplasma is extracted. ...
Key pneumonia virus enzyme discovered by NTU scientists. The 3D structure of HPMV L:P enzyme that would help develop effective drugs
Lentiviruses are widespread in a variety of vertebrates, often associated with chronic disease states. However, until the recent discovery of the prehistoric endogenous lentiviruses in rabbits (RELIK) and lemurs (PSIV), it was thought that lentiviruses had no capacity for germline integration and were only spread horizontally in an exogenous fashion. The existence of RELIK and PSIV refuted these ideas, revealing lentiviruses to be present in a range of mammals, capable of germline integration, and far more ancient than previously thought. Using Gag sequences reconstructed from the remnants of these prehistoric lentiviruses, we have produced chimeric lentiviruses capable of infecting nondividing cells and determined structures of capsid domains from PSIV and RELIK. We show that the structures from these diverse viruses are highly similar, containing features found in modern-day lentiviruses, including a functional cyclophilin-binding loop. Together, these data provide evidence for an ancient ...
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1974). Visna-maedi in sheep. Basel Margrét Guðnadóttir. (1964). Virus isolated from the brain of a patient with multiple ... Margrét's research focused on slow virus diseases in sheep, the nature of visna-maedi infections and a vaccination for this ... where she researched the visna-maedi virus and various human diseases. In 1969 she became a professor of medical microbiology ... 1968). Studies on natural cases of Maedi in search for diagnostic laboratory methods. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ...
Carey was awarded her Doctorate (PhD) by research thesis on the virology of the maedi-visna virus which affects sheep, in 1993 ... Carey, N. "Studies on the extracellular envelope glycoprotein of maedi-visna virus". British Library EThOS - Thesis details. ...
"First molecular characterization of visna/maedi viruses from naturally infected sheep in Turkey Dilek Muz". Archives of ...
2011). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi Visna (MV)". Goat medicine (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... Blood testing goats for CAE virus before moving them into a new herd will prevent the spread of the disease. There is no known ... The reason for the long (and variable) period of dormancy of the virus is not known. In goats which develop arthritis, the ... Stonos, N; Wootton, SK; Karrow, N (22 August 2014). "Immunogenetics of small ruminant lentiviral infections". Viruses. 6 (8): ...
... syndrome Visceral myopathy familial external ophthalmoplegia Visceral steatosis Viscero-atrial heterotaxia Visna Maedi complex ... Varadi-Papp syndrome Varicella virus antenatal infection Varicella zoster Variegate porphyria Vas deferens, congenital ... syndrome Viljoen-Smart syndrome Viljoen-Winship syndrome Vipoma Viral hemorrhagic fever Virilism Virilizing ovarian tumor Virus ...
MVV may also refer to: Maedi-visna virus, variant of the retrovirus visna virus Mannheimer Versorgungs- und ...
Visna virus (also known as Visna-maedi virus, Maedi-visna virus and Ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily ... Thormar H (2005). "Maedi-visna virus and its relationship to human immunodeficiency virus". AIDS Rev. 7 (4): 233-45. PMID ... Visna/maedi virus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4 Ovine Progressive Pneumonia in Sheep, University of ... The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is ...
... arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600.900 - visna-maedi virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.650 - ... arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.820.650.589.600.900 - visna-maedi virus MeSH B04.820.650.589.650 - lentiviruses ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Visna-maedi virus. Spumavirus. *Simian foamy virus ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Classification[citation needed] Xenotropic viruses (xenos Gr. foreign; tropos ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel ... "XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-17.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Visna-maedi virus. The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that ... "AIDS virus" redirects here. For the computer virus, see AIDS (computer virus). ... Montagnier's group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV).[132] As these two viruses turned out to ... Viruses, F. Animal Virus Life Cycles , 3. The Life Cycle of HIV". Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Home Page. Community College of ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Visna/maedi virus. Primate lentivirus group. Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Human ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jembrana disease virus. Equine lentivirus group. Equine infectious anemia virus. Feline ... Visna virus. Notes[edit]. *^ a b "What is Lentivirus?". News-Medical.net. Retrieved 2015-11-30.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... Simian immunodeficiency virus. Gray mouse lemur prosimian immunodeficiency virus (pSIVgml). Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow ...
Virusul Maedi-Visna. *▪ Virusul Marburg. *▪ Virusul vărsatului de vânt. *▪ Virusul tumorilor mamare la șoareci ... The Universal Virus Database (Daten zu allen bekannten Viren). *Viruses - From Structure To Biology (eng.) (sehr infomative ... Plant Viruses Online. Index to Virus Species. *Viren / Aufbau / Spezifische Merkmale / Entwicklung / Zellbiologie / Bakterien ... Virusul latent al narciselor (Narcissus latent virus). *Virusul mozaicului castraveților la begonia (Cucumber mosaic virus in ...
maedi/visna virus synonyms, maedi/visna virus pronunciation, maedi/visna virus translation, English dictionary definition of ... maedi/visna virus. n. pl. vi·rus·es 1. a. Any of various submicroscopic agents that infect living organisms, often causing ... virus. → فَيْرُوس vir virus Virus ιός virus virus virus virus virus ウイルス 바이러스 virus virus wirus vírus вирус virus เชื้อไวรัส ... virus فيروس، جُرْثومَه вирус vírus virus das Virus virus ιόςvirus viirus ویروس virus virusוירוס छूत के
... maedi, is a pulmonary infection (maedi is Icelandic for shortness of breath) and when it infects the nervous system, visna, a ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Visna_maedi_virus&oldid=47137" ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes ... The influence of CXCR4 on Maedi visna virus-induced syncytium formation. Type. Master thesis ... Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline ... and CXCR4 augments virus-induced cell fusion. The nature of MVV receptor is still not known, but our data suggest the use of ...
Visna/maedi virus serology in sheep: Survey, risk factors and implementation of a successful control programme in Aragón (Spain ... A serological survey of Visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection involving 274,048 sheep from 554 flocks was undertaken during 2002- ...
Antigenic cross reactions between the viruses have been demonstrated in gag and env encoded structural proteins. Antigens from ... Maedi visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. ... Characterization of the immunodominant cross-reacting epitope of visna maedi virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ... Maedi visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. Antigenic cross ...
Visna virus (also known as Visna-maedi virus, Maedi-visna virus and Ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily ... Thormar H (2005). "Maedi-visna virus and its relationship to human immunodeficiency virus". AIDS Rev. 7 (4): 233-45. PMID ... Visna/maedi virus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4 Ovine Progressive Pneumonia in Sheep, University of ... The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is ...
About Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). Maedi-visna virus (MVV) infection of sheep is characterised by ... for the detection of antibodies against Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) in serum and ... Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). The IDEXX CAEV/MVV Total Ab Test is an enzyme linked immunosobent ... The causative agent of the disease is a virus classified as lentivirus, a subgroup of retroviruses. MVV infection is found all ...
Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a lentivirus of sheep causing inflammation in many organs, primarily the lungs and CNS. HIV and SIV ... MVV and HIV have many features in common, including genome organization, mode of virus replication, virus-host interaction and ... Both viruses infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, but the main difference in cell tropism is that, whereas HIV ... Maedi-visna virus as a model for HIV Title. Maedi-visna virus as a model for HIV ...
Maedi-Visna).(The sheep shed) by Countryside & Small Stock Journal; Home and garden Consumer news, advice, product reviews ... Two different tests that can be used to detect the virus include: * Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) Test (after six months of ... Maedi-Visna).-a0271511734. *APA style: Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (a.k.a. OPP, lunger disease. Maedi-Visna).. (n.d.) >The Free ... Maedi-Visna).." Retrieved Apr 23 2018 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Ovine+Progressive+Pneumonia+(a.k.a.+OPP%2c+lunger+ ...
You are here LABOKLIN / Products / Infectious Diseases: Pathogenic Agents and Antibody Detection / Viruses / Maedi Visna Virus ... Maedi and visna are two different diseases in sheep that are caused by the same virus of the retrovirus family and belong to ... Maedi (meaning dyspnoea) disease is characterised by shortness of breath and cough, which are caused by chronic progressive ... Visna (meaning decay) is a slightly contagious but progressive disease of the central nervous system. The animals show ...
1996) Mimicry of a 21.5 kDa myelin basic protein peptide by a Maedi Visna virus polymerase peptide does not contribute to the ... Mimicry of a 21.5 kDa myelin basic protein peptide by a Maedi Visna virus polymerase peptide does not contribute to the ... Weise and Carnegie (1988) found a region of sequence similarity between the pol gene of the Maedi Visna virus (MVV), which ... On the Western blots, eight of the 23 sheep with Visna had serum reactivity to MBP. This slight reaction to MBP in MVV-infected ...
This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection ... This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection ... Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection. ... Maedi Visna, Nucleotide-sequence, Dendritic cell, Macrophages, Expression, Binding proteins, Carbohydrate, Recognition, Brain ...
About Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). Maedi-visna virus (MVV) infection of sheep is characterised by ... Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). The IDEXX MVV/CAEV p28 Ab Screening Tests is based on the use of an ... The causative agent of the disease is a virus classified as lentivirus, a subgroup of retroviruses. MVV infection is found all ... This classification also includes caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), which manifests itself in adult goats mainly in ...
maedi. (redirected from Maedan) maedi/visna virus. a lentivirus that is the causal agent of a type of pneumonia in sheep. ... maedi. a chronic pneumonia of sheep caused by a lentivirus, which also causes visna when it invades the brain of sheep. In ... Called also maedi-visna, Graff-Reinert disease, la bouhite, ovine progressive pneumonia and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. ... Maedi-visna virus. *Maedi-visna virus. *maedi/visna virus. *maedi/visna virus ...
... between sheep is almost exclusively responsible for the spread of the virus that causes the chronic viral disease maedi-visna. ... Epidemiology and control of maedi-visna virus: Curing the flock, PLOS ONE ... between sheep is almost exclusively responsible for the spread of the virus that causes the chronic viral disease maedi-visna. ... Maedi-visna (MV) is an insidious, incurable and eventually fatal viral disease in sheep. The most common symptoms are chronic ...
Keywords: Maedi-Visna virus; caprine arthritis encephalitis virus; small ruminant lentiviruses; diagnosis; ELISA; agar gel ... control programme Maedi-Visna virus; caprine arthritis encephalitis virus; small ruminant lentiviruses; diagnosis; ELISA; agar ... Viruses, EISSN 1999-4915, Published by MDPI AG Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Viruses ... Viruses 2018, 10, 696. AMA Style. Michiels R, Van Mael E, Quinet C, Adjadj NR, Cay AB, De Regge N. Comparative Analysis of ...
... with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. ... The viruses have developed means of counteracting these defences in various ways. The APOBEC3 proteins are a mammalian-specific ... with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. Keywords:. small ruminant lentivirus; maedi-visna virus; ... Simultaneous mutations in CA and Vif of maedi-visna virus cause attenuated replication in macrophages and reduced infectivity ...
Seroprevalence of Visna-Maedi Virus (VMV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) in Van province and around / Seroprevalência de Visna- ... viruses. Of these, 38 (10.5%) tested positive for Visna Maedi virus antibodies and 163 (45.2%) for Border Disease virus ... O presente estudo investigou a seroprevalência de infecções por Visna Maedi Virus (VMV) e Border Disease Virus (BDV) em ovelhas ... The present study investigated the seroprevalance of Visna Maedi Virus (VMV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) infections in ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) vertical transmission in sheep via infected colostrums is a very important route of infection in lambs ... Maedi visna virus (MVV) vertical transmission in sheep via infected colostrums is a very important route of infection in lambs ... Colostral transmission of maedi visna virus: sites of viral entry in lambs born from experimentally infected ewes. ... Colostral transmission of maedi visna virus: sites of viral entry in lambs born from experimentally infected ewes ...
Here, we determined that bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif proteins utilize the Cullin (Cul)- ... The mechanism by which Vif of human, simian or feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV/FIV) suppresses the corresponding host ... All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIVA) antagonize antiviral family APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of the host ... bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), maedi-visna virus (MVV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) are lentiviruses that ...
The disorder is produced by the lentivirus Maedi-Visna, which belongs to the family of Aids. This virus infects sheep, and ... The disorder Maedi-Visna that is detected in sheep affects on mammary gland. As it says in the source language, Icelander, it ... In the consensus conference held last September, experts on immunology, diagnosis, prevision and epidemiology of Maedi-Visna ... which vaccine strategies improve the immune response and which responses may be related to the protection against Maedi-Visna. ...
Ovine TRIM5α can restrict visna/maedi virus.. Jáuregui P, Crespo H, Glaria I, Luján L, Contreras A, Rosati S, de Andrés D, ... Diverse HIV viruses are targeted by a conformationally dynamic antiviral.. Caines ME, Bichel K, Price AJ, McEwan WA, Towers GJ ... Vpx complementation of non-macrophage tropic R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages. ... Lentiviral gene therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using a novel human TRIM21-cyclophilin A restriction ...
Maedi-visna virus detection in ovine third eyelids.. Capucchio MT, Sanna E, Sanna MP, Farigu S, Minelli R, Guarda F. ... Course of graves disease in interferon-treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and in uninfected patients. ... Graves disease in interferon-alpha-treated and untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. ... CXCL10 levels and occurrence of thyroid dysfunction in patients treated with interferon-alpha therapy for hepatitis C virus- ...
Immune response to maedi-visna virus. Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdottir, Valgerdur Andresdottir, Hallgrimur Arnarson, Gudmundur ... Oncogenesis and transforming viruses: the hepatitis B virus and hepatocellularcarcinoma - the etiopathogenic link. Alvin TC Lee ... Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector hybrids efficiently target different skeletal cells. Juan Dai, A. Bakr M. Rabie. [ ... Immunopathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in the fetal and neonatal cat. Holly M. Kolenda-Roberts, Leah A. ...
The influence of CXCR4 on Maedi visna virus-induced syncytium formation  Hovden, Arnt-Ove (The University of Bergen, 2001) ... Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes ... Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in farmed Norwegian fish species  Korsnes, Kjetil (The University of Bergen, 2008-12-05) ...
Zeilfelder U, Bosch V (2001) Properties of wild-type, C-terminally truncated, and chimeric maedi-visna virus glycoprotein and ... Semliki forest virus (SFV), venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), ross river virus (RRV), and sindbis virus ... Chronic Granulomatous Disease Measle Virus Hematopoietic Lineage Professional Antigen Present Cell Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ... Ross River virus and Semliki Forest virus) which exhibit specific tropism towards mouse and human dendritic cells [38, 39]; ...
These viruses include the Visna Maedi virus and that of caprine arthritis encephalitis. "They infect sheep and goats spread all ... The specimens infected develop an antibody response which, even if it is not capable of eliminating the virus, does point to ... causes the available measures to fail when it comes to monitoring all the viruses going around flocks". The genetic and ... "may provide ideas relating to the knowledge of the relationship between the viruses and their capacity to infect specific ...
... particularly visna virus and equine infectious anemia virus infections, periods of clinical latency during persistent infection ... 1980) Maedi/visna: a review. Vet. Rec. 106:212-216.. OpenUrlAbstract ... Instead, MN virus clone MNTQ had an NI phenotype, while the E4 clone MNE4 was as resistant as the virus pool from which it was ... Viruses and cell cultures.The MN strain of HIV-1 was a gift from Robert Gallo, Bethesda, Md. (6). Virus pools were prepared in ...
The lesions due to maedi-visna virus (MVV) are known to be. June 10, 2017 4:29 am. \ by Randall Harvey ... The lesions due to maedi-visna virus (MVV) are known to be immune mediated with a presumed contribution by the response to ... Crizotinib Virus. MVV stress EV1 (55) was expanded in sheep epidermis cell lines as previously defined (51). PCR. Low-molecular ... Yet in NIH 3T3 cells expressing constitutively triggered Ras/MEK viruses have the ability to replicate effectively even in the ...
  • Visna virus (also known as Visna-maedi virus, Maedi-visna virus and Ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • First described in 1954 by Bjorn Sigurdsson in Iceland, Maedi-visna virus was the first lentivirus to be isolated and characterized, accomplished in 1957 by Sigurdsson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visna Maedi virus (VMV) belongs to the small ruminant lentivirus group (SRLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. (uib.no)
  • Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) all include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, it has been postulated that all members of the Lentivirus share a common mechanism of entry that involves the use of CXCR4. (uib.no)
  • The causative agent of the disease is a virus classified as lentivirus, a subgroup of retroviruses. (idexx.co.uk)
  • Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a lentivirus of sheep causing inflammation in many organs, primarily the lungs and CNS. (keldur.is)
  • a chronic pneumonia of sheep caused by a lentivirus, which also causes visna when it invades the brain of sheep. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disorder is produced by the lentivirus Maedi-Visna, which belongs to the family of Aids. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the virus we describe is defective, reconstruction of an infectious progenitor could provide novel insights into lentivirus biology and host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is the North American equivalent of maedi/visna virus, a monocyte/macrophage-tropic lentivirus which causes multiorgan inflammatory disease in sheep ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The Origin of Lentivirus Research: Maedi-Visna Virus by Halldor Thormar (2-9) . (chemweb.com)
  • Dalziel, R. G. 1997-08-01 00:00:00 The envelope glycoprotein, gp 135, of the ovine lentivirus maedi visna virus is the main target for a specific antibody response in vivo, however, little is known about the specific regions of gp 135 which elicit this response. (deepdyve.com)
  • Lentivirus represents a genus of slow viruses with long incubation period (months, even years) and a propensity to induce a wide range of pathologies in different animal species. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the recent classification of International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), Lentivirus genus belongs to the family Retroviridae and currently comprises of nine species: seven animal lentiviruses and two human lentiviruses. (news-medical.net)
  • Further studies comfirmed that the newly discovered virus was a member of the lentivirus group of non-oncogenic retroviruses. (biomedfrontiers.org)
  • Thus, data from the present study on sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil , showed no antibodies to smooth- Brucella and a low frequency of antibodies anti- Maedi Visna lentivirus , and a high and widespread seroprevalence of B. ovis , Leptospira spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • SRLV belongs to the Lentivirus genus, Retroviridae family together with human (HIV), simian (SIV), and feline immunodeficiency (FIV) viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maedi Visna virus is also referred to as ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease corresponds to two clinical entities caused by the same Maedi in a form that results in a chronic progressive pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In maedi the characteristic features are a prolonged incubation period of more than 2 years, a progressive pneumonia which lasts for about 6 months, and, at the inevitable death, an abnormally high density and heaviness of the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Called also maedi-visna, Graff-Reinert disease, la bouhite, ovine progressive pneumonia and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study evaluated the CAEV cELISA for detection of antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in sheep. (asm.org)
  • Ovine Progressive Pneumonia virus in sheep and Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis virus . (acronymattic.com)
  • Three of 121 cases of pneumonic lungs of sheep revealed gross and histopathological lesions suggestive of maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia infection. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Maedi visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. (nih.gov)
  • The IDEXX CAEV/MVV Total Ab Test is an enzyme linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) in serum and plasma samples of goat and sheep. (idexx.co.uk)
  • Weise and Carnegie (1988) found a region of sequence similarity between the pol gene of the Maedi Visna virus (MVV), which induces demyelinating encephalitis in sheep, and myelin basic protein (MBP), which is known to induce experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) in laboratory animals. (edu.au)
  • These viruses include the Visna Maedi virus and that of caprine arthritis encephalitis. (europa.eu)
  • Mornex, J. F. 1997-06-01 00:00:00 We have recently shown that French small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) from sheep are more similar to Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) than to visna maedi virus (VMV) in a conserved region of the pol gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • The most common causes for viral encephalitis in sheep include maedi-visna virus, Borna disease virus, and rabies virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. (asm.org)
  • We recently reported a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) which detects antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goat sera ( 8 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a viral disease of goats that is caused by the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). (acronymattic.com)
  • The mammary gland: target organ for infection with the caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus . (acronymattic.com)
  • Keeping your goat herd or sheep flock healthy with proper parasite prevention and treatment and Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis Virus . (acronymattic.com)
  • Small ruminant lentiviruses (maedi-visna virus, caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus ) In Belgium, it is possible to take part in a volunteer control programme. (acronymattic.com)
  • Common illnesses include Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis Virus , Blackleg, Bottle Jaw, Coccidiosis and Foot and Mouth Disease. (acronymattic.com)
  • I started working with Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis virus and moved on to SIV, SHIV and HIV. (acronymattic.com)
  • Caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus - Clinical signs: Firm udder and minimal milk flow in a goat after parturition. (acronymattic.com)
  • The laboratory's research themes relate to viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of ruminants with a high economic impact, such as caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), maedi-visna , paratuberculosis and cryptosporidiosis . (anses.fr)
  • The Niort Laboratory is the National Reference Laboratory for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, maedi-visna and enzootic bovine leukosis , and Reference Laboratory of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for retroviruses in small ruminants and paratuberculosis in ruminants. (anses.fr)
  • It helps to enforce application of French regulations for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), maedi-visna (MV) in sheep and enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). (anses.fr)
  • The small ruminant lentiviruses are known to cause maedi-visna (MV) and caprine arthritis - encephalitis in sheep and goats, typically affecting joints, udder, lungs, and the central nervous system. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Animal lentiviruses are bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), puma lentivirus (PLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and visna/maedi virus (VMV). (news-medical.net)
  • Related animal viruses, such as caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) of goats and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) of horses were grouped together with MVV in a new non-oncogenic genus of the Retroviridae family, the lentiviruses, of which MVV was the prototype. (biomedfrontiers.org)
  • Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and visna-maedi virus (VMV), responsible for diseases in goats and sheep, respectively, were first considered to be two related but separate pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIVA) antagonize antiviral family APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of the host through viral Vif proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It focussed on lentiviruses, whose incubation period is very long and affects cows, cats, horses, sheep, goats and primates, and even humans with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (europa.eu)
  • Lentiviruses have been intensively studied since the emergence of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) in the early 1980s. (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of RELIK extends the host range of lentiviruses to a fifth mammalian order and demonstrates that such viruses can also spread by vertical transmission and intragenomic proliferation, in addition to infectious horizontal transfer. (pnas.org)
  • By dating the invasion of the rabbit genome by the RELIK virus, we provide the first direct evidence that lentiviruses are ancient in origin. (pnas.org)
  • In the lentiviruses , it was formerly mistakenly believed that virus was inactive during this period. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). (mdpi.com)
  • Maedi-visna virus (MVV) infection of sheep is characterised by slowly progressive arthritis, pneumonia, mastitis and encephalomyelitis. (idexx.co.uk)
  • Maedi (meaning dyspnoea) disease is characterised by shortness of breath and cough, which are caused by chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia. (laboklin.com)
  • Maedi, a slowly progressing pneumonia, and the central nervous system disease visna were shown to be transmissible in sheep and most likely caused by a virus. (chemweb.com)
  • Since the MVV peptide was not recognised by antibodies or T lymphocytes from MVV-infected and encephalic sheep, it was concluded that epitope mimicry of this 21.5 kDa MBP peptide by the similar MVV pol peptide was not contributing to the immunopathogensis of Visna. (edu.au)
  • All serum samples were examined using ELISA for antibodies for Visna Maedi (VMV) and Border Disease (BDV) viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Of these, 38 (10.5%) tested positive for Visna Maedi virus antibodies and 163 (45.2%) for Border Disease virus antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Varying numbers of samples were positive for both virus antibodies across the towns of Ercis, Çaldiran, Erçek and Baskale in Van, Agri and Hakkari provinces. (bvsalud.org)
  • The escape of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from effects of neutralizing antibodies was studied by using neutralization-resistant (NR) variants generated by growing the neutralization-sensitive (NS) wild-type MN virus in the presence of human serum with neutralizing antibodies, more than 99% of which were directed at the V3 region of gp120. (asm.org)
  • In the cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus, epitopes that are targets for neutralizing antibodies (NA) and cytotoxic T cells reside in variable regions of the surface envelope glycoproteins, such that it is often posited that this variability is the result of mutants emerging in the face of the selective pressure of these immune responses ( 22 , 29 , 47 , 56 , 79 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibodies against ABV were detected by use of an IIFA on persistently Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Uniquely, infants with DHF/DSS present an opportunity to obtain both the causative virus and the preinfection antibodies as research reagents in a hospital setting without recourse to a time-consuming and expensive prospective cohort study. (cdc.gov)
  • gag-And env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficincy virus, Veterinary Microbiology, 39:153-165 (1994). (patentgenius.com)
  • The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Brucella ovis - epididymitis , smooth- Brucella , leptospirosis , toxoplasmosis and Maedi-visna in sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil and to study their simultaneous occurrence, including caseous lymphadenitis , at sheep and flock levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. ovis and anti- Maedi Visna antibodies , whereas Rose Bengal (RB) and the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME) were used to test anti-smooth Brucella antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cultures infected with visna or measles virus were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, stained by the avidin-bio-tin-peroxidase technique using antibodies to viral or cellular proteins and then incubated with radiolabeled specific DNA probes (in situ hybridization). (elsevier.com)
  • We found that they were nearly equally distant from both CAEV and VMV strains, suggesting a considerable divergence since the initial introduction of the virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • Development and optimisation of serological and molecular diagnostic tools (CAEV, maedi-visna ). (anses.fr)
  • 4. Hananeh, W. and Barhoom, S. (2009) Outbreak of maedi-visna in sheep and goats in Palestine. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Visna Maedi virus is a retrovirus meaning its genome consists of a (+)RNA that undergoes reverse transcription and then is integrated into the host's genome after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said human retrovirus is a human immunodeficiency virus. (google.es)
  • 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III, lymphoadenopathy associated virus, and AIDS-related virus. (google.es)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-II, and Kawasaki disease causative retroviruses. (google.es)
  • Electron microscope studies indicated that this virus was related to RNA tumor viruses and later studies confirmed that it was a non-oncogenic retrovirus which was named maedi-visna virus (MVV). (biomedfrontiers.org)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus ( XMRV ) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel human pathogen found in tissue samples from men with prostate cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • breeding stock and flock testing/screening - for the production limiting disease Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) and genetic Scrapie screening to identify pedigree and disease resistance to improve the breeding stock. (gov.mb.ca)
  • There are few reports on the pathogenesis of scrapie (Sc) and Visna/maedi virus (VMV) coinfections. (unavarra.es)
  • however, replication is restricted in these cells-that is, the majority of cells containing viral RNA do not produce infectious virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • MVV and HIV have many features in common, including genome organization, mode of virus replication, virus-host interaction and latency. (keldur.is)
  • Infection Counter: Automated Quantification of in Vitro Virus Replication by Fluorescence Microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Certain data support the hypothesis that these episodes are precipitated by the emergence of variant viruses that have mutated to become resistant to the previously developed immune response and are capable of unchecked replication until a new response develops ( 36 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other viruses, however, such as the herpesviruses , actually enter a time known as "viral latency," when little or no replication is taking place until further replication is initiated by a specific trigger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The infection and replication of these particles is inhibited by a variety of restriction factors including members of the APOBEC family, tetherin and most likely other, yet to be identified antiviral factors that have evolved over millions of years of coevolution between this virus and its primate hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several factors such as the decline in immune response, increase in replication rate, Syncytium inducing capacity and ability of the viruses to infect tumour cell lines are found to be associated with HIV progression to AIDS. (chemweb.com)
  • Biochemical and virus replication studies with these mutants strongly support the functional significance of the tetrameric architecture observed in the crystal structures. (plos.org)
  • The reverse transcriptase, which is capable of using the viral RNA as a template for the synthesis of complementary DNA, is essential to the first stage of the virus' self-replication. (google.es)
  • Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. (intechopen.com)
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted. (springer.com)
  • Abreu CM, Price SL, Shirk EN, Cunha RD, Pianowski LF, Clements JE, Tanuri A, Gama L (2014) Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR. (springer.com)
  • Barber SA, Gama L, Li M, Voelker T, Anderson JE, Zink MC, Tarwater PM, Carruth LM, Clements JE (2006b) Longitudinal analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in the lungs: compartmentalized regulation of SIV. (springer.com)
  • Role of alveolar macrophages in respiratory transmission of visna/maedi virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Visna virus RNA was detected in immunocytochemically identified macrophages in the synovium. (elsevier.com)
  • In some cases, particularly visna virus and equine infectious anemia virus infections, periods of clinical latency during persistent infection are periodically interrupted by episodes of clinical illness ( 11 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Viruses of Equine herpes virus Type 1 and Type 3 and Equine Influenza. (drugs.com)
  • We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we determined that bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif proteins utilize the Cullin (Cul)-ElonginB (EloB)-ElonginC (EloC) complex (BIV Vif recruits Cul2, while MVV Vif recruits Cul5) to degrade Bos taurus (bt)A3Z2-Z3 and Ovis aries (oa)A3Z2-Z3, respectively, via a proteasome-dependent but a CBF-β-independent pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência de anticorpos contra Brucella ovis ( epididimite ovina), Brucellalisa, leptospirose , toxoplasmose e Maedi-visna em ovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais, Brasil , e estudar sua ocorrência simultânea, incluindo linfadenite caseosa, nos ovinos e nos rebanhos. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mechanism by which Vif of human, simian or feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV/FIV) suppresses the corresponding host A3s has been studied extensively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is achieved by comparing the degree of affinity between the host CD4 and the gp120 from the HIV-1 M-tropic and HIV-1 T-tropic viruses as well as the isolates of HIV-2 and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). (chemweb.com)
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, women carry a disproportionate burden of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The activated CD8 T-lymphocyte-derived immunodeficiency-virus-suppressing lymphokine in African green monkeys: evidence for a role in control of infection? (worldwidescience.org)
  • Human species are well-known human immunodeficinecy virus 1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2). (news-medical.net)
  • Several lineages of closely related human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are found in primates, which can both result in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (news-medical.net)
  • Barber SA, Gama L, Dudaronek JM, Voelker T, Tarwater PM, Clements JE (2006a) Mechanism for the establishment of transcriptional HIV latency in the brain in a simian immunodeficiency virus-macaque model. (springer.com)
  • Serological diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection using recombinant transmembrane glycoprotein, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 46:83-92 (1995). (patentgenius.com)
  • Molecular Characterization and Heterogeneity of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Isolates", Archives of Virolology, 1992, vol. 123, pp. 29-45. (patentgenius.com)
  • Experimental Vaccine Protection against Homologous and Heterologous Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Journal of Virology, 1993, vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 601-605. (patentgenius.com)
  • Effect of Dual-subtype Vaccine Against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection", Veterinary Microbiology, 1997, vol. 58, pp. 155-165. (patentgenius.com)
  • Comparison of Six In-House Tests for the Rapid Diagnosis of Feline Immunodeficiency and Feline Leukemia Virus Infections", The Veterinary Record, 2001, vol. 149, pp. 317-320. (patentgenius.com)
  • Delayed Infection after Immunization with a peptide from the Transmembrane Glycoprotein of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Journal of Virology, 1998, vol. 72, pp. 2406-2415. (patentgenius.com)
  • Mucosal immunization with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccines induces both antibody and T cell responses but does not protect against rectal FIV challenge", Vaccine, 2000, vol. 18, pp. 3254-3265. (patentgenius.com)
  • Identification of a Linear Neutralization Site within the Third Variable region of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope", Journal of Virology, 1993, vol. 67, pp. 4742-4749. (patentgenius.com)
  • Localisation of Three Epitopes of the ENV Protein of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Molecular Immunology, 1992, vol. 29, pp. 565-572. (patentgenius.com)
  • Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiates a slowly progressive degenerative disease of the immune system termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (springer.com)
  • Bender BS, Davidson BL, Kline R, Brown C, Quinn TC (1988) Role of the mononuclear phagocyte system in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • first identified in Iceland when it was introduced by sheep imported from Germany and causes two diseases the most common, maedi , is a pulmonary infection (maedi is Icelandic for shortness of breath ) and when it infects the nervous system , visna , a paralysis similar to multiple sclerosis (visna is Icelandic for wasting ). (biology-online.org)
  • From 1960 to 1969, Margrét worked as a specialist in virology at the Keldur Institute for Experimental Pathology, where she researched the visna-maedi virus and various human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Margrét's research focused on slow virus diseases in sheep, the nature of visna-maedi infections and a vaccination for this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microsatellites in immune-relevant regions and their associations with Maedi-Visna and ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma viral diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Maedi-Visna (MV) and ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) are two retroviral diseases occurring worldwide that affect adult sheep. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Maedi and visna are contagious sheep diseases which were introduced into Iceland in 1933 by imported sheep of Karakul breed. (chemweb.com)
  • In recent years, by generating ions and emitting, relieve stress or discomfort, virus and fungi, allergens cause allergic diseases or rendered harmless by the ion generator can be employed in various applications and is, for example, an unspecified number of persons used by the ion generating device placed in the elevator has been a growing demand for. (go.jp)
  • Primates naturally infected with these viruses usually remain healthy without the development of AIDS-like diseases, but their transmission to humans gave rise to two genetically different viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2), still closely related to their ancestral species. (news-medical.net)
  • Swedish maedi-visna control programme, english ver. (writework.com)
  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus is a mutant form of which virus? (sporcle.com)
  • Feline rhinotracheitis virus (herpes) is a differential for FELINE upper respiratory disease complex. (sporcle.com)
  • In designing research results obtained in studies on a congruent animal model, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infections of kittens born to FIPV-immune queens should be considered. (cdc.gov)
  • However, such a phenomenon occurs naturally in infected kittens born to queens immune to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) ( 9 - 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody Response in Cats to the Envelope Proteins of Feline Immunodeficincy Virus: identification of an Immunodominant Neutralization Domain", Virology, 1994, vol. 198, pp. 257-264. (patentgenius.com)
  • We will ultimately understand how simple mutations in the Feline Enteric Coronavirus can lead to FIP, and how the mutant FIP virus can evade the host's immune system. (sockfip.org)
  • Pedersen, N.C.: Morphologic and physical characteristics of feline infectious peritonitis virus and growth in autochthonous peritoneal cell cultures. (sockfip.org)
  • HIV/AIDS and Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in animals help to bring the infection-based model of schizophrenia to the realm of scientific imagination Viruses can influence the human genome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV), the live vaccine used in the eradication of smallpox, is particularly amenable to fluorescent live-cell microscopy owing to its large virion size and the ease with which it can be engineered at the genome level. (jove.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites with either a RNA or DNA genome that are surrounded by a protective protein coat and transfer their genetic material to infected cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Since no free virus has been detected with RT-PCR in the plasma or serum of naturally infected animals, PCR is used mainly for detecting the integrated proviral genome in peripheral blood leucocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome of Rabies virus, Borna disease virus and Ebola virus code for the P phosphoprotein and VP35 that can block the antiviral response induced by IFN [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In order to be able to analyse post-translational modifications and protein interactions of viral genome-linked protein VPg taking place during potato virus A (PVA) infection, an affinity tag-based purification system was developed by inserting a sequence encoding a six-histidine and haemagglutinin (HisHA) tag to the 3′ end of the VPg coding sequence within the infectious cDNA clone of PVA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The engineered virus was fully functional and the HisHA tag-encoding sequence remained stable in the PVA genome throughout the infection process. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • [8] MLVs belong to the virus family Retroviridae and the genus gammaretrovirus and have a single-stranded RNA genome that replicates through a DNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the consensus conference held last September, experts on immunology, diagnosis, prevision and epidemiology of Maedi-Visna disorder participated. (innovations-report.com)
  • GB Virus C / Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa : its diagnosis, distribution and molecular epidemiology. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Maedi-visna virus and the pathogenesis of the slow infection it causes in sheep had already been studied for decades before the emergence of the AIDS epidemic. (biomedfrontiers.org)
  • This technique provides a new approach to the study of viral pathogenesis by: (1) identifying the types of cells which are infected in the host and (2) identifying points of blockade in the virus life cycle during persistent infections. (elsevier.com)
  • Maedi-Visna Virus (MVV) seroprevalence and its relationship with housing and mode of rearing of replacement ewe-lambs was investigated in 38 non-randomly selected sheep-flocks in Spain. (unavarra.es)
  • Future work will identify the most effective ways to test for the virus in order to clear infections from the flock and investigate cheap and practical methods to control the disease, such as keeping ewes of different age-groups in separate pens when housed. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The present study investigated the seroprevalance of Visna Maedi Virus (VMV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) infections in sheeps in regions in and around Van province, Turkey . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dengue virus [DENV]) have progressively spread geographically throughout the tropics, resulting in a global pandemic with tens of millions of infections annually, including several hundred thousand hospitalizations for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Many maternal or infant co-infections can affect MTCT of HIV, and particular ones, such as genital tract infection with herpes simplex virus, or systemic infections such as hepatitis B, can have substantial epidemiologic impact on MTCT. (chemweb.com)
  • This review discusses the most common slow virus infections and their imaging findings. (bireme.br)
  • It is known as visna when found in the brain, and maedi when infecting the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1957, visna virus was isolated in tissue culture from sheep brain and maedi virus was isolated the following year from sheep lungs. (chemweb.com)
  • In the late 1950s, a virus was isolated from Icelandic sheep with a rare disease, maedi-visna, which affected the lungs and occasionally the central nervous system (CNS). (biomedfrontiers.org)
  • A serological survey of Visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection involving 274,048 sheep from 554 flocks was undertaken during 2002-2007 in Aragón, North-East Spain. (csic.es)
  • Antigenic cross reactions between the viruses have been demonstrated in gag and env encoded structural proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Epitope mimicry is the theory that an infectious agent such as a virus causes pathological effects via mimicry of host proteins and thus elicits a cross-reactive immune response to host tissues. (edu.au)
  • In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. (mdpi.com)
  • Tagging of viral proteins with fluorescent proteins has proven an indispensable approach to furthering our understanding of virus-host interactions. (jove.com)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (intechopen.com)
  • We hypothesize that the concentration or the mRNA level of some proteins involved in the immune defense against viruses could play this role. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White blood cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the main target of visna virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both viruses infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, but the main difference in cell tropism is that, whereas HIV infects T lymphocytes, MVV does not. (keldur.is)
  • On the Western blots, eight of the 23 sheep with Visna had serum reactivity to MBP. (edu.au)
  • Maedi-Visna virus : the development of serum and whole blood immunodiagnostic assays. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • To detect the presence of Maedi-Visna virus in sheep in the Juazeiro microregion, Bahia, 919 serum samples were evaluated by an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). (embrapa.br)
  • These wild ruminants serve as the reservoir for the virus. (purdue.edu)
  • This study aimed to analyze heterogeneity of SRLV Env regions - TM amino terminal and SU V4, C4 and V5 segments - in order to assess virus compartmentalization in CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study demonstrates virus compartmentalization in the CNS and other body tissues in sheep presenting the neurological form of SRLV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Visna (meaning decay) is a slightly contagious but progressive disease of the central nervous system. (laboklin.com)
  • This virus infects sheep, and until now, there is no evidence of the transmission to humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • A number of fatty acids which are normal components of milk lipids were tested against enveloped viruses, i.e., vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus, and visna virus, and against a nonenveloped virus, poliovirus. (nih.gov)
  • Visna - Maedi is a chronic viral disease prevalent in adult sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • A collaboration between scientists in Scotland and The Netherlands has found that a lack of 'social distancing' between sheep is almost exclusively responsible for the spread of the virus that causes the chronic viral disease maedi-visna. (ed.ac.uk)
  • [1] [2] Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to considerable interest in the scientific and patient communities, investigation of XMRV as a potential cause of multiple medical conditions, and public-health concerns about the safety of the donated blood supply . (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts at vaccination against maedi-visna virus have failed to induce immunity, occasionally causing increased viremia and more severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visna refers to the neurological form of the disease and predominantly causes meningoencephalitis in adult sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of the disease occurs most commonly via the oral route caused by ingestion of colostrum or milk that contains the virus or inhalation of infected aerosol droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • A disease caused by a virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This slight reaction to MBP in MVV-infected sheep is of interest because of the immune responses to MBP evident in multiple sclerosis and EAE, but its relevance in Visna is limited since no correlation with disease severity was observed. (edu.au)
  • Maedi-visna (MV) is an insidious, incurable and eventually fatal viral disease in sheep. (ed.ac.uk)
  • So although individual sheep never recover from the disease, it could be eliminated from flocks over time by exploiting the fact that transmission of the virus is too slow between grazing sheep to sustain the disease. (ed.ac.uk)
  • O presente estudo investigou a seroprevalência de infecções por Visna Maedi Virus (VMV) e Border Disease Virus (BDV) em ovelhas nas redondezas da província de Van, na Turquia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Todas as amostras foram examinadas usando ELISA para anticorpos de visna Maedi (VMW) e Border Disease (BDV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Destes, 38 (10.5%) foram positivos para anticorpos virais de Visna Maedi e 163 (45.2%) para anticorpos virais de Border Disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • In The Neurobiology of Autism (Bauman and Kemper 2005), the authors draw parallels in neurobiology and behavior with autism and another type of infection, neonatal Borna disease virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MADRID -- Treatment-resistant psychotic disorders in some patients may be caused, in part, by an immune response triggered by the Borna disease virus, and a consequent low-grade encephalopathy, Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The alleged culprit, Borna disease virus (BDV), was first reported more than 100 years ago to cause a neurological disease of horses in Borna, Germany. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Before this discovery, the family Bornaviridae contained only 1 species, Borna disease virus (BDV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Borna disease virus was named after the town of Borna in Saxony, southeastern Germany, where in 1885 many horses in a German cavalry regiment died of a fatal neurologic disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They are known to be mutants of the Macrophage-loving (M-tropic) viruses and dominate the late stage of the HIV infection in the disease progression. (chemweb.com)
  • 1989). Indeed, in late-stage disease about 1 in 40 CD4 + T cells harbor virus. (springer.com)
  • We report here an optimized protocol for generating recombinant viruses. (jove.com)
  • 2. A vector, recombinant virus, cloning vehicle, expression cassette, cosmid or plasmid comprising or having contained therein the isolated, recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The term "Retroviruses" refer to a family of viruses which contain RNA and which encode a reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase). (google.es)
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The designation "K" comes from their use of a lysine tRNA to prime reverse transcription and human mouse mammary tumor virus like-2 (HML-2) indicates their relationship to the murine betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). (frontiersin.org)
  • XMRV is a murine leukemia virus (MLV) that formed through the recombination of the genomes of two parent MLVs known as preXMRV-1 and preXMRV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses recognize and enter cells of non-rodent species by means of the cell-surface xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus receptor (XPR1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Maedi (Icelandic mæði 'dyspnoea') and visna (Icelandic visna 'wasting' or 'shrinking' of the spinal cord) refer to endemic sheep herd conditions that were only found to be related after Sigurdsson's work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using an SIV ART model, it was demonstrated that myeloid cells in blood and brain harbor latent SIV that can be reactivated and produce infectious virus in vitro, demonstrating that myeloid cells have the potential to be an additional latent reservoir of HIV that should be considered during HIV eradication strategies. (springer.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In measles virus-infected brains viral RNA was detected only in cells with viral protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Relatively recent dates for the emergence of the modern lentiviral subgroups have been suggested, but these estimates are based on extrapolations of genetic distances observed among contemporary viruses, which are likely to be unreliable for evolutionary comparison of distantly related sequences ( 12 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1968). Studies on natural cases of Maedi in search for diagnostic laboratory methods. (wikipedia.org)