Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.
Images seen by one eye.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Diseases affecting the eye.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.

Test-retest variability of frequency-doubling perimetry and conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal subjects. (1/2067)

PURPOSE: To compare the test-retest variability characteristics of frequency-doubling perimetry, a new perimetric test, with those of conventional perimetry in glaucoma patients and normal control subjects. METHODS: The study sample contained 64 patients and 47 normal subjects aged 66.16+/-11.86 and 64.26+/-7.99 years (mean +/- SD), respectively. All subjects underwent frequency-doubling perimetry (using the threshold mode) and conventional perimetry (using program 30-2 of the Humphrey Field Analyzer; Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) in one randomly selected eye. Each test was repeated at 1-week intervals for five tests with each technique over 4 weeks. Empirical 5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution of threshold deviations at retest were determined for all combinations of single tests and mean of two tests, stratified by threshold deviation. The influence of visual field eccentricity and overall visual field loss on variability also were examined. RESULTS: Mean test time with frequency-doubling perimetry in patients and normal control subjects was 5.90 and 5.25 minutes, respectively, and with conventional perimetry was 17.20 and 14.01 minutes, respectively. In patients, there was a significant correlation between the results of the two techniques, in the full field and in quadrants, whereas in normal subjects there was no such correlation. In patients, the retest variability of conventional perimetry in locations with 20-dB loss was 120% (single tests) and 127% (mean tests) higher compared with that in locations with 0-dB loss. Comparative figures for frequency-doubling perimetry were 40% and 47%, respectively. Variability also increased more with threshold deviation in normal subjects tested with conventional perimetry. In both patients and normal subjects, variability increased with visual field eccentricity in conventional perimetry, but not in frequency-doubling perimetry. Both techniques showed an increase in variability with overall visual field damage. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency-doubling perimetry has different test-retest variability characteristics than conventional perimetry and may have potential for monitoring glaucomatous field damage.  (+info)

Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports. (2/2067)

A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. Skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.  (+info)

Characteristics of discrepancies between self-reported visual function and measured reading speed. Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project Team. (3/2067)

PURPOSE: Visual impairment is a risk factor for morbidity in the elderly and is often screened for by self-report. This study evaluates whether there are subsets for whom there is a discrepancy between self-reported and measured function. METHODS: The prevalence of a discrepancy between self-reported difficulty reading a newspaper and measured reading speed was determined in 2520 community-based men and women, aged 65 to 84 years, and the discrepant group characterized by polychotomous regression. RESULTS: Of subjects who reported minimal difficulty reading a newspaper, 10.8% (227/2107) read newsprint-sized text (0.21 degrees) more slowly than 80 words/min, a level previously shown to be necessary for sustained reading. Poor visual acuity, presence of psychiatric symptoms, and less satisfaction with vision were associated with being in the group that read slowly and reported difficulty with reading. Better cognition, better visual acuity, more years of education, white race, and fewer psychiatric symptoms were associated with being in the group that read more quickly and reported minimal difficulty. When reading the text size at which subjects read their fastest, only 2.6% of those with minimal difficulty remained discrepant. These individuals were more likely to have less education, be male, be African American, and have poorer cognitive status than those who did not remain discrepant. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of the elderly population have a substantial discrepancy between self-reported reading difficulty and measured reading speed. In some, this discrepancy may be based on underlying expectations and experiences, and in others it may represent a transition from no visual impairment to visual impairment.  (+info)

Space representation in unilateral spatial neglect. (4/2067)

Patients with unilateral brain lesions were given a task requiring exploration of space with the hand in order to assess the visual dependency of unilateral spatial neglect. The task was carried out both without visual control and under visual control. Performances were compared with that of normal subjects. Results were :(1) patients with right brain damage with no visual field defect demonstrated left-sided neglect only when the exploration was not controlled visually; (2) patients with left and right brain damage with visual field defect demonstrated contralateral neglect only when the exploration was under visual guidance. The performance of the patients with right brain damage without visual field defect in not clearly understood. The other results suggest that inner spatial representation remains intact in most cases of spatial neglect. The role of parietal lobe damage in the development of this visually induced phenomenon is hypothesised. The dominant position of vision among the senses is indicated.  (+info)

Cyclic compression of the intracranial optic nerve: patterns of visual failure and recovery. (5/2067)

A patient with a cystic craniopharyngioma below the right optic nerve had several recurrences requiring surgery. Finally the cyst was connected with a subcutaneous reservoir by means of a fine catheter. Symptoms of optic nerve compression recurred more than 50 times during the following year, and were relieved within seconds upon drainage of the reservoir. In each cycle, a drop in visual acuity preceded a measurable change in the visual field. The pattern of field changes was an increasingly severe, uniform depression. Optic nerve ischaemia induced by compression was probably the most important factor causing visual failure in this case.  (+info)

Factors associated with the poor final visual outcome after traumatic hyphema. (6/2067)

In order to determine the factors related to the worse final visual outcome following nonperforating traumatic hyphema, the clinical characteristics of 18 patients with visual outcome of 0.1 or worse were compared with those of 166 patients with visual outcome of 0.15 or better. The presence of posterior segment injuries such as macula edema, retinal hemorrhage, epiretinal membrane, and choroidal rupture were significant factors of a poor final visual outcome (P < 0.01). The presence of anterior segment injuries such as corneal blood staining, traumatic mydriasis, iridodialysis, cataract, and lens subluxation had significant predictive factors on a poor final visual outcome and the concurrent posterior segment injuries were more frequent in these patients. Initial visual acuity of 0.1 or worse, glaucoma, vitreous hemorrhage, and eyelid laceration were also significant associations of a poor final visual outcome (P < 0.05). Patients with initially larger hyphema (grade I or more vs microscopic) and older age group (16 years or more vs 15 years or less) tended to have poor final visual acuities. Rebleeding was not associated with significant deterioration in visual prognosis. We conclude that the posterior segment injuries seem to be directly related to a poor visual outcome rather than the occurrence of secondary hemorrhage.  (+info)

The need for cataract surgery: projections based on lens opacity, visual acuity, and personal concern. (7/2067)

AIM: To assess the projected needs for cataract surgery by lens opacity, visual acuity, and patient concern. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project, a population based study of age related eye disease in a representative sample of Melbourne residents aged 40 and over. Participants were recruited by a household census and invited to attend a local screening centre. At the study sites, the following data were collected: presenting and best corrected visual acuity, visual fields, intraocular pressure, satisfaction with current vision, personal health history and habits, and a standardised eye examination and photography of the lens and fundus. Lens photographs were graded twice and adjudicated to document lens opacities. Cataract was defined as nuclear greater than or equal to standard 2, 4/16 or greater cortical opacity, or any posterior subcapsular opacities. RESULTS: 3271 (83% response) people living in their own homes were examined. The participants ranged in age from 40 to 98 years and 1511 (46.2%) were men. Previous cataract surgery had been performed in 107 (3.4%) of the participants. The overall prevalence of any type of cataract that had not been surgically corrected was 18%. If the presence of cataract as defined was considered the sole criterion for cataract surgery with no reference to visual acuity, there would be 309 cataract operations per 1000 people aged 40 and over (96 eyes of people who were not satisfied with their vision, 210 eyes of people who were satisfied with their vision, and three previous cataract operations). At a visual acuity criterion of less than 6/12 (the vision required to legally drive a car), 48 cataract operations per 1000 would occur and people would be twice as likely to report dissatisfaction with their vision. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of the need for cataract surgery vary dramatically by level of lens opacity, visual acuity, and patient concern. These data should be useful for the planning of health services.  (+info)

Measuring the effectiveness of cataract surgery: the reliability and validity of a visual function outcomes instrument. (8/2067)

AIMS: To assess test-retest reliability and validity of the "TyPE" patient self assessed visual function questionnaire, as part of a study in two hospitals measuring the effectiveness of cataract surgery. The American TyPE questionnaire had minor adaptations made for use in Britain. METHODS: Test-retest reliability was assessed on 63 out of 378 adult cataract surgery patients in the study, using Spearman correlation coefficients and kappa coefficients of agreement. "Construct" validity was evaluated by comparing the association between changes in visual function questionnaire scores after surgery, with patients' perception of change in visual function obtained by independent interview of 24 patients. RESULTS: The TyPE questionnaire items showed very good test-retest reliability. Average Spearman and kappa coefficients for 39 patients from hospital 1 were 0.93 and 0.84 respectively. Spearman and kappa coefficients of 0.9 and 0.81 were obtained for those nine patients in hospital 2 where both the test and retest questionnaires were filled in by the same people. However, for the 15 patients from hospital 2, where the questionnaire was filled in by different people in the retest, reliability was less good: the Spearman coefficients were still high, average 0.72, but the kappa coefficients were poor, 0.27. Good construct validity was exhibited, with a correlation of 0.79 between change in distance vision score from the questionnaires and the independent interview. CONCLUSIONS: The adapted TyPE questionnaire is both very reliable and has good construct validity. The kappa coefficient should be used wherever possible to evaluate reliability. The test-retest reliability and validity and practicability of other visual function questionnaires have not been assessed adequately, and further development should be carried out of all such questionnaires, so that they may be introduced into routine clinical care.  (+info)

Vision disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the visual system and result in various symptoms, such as blurry vision, double vision, distorted vision, impaired depth perception, and difficulty with visual tracking or focusing. These disorders can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes where they point in different directions, which can lead to double vision or loss of depth perception.
3. Amblyopia: Often called lazy eye, amblyopia is a condition where one eye has reduced vision due to lack of proper visual development during childhood. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or other factors that interfere with normal visual development.
4. Accommodative disorders: These involve problems with the focusing ability of the eyes, such as convergence insufficiency (difficulty focusing on close objects) and accommodative dysfunction (inability to maintain clear vision at different distances).
5. Binocular vision disorders: These affect how the eyes work together as a team, leading to issues like poor depth perception, eye strain, and headaches. Examples include convergence insufficiency, divergence excess, and suppression.
6. Ocular motility disorders: These involve problems with eye movement, such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), strabismus, or restricted extraocular muscle function.
7. Visual processing disorders: These affect the brain's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information, even when the eyes themselves are healthy. Symptoms may include difficulty with reading, recognizing shapes and objects, and understanding spatial relationships.
8. Low vision: This term refers to significant visual impairment that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery. It includes conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts.
9. Blindness: Complete loss of sight in both eyes, which can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or genetic conditions.

Vision screening is a quick and cost-effective method used to identify individuals who are at risk of vision problems or eye diseases. It is not a comprehensive eye examination, but rather an initial evaluation that helps to determine if a further, more in-depth examination by an eye care professional is needed. Vision screenings typically involve tests for visual acuity, distance and near vision, color perception, depth perception, and alignment of the eyes. The goal of vision screening is to detect potential vision issues early on, so that they can be treated promptly and effectively, thereby preventing or minimizing any negative impact on a person's overall vision and quality of life.

Retinoscopy is a diagnostic technique used in optometry and ophthalmology to estimate the refractive error of the eye, or in other words, to determine the prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses. This procedure involves shining a light into the patient's pupil and observing the reflection off the retina while introducing different lenses in front of the patient's eye. The examiner then uses specific movements and observations to determine the amount and type of refractive error, such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, or presbyopia. Retinoscopy is a fundamental skill for eye care professionals and helps ensure that patients receive accurate prescriptions for corrective lenses.

Refractive errors are a group of vision conditions that include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Myopia is a condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects are clear. This occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Hyperopia, on the other hand, is a condition where close-up objects appear blurry while distant objects are clear. This happens when the eye is too short or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light to focus behind the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition that causes blurred vision at all distances due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens.

Presbyopia is a natural aging process that affects everyone as they get older, usually around the age of 40. It causes difficulty focusing on close-up objects and can be corrected with reading glasses, bifocals, or progressive lenses.

Refractive errors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and are typically corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Strabismus is a condition of the ocular muscles where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. One eye may turn inward, outward, upward, or downward while the other one remains fixed and aligns normally. This misalignment can occur occasionally or constantly. Strabismus is also commonly referred to as crossed eyes or walleye. The condition can lead to visual impairments such as amblyopia (lazy eye) and depth perception problems if not treated promptly and effectively, usually through surgery, glasses, or vision therapy.

Amblyopia is a medical condition that affects the visual system, specifically the way the brain and eyes work together. It is often referred to as "lazy eye" and is characterized by reduced vision in one or both eyes that is not correctable with glasses or contact lenses alone. This occurs because the brain favors one eye over the other, causing the weaker eye to become neglected and underdeveloped.

Amblyopia can result from various conditions such as strabismus (eye misalignment), anisometropia (significant difference in prescription between the two eyes), or deprivation (such as a cataract that blocks light from entering the eye). Treatment for amblyopia typically involves correcting any underlying refractive errors, patching or blurring the stronger eye to force the weaker eye to work, and/or vision therapy. Early intervention is crucial to achieve optimal visual outcomes.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Depth perception is the ability to accurately judge the distance or separation of an object in three-dimensional space. It is a complex visual process that allows us to perceive the world in three dimensions and to understand the spatial relationships between objects.

Depth perception is achieved through a combination of monocular cues, which are visual cues that can be perceived with one eye, and binocular cues, which require input from both eyes. Monocular cues include perspective (the relative size of objects), texture gradients (finer details become smaller as distance increases), and atmospheric perspective (colors become less saturated and lighter in value as distance increases). Binocular cues include convergence (the degree to which the eyes must turn inward to focus on an object) and retinal disparity (the slight difference in the images projected onto the two retinas due to the slightly different positions of the eyes).

Deficits in depth perception can occur due to a variety of factors, including eye disorders, brain injuries, or developmental delays. These deficits can result in difficulties with tasks such as driving, sports, or navigating complex environments. Treatment for depth perception deficits may include vision therapy, corrective lenses, or surgery.

Ocular vision refers to the ability to process and interpret visual information that is received by the eyes. This includes the ability to see clearly and make sense of the shapes, colors, and movements of objects in the environment. The ocular system, which includes the eye and related structures such as the optic nerve and visual cortex of the brain, works together to enable vision.

There are several components of ocular vision, including:

* Visual acuity: the clarity or sharpness of vision
* Field of vision: the extent of the visual world that is visible at any given moment
* Color vision: the ability to distinguish different colors
* Depth perception: the ability to judge the distance of objects in three-dimensional space
* Contrast sensitivity: the ability to distinguish an object from its background based on differences in contrast

Disorders of ocular vision can include refractive errors such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, as well as more serious conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. These conditions can affect one or more aspects of ocular vision and may require medical treatment to prevent further vision loss.

Low vision is a term used to describe significant visual impairment that cannot be corrected with standard glasses, contact lenses, medication or surgery. It is typically defined as visual acuity of less than 20/70 in the better-seeing eye after best correction, or a visual field of less than 20 degrees in the better-seeing eye.

People with low vision may have difficulty performing everyday tasks such as reading, recognizing faces, watching television, driving, or simply navigating their environment. They may also experience symptoms such as sensitivity to light, glare, or contrast, and may benefit from the use of visual aids, assistive devices, and rehabilitation services to help them maximize their remaining vision and maintain their independence.

Low vision can result from a variety of causes, including eye diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or cataracts, as well as congenital or inherited conditions, brain injuries, or aging. It is important for individuals with low vision to receive regular eye examinations and consult with a low vision specialist to determine the best course of treatment and management.

Vision tests are a series of procedures used to assess various aspects of the visual system, including visual acuity, accommodation, convergence, divergence, stereopsis, color vision, and peripheral vision. These tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and manage vision disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus, and eye diseases like glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Common vision tests include:

1. Visual acuity test (Snellen chart or letter chart): Measures the sharpness of a person's vision at different distances.
2. Refraction test: Determines the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by assessing how light is bent as it passes through the eye.
3. Color vision test: Evaluates the ability to distinguish between different colors and color combinations, often using pseudoisochromatic plates or Ishihara tests.
4. Stereopsis test: Assesses depth perception and binocular vision by presenting separate images to each eye that, when combined, create a three-dimensional effect.
5. Cover test: Examines eye alignment and the presence of strabismus (crossed eyes or turned eyes) by covering and uncovering each eye while observing eye movements.
6. Ocular motility test: Assesses the ability to move the eyes in various directions and coordinate both eyes during tracking and convergence/divergence movements.
7. Accommodation test: Evaluates the ability to focus on objects at different distances by using lenses, prisms, or dynamic retinoscopy.
8. Pupillary response test: Examines the size and reaction of the pupils to light and near objects.
9. Visual field test: Measures the peripheral (side) vision using automated perimetry or manual confrontation techniques.
10. Slit-lamp examination: Inspects the structures of the front part of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, and anterior chamber, using a specialized microscope.

These tests are typically performed by optometrists, ophthalmologists, or other vision care professionals during routine eye examinations or when visual symptoms are present.

Color vision defects, also known as color blindness, are conditions in which a person has difficulty distinguishing between certain colors. The most common types of color vision defects involve the inability to distinguish between red and green or blue and yellow. These deficiencies result from an alteration or absence of one or more of the three types of cone cells in the retina that are responsible for normal color vision.

In red-green color vision defects, there is a problem with either the red or green cones, or both. This results in difficulty distinguishing between these two colors and their shades. Protanopia is a type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of red cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between red and green as well as between red and black or green and black. Deuteranopia is another type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of green cone cells, resulting in similar difficulties distinguishing between red and green, as well as between blue and yellow.

Blue-yellow color vision defects are less common than red-green color vision defects. Tritanopia is a type of blue-yellow color vision defect where there is an absence of blue cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between blue and yellow, as well as between blue and purple or yellow and pink.

Color vision defects are usually inherited and present from birth, but they can also result from eye diseases, chemical exposure, aging, or medication side effects. They affect both men and women, although red-green color vision defects are more common in men than in women. People with color vision defects may have difficulty with tasks that require color discrimination, such as matching clothes, selecting ripe fruit, reading colored maps, or identifying warning signals. However, most people with mild to moderate color vision defects can adapt and function well in daily life.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to use both eyes together to create a single, three-dimensional image of our surroundings. This is achieved through a process called binocular fusion, where the images from each eye are aligned and combined in the brain to form a unified perception.

The term "binocular vision" specifically refers to the way that our visual system integrates information from both eyes to create depth perception and enhance visual clarity. When we view an object with both eyes, they focus on the same point in space and send slightly different images to the brain due to their slightly different positions. The brain then combines these images to create a single, three-dimensional image that allows us to perceive depth and distance.

Binocular vision is important for many everyday activities, such as driving, reading, and playing sports. Disorders of binocular vision can lead to symptoms such as double vision, eye strain, and difficulty with depth perception.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Night vision refers to the ability to see in low light conditions, typically during night time. In a medical context, it often relates to the functionality of the eye and visual system. There are two types of night vision:

1. Scotopic vision: This is the primary type of night vision, enabled by the rod cells in our retina which are highly sensitive to light but lack color vision. During twilight or night conditions, when light levels are low, the rods take over from the cone cells (which are responsible for color and daytime vision) and provide us with limited vision, typically in shades of gray.

2. Mesopic vision: This is a state between photopic (daytime) and scotopic (night-time) vision, where both rod and cone cells contribute to vision. It allows for better color discrimination and visual acuity compared to scotopic vision alone.

In some cases, night vision can be impaired due to eye conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal disorders. There are also medical devices called night vision goggles that amplify available light to enhance a person's ability to see in low-light environments.

Monocular vision refers to the ability to see and process visual information using only one eye. It is the type of vision that an individual has when they are using only one eye to look at something, while the other eye may be covered or not functioning. This can be contrasted with binocular vision, which involves the use of both eyes working together to provide depth perception and a single, combined visual field.

Monocular vision is important for tasks that only require the use of one eye, such as when looking through a microscope or using a telescope. However, it does not provide the same level of depth perception and spatial awareness as binocular vision. In some cases, individuals may have reduced visual acuity or other visual impairments in one eye, leading to limited monocular vision in that eye. It is important for individuals with monocular vision to have regular eye exams to monitor their eye health and ensure that any visual impairments are detected and treated promptly.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Blindness is a condition of complete or near-complete vision loss. It can be caused by various factors such as eye diseases, injuries, or birth defects. Total blindness means that a person cannot see anything at all, while near-complete blindness refers to having only light perception or the ability to perceive the direction of light, but not able to discern shapes or forms. Legal blindness is a term used to define a certain level of visual impairment that qualifies an individual for government assistance and benefits; it usually means best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye, or a visual field no greater than 20 degrees in diameter.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Color perception tests are a type of examination used to evaluate an individual's ability to perceive and distinguish different colors. These tests typically consist of a series of plates or images that contain various patterns or shapes displayed in different colors. The person being tested is then asked to identify or match the colors based on specific instructions.

There are several types of color perception tests, including:

1. Ishihara Test: This is a commonly used test for red-green color deficiency. It consists of a series of plates with circles made up of dots in different sizes and colors. Within these circles, there may be a number or symbol visible only to those with normal color vision or to those with specific types of color blindness.
2. Farnsworth D-15 Test: This test measures an individual's ability to arrange colored caps in a specific order based on their hue. It is often used to diagnose and monitor the progression of color vision deficiencies.
3. Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) Test: This is another type of color arrangement test that measures an individual's ability to distinguish between different colors based on their hue, saturation, and brightness.
4. Color Discrimination Tests: These tests measure an individual's ability to distinguish between two similar colors that are presented side by side or in close proximity.
5. Anomaloscope Test: This is a more sophisticated test that measures the degree of color vision deficiency by asking the person to match the brightness and hue of two lights.

Color perception tests are often used in occupational settings, such as aviation, military, and manufacturing, where color discrimination is critical for safety and performance. They may also be used in educational and clinical settings to diagnose and monitor color vision deficiencies.

Color perception refers to the ability to detect, recognize, and differentiate various colors and color patterns in the visual field. This complex process involves the functioning of both the eyes and the brain.

The eye's retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. Rods are more sensitive to light and dark changes and help us see in low-light conditions, but they do not contribute much to color vision. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color perception and function best in well-lit conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular range of wavelengths corresponding to blue, green, and red colors. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows us to perceive a wide spectrum of colors.

The brain then interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of different colors and hues. It is important to note that color perception can be influenced by various factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and even language. Some individuals may also have deficiencies in color perception due to genetic or acquired conditions, such as color blindness or cataracts.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Contrast sensitivity is a measure of the ability to distinguish between an object and its background based on differences in contrast, rather than differences in luminance. Contrast refers to the difference in light intensity between an object and its immediate surroundings. Contrast sensitivity is typically measured using specially designed charts that have patterns of parallel lines with varying widths and contrast levels.

In clinical settings, contrast sensitivity is often assessed as part of a comprehensive visual examination. Poor contrast sensitivity can affect a person's ability to perform tasks such as reading, driving, or distinguishing objects from their background, especially in low-light conditions. Reduced contrast sensitivity is a common symptom of various eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Medical definitions for visual impairment often vary, but according to the World Health Organization (WHO), visually impaired persons are those who have a best-corrected visual acuity of less than 0.3 (6/12) in their better eye or a visual field of less than 20 degrees in their better eye. This includes people who are blind, as well as those with partial sight.

Visual impairment can range from mild to severe and may result from a variety of causes, including genetic disorders, diseases, trauma, or aging. It is important to note that visual impairment does not necessarily mean total blindness; many visually impaired individuals have some remaining vision and can benefit from low vision services and assistive devices.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Visual fields refer to the total area in which objects can be seen while keeping the eyes focused on a central point. It is the entire area that can be observed using peripheral (side) vision while the eye gazes at a fixed point. A visual field test is used to detect blind spots or gaps (scotomas) in a person's vision, which could indicate various medical conditions such as glaucoma, retinal damage, optic nerve disease, brain tumors, or strokes. The test measures both the central and peripheral vision and maps the entire area that can be seen when focusing on a single point.

Eyeglasses are a medical device used to correct vision problems. Also known as spectacles, they consist of frames that hold one or more lenses through which a person looks to see clearly. The lenses may be made of glass or plastic and are designed to compensate for various visual impairments such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, or presbyopia. Eyeglasses can be custom-made to fit an individual's face and prescription, and they come in a variety of styles, colors, and materials. Some people wear eyeglasses all the time, while others may only need to wear them for certain activities such as reading or driving.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Sensory aids are devices or equipment that are used to improve or compensate for impaired sensory functions such as hearing, vision, or touch. They are designed to help individuals with disabilities or impairments to better interact with their environment and perform daily activities. Here are some examples:

1. Hearing aids - electronic devices worn in or behind the ear that amplify sounds for people with hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants - surgically implanted devices that provide sound sensations to individuals with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Visual aids - devices used to improve vision, such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, magnifiers, or telescopic lenses.
4. Low vision devices - specialized equipment for people with significant visual impairment, including large print books, talking watches, and screen readers.
5. Tactile aids - devices that provide tactile feedback to individuals with visual or hearing impairments, such as Braille displays or vibrating pagers.

Overall, sensory aids play an essential role in enhancing the quality of life for people with sensory impairments by improving their ability to communicate, access information, and navigate their environment.

Retinal cone photoreceptor cells are specialized neurons located in the retina of the eye, responsible for visual phototransduction and color vision. They are one of the two types of photoreceptors, with the other being rods, which are more sensitive to low light levels. Cones are primarily responsible for high-acuity, color vision during daylight or bright-light conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each containing different photopigments that absorb light at distinct wavelengths: short (S), medium (M), and long (L) wavelengths, which correspond to blue, green, and red light, respectively. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows the human visual system to perceive a wide range of colors and discriminate between them. Cones are densely packed in the central region of the retina, known as the fovea, which provides the highest visual acuity.

Vision disparity, also known as binocular vision disparity, refers to the difference in the image that is perceived by each eye. This can occur due to a variety of reasons such as misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), unequal refractive power in each eye (anisometropia), or abnormalities in the shape of the eye (astigmatism).

When there is a significant difference in the image that is perceived by each eye, the brain may have difficulty combining the two images into a single, three-dimensional perception. This can result in visual symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), eyestrain, headaches, and difficulty with depth perception.

Vision disparity can be detected through a comprehensive eye examination and may be treated with corrective lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Eye diseases are a range of conditions that affect the eye or visual system, causing damage to vision and, in some cases, leading to blindness. These diseases can be categorized into various types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia, which affect the way light is focused on the retina and can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens inside the eye that leads to blurry vision, glare, and decreased contrast sensitivity. Cataract surgery is the most common treatment for this condition.
3. Glaucoma: A group of diseases characterized by increased pressure in the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes medications, laser therapy, or surgery.
4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive condition that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurry vision and, in advanced stages, loss of central vision. Treatment may include anti-VEGF injections, laser therapy, or nutritional supplements.
5. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels in the retina, leading to bleeding, leakage, and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, or surgery.
6. Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly with surgery.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye does not develop normal vision, often due to a misalignment or refractive error in childhood. Treatment includes correcting the underlying problem and encouraging the use of the weaker eye through patching or other methods.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A misalignment of the eyes that can lead to amblyopia if not treated promptly with surgery, glasses, or other methods.
9. Corneal diseases: Conditions that affect the transparent outer layer of the eye, such as keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and infectious keratitis, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
10. Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly with anti-inflammatory medications or surgery.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Mesopic vision is a term used to describe the intermediate level of vision that occurs in conditions of decreased illumination, specifically between 0.02 and 3 candelas per square meter (cd/m²). This range falls between photopic vision, which is vision in bright light (>3 cd/m²), and scotopic vision, which is vision in very low light (

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

The fovea centralis, also known as the macula lutea, is a small pit or depression located in the center of the retina, an light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. It is responsible for sharp, detailed vision (central vision) and color perception. The fovea contains only cones, the photoreceptor cells that are responsible for color vision and high visual acuity. It has a higher concentration of cones than any other area in the retina, allowing it to provide the greatest detail and color discrimination. The center of the fovea is called the foveola, which contains the highest density of cones and is avascular, meaning it lacks blood vessels to avoid interfering with the light passing through to the photoreceptor cells.

Opsins are a type of protein that are sensitive to light and play a crucial role in vision. They are found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina, which are the specialized cells in the eye that detect light. Opsins are activated by light, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately result in the transmission of a signal to the brain, allowing us to see.

There are several different types of opsins, including rhodopsin and the cone pigments, which are found in the rods and cones of the retina, respectively. Rhodopsin is responsible for dim-light vision, while the cone pigments are involved in color vision and bright-light vision.

Opsins belong to a larger family of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many different physiological processes in the body. In addition to their role in vision, opsins have also been found to be involved in other light-dependent processes, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the entrainment of the biological clock.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lighting" does not have a specific medical definition. In a general context, lighting refers to the arrangement or use of light sources to achieve a particular effect or atmosphere. However, if you are referring to a term in medicine that may be similar to "lighting," you might be thinking of "lumination" or "illumination," which refer to the act of providing or admitting light, especially for medical examination or surgical procedures. I hope this helps! If you have any other questions, please don't hesitate to ask.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates and some cephalopods. It receives light that has been focused by the cornea and lens, converts it into neural signals, and sends these to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina contains several types of photoreceptor cells including rods (which handle vision in low light) and cones (which are active in bright light and are capable of color vision).

In medical terms, any pathological changes or diseases affecting the retinal structure and function can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Examples include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa among others.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a medical condition that affects the central part of the retina, called the macula. The macula is responsible for sharp, detailed vision, which is necessary for activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces.

In AMD, there is a breakdown or deterioration of the macula, leading to gradual loss of central vision. There are two main types of AMD: dry (atrophic) and wet (exudative). Dry AMD is more common and progresses more slowly, while wet AMD is less common but can cause rapid and severe vision loss if left untreated.

The exact causes of AMD are not fully understood, but risk factors include age, smoking, family history, high blood pressure, obesity, and exposure to sunlight. While there is no cure for AMD, treatments such as vitamin supplements, laser therapy, and medication injections can help slow its progression and reduce the risk of vision loss.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders of the eye and visual system. It is a surgical specialty, and ophthalmologists are medical doctors who complete additional years of training to become experts in eye care. They are qualified to perform eye exams, diagnose and treat eye diseases, prescribe glasses and contact lenses, and perform eye surgery. Some subspecialties within ophthalmology include cornea and external disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, retina and vitreous, and oculoplastics.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Retinal pigments refer to the light-sensitive chemicals found in the retina, specifically within the photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. The main types of retinal pigments are rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) in rods and iodopsins in cones. These pigments play a crucial role in the process of vision by absorbing light and initiating a series of chemical reactions that ultimately trigger nerve impulses, which are then transmitted to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Rhodopsin is more sensitive to lower light levels and is responsible for night vision, while iodopsins are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light and contribute to color vision.

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Space perception, in the context of neuroscience and psychology, refers to the ability to perceive and understand the spatial arrangement of objects and their relationship to oneself. It involves integrating various sensory inputs such as visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive information to create a coherent three-dimensional representation of our environment.

This cognitive process enables us to judge distances, sizes, shapes, and movements of objects around us. It also helps us navigate through space, reach for objects, avoid obstacles, and maintain balance. Disorders in space perception can lead to difficulties in performing everyday activities and may be associated with neurological conditions such as stroke, brain injury, or neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Visual pathways, also known as the visual system or the optic pathway, refer to the series of specialized neurons in the nervous system that transmit visual information from the eyes to the brain. This complex network includes the retina, optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar, and the primary and secondary visual cortices located in the occipital lobe of the brain.

The process begins when light enters the eye and strikes the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) in the retina, converting the light energy into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to bipolar cells and subsequently to ganglion cells, whose axons form the optic nerve. The fibers from each eye's nasal hemiretina cross at the optic chiasma, while those from the temporal hemiretina continue without crossing. This results in the formation of the optic tract, which carries visual information from both eyes to the opposite side of the brain.

The majority of fibers in the optic tract synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a part of the thalamus. The LGN sends this information to the primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, located in the occipital lobe. Here, simple features like lines and edges are initially processed. Further processing occurs in secondary (V2) and tertiary (V3-V5) visual cortices, where more complex features such as shape, motion, and depth are analyzed. Ultimately, this information is integrated to form our perception of the visual world.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

Electroretinography (ERG) is a medical test used to evaluate the functioning of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. The test measures the electrical responses of the retina to light stimulation.

During the procedure, a special contact lens or electrode is placed on the surface of the eye to record the electrical activity generated by the retina's light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) and other cells in the retina. The test typically involves presenting different levels of flashes of light to the eye while the electrical responses are recorded.

The resulting ERG waveform provides information about the overall health and function of the retina, including the condition of the photoreceptors, the integrity of the inner retinal layers, and the health of the retinal ganglion cells. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various retinal disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

Sensory deprivation, also known as perceptual isolation or sensory restriction, refers to the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. This can include limiting input from sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. The goal is to limit a person's sensory experiences in order to study the effects on cognition, perception, and behavior.

In a clinical context, sensory deprivation can occur as a result of certain medical conditions or treatments, such as blindness, deafness, or pharmacological interventions that affect sensory processing. Prolonged sensory deprivation can lead to significant psychological and physiological effects, including hallucinations, delusions, and decreased cognitive function.

It's important to note that sensory deprivation should not be confused with meditation or relaxation techniques that involve reducing external stimuli in a controlled manner to promote relaxation and focus.

A vision disorder is an impairment of the sense of vision. Vision disorder is not the same as an eye disease. Although many ... Vision disorders are not often targeted by public health initiatives, as mortality causes take priority. However, they can have ... There are many eye conditions that can lead to vision disorder. Some of which are as follows: Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... It can result in blurred vision and vision loss. Eye floaters and spots: where visible cloud-like images appear to "float" in ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vision of Disorder. Vision of Disorder on Myspace Vision of Disorder at AllMusic (CS1 ... "Vision of Disorder - Biography". Facebook.com. Retrieved April 14, 2013. "Vision of Disorder". Koch Records. Archived from the ... 95 Vision of Disorder/Loyal to None split 7-inch (Hearsay Records, 1994) Vision of Disorder/Loyal to None Live on WUSB Riptide ... Vision of Disorder Live on WUSB Riptide Radio (distributed on cassette tape, 1995) Vision of Disorder/Nanchaku - split 7-inch ( ...
"Vision of Disorder - Vision of Disorder". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved January 24, 2021. v t e v t e (Articles with ... Vision of Disorder is the first album by Roadrunner Records band Vision of Disorder, released on October 22, 1996. "Element" - ... Vision of Disorder albums, All stub articles, 1990s heavy metal album stubs, 1990s punk rock album stubs). ...
Vision Of Disorder". Decibel. Retrieved May 19, 2023. Barnard, Laurent (March 5, 2015). "This Is Hardcore: Vision Of Disorder ... "Let's Talk About Vision of Disorder!". MetalSucks. Retrieved May 19, 2023. Gitter, Mike (September 18, 2012). "Vision of ... "Sepultura, Vision of Disorder Prove Metal Still Shines". MTV. Retrieved May 19, 2023. Downs, Alicia. "From Bliss to Rough Edge ... "Vision Of Disorder - Imprint". Discogs. Retrieved May 22, 2020. Kaye, Don (August 1, 1998). "Chaos AD!". Kerrang!. No. 710. UK ...
"Vision of Disorder - Still (1996, CD)". Discogs. Retrieved January 24, 2021. "Vision of Disorder - Still (1996, CD)". Discogs. ... Still is the first EP by American metalcore/hardcore band Vision of Disorder, released in 1995. 1995 vinyl release 1996 CD ... "Vision of Disorder - Still (1995, Blue/White, Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved January 24, 2021. " ...
Vision Research. 49 (19): 2404-2413. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2009.07.013. PMID 19643123. S2CID 16477946. Ahn S, Lustenberger C, ... Antisocial personality disorder Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Dysthymia Narcissistic personality disorder ... disorder Major depressive disorder Paranoid personality disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Schizoid personality disorder ... personality disorders) Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypy Dissociative Identity Disorder ...
"Color Vision deficiency , Genetics Home Reference". ghr.nlm.nih.gov. (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, ... "Hereditary disorder found in Que. families". CTV News. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. "OMIM Entry ... The following is a list of genetic disorders and if known, type of mutation and for the chromosome involved. Although the ... There are over 6,000 known genetic disorders in humans. P - Point mutation, or any insertion/deletion entirely inside one gene ...
A Vision for Participation. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company. ISBN 978-0803617049. OCLC 900403015. "Substance use disorder: ... Substance use disorders (SUD) can have a significant effect on one's function in all areas of occupation. Physical and ...
Optometry and Vision Science. 85 (12): E1172-E1178. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e31818e8eaa. PMC 2614306. PMID 19050464. Marsack, JD; ... Corneal ectatic disorders or corneal ectasia are a group of uncommon, noninflammatory, eye disorders characterised by bilateral ... "Corneal ectatic disorders (keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration)". AAO ONE Network. American Academy of Ophthalmology ... Pellucid marginal degeneration, a bilateral, noninflammatory disorder, characterized by a peripheral band of thinning of the ...
Sensory friendly "Mission, Vision & History". Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11 ... Sensory Processing Disorder was defined as "a complex disorder of the brain that affects developing children and adults". ... Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation. Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation. "Find Services". (2011). (Articles with short ... For many years a primary focus of the foundation was to get sensory processing disorder added to the American Psychiatric ...
In this stage, patients often have blurred vision and report a reduction in visual acuity with perception of a central "grey ... Pachychoroid disorders of the macula represent a group of diseases affecting the central part of the retina of the eye, the ... All pachychoroid disorders of the macula show choroidal thickening and congestion with increased blood vessel diameter, ... This stage is called pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV), [4] which can cause a massive reduction in vision due to bleeding and ...
"A Vision for the Future" (PDF). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Institute of Mental Health. pp. 451-58 ... In the United States the frequency of disorder is: anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder ( ... social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Other ... Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be ...
Birkhauser Post, Emil (13 May 2016). Turing's Vision: The Birth of Computer Science. MIT press. Post was bipolar and had his ... Diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder in 1998. Jesse Zook Mann, American television producer. ... Impaired by bipolar disorder, or in his words, 'the Abbott pendulum', that swung between the two extremes of 'allwellity' and ' ... "Benga bipolar disorder, was off meds during incident". the guardian. 2 October 2015. "Selected poetry of Arthur Christopher ...
Therapies, including physical, occupational, and vision therapy, are recommended. Specialized diets, such as the ketogenic diet ... CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the gene CDKL5. The symptoms of CDD ... Males: a mutation in the only copy of the gene causes the disorder. For the clinical diagnosis of CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder, ... "CDKL5-deficiency disorder". Orpha.net. Retrieved 22 June 2021. "Abcam and Loulou Foundation form CDKL5 deficiency disorder ...
However, measures can be taken to reduce the effects of associated disorders, which have proven to reduce the effects of ... BENDER, MB; SOBIN, AJ (1963). "POLYOPIA AND PALINOPIA IN HOMONYMOUS FIELDS OF VISION". Transactions of the American ... Since this condition is usually coupled with other neurological disorders or deficits, there is no known cure for cerebral ... Another possible pathophysiological mechanism for this disorder is the reorganization of receptive fields of neurons close to ...
As in other eras, visions were generally interpreted as meaningful spiritual and visionary insights; some may have been ... Mental disorder was generally connected to loss of reason, and writings covered links between the brain and disorders, and ... "History of Mental Disorder , PDF , Psychiatric Hospital , Mental Disorder". Stewart, Tanya. We Are Many. p 59 Daniel 4:25-4:34 ... Mental disorder was not a problem like any other, caused by one of the gods, but rather caused by problems in the relationship ...
1989: The Functional Anatomy of Basal Ganglia Disorders This paper described a model of basal ganglia disorders, including ... "Vision". Massachusetts General Hospital: MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease. 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2020 ... Michigan Medicine (2020). "Movement Disorders Group Faculty". Movement Disorders Program. Retrieved February 20, 2020. " ... They established the U of M Movement Disorders Clinic. The couple took on specific roles. Young was the expert in pharmacology ...
Binocular vision disorders. Functional studies. Medical and technical development. Microbiology. Medical photography. Initially ...
"Parkinson's Vision-Based Pose Estimation Dataset , Kaggle". kaggle.com. Retrieved 22 August 2018. Shannon, Paul; et al. (2003 ... Related Disorders. 53: 42-45. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.04.036. ISSN 1353-8020. PMID 29748112. S2CID 13666294. " ... "CNN features off-the-shelf: an astounding baseline for recognition." Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and ... "A visual vocabulary for flower classification."Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference ...
Stein J (2014-01-01). "Dyslexia: the Role of Vision and Visual Attention". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 1 (4): 267- ... Stein, John (2014-01-01). "Dyslexia: the Role of Vision and Visual Attention". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 1 (4): ... Both old and new world primates have been used as model systems for human vision and have subsequently been beneficial in ... Motion information contributed by parasol ganglion cells to the vision system helps the brain adjust the eyes in coordinated ...
Stein J (2014-01-01). "Dyslexia: the Role of Vision and Visual Attention". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 1 (4): 267- ... Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which people are unable to differentiate what is real and what is not. It is believed ... Goodale MA, Westwood DA (2004). "An evolving view of duplex vision: separate but interacting cortical pathways for perception ... Bortolon C, Capdevielle D, Raffard S (June 2015). "Face recognition in schizophrenia disorder: A comprehensive review of ...
2000 Apr:130(4S Suppl):921S-926S.) Usher syndrome Hereditary disease that affects hearing and vision and sometimes balance. ... Motor speech disorders Group of disorders caused by the inability to accurately produce speech sounds (phonemes) because of ... Throat disorders Disorders or diseases of the larynx (voice box), pharynx, or esophagus. Thyroplasty Surgical technique(s) to ... Pervasive developmental disorders Disorders characterized by delays in several areas of development that may include ...
Women with eating disorders have greater body dissatisfaction. This impairment of body perception involves vision, ... Eating disorders are classified as Axis I disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV ... Axis II disorders are subtyped into 3 "clusters": A, B and C. The causality between personality disorders and eating disorders ... Anxiety disorders, depression and substance abuse are common among people with eating disorders. These disorders do not include ...
Besharse, Joseph C.; Bok, Dean (2011). The Retina and Its Disorders. Academic Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-12-382198-0. Abramov, ... The loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision is known as tunnel vision, and the loss of central vision while ... Peripheral vision, or indirect vision, is vision as it occurs outside the point of fixation, i.e. away from the center of gaze ... Vision within the fovea is generally called central vision, while vision outside of the fovea, or even outside the foveola, is ...
Sleep EEG Findings in ICD-10 Borderline Personality Disorder in Egypt affective disorder.2001. Journal of affective disorder ... Diverse Cultures, Distinct Philosophies and a shared Vision for Mental Health. Impact of Arab culture/philosophy. (Read at the ... Mental Disorders in Pharaonic Egypt . (Read at the XIIII World Congress of Psychiatry in Cairo - Egypt) 261. Mental Disorders ... Somatoform Disorder -An Arab Perspective. Somatoform Disorder: A Worldwide Perspective. (Eds) Y.Ono, A.Janca, M. Asai, N. ...
The Encyclopedia of Blindness and Vision Impairment. Facts on File, 1991. Ammer, Christine. The New A to Z of Women's Health: A ... Encyclopedia of Deafness and Hearing Disorders. Facts on File, 1992. Van Cleve, John V. Gallaudet Encyclopedia of Deaf People ... The Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and Birth Defects. Facts on File, 1991. Turkington, Carol and Allen Sussman. ...
He is also the co-founder and Director of the non-profit organization New Vision Research, as well as the co-founder of the non ... "Journal of Brain Disorders Editor Details". scholars.direct. "2012 Distinguished Investigators". Academy for Radiology & ... "New Vision Research - Nonprofit Explorer". ProPublica. "ISMRM: Fellows of the Society". International Society for Magnetic ... an American medical physicist who is Professor Emeritus at the Medical University of South Carolina and Director of New Vision ...
May 2012). "A close eye on the eagle-eyed visual acuity hypothesis of autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. ... Vision Research. 51 (15): 1778-80. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.06.004. PMC 6345362. PMID 21704058. Discussed in "Eagle-Eyed ... Critics also say that because his work has focused on higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders, it ... The Emerging Neuroscience of Autism Spectrum Disorders. 1380: 42-77. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.11.078. ISSN 0006-8993. PMID ...
... eye care and good vision); urology (prostate and age related disorders); over-the-counter medicines (painkillers and anti- ...
In addition, another disorder associated with the lateral rectus muscle is Duane Syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the sixth ... This defect can result in horizontal double vision and reduced lateral movement. The lateral rectus muscle will be denervated ... "Duane syndrome". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2019-09-04. Anatomy figure: 29:01-05 at Human ... Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research. 8 (2): 160-171. PMC 3740468. PMID 23943691. " ...
A vision disorder is an impairment of the sense of vision. Vision disorder is not the same as an eye disease. Although many ... Vision disorders are not often targeted by public health initiatives, as mortality causes take priority. However, they can have ... There are many eye conditions that can lead to vision disorder. Some of which are as follows: Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... It can result in blurred vision and vision loss. Eye floaters and spots: where visible cloud-like images appear to "float" in ...
Vision, Blurred - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Sudden, complete loss of vision in one or both eyes (blindness Vision Loss, Sudden Loss of vision is considered sudden if it ... Blurred vision is the most common vision symptom. When doctors talk about blurred vision, they typically mean a decrease in ... Some disorders that cause blurred vision are more likely to cause other symptoms that prompt people to seek medical attention, ...
If the findings hold in humans, further melanopsin research could eventually lead to treatments for disorders like non-24. ... Breakthrough UMBC vision research finds protein holds promise to treat biological clock disorders. ... Unconscious vision, or non-image-forming vision, is an often-underappreciated function of the eyes. While we look around, our ... Their new research focuses on the role of melanopsin, a retinal protein, in aspects of unconscious vision that regulate the ...
Screening key to halting vision disorder in premature infants. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of ... "I have no doubt that if we had left that day Isabel would undoubtedly have had vision problems or even blindness.". Owens eyes ... While it usually regresses spontaneously, there are still a significant number of patients who are at risk for vision loss if ... Now she has phenomenal vision. Dr. Recchia saved her eyesight," Withers said. ...
Gene Therapy Cures Inherited Vision Disorder in Dogs, Promises Hope for Humans. April 9, 2013. ... While their study focused on mans best friend, the treatment could help restore vision in people, too. Published online on ... Researchers have discovered that using two kinds of therapy in tandem may be a knockout combination against inherited disorders ... In 2010, the scientists restored day vision in dogs suffering from achromatopsia, an inherited form of total color blindness, ...
Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders : Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients With Eye and Vision ... Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders ... Home , , Medical Surgical Nursing , Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders ... Chapter: Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders. ...
Disorders of color vision. Lesions of the lingual gyrus in the inferior occipital lobe may produce disorders of color ... Disorders of reading. Pure alexia may result from infarction of the dominant occipital cortex. Words are treated as if they are ... The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 14. 333(24):1581-7 ... hypercoagulable disorders, illicit substance use, vasculitides, and fibromuscular dysplasia. ...
... screening for impaired vision , Assessment of low vision in developing countries : book 2 : assessment of functional vision. ... World report on vision by World Health Organization.. Material type: Text; Format: print ; Literary form: Not fiction ... Low vision kit / Keeffe, Jill. by Keeffe, Jill , WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness , University of Melbourne. Dept ... Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1995Other title: Assessment of low vision in ...
Vision Of Disorders Still received a 20 year reissue back in 2014. The album represents classic moments from the NYHC scene ... Decrease quantity for Vision of Disorder "Still" 12" Vinyl Increase quantity for Vision of Disorder "Still& ... Vision Of Disorders "Still" received a 20 year reissue back in 2014. The album represents classic moments from the NYHC scene ...
Genetic Disorders Yorkshire Terrier - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Peripheral vision is lost first. ► Central PRA (CPRA) - retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED): Loss of vision occurs much ... heart disorders like patent ductus arteriosus, eye disorders such as retinal dysplasia and cataracts, nervous system disorders ... Blood Disorders ► von Willebrands disease a common, usually mild, inherited bleeding disorder in people and in dogs. It is ...
The VEHSS team calculated prevalence of diagnosed eye and vision disorders and prevalence of receipt of covered eye care ... MarketScan does not include vision insurance claims that are not covered by the patients primary insurer. ... Vision Problems and Blindness - Diagnosed Vision Disorders. Vision Care Services - Eye Exams. ...
MATIOLI, Matheus Rozário; ROVANI, Érica Aparecida and NOCE, Mariana Araújo. The borderline personality disorder from the vision ... Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a disorder that seriously affects the life of the person who suffers from it and ... Keywords : Psychoanalysis; Borderline Personality Disorder; Therapy. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · Portuguese ... the diagnostic process and the treatment of the disorder. Two psychologists graduated in Psychoanalysis took part in this ...
Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are conditions in which the blood supply to the back of the brain is disrupted. ... Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are conditions in which the blood supply to the back of the brain is disrupted. ... These areas control breathing, heart rate, swallowing, vision, movement, and posture or balance. All of the nervous system ... Central vestibular disorders. In: Flint PW, Francis HW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery ...
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron ... Persons with PNPLA6 disorders can have evidence of widespread retinal degeneration and vision loss in infancy or throughout ... Disorders with Ataxia. Table 3. Disorders with Ataxia in the Differential Diagnosis of PNPLA6 Disorders ... DiffDx Disorder. MOI. Clinical Features of DiffDx Disorder. Distinguishing Features. ANGPTL3. APOB. MTTP 1. ...
Learn about visual perception disorders through sushi art ... Intact Color Vision. When all goes well in the visual system, ... At a basic level, each eyes field can be divided into 4 quadrants (see the page on Vision for detailed information). ... They are much more abundant in our eyes and are useful for night vision. Because humans have three types of photopigments, we ... Damage at the right hemisphere visual cortex (yellow pepper) results in blindness to the left hemi-fields with intact vision in ...
Vision disorders. 58 (18.5). 3.0 (1-20). Mucosal lesions. 43 (13.7). 2.0 (1-12). ...
Implementing a standardized screening programme for four highly prevalent disorders for elderly people is not recommended. ... Vision Disorders / diagnosis * Vision Disorders / prevention & control* * Vision Disorders / therapy ... screening of the elderly on four highly prevalent disorders with possibilities for treatment: hearing and visual disorders, ... Effects of screening for disorders among the elderly: an intervention study in general practice Fam Pract. 2000 Aug;17(4):329- ...
Vision disorders have occurred, including blurred vision, photophobia, diplopia, visual impairment, photopsia, cataract, and ... Vision disorders. *Grade ≥2: Withhold until improvement or stabilization; resume at same dose or reduced dose, as clinically ... Vision disorders. *Grade ≥2: Withhold until improvement or stabilization; resume at same dose or reduced dose, as clinically ... CNS adverse reactions reported, including cognitive impairment, mood disorders, dizziness, and sleep disturbances ...
Seattle Childrens has been named a Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Specialty Clinic because of the high quality of care ... Vision *Many children with CDG have misaligned eyes (strabismus) or crossed eyes. Your child may need eye patches, glasses or ... What are congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)?. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) is a group of rare genetic. ... disorders that affect how sugars attach to proteins and fats in the body. The process of making and attaching these sugars is ...
When eyes cannot work together, vision disorders occur. Disorders with binocular vision occur in a large percentage of ... The two most common binocular vision disorders are strabismus (crossed eyes) and amblyopia (lazy eye). These disorders often ... Binocular vision disorders affect normal, daily activities like driving, reading, seeing a computer screen, and participating ... Binocular vision does lend creatures with two eyes advantages over those with only one, such as enhanced vision, depth ...
If you are experiencing visual problems, schedule an appointment at our vision center in Eugene. ... Vision Neurological Disorders. Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine, and the nerves that connect them. ... How can Foley Vision Center Help Me?. If you are experiencing issues with your vision, schedule an appointment with Dr. Foley. ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that is often detected through problems with vision. Almost all MS patients ...
Mannford Vision Clinic is your local Optometrist in Mannford serving all of your needs. Call us today at (918) 865-2116 for an ... This skin disorder, also called erythema multiforme major, sometimes causes painful lesions on the eyelids. Stevens-Johnson ... This group of corneal disorders includes more than 20 variations. Each affects different parts of the cornea, causing it to get ... young people between the ages of 10 and 25 are most likely to develop this disorder. For individuals with keratoconus, their ...
The number of fundraising campaigns for neurologic disorders on GoFundMe increased from just one in 2011 to 1106 in 2020. ... Dr Saadi reported receiving a grant from the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Wilkinson reported no ... Between 2011 and 2020, the number of fundraising campaigns for neurologic disorders on the popular crowdfunding site GoFundMe ... Primary Care Vision Testing Rates in Children Low. Related Conditions & Procedures *. Gynecologic Pain ...
Lehr Vision Care is your local Optometrist in Naperville serving all of your needs. Call us today at (630) 355-1531 for an ... Retinal Disorders Retinal disorders are conditions that affect the layer of tissue at the back of the eye, known as the retina ... All retinal disorders affect your vision in some way, but some can also lead to blindness. ... This can lead to blurry or double vision, blank spots in the vision and pain in one or both eyes. Diabetics may also be at ...
Johnstown Family Vision is your local Optometrist in Johnstown serving all of your needs. Call us today at (814)-266-7611 for ... Both cases can cause light that enters the eye to bend the wrong way, causing blurry vision. This disorder ... At Johnstown Family Vision, we are fully dedicated to providing solutions to address your unique needs. This personal care is ... People with hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, can usually see objects in the distance, but their close vision is blurry ...
... specializes in evaluation of visual processing disorders in children. (Vision Problems in Children) ... A child may be able to see the Snellen chart very well at 20 feet with either eye and thus have 20/20 vision, but may not be ... Post Trauma Vision Syndrome & Visual Midline Shift Syndrome. *Risk of fall (RoF) intervention by affecting visual egocenter ... When a child has difficulty making sense of what the eyes "see" it is termed a visual processing disorder. It is possible to ...
Vision of Disorder band Licensed Merchandise. 100% Cotton T-Shirt. ... Vision of Disorder T-Shirt Women Vision of Disorder band Licensed Merchandise. 100% Cotton T-Shirt. Vision of Disorder is a ...
  • This group of corneal disorders includes more than 20 variations. (mannfordvisionclinic.net)
  • Unfortunately, the cornea is susceptible to a range of disorders, which are collectively referred to as corneal disorders. (cookvisiontherapy.com)
  • The following are some common corneal disorders that can affect this sensitive and important part of the eye. (cookvisiontherapy.com)
  • Corneal disorders can be frightening, but researchers have developed many treatments. (cookvisiontherapy.com)
  • If you have any symptoms of corneal disorders, call us today so we can discuss your treatment options. (cookvisiontherapy.com)
  • Left untreated, bulging eyes may lead to eye dryness, pain and vision loss Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: This is an inflammation of the retina caused by infection, which can result in blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are generally harmless and do not cause blindness Eye flashing: characterised by bursts or streaks of light that appear in an individual's field of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have no doubt that if we had left that day Isabel would undoubtedly have had vision problems or even blindness. (vumc.org)
  • Researchers have discovered that using two kinds of therapy in tandem may be a knockout combination against inherited disorders that cause blindness. (bioquicknews.com)
  • In 2010, the scientists restored day vision in dogs suffering from achromatopsia, an inherited form of total color blindness, by replacing the mutant gene associated with the condition. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Damage at the right hemisphere visual cortex (yellow pepper) results in blindness to the left hemi-fields with intact vision in the right hemi-fields and focally. (thesushiscientist.com)
  • All retinal disorders affect your vision in some way, but some can also lead to blindness. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • a qualified clinician can skillfully diagnose disorders that are similar in symptoms but which may require different treatment. (visionsteen.com)
  • Call 911 or the local emergency number, or get to the emergency room if you have any symptoms of a vertebral or basilar circulatory disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These disorders are rare and cause a wide range of symptoms. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Symptoms of strabismus include double vision, crossed eyes, eyes which are not aligned, independent eye movements, and loss of depth perception. (insighteyeok.com)
  • Symptoms include eyes which do not move together, poor vision in one eye, loss of depth perception, and eyes which turn in or out. (insighteyeok.com)
  • It can cause symptoms such as floaters in the field of vision, light flashes and the feeling of a "curtain" in the way of your vision. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Symptoms: Blurred Vision Double Vision, Dry Eyes, Burning Eyes, Headache Neck or Back Pain. (cdc.gov)
  • The VEHSS team calculated prevalence of diagnosed eye and vision disorders and prevalence of receipt of covered eye care services in MarketScan® claims based on the presence of ICD9 and ICD10 diagnosis codes and CPT procedure codes on any patient claim during the year of observation. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of a PNPLA6 disorder is established in a proband with suggestive findings and biallelic PNPLA6 pathogenic variants in trans configuration identified by molecular genetic testing . (nih.gov)
  • Drs Rosenberg and Krystal identify key steps in the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia disorder. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Some of which are as follows: Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): ARMD is a retinal degeneration disease specifically associated with macula blood vessels, which can result in central vision impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their new research focuses on the role of melanopsin, a retinal protein, in aspects of unconscious vision that regulate the biological clock. (umbc.edu)
  • This document summarizes common genetic disorders in Yorkshire Terriers, including musculoskeletal disorders like patellar luxation and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, heart disorders like patent ductus arteriosus, eye disorders such as retinal dysplasia and cataracts, nervous system disorders including hydrocephalus and shaker dog disease, skin disorders like dermoid sinus and hypotrichosis, and blood disorders like von Willebrand's disease. (slideshare.net)
  • Retinal disorders are conditions that affect the layer of tissue at the back of the eye, known as the retina. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • These disorders can include increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma), clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts), involuntary eye movements (nystagmus), macular degeneration and underdevelopment of optic nerve (optic nerve hypoplasia). (uga.edu)
  • One of the leading causes of vision loss in people who are age 50 or older is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Uveitis requires medical intervention as it can lead to blurry vision, eye pain, eye floaters, eye redness and vision loss It was estimated by the WHO in 2004 that 314 million people worldwide are vision impaired (from all causes), of whom 45 million are blind. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can lead to blurry or double vision, blank spots in the vision and pain in one or both eyes. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Together, the two events will be the largest international gathering focused on treating aniridia and the broad range of developmental and ocular disorders associated with the disease. (uga.edu)
  • With computers becoming ubiquitous there is an increase in prevalence for an associated ocular disorder called Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). (cdc.gov)
  • The vision of ICCFASD is that collaborative partnerships, using the resources of government and other organizations, will reduce the prevalence of individuals affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol and provide appropriate interventions and support to persons affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and their families. (nih.gov)
  • This study assessed the correlation between computer vision syndrome, insomnia, and migraine, using stress as a mediating factor. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Computer vision syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Glaucoma: occurs when the optic nerve is damaged and can result in irreversible vision loss, with the potential to pass undetected until this damage occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratoconus: vision problems can be caused when the cornea thins and distorts into a conical shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • While keratoconus can happen at any stage of life, young people between the ages of 10 and 25 are most likely to develop this disorder. (mannfordvisionclinic.net)
  • The lenses can be rotated into place, en-abling the examiner to bring the cornea, lens, and retina into focus sequentially. (brainkart.com)
  • Each affects different parts of the cornea, causing it to get cloudy and compromising vision. (mannfordvisionclinic.net)
  • However, if your loved one's doctor failed to diagnose a disorder that led to one, you may have a viable medical malpractice claim. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • It can result in blurred vision and vision loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vision Loss, Sudden Loss of vision is considered sudden if it develops within a few minutes to a couple of days. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with aniridia typically develop other eye problems that contribute to progressive vision loss over the course of their lives. (uga.edu)
  • While it usually regresses spontaneously, there are still a significant number of patients who are at risk for vision loss if not treated with laser surgery. (vumc.org)
  • Amblyopia, the most common childhood vision problem, is the loss of one eye's ability to see details, when the nerve path connecting the eye to the brain does not develop. (insighteyeok.com)
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome can cause painful corneal blisters and even holes, leading to vision loss. (mannfordvisionclinic.net)
  • This condition is a leading cause of vision loss in people over the age of 60 years old. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Treatment can slow the loss of vision, but it will not restore vision that has already been lost. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Sometimes, the scar tissue can fall off the retina on its own, and the vision will return to normal. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • If melanopsin turns out to be the culprit behind biological clock disorders or behaviors like insomnia, that could change. (umbc.edu)
  • A vision disorder is an impairment of the sense of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementing a standardized screening programme for four highly prevalent disorders for elderly people is not recommended. (nih.gov)
  • Athens, Ga. - More than a dozen of the world's leading experts in low vision treatment and research will travel to the University of Georgia to speak at the inaugural Aniridia and Low Vision Research Symposium July 15-17 at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education and Conference Center. (uga.edu)
  • The event will address current and emerging strategies for the treatment of these low vision disorders, including aniridia, with research sessions focused on disorders of the anterior and the posterior eye, eye development and the genetics of aniridia. (uga.edu)
  • While their study focused on man's best friend, the treatment could help restore vision in people, too. (bioquicknews.com)
  • This paper's objective is to present the professional experience of psychologists graduated in Psychoanalysis in caring for patients with TPB, focusing: the main characteristics, the diagnostic process and the treatment of the disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of GPs' screening of the elderly on four highly prevalent disorders with possibilities for treatment: hearing and visual disorders, urinary incontinence and mobility disorders. (nih.gov)
  • However, if no treatment exists for the metabolic disorder, the toxic substances will continue to damage the brain. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Published in Molecular Psychiatry , this study illuminates the complex interactions between stress, trauma, and neurological disorders, offering new paths for treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • These discoveries are helping untangle the complex role that stress and trauma play in neurological disorders like PTSD and AUD, while also informing the development of new treatment options for people who experience both these conditions simultaneously. (scitechdaily.com)
  • State of the world's sight : VISION 2020 : the Right to Sight : 1999-2005. (who.int)
  • Between 2011 and 2020, the number of fundraising campaigns for neurologic disorders on the popular crowdfunding site GoFundMe increased from one in 2011 that raised $24,839 to 1106 campaigns in 2020 which garnered $19.2 million. (medscape.com)
  • A screening test, such as the polychromatic plates discussed in the next paragraph, can be used to establish whether a person's color vision is within normal range. (brainkart.com)
  • For none of the four disorders was a measurable effect of the screening at the population level found. (nih.gov)
  • The patient advocacy group CDG Care recognizes Seattle Children's as a Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Specialty Clinic because of the high quality of care and support we provide. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • We are the only children's hospital in the Pacific Northwest named a Rare Disease Center of Excellence by the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). (seattlechildrens.org)
  • While the Snellen chart is the oldest diagnostic vision test still in use it is, unfortunately, also the most common way in which children's vision is screened. (padulainstitute.com)
  • Assessment of low vision in developing countries : book 2 : assessment of functional vision. (who.int)
  • Preventive assessment of prevalent disorders may be considered as an instrument to maintain independence in the elderly. (nih.gov)
  • When doctors talk about blurred vision, they typically mean a decrease in sharpness or clarity that has developed gradually. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A team from Scripps Research has demonstrated that reducing the activity of specific stress neurons may lead to a decrease in alcohol consumption without affecting anxiety levels in individuals with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorder. (scitechdaily.com)
  • ADHD is a common disorder that mental health professionals encounter. (visionsteen.com)
  • Blurred vision is the most common vision symptom. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The two most common binocular vision disorders are strabismus (crossed eyes) and amblyopia (lazy eye). (insighteyeok.com)
  • It may affect one or both eyes and all or part of a field of vision. (msdmanuals.com)
  • disorders that affect how sugars attach to proteins and fats in the body. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Disorders with binocular vision occur in a large percentage of optometry patients, as many as 20 percent, and can affect those patients' ability to see properly using both eyes. (insighteyeok.com)
  • Binocular vision disorders affect normal, daily activities like driving, reading, seeing a computer screen, and participating in sports. (insighteyeok.com)
  • The high blood sugar (glucose) levels that occur with diabetes can also affect vision. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Brain injuries related to a metabolic disorder can affect different areas of the brain. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • This skin disorder, also called erythema multiforme major, sometimes causes painful lesions on the eyelids. (mannfordvisionclinic.net)
  • Most often caused by a defect in PAX6, a gene important in eye development, aniridia can lead to a reduction in the sharpness of vision and increased sensitivity to light. (uga.edu)
  • The photoreceptor cells responsible for color vision are the cones, and the greatest area of color sensitivity is in the macula, the area of densest cone concentration. (brainkart.com)
  • Scar tissue on the macula can make the central vision become blurry and distorted. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • This condition is caused by a small break in the macula, which leads to blurriness and distortion in the central vision. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Eye floaters and spots: where visible cloud-like images appear to "float" in an individual's field of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people have some floaters and have no problem with their vision. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • A metabolic disorder occurs when the enzymes that metabolize certain substances are missing or do not function properly. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • They are typically activated in daytime vision and are sensitive to long, medium, and short light wavelengths. (thesushiscientist.com)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a disorder that seriously affects the life of the person who suffers from it and causes harm to the person with BPD and to the people surrounding him. (bvsalud.org)
  • If it turns out that human patients with clock-related disorders have the same kind of modification in melanopsin as Somasundaram's mice, that would suggest further melanopsin research could eventually lead to treatments for these disorders. (umbc.edu)
  • MarketScan does not include vision insurance claims that are not covered by the patient's primary insurer. (cdc.gov)
  • Strabismus: where the muscular or neural control of gaze direction fails to align the eyes to a shared locus of visual attention, sometimes leading to double vision Uveitis: where the uveal (middle) layer of the eye is inflamed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a child has difficulty making sense of what the eyes "see" it is termed a visual processing disorder. (padulainstitute.com)
  • It is possible to have 20/20 vision and still have difficulty processing what is seen, for while we "look" with our eyes, we truly "see" with our brain. (padulainstitute.com)
  • The child may also not be able use the eyes together, may have difficulty separating foreground from background or locating an item in space, may have difficulty judging distance, may miss visual details and social cues, and may have difficulty using vision to guide body movements, etc. (padulainstitute.com)
  • In the first year, 1013 new disorders were found involving 479 of 576 people. (nih.gov)
  • We work with other researchers in the Frontiers in CDG Consortium to improve care for people with these rare disorders. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • There also will be a panel discussion with the physicians addressing the unique challenges in treating the problems associated with genetic eye disorders, such as aniridia. (uga.edu)
  • RÉSUMÉ Le diagnostic et la prise en charge précoces d'un strabisme sont nécessaires pour éviter les complications telles qu'une amblyopie. (who.int)
  • Le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge précoces sont requis dans les familles affectées et chez les patients ayant des antécédents familiaux de strabisme. (who.int)
  • There are many eye conditions that can lead to vision disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are conditions in which the blood supply to the back of the brain is disrupted. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At a basic level, each eye's field can be divided into 4 quadrants (see the page on ' Vision ' for detailed information). (thesushiscientist.com)
  • In the intervention group, all elderly patients were screened for the four disorders during the first year of the study. (nih.gov)
  • Unconscious vision, or non-image-forming vision, is an often-underappreciated function of the eyes. (umbc.edu)
  • They are much more abundant in our eyes and are useful for night vision. (thesushiscientist.com)
  • For many, the term binocular vision conjures images of super powers or the rare ability to spot objects far away, but having binocular vision simply means having two eyes with which to see. (insighteyeok.com)
  • Binocular vision does lend creatures with two eyes advantages over those with only one, such as enhanced vision, depth perception, and a wider field of view. (insighteyeok.com)
  • Our two eyes functioning properly allow us to view the world in the way we do, perceiving objects both up close and far away, using peripheral vision to see objects at our sides, and using our overlapping field of vision to see objects in greater detail. (insighteyeok.com)
  • In order for binocular vision to function properly, both eyes have to work together. (insighteyeok.com)
  • When eyes cannot work together, vision disorders occur. (insighteyeok.com)
  • A child may be able to see the Snellen chart very well at 20 feet with either eye and thus have 20/20 vision, but may not be able to focus the eyes to read at 20 inches. (padulainstitute.com)
  • Aniridia is a rare, congenital eye disorder characterized by a complete or partial absence of the iris, or colored part of the eye. (uga.edu)
  • Because these disorders are so rare, many doctors have little experience with CDG. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Vision disorder is not the same as an eye disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central vestibular disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This area is needed for the sharp, central vision that is used during everyday activities such as driving, reading or working with tools. (lehrvisioncare.com)
  • Not every metabolic disorder that results in an ABI can form the basis of a civil suit. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Melanopsin is found in five subtypes of the specialized cells that regulate unconscious vision. (umbc.edu)
  • A patient with schizoaffective disorder was found to have supratherapeutic lithium serum c. (psychiatrist.com)