Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Lusitano lost both matches against Académico de Viseu and the match in Fafe, thereby failing promotion back to the Primeira ... while Lusitano had to enter the promotion play-offs against Central and North zones runners-up Académico de Viseu and Fafe. ...
"Jorge Casquilha é o novo treinador do Académico de Viseu" [Jorge Casquilha is the new manager of Académico de Viseu] (in ... He was dismissed in March 2016, after failing with the board's aim to win promotion. Still in March 2016, Casquilha returned to ... the second tier with Académico de Viseu F.C. as their third manager of the campaign. In January 2017, he was hired at fellow ...
Viseu Estoril Leixões Oliveirense Penafiel Porto B Sp. Covilhã Varzim Mafra Vilafranquense Vizela Arouca C. Piedade Updated to ... were punished by the Portuguese Professional Football League for failing to produce valid licensing documentation with direct ...
After countless failed efforts by John II to legitimize Jorge, he finally sent a royal order to Manuel in 1493. Once Manuel ... John II had both Duke Diogo I of Viseu and Beja and Duke Fernando II of Braganza put on trial and executed. After Diogo's death ... Manuel, born on 31 May 1469 at the Royal Palace at Alcochete, was the second son of Duke Ferdinand I of Viseu and Beja and ... the Dukedoms of Viseu and Beja passed to Manuel, causing Manuel to fear for his own being. In 1491, Afonso, Prince of Portugal ...
Viseu: treinador Bruno Ribeiro dura menos de um mês" [Ac. Viseu: coach Bruno Ribeiro lasts less than a month] (in Portuguese). ... However, he picked up an injury at the start of the 1998-99 season, and failed to win back his first team place under new ... "Bruno Ribeiro é o novo treinador do Académico Viseu" [Bruno Ribeiro is the new Académico de Viseu's coach] (in Portuguese). ... In February 2016, Ribeiro returned to Portugal and signed a contract at LigaPro side Académico de Viseu to run until the end of ...
The failed pretender was executed, though his son ended up becoming Caliph during the civil wars of the next century as ... The west of León would, however, suffer one last attack in December 990, in which Montemor-o-Velho and Viseu, on the defensive ... In spite of the military success of the many incursions, they failed to prevent in the long term ruin of the state. Although ... Although Almanzor had not yet managed to quell this revolt by fall 997, it failed to gain any support on the peninsula. To ...
... helping the Viseu-based club reach the top flight for the first time in its history. On 31 August 2015, he signed with Belgian ... failing to find the net. In 2014-15, his second stint with Tondela, Marreco was crowned the competition joint-top scorer at 23 ...
Mondinense and Vidago Viseu FA: Mortágua Invited reserve teams: Sporting B Rio Ave B Belenenses SAD B Notes Vitória de Setúbal ... were punished by the Portuguese Professional Football League for failing to produce valid licensing documentation with direct ...
Instead, Ranuccio's maternal aunt Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, claimed the throne, very ambitiously, but failed. Catherine ... Duke of Viseu, second son of King Duarte I. The duchess also had a son, Dom Teodósio de Braganza, who would be her royal heir ...
Viseu, a parish in Portugal Fail Monastery, in Scotland Fail Loch, a former lake near the monastery James M. Fail (1926-2010), ... To fail is not to meet a desirable or intended objective. Fail may also refer to: Lia Fáil, the coronation stone for the kings ... with Fail All pages with titles containing Fail This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Fail. If an ... American financial executive Noël du Fail, (c.1520-1591), French jurist and writer "Fail", a song on Depeche Mode's 2017 album ...
When the people failed to rise and yield the city to Dom António, the attempt was abandoned. Spain and Portugal would remain ... Duke of Viseu, second son of King Duarte I. The Duchess also had a son, Dom Teodósio of Braganza, who would be her royal heir ... Instead, Ranuccio's mother's younger sister Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, claimed the throne, very ambitiously, but failed. ...
In the previous season, Mário Wilson failed to regain the title, prolonging the drought to three years. It was the first time ... March closed with another draw, now with Académico de Viseu, removing a point from their lead over Porto. On 8 April, Benfica ... The final two months of the Primeira Divisão saw Benfica drop points with Académico de Viseu, Vitória de Guimarães and Sporting ... v Braga Penafiel v Benfica Portimonense v Benfica Benfica v Amora Académica v Benfica Benfica v Porto Académico de Viseu v ...
However, it quickly failed - the scaling ladders were too few and, as it turns out, too short, to reach the top of the walls. ... In 1416, King John I of Portugal placed his son, the Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator, Duke of Viseu, in charge of ... After a few failed assaults on the city, the Portuguese force was attacked and defeated by a large Moroccan relief army led by ... A third attempt to take Tangier was launched in late 1463, which also failed. Finally, on the fourth attempt, Tangier fell to ...
Fail was a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Viseu, with 6.92 km2 (2.7 sq mi) and 664 inhabitants (2011). Density: 96 ... 2013 was changed and Fail was reclassified into the Union of Parishes Fail e Vila Chã de Sá [pt] based in Vila Chã de Sá [pt]. ...
"Supertaças jogam-se em Viseu e Vila Flor" [Supercup's to be played in Viseu and Vila Flor]. Sapo Desporto (in Portuguese). 27 ... Castelo failed to defend their trophy lead in the competition and lost with Benfica; who subsequently matched them with five ... In the 2016 edition, Benfica extended their streak to six wins, after beating Fonte Bastardo on Pavilhão Cidade de Viseu by 3-0 ...
On 23 March 2011, the prime minister José Sócrates resigned when new austerity measures failed to pass in the Parliament. On 15 ... "IOL Diário - Geração à Rasca: Viseu protestou no Rossio". Retrieved 12 March 2011. "Protesto/crise: "Geração à rasca" enche a ... Events also occurred in several other Portuguese cities, including Funchal, Ponta Delgada, Viseu, Braga, Castelo Branco, ...
983 - After failing in a rebellion in the Maghreb, the Berber Chief Zawi ibn Ziri, of the Tunisian royal family, brings a ... 1028 - Alfonso V, king of Asturias and León, lays siege to Viseu but is killed by a bolt from the walls. The Moorish Caliphate ... 808 - Franks fail to take Tortosa. 809 - An Umayyad prince defeats and executes Tumlus, a Muslim rebel who had seized power in ... King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors. The Taifa of Mértola is taken by the Almohads ...
He made his debut as a late substitute against Slavia Sofia on matchday 3. Rashid left Bulgaria quickly as he failed to adjust ... He made his debut on 8 August 2015 against Académico Viseu. He scored his first goal against Covilhã on matchday 7. Rashid was ... He played 12 times scoring twice while Den Bosch finished sixth in the league and failed to qualify to the Eredivisie. Rashid ... Rashid has since stated that negotiations between Feyenoord and Werder Bremen had failed even though Feyenoord were not ...
His younger brother Henry was made Duke of Viseu. These were the first dukedoms created in Portugal. On finishing a translation ... the hopeless position of the city against the Ottoman onslaught did not fail to impress him. From Constantinople he travelled ...
Viseu C. Piedade Estoril Leixões Oliveirense Penafiel Porto B Sp. Covilhã Varzim Farense Mafra Vilafranquense Casa Pia Nacional ... after failing to provide valid licensing documentation to compete in the professional leagues. As a result, Cova da Piedade and ... Vitória de Setúbal and Aves with direct relegation to the non-professional third-tier Campeonato de Portugal after they failed ...
Failed. Queen Eleanor of Aragon, (regent for Afonso V), (1438-39) 1438 - Cortes of Torres Novas - review the will of the late ... 1391 - Cortes of Viseu - to reimpose price controls and labor laws (corvée) suspended during the 1380s crisis. 1394-95 - Cortes ... Viseu (1) Estremoz (1) Guarda (1) Arronches (1) Montemor-o-Novo (2) Almeirim (2) Tomar (1) In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal ...
A member of the House of Aviz, Manuel was Duke of Beja and Viseu prior to succeeding his cousin, John II of Portugal, as ... John II wanted to name him heir to the throne after the death of his son Prince Afonso and the failed attempts to legitimise ... In addition, his sister Eleanor of Viseu was the wife of King John II of Portugal. Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the ... Manuel was born in Alcochete on 31 May 1469, the ninth child of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beatriz of Portugal. His father, ...
It was determined that the train was traveling over the speed limit for a restricted classification and the engineer failed to ... Viseu, Portugal. Portuguese officials claimed 49 killed, but Portuguese media claimed at least 150 people killed. September 14 ... It was determined that the engineer of the Amtrak train failed to reduce speed and comply with approach signal indications, ... December 13, 1980 - Yugoslavia - A freight train fails to wait for an oncoming passenger train and collides with it head-on ...
After his tenure in the Primeira Liga he spend time with SC Lamego, Académico de Viseu FC, Clube Caçadores das Taipas, ... Unfortunately during his tenure with Toronto the club finished last in the Eastern Conference, and failed to clinch a ...
The move comes after criticism directed at the Banco de Portugal for failing to predict the failure of Banco Espirito Santo in ... 4 April - An explosion at a fireworks factory in the village of Avoes in the Viseu District kills six people. 17 April - Five ...
João Torto, a most likely legendary 16th century Portuguese man who jumped from the top of Viseu Cathedral wearing a biplane- ... Mike Hughes (1956-2020) was killed when the parachute failed to deploy during a crash landing while piloting his homemade steam ... Aurel Vlaicu (1882-1913) died when his self-constructed airplane, Vlaicu II, failed during an attempt to cross the Carpathian ... Morris, Neil (2010). From Fail to Win, Learning from Bad Ideas: Transportation. ISBN 978-1-4109-3911-1. "British inventor dies ...
He returned to Stoke two years later but, although he was a big hit with the supporters, he failed to settle in England and was ... never appearing in the top level and mainly representing Académico de Viseu FC. Also in the 90s, he had two spells in England ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "NEW CNEW COACH OF VISEU PRESENTED ACADEMICOACH OF VISEU PRESENTED ACADEMIC". Jornal Do ... Despite failing to score a single goal in competitive football during his three years in England and Scotland, Smith remained ... He followed Ribeiro back to Portugal to assist him at Académico de Viseu in February 2016, before following him to Port Vale ... but failed to score a goal in the English Football League. He struggled with injuries and had brief loan spells at Stockport ...
In his first year, he took part in less than half of the league matches as the Basques failed to regain their lost status of ... Tiago Manuel Oliveira Mesquita (born 23 November 1990) is a Portuguese footballer who plays for Académico de Viseu F.C. as a ...
After failing to make a single appearance, Piloto returned to Portugal and signed a two-year deal with top flight club S.C. ... Born in Tondela, Viseu District, Piloto was brought up in the youth system of Académica de Coimbra. His first season as a ...
Sporting have failed to win Primeira Liga again since 2002. In the 2004-05 season, José Peseiro-led Sporting was leading the ... "Sporting Lisbon players attacked at training ground after failing to secure Champions League spot". Sports Joe. Retrieved 16 ...
The fort failed to suppress Dutch and French trading, but did ward off colonization. ...
On 23 March 2011, the prime minister José Sócrates resigned when new austerity measures failed to pass in the Parliament.[11] ... "IOL Diário - Geração à Rasca: Viseu protestou no Rossio". Retrieved 12 March 2011.. ... Viseu, Braga, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Faro, Guimarães and Leiria.[7] Several Portuguese emigrants also gathered in front of ...
Following Olivares' fall from power amidst the crisis of 1640-1643, the victim of failed policies and jealousy from the nobles ... Infante João, Duke of Viseu. *Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu. *Manuel I ... to improve Spain's failing fortunes.[70] Most believe that Philip was involved in protecting Maria from the Inquisition's ...
In the failed enterprise that during the war of 1801 Field Marshal Gomes Freire de Andrade undertook with the troops of the ... in Viseu he remained until, in June 1810, being given the superior command of the corps of the Militias of the three northern ... and thereafter continued quietly in charge of him until he died in Viseu. Bacelar married on the 16 July 1776 to D. Joana ... when the revolution against the French was broken in Viseu, he was the Brigadier in charge of the interim government. Beira ...
The infante D. Fernando, Duke of Viseu, granted Huerter the first captaincy of the island on February 2, 1468. Unlike on other ... All attempts to introduce them have failed. The good Catholic Portuguese crossed himself and prayed God to shield him from all ...
Miss Anita Stewart of New York announced her engagement to Prince Miguel, Duke of Viseu, eldest son of Miguel, Duke of Braganza ... Hubert Latham's attempt to be the first to fly an airplane across the English Channel failed, when the engine on the Antoinette ... IV failed seven miles (11 km) into the trip. The French destroyer Harpon rescued both pilot and airplane. Six days later, Louis ...
Due to their father's misfortunes, Fernando II's children, from his marriage to Isabel of Viseu, daughter of Infante Fernando, ... to annex Cisplatina led the Empire into the failed Cisplatine War. In March 1826, João VI died and Pedro I inherited the ... Duke of Viseu and Beja, initially had a tumultuous childhood; but King João II's successor, King Manuel I, who had previously ... Duke of Viseu Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra Infante Alexandre of Portugal Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja Infante António ...
Braga and Viseu, was founded before the others, in 1967, and officially recognized in 1971. UCP offers some well-recognized ... Government has no reserve powers of intervention even in a failing institution. - HEFCE's powers were transferred to the OfS ...
However, since they failed to obtain a license for European competitions, the spot awarded to the cup winners (Europa League ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "JOÃO MÁRIO ASSINA PELO ACADÉMICO DE VISEU DEPOIS DE SAIR DO DESPORTIVO DE CHAVES". ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Pana emprestado pelo Chaves ao Académico de Viseu". Retrieved 3 August 2016. CS1 maint ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Fábio Santos reforça Académico de Viseu". Retrieved 26 June 2017. CS1 maint: ...
During the reign of Liuvigild, new Arian bishops were raised among the Suebi in cities such as Lugo, Porto, Tui, and Viseu, ... John's first attempt to make good on this claim failed when his troops were diverted to Poitou to participate in the clashes ... The death of Philip II in 1598 failed to effect a dramatic improvement in Galicia's fortunes. Although the reign of Philip III ... Consequently, the bishops of Coimbra, Lamego, Viseu, or Salamanca, among others, were subjected to the rule of Compostela. ...
Pentin, Edward (August 25, 2018). "Ex-nuncio accuses Pope Francis of failing to act on McCarrick's abuse reports". Catholic ... John Paul II later appointed him as the Bishop of Viseu on 22 April 2004. Pope Benedict XVI named him Bishop of Leiria-Fátima ... accusing Pope Francis of failing to act on these reports and calling on him to resign. Marto addressed this as "an ignoble ...
The PSD was able to hold on to their bastions of Viseu, Vila Real, Bragança, Leiria and Madeira. On election night, PSD leader ... Former Prime Minister and PSD leader Pedro Santana Lopes' new party, Alliance, failed to win a single seat and polled below 1% ...
February 20-21 - James I of Scotland is fatally stabbed at Perth in a failed coup by his uncle and former ally, Walter Stewart ... Duchess of Viseu, Portuguese infante (d. 1506) June 27 - Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, Lancastrian leader during the ... September 20-October 19 - A Portuguese attempt to conquer Tangier fails, and Prince Ferdinand is taken hostage. December 9 - ...
... was born in Cabanas de Viriato, in Carregal do Sal, in the district of Viseu, Centro Region of ... Milgram also says that modern anti-Semitism failed "to establish even a toehold in Portugal" while it grew racist and virulent ...
Also notable were the Russian army's strategies during the failed Swedish invasion of Russia, the failed Napoleonic invasion of ... When Massená reached the city of Viseu, he wanted to replenish his armies' dwindling food supplies, but none of the inhabitants ...
"STOCK EXCHANGE FIRM FAILS; Morris & Pope Expected to Meet All Obligations". The New York Times. 15 April 1917. Retrieved 27 ... Duke of Viseu (1878-1923). She was the mother of three children from her first marriage, Nadejda de Braganza (1910-1946), John ... In the spring of 1917, the firm failed which left Morris heavily in debt. He was imprisoned in Westchester County, from June 18 ... "L.G. MORRIS PLEADS POOR DEBTOR LAW; Member of Failed Stock Exchange Firm Asks ReleaseFrom "Jail Limits."CAN'T LEAVE WHITE ...
The Almohad siege failed when news arrived the archbishop of Compostella had come to the defense of the city and Fernando II of ... Almeida Fernandes later proposed Viseu as the birthplace of Afonso basing himself on the Chronica Gothorum, which states Afonso ...
Fail was a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Viseu, with 6.92 km2 (2.7 sq mi) and 664 inhabitants (2011). Density: 96 ... 2013 was changed and Fail was reclassified into the Union of Parishes Fail e Vila Chã de Sá [pt] based in Vila Chã de Sá [pt]. ...
Lusitano lost both matches against Académico de Viseu and the match in Fafe, thereby failing promotion back to the Primeira ... while Lusitano had to enter the promotion play-offs against Central and North zones runners-up Académico de Viseu and Fafe. ...
Doctors estimate that con~oms fail to prevent pregnancy In as many as one of every six cases. Nor do condoms provide insurance ... With its main campus in Lisbon, it has satellite locations in Braga, Oporto and Viseu and offers extension courses in Funchal, ... And evidently, when parents fail to set limits on.behavior or encourage self-sacrifice in children, their children tend to lack ... I dont know program. Dogs who fail the tests, affec- what Id do without him. More information on service tionately ...
She is currently coordinator professor at ESTGV(IPV-Polytechnic Institute of Viseu) where she teaches in the course of ... Add to libraryAddingAddedAdd failed. Get full text. *. Comparison of UF synthesis by alkaline-acid and strongly acid processes ...
... to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Risankizumab in Subjects With Moderately to Severely Active Crohns Disease Who Failed ... to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Risankizumab in Subjects With Moderately to Severely Active Crohns Disease Who Failed ... Centro Hosp de Tondela-Viseu /ID# 160731. Viseu, Portugal Connect » Clinic Fundeni Institute /ID# 170890. Bucharest, Romania ...
After the failed attempts of Afonso V to expand into Morocco that were crushed in the disasters of Tanger (1437) and Arzilla ( ... Duke of Viseu, in 1494 (3).. Manuels royal absolutism soon made him too many enemies, unifying factions by their common hatred ... Thus, the failed incursion against the retreating army of Louis of Orléans (May 1495) was planned and directed by Hug Roger III ... In the end, the Imperial offensive of 1528 would fail to achieve its objectives, even if it caused great losses to the English ...
Verotoxin and ricin have novel effects on preproendothelin-1 expression but fail to modify nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) ... Endothelin-1 synthesis reduced by red wine. Corder, R., Douthwaite, J.A., Lees, D.M., Khan, N.Q., Viseu Dos Santos, A.C., Wood ... Verotoxin and ricin have novel effects on preproendothelin-1 expression but fail to modify nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) ...
If you fail to follow through with your side of the deal, the seller then retains the deposit. If its the seller who fails to ...
Each failed trial was recorded as value 61. Negative geotaxis, performed as previously described, is believed to test reflex ... 2Department of Anesthesiology, São Teotónio Hospital, EPE, 3504-509 Viseu, Portugal ... On PND 17 (habituation trial) all rats failed the task of platform reaching. ...
It appears to have failed. The visitor was blocked further access.. Gnats2meetu ...
On 23 March 2011, the prime minister José Sócrates resigned when new austerity measures failed to pass in the Parliament.[11] ... "IOL Diário - Geração à Rasca: Viseu protestou no Rossio". Retrieved 12 March 2011.. ... Viseu, Braga, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Faro, Guimarães and Leiria.[7] Several Portuguese emigrants also gathered in front of ...
... viseu (39) ... A worthless bit of plastic: Fiona Bruce fails to feel the ... A worthless bit of plastic: Fiona Bruce fails to feel the force of Star Wars helmet worth £50k! , Daily Mail Online ...
Escola Superior de Saúde de Viseu, Enfermagem, Portugal. Habilidades: Todas as habilidades de Enfermagem: colheita de sangue, ... patients who appreciate his perseverance in dealing with problems which often leads to success where other methods have failed. ... Escola Superior de Saúde de Viseu, Nursing, Portugal. Abilities:. All aspects of nursing, blood sampling, medication ...
French Bishop Gaillot of Evreux tells the gay magazine Lui that failing to advise people at risk of contracting AIDS to protect ... Bishop Antonio Monteiro of Viseu, president of the doctrinal commission of the Portuguese Bishops Conference, says that condom ...
Open letter to Ana Viseu abut social science and hard science October 7, 2015 ... Failed epidemiology study November 30, 2015. Open letter to Rep Louis Gohmert about Gays on an island November 28, 2015 ...
xanax side effects sleep paralysis Viseu. Generic cialis tadalafil lipitor manufacturer buy cialis. Is that a great place to ... in mexico on whynearby pumping stations failed to dictate a drop in pressureearly on and whether maintenance records failed to ...
Viseu / Wed..12 31 °C/13°C Contact us Do you have any question? Send us a message. * Language English * Português ... Forgotten your password? *Authentication failed. Login. Register now Login using social networks ...
Viseu is 21 km from lugar do pego, and can also be reached by bike cycling the ecopista. So far the mei and the lenani had ... Some kenyan athletes have been suspended from competition after failing doping tests one of whom is mathew kisorio, a long ... distance runner, who failed a doping test during national championships. 2) to see the importance of the recommendations, in ...
ZAGA Center Viseu. ZAGA Center Viseu, VISAGES VISAGES is a zygomatic implant expert in Viseu and one of the first ZAGA Centers ... Overview The following pictures correspond to a heavy smoker patient with multiple failed implant procedures in her maxilla, ... Moura Gonçalves is the professional responsible for the certification of the clinic as ZAGA Center in the district of Viseu… ...
1946 - "Battle of Alcatraz" - Alcatraz Federal prison, San Francisco is taken over by six inmates following failed escape ... 1458 - Leonor of Viseu, queen of Portugal (d. 1525). *1551 - William Camden, English historian (d. 1623) ...
Viseu Two granite stone for clarinet horn bassoon not home searching in. Poe who is a wish of the parties principle but ... I was asked for the reason why the feather regrowth and the failed and why all by a registered attorney income countries. ...
That said, we reiterate that in the XXI century Education should not fail to have a Humanistic-Existential nature, even with ... Fragoso, V., & Chaves, M. (2012). Educacao emocional para Seniores [Emotional Education for Seniors]. Viseu: Psico & Soma. ...
DISCUSSION The main limitation of this pilot research on the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, Portugal was the reduced sample ... Has the education of professional caregivers and lay people in dental trauma care failed? Dent Traumatol 2009; 25( 1): 12- 8. ... DISCUSSION The main limitation of this pilot research on the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, Portugal was the reduced sample ... Materials and Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted for forces of the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, ...
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The classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) fail to completely explain these differences, which are better clarified ... ESAV, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, Campus Politécnico, Viseu, 3504-510, Portugal ... The traditional CVRFs fail to completely explain these differences, which are better clarified using "non-classical" markers, ... The classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) fail to completely explain these differences, which are better clarified ...
António Simões(Hospital de Viseu). *Diogo Cunha e Sá(Hospital de Loures) ... Technical tips for open conversion after failed EVAS. Speaker: Dittmar Böckler. Discussant: Paulo Almeida ...
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Martin, A., Myers, N., & Viseu, A. (2015). The politics of care in technoscience. Social Studies of Science, 45(5), 625-641. [ ... Is the education system failing these learners by not creating schools that are safe, welcoming, inclusive spaces where all ...
Viseu. Viseu. 338,229. Dão-Lafões. 277,216. Immigration Main article: Immigration to Portugal Portugals colonial history has ... These conditions would lead to the failed Monarchy of the North, 28 May 1926 coup détat, and the creation of the National ... Viseu. 5,007 km2 (1,933 sq mi). 377,653. 5. Beja. 10,225 km2 (3,948 sq mi). 152,758. 14. Bragança. 6,608 km2 (2,551 sq mi). ... Health Main article: Health in PortugalThe Hospital of Santo Teotónio, in Viseu. According to the latest Human Development ...
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  • Materials and Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted for forces of the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, Portugal. (
  • METHODS A pilot observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of militaries of the Infantry Regiment n°14 of Viseu, Portugal, by mean of a questionnaire. (
  • Fail was a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Viseu, with 6.92 km2 (2.7 sq mi) and 664 inhabitants (2011). (
  • I don't know if these drugs are acute for the reason most treatments fail even if I stop using the same for everyone. (
  • I was asked for the reason why the feather regrowth and the failed and why all by a registered attorney income countries. (
  • It is served by the Beira Alta Line train station, via electrification with connection to Europe, and is seven kilometers from the Lisbon-Porto motorway, with good and fast access to any of these cities, as well as Coimbra, Aveiro, Viseu, Guarda or neighboring Spain. (
  • The National Civil Protection Authority (ANPC) will carry out on May 18 and 19 the MONTEMURO 2018 exercise, in the districts of Aveiro and Viseu. (
  • The SMS Warning System will also be tested for the populations of the districts of Aveiro and Viseu, who will be informed about the extreme risk situation in the context of a rural fire resulting from the declaration of the special alert status of SIOPS (Sistema Integrado de Protection and Relief Operations) to the red level. (
  • We can confirm the deaths of 27 people in the districts of Coimbra, Castelo Branco, Viseu and Guarda," AFP quoted Patricia Gaspar as saying. (
  • What is Mocanita and what is CFF Viseu de Sus? (
  • Mocanita from Viseu de Sus is the most famous narrow gauge train using a steam engine in Romania and the only one in Europe still in use. (
  • December: A real Street Art hunting trip through the north of Portugal: Porto, Covilha, Viseu and Estarreja. (
  • The line starts in CFF Station , different from CFR (Romanian National Railroads) station, and it is located 15 minutes walking from Viseu de Sus village center. (
  • Viseu de Sus is located in Northern Romania, in Maramures County and you can reach this village by road or by train. (
  • This project was born from the desire to expose and pay homage to the lifestyle of the inhabitants of Granja , a Portuguese village in the district of Viseu. (
  • People in Viseu have been working on this line for several generations and steam locomotives represented their daily means of transport up to the forest and back home at night. (
  • The train is leaving 09:00 from CFF Viseu de Sus up to Paltin (km 21,6) and will arrive back approx. (
  • The webpage is updated periodically and we are not responsible for the quality of service in Viseu de Sus, prices or latest modifications. (
  • Sevilla drew 0-0 at Real Sociedad on Sunday and let FC Barcelona escape at the helm of the Spanish football league, also failing to isolate in second place on Matchday 11. (
  • Further facilities include free Wi-Fi Internet conection and room service.The cozily furnished rooms all have en suite bathroom facilities with a hairdryer, a direct dial telephone, satellite/ cable TV, a radio and free Wi-Fi Internet conection. (
  • Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting headed by Inés de la Torre , continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French. (