The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Relating to the size of solids.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.

Properties of non-polymerizable tropomyosin obtained by carboxypeptidase A digestion. (1/2691)

Tropomyosin digested with carboxypeptidase A [EC 3.4.12.2] (CTM) shows a lower viscosity than the undigested protein in solution. From the relation between the viscosity decrease and the amount of amino acids liberated from the carboxyl terminus during this digestion, it is inferred that loss of the tri-peptide-Thr-Ser-Ile from the C-terminus is responsible for the decrease in viscosity. The secondary structure of -TM was not affected by the digestion according to circular dichroic measurements. The viscosity of CTM did not increase in methanol-water mixtures, whereas that of tropomyosin increased markedly. These results indicate that polymerizability was lost upon the removal of a small peptide from the C-terminus without change in the secondary structure. A decrease in the viscosity of tropomyosin solutions was observed on the addition of CTM, indicating that CTM interacts with intact tropomyosin. The dependence of the viscosity decrease on the amount of CTM showed that CTM binds tropomyosin in a one-to-one ratio as a result of end-to-end interaction. Since paracrystals having a 400 A repeated band structure could be grown in the presence of Mg ions at neutral pH, side-by-side interactions in CTM molecules remain intact, even though polymerizability is lost. The disc gel electrophoretic pattern showed that troponin could bind to CTM, but no increase in viscosity due to the complex was observed in solution. That is, the C-terminal part of tropomyosin is not required for the formation of the complex. The amount of CTM bound to F-actin was less than half of that bound to undigested tropomyosin, and could be reduced to one-tenth by a washing procedure. In the presence of troponin, however, the amount recovered to the level of tropomyosin normally bound to F-actin. Therefore, it is concluded that troponin is bound in the middle of the tropomyosin molecule and strengthens the binding of tropomyosin to F-actin.  (+info)

Association and dissociation kinetics of bobwhite quail lysozyme with monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5. (2/2691)

The anti-hen egg lysozyme monoclonal antibody HyHEL-5 and its complexes with various species-variant and mutant lysozymes have been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. The affinity of HyHEL-5 for bobwhite quail lysozyme (BWQL) is over 1000-fold lower than its affinity for the original antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL). This difference is believed to arise almost entirely from the replacement in BWQL of the structural and energetic epitope residue Arg68 by lysine. In this study, the association and dissociation kinetics of BWQL with HyHEL-5 were investigated under a variety of conditions and compared with previous results for HEL. HyHEL-5-BWQL association follows a bimolecular mechanism and the dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex is a first-order process. Changes in ionic strength (from 27 to 500 mM) and pH (from 6.0 to 10.0) produced about a 2-fold change in the association and dissociation rates. The effect of viscosity modifiers on the association reaction was also studied. The large difference in the HEL and BWQL affinities for HyHEL-5 is essentially due to differences in the dissociation rate constant.  (+info)

Altered crossbridge kinetics in the alphaMHC403/+ mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (3/2691)

A mutation in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain, Arg403Gln (R403Q), causes a severe form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) in humans. We used small-amplitude (0.25%) length-perturbation analysis to examine the mechanical properties of skinned left ventricular papillary muscle strips from mouse hearts bearing the R403Q mutation in the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC403/+). Myofibrillar disarray with variable penetrance occurred in the left ventricular free wall of the alphaMHC403/+ hearts. In resting strips (pCa 8), dynamic stiffness was approximately 40% greater than in wild-type strips, consistent with elevated diastolic stiffness reported for murine hearts with FHC. At pCa 6 (submaximal activation), strip isometric tension was approximately 3 times higher than for wild-type strips, whereas at pCa 5 (maximal activation), tension was marginally lower. At submaximal calcium activation the characteristic frequencies of the work-producing (b) and work-absorbing (c) steps of the crossbridge were less in alphaMHC403/+ strips than in wild-type strips (b=11+/-1 versus 15+/-1 Hz; c= 58+/-3 versus 66+/-3 Hz; 27 degrees C). At maximal calcium activation, strip oscillatory power was reduced (0. 53+/-0.25 versus 1.03+/-0.18 mW/mm3; 27 degrees C), which is partly attributable to the reduced frequency b, at which crossbridge work is maximum. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the R403Q mutation reduces the strong binding affinity of myosin for actin. Myosin heads may accumulate in a preforce state that promotes cooperative activation of the thin filament at submaximal calcium but blunts maximal tension and oscillatory power output at maximal calcium. The calcium-dependent effect of the mutation (whether facilitating or debilitating), together with a variable degree of fibrosis and myofibrillar disorder, may contribute to the diversity of clinical symptoms observed in murine FHC.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/2691)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A three-month repeated oral administration study of a low viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in rats. (5/2691)

The toxicity of the lowest viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) that is currently commercially available was investigated by means of a three-month repeated oral administration study in male and female Crj:CD (SD) IGS rats at doses of 505, 1,020 and 2,100 mg/kg/day. Body weights of males and females in the 2,100 mg/kg group were lower than those of the control group on and after day 28 of administration, but the differences were not statistically significant. The degree of suppression of body weight gain in males was higher than that in females. This tendency was similar to the results in other toxicity studies of HPMC that have been reported. Males in the 2,100 mg/kg group showed a tendency (not significant) for decreased food consumption and urine volume. Examinations of general signs, hematology, blood chemistry, ophthalmology, absolute and relative organ weights, autopsy and histopathology revealed only a few, apparently coincidental, statistically significant differences from the control, and no evidence of any dose-dependent changes was found. It was concluded that the lowest viscosity grade of HPMC showed extremely low toxicity under the conditions of this study, as has been found for higher viscosity grades.  (+info)

Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow. (6/2691)

The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased.  (+info)

Thiol oxidation of actin produces dimers that enhance the elasticity of the F-actin network. (7/2691)

Slow oxidation of sulfhydryls, forming covalently linked actin dimers and higher oligomers, accounts for increases in the shear elasticity of purified actin observed after aging. Disulfide-bonded actin dimers are incorporated into F-actin during polymerization and generate cross-links between actin filaments. The large gel strength of oxidized actin (>100 Pa for 1 mg/ml) in the absence of cross-linking proteins falls to within the theoretically predicted order of magnitude for uncross-linked actin filament networks (1 Pa) with the addition of sufficient concentrations of reducing agents such as 5 mM dithiothreitol or 10 mM beta-mercaptoethanol. As little as 1 gelsolin/1000 actin subunits also lowers the high storage modulus of oxidized actin. The effects of gelsolin may be both to increase filament number as it severs F-actin and to cover the barbed end of an actin filament, which otherwise might cross-link to the side of another filament via an actin dimer. These new findings may explain why previous studies of actin rheology report a wide range of values when purified actin is polymerized without added regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase is partially diffusion-controlled. (8/2691)

The effect of viscosogens on the enzyme-catalyzed rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate has been studied. The steady-state parameters kcat and kcat/Km for the monofunctional chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCM) decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of glycerol, whereas the 'sluggish' BsCM mutants C75A and C75S were insensitive to changes in microviscosity. The latter results rule out extraneous interactions of the viscosogen as an explanation for the effects observed with the wild-type enzyme. Additional control experiments show that neither viscosogen-induced shifts in the pH-dependence of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction nor small perturbations of the conformational equilibrium of chorismate can account for the observed effects. Instead, BsCM appears to be limited by substrate binding and product release at low and high substrate concentrations, respectively. Analysis of the kinetic data indicates that diffusive transition states are between 30 and 40% rate-determining in these concentration regimes; the chemical step must contribute to the remaining kinetic barrier. The relatively low value of the 'on' rates for chorismate and prephenate (approximately 2 x 106 m-1.s-1) probably reflects the need for a rare conformation of the enzyme, the ligand, or both for successful binding. Interestingly, the chorismate mutase domain of the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase from Escherichia coli, which has steady-state kinetic parameters comparable to those of BsCM but has a much less accessible active site, is insensitive to changes in viscosity and the reaction it catalyses is not diffusion-controlled.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoinduced reversible change of fluid viscosity. AU - Sakai, Hideki. AU - Orihara, Yoichi. AU - Kodashima, Hideki. AU - Matsumura, Atsutoshi. AU - Ohkubo, Takahiro. AU - Tsuchiya, Koji. AU - Abe, Masahiko. PY - 2005/10/5. Y1 - 2005/10/5. N2 - We report a reversible photoinduced fluid viscosity change. A small amount of a photoswitchable azobenzene-modified cationic surfactant (4-butylazobenzene-4′-(oxyethyl)trimethylammonium bromide, AZTMA) was added to a wormlike micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) containing sodium salicylate (NaSal). The trans-AZTMA solution had a remarkably high viscosity as a result of the entangled network of wormlike micelles. UV light irradiation on the trans-AZTMA solution remarkably decreased the viscosity of the solution because the bulky structure of cis-AZTMA is likely to disrupt the network structure of wormlike micelles. This photoinduced viscosity change is perfectly reversible between the trans- and cis-AZTMA ...
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D1243 - 15 Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers , dilute solution viscosity, inherent viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, relative viscosity, specific viscosity, test method, vinyl chloride polymers,,
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Aim: To determine the viscoelastic properties of the porcine lens. Methods: Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the stroma of four porcine lenses were measured within 5 hours post-mortem, using sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation. The elastic shear modulus, viscous shear modulus, dynamic viscosity, damping ratio, and phase shift of the lenses were quantified by a controlled-strain, linear simple-shear rheometer at frequencies of 10-50 Hz.. Results: The mean viscoelastic properties and their standard deviations across the frequencies examined were: the elastic shear modulus, G′ = 6.2±4.0 Pa, the viscous shear modulus, G″ = 19.2±2.5 Pa, the dynamic viscosity, η′ = 0.16±0.1 Pa•sec, the damping ratio ζ = 4.06±1.25, and the phase shift, δ = 76°± 5.6°.. Conclusions: The measured viscoelastic shear properties of the porcine lens reflect a low dynamic viscosity with a high damping ratio. The porcine lens is viscoelastic and is more viscous than elastic. The magnitude of the ...
The reorientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod placed at the air/phospholipid interface is used to calculate the surface viscosity of spread monolayers of phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE). While surface viscosity was found to depend on the surface pressure in both lipids, we detect an order of magnitude higher surface viscosity for DMPE films even in the so called liquid coexistence region. This difference is higher than that reported at higher surface pressures and is attributed to the smaller headgroup size of DMPE. The smaller size of the PE head group increases the ability of the lipid molecules to pack into more organized domains at all surface pressures. The minute changes in the morphology of the lipid film are more significant at the lower surface pressures, which contributes to a higher surface viscosity difference. Thus microrheology presents an insight into the degree of lipid organization at the air/water ...
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Case Study 16: In the modern pump industry, processed fluids are characterized by a wide spectrum of viscosity values. An unpredicted variation of actual process fluid properties, including viscosity, may lead to unexpected pump performance alteration. Also manufacturing deviations from expected internal pump geometry may cause pump performance deterioration. Both causes may determine undesired limitations of the pump operating range and plant production loss. The present Case Study illustrates a real case story of incorrect evaluation of the process fluid viscosity and pump geometry deviations, both determining performance deteriorations, described through a detailed evaluation of the internal pump losses. From the presentation of a real case, this case study highlights the importance of both the correct evaluation of viscous effects and the internal pump geometry through the application of existing loss correlations ...
The relationship of the microstructure of supercooled, highly viscous glycerol to the temperature dependence of its density, thermal expansion coefficient, and shear viscosity are discussed. The character of this temperature dependence at the transition from low viscosity state to the solid amorphous state solidified state without nuclei is described with help of function psi, which can be interpreted as the effective number of degrees of freedom responsible for the change of viscosity of glycerol over a broad range; these degrees of freedom are those related to the alpha-relaxation process. It is shown that the change in effective activation energy of the viscosity is completely determined by the parameter psi. The change in the shear viscosity of glycerol due to the influence of the solid-phase nuclei is considered. It is shown that the introduction of the parameter phi, equal to the specific volume occupied by the nuclei of the solid phase, together with psi provides a natural explanation ...
Molylube Extreme Pressure High Viscosity Grease, commonly known as Molylube 87M EP Grease, is an aluminum complex, multi-purpose grease formulated to extend the service life of machine components in the severe duty applications encountered in mining, quarrying, construction, cement and other heavy industries where its high base oil viscosity ensures maximum lubricating film thickness. Molylube Extreme Pressure High Viscosity Grease is especially effective when used to lubricate the suspension components of heavy-duty equipment such as excavators, dozers, loaders and haul trucks. The rust and corrosion inhibitors utilized in of Molylube Extreme Pressure High Viscosity Grease provide full protection of equipment surfaces. Grades 680-1 and 1000-1 are Komatsu approved.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Viscosity change and structural transition of Molten Fe at 5 GPa. AU - Terasaki, Hidenori. AU - Kato, Takumi. AU - Urakawa, S.. AU - Funakoshi, K.. AU - Sato, K.. AU - Suzuki, A.. AU - Okada, T.. PY - 2002/4/15. Y1 - 2002/4/15. N2 - The in situ viscosity measurements of the pure molten Fe under high pressures were made by falling sphere X-ray radiography method. Viscosity coefficients at about 2000 K were 15-24 mPa s at 2.7-5.0 GPa, and 4-9 mPa s at 5.0-7.0 GPa. Drastic decrease was found at around 5 GPa, at which stable solid phase below the melting temperatures change from delta (bcc) to gamma (fcc) phases. The observation indicates the possibility that the structural change in the molten Fe occurs in a narrow pressure interval (1 GPa) at the similar condition with the phase transformation in the solid.. AB - The in situ viscosity measurements of the pure molten Fe under high pressures were made by falling sphere X-ray radiography method. Viscosity coefficients at about 2000 K ...
Viscosizer TD provides automated relative viscosity measurements with high reproducibility at low viscosity, to help identify molecules with abnormally high viscosity-concentration profiles at low sample concentrations as early as possible in the development pipeline.. ...
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Coherent survey of Global High Viscosity Pumps Market 2019. The top competitors are also performing various strategic moves such as acquisitions, partnerships, amalgamations, new technology implementation, and product/service launches, brand promotions. The report provides an inclusive analysis based on their strategies in order to assist novice market players. Precisely evaluated statistics of revenue, sale, profit, growth rate, and CAGR of contenders are also underscored in the global High Viscosity Pumps market report.. Furthermore, the report renders an in-depth assessment of crucial High Viscosity Pumps market segments, which includes types, applications, and regions. competitive scenario, industry environment, market projection, growth constraining factors, limitations, entry barriers, provincial regulatory framework as well as upcoming investment and business opportunities, challenges, and other growth-promoting factors. The report thoroughly investigates diving forces, changing market ...
A low viscosity lubricating oil composition having a CCS viscosity less than 3500 mPa.s at −25 C. and having no more than 0.16 mass % of phosphorus which comprises a dispersant, and a detergent of calcium or magnesium or both; and optionally a zinc dihydrocarbyldithiophosphate, a viscosity modifier, a pour point depressant and an antioxidant. The oil satisfies the Cummins M11 cross-head wear engine test specification in a low phosphorus and low viscosity formulation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the potential importance of non-linear viscoelastic material modelling for numerical prediction of brain tissue response : test and application. AU - Brands, D.W.A.. AU - Bovendeerd, P.H.M.. AU - Wismans, J.S.H.M.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - In current Finite Element (FE) head models, brain tissue is commonly assumed to display linear viscoelastic material behaviour. However, brain tissue behaves like a non-linear viscoelastic solid for shear strains above 1%. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of non-linear material behaviour on the predicted brain response. We used a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model, developed on the basis of experimental shear data presented elsewere. First we tested the numerical implementation of the constitutive model by simulating the response of a silicone gel (Sylgard 572 A&B) filled cylindrical cup, subjected to a transient rotational acceleration. The experimental results could be reproduced within 9%. Subsequently, ...
There has been a trend in the automotive industry toward the use of lower viscosity engine oils as fuel economy requirements become more demanding across the globe. Lower viscosity fluids may improve fuel economy due to their improved pumpability, lower churning losses, and thinner lubricating films. However, there is one important caveat related to the use of these fluids: the amount of improvement, if any, is hardware design and application dependent. Standard industry fuel economy tests and engines with differing designs may show divergent responses when using lower viscosity engine oils, not always showing an improved fuel economy response. This paper summarizes the work conducted by the authors to demonstrate how and why the inconsistent results in fuel economy can occur with low viscosity oils ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Menthol-based eutectic mixtures. T2 - Hydrophobic low viscosity solvents. AU - Ribeiro, Bernardo D.. AU - Florindo, Catarina. AU - Iff, Lucas C.. AU - Coelho, Maria A Z. AU - Marrucho Ferreira, Isabel Maria. PY - 2015/9/10. Y1 - 2015/9/10. N2 - Inspired by one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical industry, we advantageously used the formation of eutectic mixtures to synthesize new solvents. The aim of this work is to identify low viscosity, cheap, biodegradable and hydrophobic eutectic solvents from natural resources. Consequently, novel eutectic mixtures based on DL-menthol and naturally occurring acids, namely pyruvic acid, acetic acid, L-lactic acid, and lauric acid, were synthesized and are here reported for the first time. The obtained DLmenthol-based eutectic mixtures were analyzed using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy in order to check their structures and purities and to confirm the interaction of the two compounds leading to the eutectic formation. Important solvent ...
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Experimental evidence is presented that the intrinsic viscosity of solutions of mixed proteins obeys the additive equation. See PDF for Equation.. The datum serves to characterize the system, and combined with other analytical techniques and fractionation procedures, enables one to analyze and characterize subfractions. The plasmas and sera of clinically normal individuals give intrinsic viscosity values agreeing with calculated values. The intrinsic viscosity values for pathological plasmas and sera in all cases are greater than normal and reflect the augmented levels of those proteins fibrinogen, α2-globulins, and γ-globulins occurring in the pathological state. The method is readily adaptable to routine clinical use and furnishes a measure of the departure from normal of protein levels in serum and plasma.. ...
Solvent-borne epoxy coatings are the dominant coating technology used to protect metal assets in the marine, petrochemical, and infrastructure markets, due to their excellent balance of properties, including corrosion resistance, chemical resistance, and adhesion. However, due to market and regulatory drivers for reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and improved worker safety, there is a need for new epoxy resins that enable ultra-high solids (|= 90%) epoxy coatings with improved performance for maintenance and protective coating applications. Currently available ultra-high solids coatings based on standard epoxy resins can suffer from a number of drawbacks, including high viscosity, poor spray application qualities, and reduced corrosion resistance. This paper will highlight a novel low viscosity epoxy (LVE) that demonstrates significantly lower viscosity versus standard bisphenol-A and bisphenol-F epoxy resins, while enabling ultra-high solids coatings with improved sprayability and
The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach to the pinch region, the viscoelastic fluids all exhibit the same global necking behaviour that is observed for a Newtonian fluid of equivalent shear viscosity. For these low viscosity dilute polymer solutions, inertial and capillary forces form the dominant balance in this potential flow regime, with the viscous force being negligible. The approach to the pinch point, which corresponds to the point of rupture for a Newtonian fluid, is extremely rapid in such solutions, with the sudden increase in curvature producing very large extension rates at this location. In this region the polymer molecules are significantly extended, causing a localised increase in the elastic stresses, which grow to balance the capillary pressure. This prevents the necked fluid from breaking off, as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluating viscosity of surimi paste at different moisture contents. AU - Yoon, Won B.. AU - Gunasekaran, Sundaram. AU - Park, Jae W.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - The steady and dynamic shear viscosity of fish muscle protein paste obtained from Alaska pollock surimi at 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, and 75% of moisture contents were measured in the temperature range of 5°C to 20°C. To estimate the steady shear viscosity at high shear rate from dynamic shear viscosity, the modified Cox-Merz rule was applied by introducing a frequency shift factor. The concentration dependence of zero-shear viscosity showed power-law dependence with an exponent of 3.5, and the universal behavior of viscosity at different protein concentrations was observed by a introducing reduced variables. The Carreau model was applied to describe the shear- thinning behavior of the surimi paste, and the model parameters estimated empirically showed moisture content dependence. The viscous flow behavior was independent of ...
The modeling of the viscous behavior of nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions is discussed. The influences of the viscosity ratio, solvation and aggregation of nanodroplets and nanoparticles on the relative viscosity of nanofluids are considered. The relative viscosity of a nanofluid is strongly affected by solvation of nanoparticles. The scaling of the relative viscosity of nanoemulsions is successfully carried out using the volume fraction of the solvated nanodroplets. Four sets of experimental relative viscosity data of nanoemulsions consisting of different diameter nanodroplets (27.5 nm-205 nm) all collapse on a single unique curve when the data are scaled on the basis of the volume fraction of the solvated nanodroplets. A similar scaling is achieved using six sets of experimental relative viscosity data on nanosuspensions consisting of different diameter nanoparticles (29 nm-146 nm). A new modified version of the Oldroyd model is proposed to describe and predict the viscosity of nanofluids. The model
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Improved very high viscosity (putty) two component polymerizable polyorganosiloxane composition for use in making dental impressions, having improved tear strength, handling and wettability. Improved tear strength results from inclusion of a quadri-functional polysiloxane having a vinyl content of 0.16 to 0.24 m-mole/g. Working time is maintained by including sufficient amounts of a retarder composition that delays onset of the vinyl polymerization. Handling is improved by the addition of a very high viscosity linear vinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane which reduces tackiness and improves the shelf stability. Wettability is improved by including a surfactant resulting in a surface contact angle with water at three minutes of less than 50 . The surfactant chosen has an HLB of 8-11, such that the wetting contact angle is achieved within less than two minutes and remains wetting throughout the working time of the impression taking, substantially improving the impression making process.
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Cambridge Viscosity is the global leader in fluid viscosity measurement, including oil and gas; petroleum and biofuels; coatings, paints, and inks; pharmaceuticals, and other substances. Where accurate viscosity measurement is mission critical in both process and laboratory environments, Cambridge Viscosity technologies are chosen time and time again.. Our leadership is based on a quarter-century of experience, the extraordinary range of our products - including both in-line and in-tank applications - and our innovative proprietary technology. Our customers include leading organisations in oil and gas exploration, refining, automotive, research, industrial materials, and other high-stakes fields.. Cambridge Viscosity has set the standard for extraordinarily precise, reliable, and virtually maintenance-free viscosity measurement systems. Our sensors and viscometer systems conform to ASTM, DIN, JIS and ISO standards, with a range of models designed to meet specific industry and application needs. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic viscosity modeling of methane plus n-decane and methane plus toluene mixtures: Comparative study of some representative models. AU - Baylaucq, A.. AU - Boned, C.. AU - Canet, X.. AU - Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær. AU - Cisneros, Sergio. AU - Zhou, H.G.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Viscosity measurements of well-defined mixtures are useful in order to evaluate existing viscosity models. Recently, an extensive experimental study of the viscosity at pressures up to 140 MPa has been carried out for the binary systems methane + n-decane and methane toluene, between 293.15 and 373.15 and for several methane compositions. Although very far from real petroleum fluids, these mixtures are interesting in order to study the potential of extending various models to the simulation of complex fluids with asymmetrical components (light/heavy hydrocarbon). These data (575 data points) have been discussed in the framework of recent representative models (hard sphere scheme, friction ...
Read Concentration effect of N-isopropylacrylamide on viscoelastic properties of hydrosoluble thermo-thickening copolymers, Polymer Bulletin on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Simple fluids like water (low viscosity), glycerin (high viscosity) are Newtonian and exhibit viscosity effects, the dissipation of energy when particles move in such fluids. But dissolve macromolecules in these liquids -synthetic or biopolymers-and networks can form. In addition to viscosity effects, there are now elasticity effects, the storage of energy when embedded particle move. By following the mean square displacement (MSD) of tracer (probe) particles in such fluid and microrheological properties such as η*, the complex viscosity, G″, the viscous loss modulus, and G′, the elastic storage modulus, can be determined as a function of frequency.. Measurement of the autocorrelation function (ACF) using DLS techniques yields the MSD of tracer particles, which, under the right conditions, can be used to determine η*, G″, and G′ over a range of frequencies much higher than mechanical rheometers can attain. Much smaller sample volumes, in the microliters, are possible compared to ...
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Following the launch of the new m-VROCi, Viscometer/Rheometer On a Chip, at Pittcon 2014, Malvern Instruments will focus on the unique technology of this system and the considerable benefits it delivers in a webinar on 16 April 2014. The m-VROCi provides safe, accurate viscosity measurement for low viscosity industrial fluids, under conditions that reflect those that apply during end-product use.
I havent read any of the articles yet, so heres my big chance to insert my foot in my mouth. I will start collecting the references and will post what I learn, so public humiliation is a real possibility here. My guess is that the polymer is breaking up some sort of weak network in the solvent (hydrogen bonding, polar-polar interactions...) so that the solvent has a lower viscosity, thus leading to the negative intrinsic viscosity - and the need for a new theory to explain it. Yes, go with a new theory since the old theory made a certain set of assumptions that are no longer valid ...
While the above-mentioned viscosity modifiers can satisfy part of the oil recovery needs, these polymers still experience some challenges that hinder their effectiveness. For example, when the viscosity of reservoir oil is high, so should the displacing fluid be to match the mobility ratio. The current heuristics suggest that polymer flooding should be applied in reservoirs with oil viscosities between 10 and 150 cP (Taber et al. 1997).. The key factor limiting the recommended range is that for oil viscosities greater than 150 cP, the injected-water-viscosity values required for a favorable mobility ratio correspond to prohibitively low values of polymer injectivity. In addition, pumping high-viscosity displacing fluids tends to lead to clogging in oil wells, which results in a major economic well operating loss. One potential solution is to use displacement fluids with an adjustable viscosity, with the fluid having a low viscosity at the injection site and a high viscosity upon reaching the oil ...
In this study, changes in the viscoelastic material properties of brain tissue due to traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were investigated. The impact acceleration model was used to generate DAI in rat brain stem. The viscoelastic material properties of brain tissue along the corticospinal (CSpT) tract in the brain stem were characterized using an indentation technique and a quasilinear theory. The results show significant reduction in the elastic response of brain tissue due to injury. In regions with significantly more DAI, larger changes in the elastic shear modulus and relaxation function were observed. These findings can improve the injury predictability of computational models of brain injury.. Copyright © 2007 by ASME ...
We consider an effective field theory description of beyond-quasi-particle excitations aiming to associate the transport properties of the system with the spectral density of states. Tuning various properties of the many-particle correlations, we investigate how the robust microscopic features are translated into the macroscopic observables like shear viscosity and entropy density. The liquid-gas crossover is analysed using several examples. A thermal constraint on the fluidity measure, the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, is discussed. ...
Rph - imo pump - manufacturers of rotary pumps, positive viscosity of common liquids viscosity blending chart ewtonian and non-newtonian fluids typical shear rate curves fig single screw pump the rotating parts themselves, or between these viscosity and high pressure should occur high viscosity liquids fish slurry single screw.
Poulten Selfe and Lee Ltd is a UK company specializing in the viscosity measurement of new and used oils. The company was incorporated in 1931 and manufactures an established range of...
High viscosity systems utilize various blade configurations, such as double and triple shaft designs for high and medium viscosity substances, to consistently
In addition, in-service oil analysis includes various other parameters that have to be tested. Anton Paar provides the SVM 4001 and SVM 3001 Viscometers for measurements according to to ASTM D7042 respectively to DIN 51659-2 ASTM D7042. It is an excellent alternative to conventional capillary viscometers for fast and economical measurement of the low-shear kinematic viscosity over a wide temperature range. Consequently, ASTM D2270 references ASTM D7042 for the determination of kinematic viscosity. Automation of viscosity measurements provides several benefits over conventional manual measurements due to reduced handling errors, higher reproducibility, reduced costs per sample and increased productivity in the laboratory. This report describes specifically how to test inservice lube oils with the SVM 4001 in combination with Xsample 530 and a manually filled SVM 3001 to get data comparable to ASTM D445. ...
The viscoelastic material properties of biological systems are increasingly recognized as important parts of signaling cascades involved in developmental and pathological processes. They are furthermore assumed to play a crucial role in surviving extreme environmental conditions for certain organisms, such as yeast cells. Confocal Brillouin microscopy gives access to the viscoelastic material properties of single cells and tissues in a contact- and label-free manner and with a high spatial resolution. In combination with quantitative phase imaging, it is then possible to determine the longitudinal modulus and the viscosity of the sample. In this study, we probed living zebrafish larvae in all anatomical planes, at different time points during development and after spinal cord injury. We could show, that confocal Brillouin microscopy detects the viscoelasticity of different anatomical structures without affecting the animals development. We furthermore observed a transiently decreasing Brillouin ...
"Viscosity". The Physics Hypertextbook. Retrieved 2007-10-02. Siegfried Rebsdat; Dieter Mayer. "Ethylene Glycol". Ullmann's ...
Viscosity of a solution as a function of shear rate is given via the Power Law equation, where η is the viscosity, K is a ... Thus, the viscosity of a shear-thickening fluid is dependent on the shear rate. The presence of suspended particles often ... A dilatant is a non-Newtonian fluid where the shear viscosity increases with applied shear stress. This behavior is only one ... This leads to a disordered structure, causing an increase in viscosity. The critical shear rate here is defined as the shear ...
Low viscosity. Nonflammability. Low volatility. Suitable freezing point. In some cases, a simple substitution can give nearly ...
Viscosity is 0.00454. The heat of combustion is 11470 cal/g which is very similar to other heptanes. Ferris, S. W. (2018). ...
Temperature and viscosity. As an ascending magma rises and cools, it becomes thicker and more viscous. This then restricts the ... the magma may also have cooled by this stage sufficiently for the increasing viscosity of the magma to halt effective ...
2) Cytoplasmic viscosity; reflecting the cytoplasmic hemoglobin concentration of erythrocytes. 3) Visco-elastic properties of ... Erythrocyte deformability is an important determinant of blood viscosity, hence blood flow resistance in the vascular system. ...
Viscosity of Binary Mixtures'; 'A Method for the Separation of Rare Earths and of Isotopes." He was elected a Fellow (FRS) in ...
We're bringing the viscosity. We're coming at you with guns blazing, with a Malbec from Argentina. Led Zeppelin Wine Tasting - ...
... kinematic viscosity (viscosity/density) Notable Reynolds numbers: R < 0.5x106 = laminar flow threshold R > 2.0x106 = turbulent ... Density and viscosity of fluid. Length of the organism is factored into the equation because the surface area of just the front ... Then on the other scale a blue whale that is much more massive and dense in comparison with the viscosity of the fluid, ... On the other end, small organisms such as insects can make gain advantage from the viscosity of the fluid (air) that they are ...
Examples are friction and viscosity. If the process is performed more slowly, the frictional or viscous dissipation is less. In ... non-conservation of internal energy because of local conversion of kinetic energy of bulk flow to internal energy by viscosity ...
He received his doctorate (MD) in 1920 with his thesis The viscosity of the blood and a DSc in 1924 with his thesis Some ... Lyon, D. Murray (1920). The viscosity of the blood. hdl:1842/32569. Lyon, D. Murray (1924). Some observations on the action of ...
For a circular pipe with a fluid of density ρ and viscosity μ, the hydraulic slope S can be expressed S = 64 R e V 2 2 g D = 64 ... In this expression, the properties of the fluid itself are reduced to the kinematic viscosity ν ν = μ ρ {\displaystyle \nu ={\ ... "Water - Dynamic and Kinetic Viscosity". Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 5 October 2015. "Technical Design Data" (PDF). Orion ... that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid's viscosity near the surface of the pipe or duct. In mechanical ...
The viscosity of the medium. Medium viscosity determines the rate at which sound is attenuated. For many media, such as air or ... water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible. When sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical ...
ISBN 0-387-90155-8. Fleming, W.; Soner, M. (2006). Controlled Markov Processes and Viscosity Solutions. Springer. Stein, J. L ...
"The Viscosity of Gaseous Uranium Hexafluoride"), was a major factor in the ability to obtain the fissile form of U235 used in ... ". "Albert L. Myerson". Myerson, Albert L.; Eicher, John H. (1952). "The Viscosity of Gaseous Uranium Hexafluoride1". Journal ...
"Effects of second viscosity in cosmology"., SpringerLink,A. S. Potupa. December 3, 1976. Helsinki-XXI Archived December 21, ...
The main property of importance is the density of the fluid; however, viscosity may also be significant. Floats are ideally ... Either separate rotameters for different densities and viscosities may be used, or multiple scales on the same rotameter can be ... designed to be insensitive to viscosity; however, this is seldom verifiable from manufacturers' specifications. ...
For example, the models of the viscosity of mantle and core are not accurate. Apart from the errors, there are some limitations ... However, the lateral changes of viscosity of mantle are difficult to manage in this approach, and other methods became more ... Choblet, Gaël (2005-05-01). "Modelling thermal convection with large viscosity gradients in one block of the 'cubed sphere'". ... Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Lekić, Vedran; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina (2015-12-11). "Viscosity jump in Earth's mid-mantle". Science ...
Recently, novel capillary pumps, with a constant pumping flow rate independent of the liquid viscosity and surface energy, were ... Weijin Guo; Jonas Hansson; Wouter van der Wijngaart (2016). "Capillary Pumping Independent of Liquid Sample Viscosity". ... Weijin Guo; Jonas Hansson; Wouter van der Wijngaart (2016). "Viscosity Independent Paper Microfluidic Imbibition" (PDF). ... Capillary pumping with a constant flow rate independent of the liquid sample viscosity and surface energy. IEEE MEMS 2017, Las ...
Gaunt, P. (1986). "Magnetic viscosity and thermal activation energy". Journal of Applied Physics. 59 (12): 4129-4132. Bibcode: ... occurs when reversal of magnetization by domain wall motion is thermally activated and is dominated by magnetic viscosity. The ...
Recent work has, for example, demonstrated capillary pumping with a constant flow rate independent from the liquid viscosity ... Weijin Guo; Jonas Hansson; Wouter van der Wijngaart (2016). "Capillary Pumping Independent of Liquid Sample Viscosity". ... Weijin Guo; Jonas Hansson; Wouter van der Wijngaart (2016). "Viscosity Independent Paper Microfluidic Imbibition" (PDF). ... Capillary pumping with a constant flow rate independent of the liquid sample viscosity and surface energy. IEEE MEMS 2017, Las ...
... increasing viscosity stability hydroxyethyl starch, with ethylene oxide starch sodium octenyl succinate (OSA) starch (INS 1450 ... breaking down viscosity enzyme-treated starch (INS 1405), maltodextrin, cyclodextrin monostarch phosphate (INS 1410, E1410) ... to decrease or increase their viscosity; to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time; or to increase their visco-stability. Acid ... hydrochloric acid breaking down the starch molecule and thus reducing the viscosity. Other treatments producing modified starch ...
"Viscosity regulator - Clarke, Henry B" (PDF). Free patents online. "WW2 People's War - POW camp". BBC. Archaeology Data Service ... including those relating to Henry Clarke's patented oil viscosity control valves. During the Second World War, a German ...
μ {\displaystyle \mu } is fluid viscosity. ρ {\displaystyle \rho } is fluid density. u , v , w {\displaystyle u,v,w} are the ... Beauchamp Tower's Experiments, Including an Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Olive Oil". Philosophical ...
Viscosity and density of high-pressure melts can be measured in-situ using the sink float method and neutron tomography. In ... ISBN 978-0-08-045771-0. Giordano, D.; Russel, J.K.; Dingwell, D.B. (2008). "Viscosity of Magmatic Liquids: A Model". Earth and ... viscosity, compressibility, diffusivity and thermal conductivity of rock under extreme conditions. The 1000-ton multi-anvil ...
Melt viscosity One of the most noticeable properties. Influences the spread of applied adhesive, and the wetting of the ... The melt viscosity and the crystallization rate (and corresponding open time) can be tailored for the application. Faster ... APOs tend to have lower melt viscosity, better adhesion, longer open times and slow set times than comparable EVAs. Some APOs ... One of the key components of formulations, waxes lower the melt viscosity and can improve bond strength and temperature ...
Another important discovery that determines the viscosity of blood is the ability of red blood cells to aggregate to form ... Chien and his colleagues discovered that this was a crucial factor in modulating viscosity and regulating blood flow and ... Chien, Shu; Usami, Shunichi; Dellenback, Robert J.; Gregersen, Magnus I. (August 18, 1967). "Blood Viscosity: Influence of ... In addition, this deformation helps lower the viscosity of blood and facilitate flow. ...
Specific mass, electrical conductivity and viscosity". Electrochimica Acta. 31 (12): 1525-1530. doi:10.1016/0013-4686(86)87071- ...
These resins range from low-viscosity liquids to high-molecular weight solids. Typically they are high-viscosity liquids. The ... However, this method cannot tolerate high carbon nanotube loading due to viscosity increases. In-situ polymerization can be ...
When it takes a measurable time for the viscosity to recover, thixotropic behaviour is observed. When describing the viscosity ... or the zero shear rate viscosity. The value of η∞ represents the lowest viscosity attainable and may be orders of magnitude ... Viscosity is graphed against shear rate in a log(η) vs. log( γ ˙ {\displaystyle {\dot {\gamma }}} ) plot, where the linear ... When whipped cream is sprayed out of its canister, it flows out smoothly from the nozzle due to the low viscosity at high flow ...
... leading to rotational viscosity. However, recent theoretical work has predicted that rotational viscosity ought to also be ... then the rate of equilibration will be determined by the rotational viscosity coefficient. Rotational viscosity has ... Viscosity is usually described as the property of a fluid which determines the rate at which local momentum differences are ... Rotational viscosity is a property of a fluid which determines the rate at which local angular momentum differences are ...
Viscosity can also refer to: A cognitive dimension for the design of notations measuring resistance to change. Viscosity ( ... Viscosity (commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance to pouring) is the measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Viscosity. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Glass Viscosity Measurement - viscosity measurement, viscosity units and fixpoints, glass viscosity calculation ... Viscosity. A simulation of liquids with different viscosities. The liquid on the right has higher viscosity than the liquid on ... Viscoelastic solids may exhibit both shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. The extensional viscosity is a linear combination of ... Standard Practice for Conversion of Kinematic Viscosity to Saybolt Universal Viscosity or to Saybolt Furol Viscosity, ASTM, ...
Viscosity also acts internally on the fluid between slower and faster moving adjacent layers. ... viscosity, resistance of a fluid to flow. This resistance acts against the motion of any solid object through the fluid and ... In general, viscosity is a function of temperature and pressure ; however, in some fluids viscosity is dependent on the rate of ... Viscosity. The viscosity of a fluid is an internal measure of its resistance to continuous deformation caused by sliding or ...
Media in category "Measuring instruments (viscosity)". The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Measuring_instruments_(viscosity)&oldid=267460758" ...
First, the numbers are ratings of viscosity -- the rate of flow ... First, the numbers are ratings of viscosity -- the rate of flow ... How do oil companies formulate multi-viscosity lubricants for all-temperature protection? We add viscosity modifiers (VMs) to ... The first number, followed by a W for winter, is a measure of an oils viscosity at sub-zero temperatures, and lower ... Another advantage of a good synthetic is that it can be engineered to deliver the ultra-low viscosity ratings that automakers ...
Comparison of the viscosity models. (A) Temperature dependence of viscosity with Eqs. 8-10, assuming m = 60 and log10η∞ = −4. ( ... 4A, the three viscosity models are fit to the high-temperature viscosity data only (including the softening point at 106.6 Pa-s ... A) Low-temperature extrapolation test, where the viscosity models are fit to high-temperature viscosity data and then ... Defining K(x) = B(x)/3NklnΩ and C(x) = H(x)/k, we obtain the following three-parameter model for viscosity: Eq. 6 was proposed ...
... a American Strong Ale beer by Port Brewing Company / The Lost Abbey, a brewery in San Marcos, ... This is the oak aging beer which makes up the oak aged portion found in our Old Viscosity. This is aged in Heaven Hill Bourbon ... From Mar 2008 I bought this from South Bay D&L. Thanks Joey! To preface this review, I thought the Old Viscosity was damn good ... You took an incredible brew in Old Viscosity and took it to new levels and still made it a very drinkable brew. Fn amazing. ...
The growing interest and concern over the problem of the high temperature viscosity of engine oils and its effect on the engine ... "engine viscosity" and "viscosity rig" tests to define correlations where possible. ... The growing interest and concern over the problem of the high temperature viscosity of engine oils and its effect on the engine ... Citation: Ingoni, A., DiLelio, G., and Eberhorst, C., "European Activity Concerning Engine Oil Viscosity Classification," SAE ...
Older Viscosity is a American Double / Imperial Stout style beer brewed by Port Brewing in San Marcos, CA. 4.35 average with ... Older Viscosity from Port Brewing Beer rating: 4.35 out of 5 with 2,664 ratings ...
Older Viscosity is a American Imperial Stout style beer brewed by Port Brewing in San Marcos, CA. Score: 97 with 2,680 ratings ... Notes: A bourbon barrel-aged version of our Imperial Stout Old Viscosity. Enormously rich but satisfying beer, Older Viscosity ... Great viscosity (go figure) and it just seems to coat your tongue and not let go. Not easy to find or cheap -- but this is one ... Older Viscosity from Port Brewing Beer rating: 97 out of 100 with 2680 ratings ...
Viscosity is a term used to describe the measure of a fluids resistance to flow. The internal friction of a fluid in motion and ... What is the viscosity of ethylene glycol?. A: At 68 degrees Fahrenheit, the viscosity of ethylene glycol is 16.9 centipoise, ... Viscosity is a term used to describe the measure of a fluids resistance to flow. The internal friction of a fluid in motion and ... High viscosity fluids are able to resist motion because they have a molecular makeup that provides them with a high degree of ...
This explanation would require helium II to have an abnormally low viscosity; at present, the only viscosity measurements on ... liquid helium have been made in Toronto1, and showed that there is a drop in viscosity below the λ-point by a factor of 3 ... The very small kinematic viscosity of liquid helium II thus makes it difficult to measure the viscosity. In an attempt to get ... This explanation would require helium II to have an abnormally low viscosity; at present, the only viscosity measurements on ...
An output device receives the restorative signal and determines the viscosity of the fluid therefrom. ... A rotational viscometer is disclosed for measuring the viscosity of a rotating fluid. The viscometer includes a measurement ... The viscosity of the fluid causes the suspended disk to rotate. The device calculates the viscosity of the fluid by measuring ... the digital computer including at least one temperature-to-viscosity profile, the digital computer determining the viscosity of ...
Viscosity North America news - latest news direct from companies - read online or subscribe to feed or by email - press ... By Viscosity North America. Viscosity North America (Viscosity), a premier, niche consulting company, is pleased to announce ... By Viscosity North America. Viscosity North America (Viscosity), a professional services leader in database, virtualization and ... Viscosity North America Press Releases. Exclusive News. Topics Locations Industries Dates. Viscosity Hires a Sixth Oracle ACE ...
The general behaviour of engine lubricant viscosity with temperature is well understood and for most applications the widely ... Ideally it would be beneficial for a viscosity model to include standard viscosity parameters in a single expression that could ... High-Accuracy Viscosity-Temperature Model for Engine Simulation 2018-01-1805. In an era of accelerated engine efficiency ... A key aspect which underpins models of lubricated surfaces is the ability to accurately predict viscosity. Any errors in a ...
... an arbitrary scale for lubricating oils that indicates the extent of variation in viscosity with variation of temperature. See ... an arbitrary scale for lubricating oils that indicates the extent of variation in viscosity with variation of temperature. ...
Specific viscosity definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... specific viscosity. noun 1. (physics) a measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid, expressed as the ratio of the absolute ... viscosity of the fluid to that of a reference fluid (usually water in the case of liquids) ...
While glass capillary tubes can be used for measuring the viscosity of low-viscosity liquids, he added, the cone-plate and ... "Practical Course on Viscosity Measurement," "Applied Viscosity Test Methods," and "Practical Course on Texture Analysis"; and ... Brabenders latest instrument in its line of viscosity-measuring equipment for food materials is the Consistometer Model E. ... Along these lines, the company has designed a viscosity measurement instrument specifically for small sample sizes, the Micro- ...
Viscosity Science Lab Purpose: To determine of changing the viscosity will affect the time it takes for a marble to flow ... Viscosity Science Lab Purpose: To determine of changing the viscosity will affect the time it takes for a marble to flow ... More about Viscosity Lab Essay. *. Lab Report On Viscosity : Newtonian Vs. Non Newtonian Fluids. 1722 Words , 7 Pages ... Viscosity of Liquids Lap Report. 1815 Words , 8 Pages. Experiment 1: Viscosity of Liquids Victoria Kulczak Lab Partners: Laina ...
Bulk viscosity is the same as volume viscosity. *Shear viscosity is viscosity coefficient when applied stress is a shear stress ... Here, the constant η is known as the coefficient of viscosity, the viscosity, the dynamic viscosity, or the Newtonian viscosity ... Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity divided by density for Newtonian fluid;. *Volume viscosity is viscosity coefficient ... Viscosity (dynamic/absolute viscosity). The IUPAC symbol for viscosity is the Greek symbol eta (. ), and dynamic viscosity is ...
Glass Viscosity Measurement Viscosity measurement, viscosity units and fixpoints, glass viscosity calculation ... "Lube-Tech - Viscosity Blending Equations" (PDF).. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry ... The viscosity of slurry can be described as relative to the viscosity of the liquid phase:. μ. s. =. μ. r. μ. l. ,. {\ ... Viscosity (dynamic). A simulation of liquids with different viscosities. The liquid on the right has higher viscosity than the ...
Glass Viscosity Measurement Viscosity measurement, viscosity units and fixpoints, glass viscosity calculation ... "Lube-Tech - Viscosity Blending Equations" (PDF).. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry ... The viscosity of slurry can be described as relative to the viscosity of the liquid phase:. μ. s. =. μ. r. μ. l. ,. {\ ... Viscosity of liquids. (at 25 °C unless otherwise specified). Liquid. Viscosity (Pa·s). Viscosity (cP). ...
Viscosity-dependent actin flow. (A) Schematic representation of the inferred impact of viscosity of the molecular clutch. ... Cell morphology was smaller and more rounded on low-viscosity surfaces, with larger, more spread cells seen on high-viscosity ... G) Model predictions regarding ligand density at high and low viscosity, demonstrating that when viscosity is high (e.g., DPPC ... B) The clutch model prediction concerning the actin flow substituting stiffness for viscosity; this shows that as the viscosity ...
... viscosity 0.0102 grams per centimeter second) is pumped through 0.4 meter diameter pipe. If the Reynolds number is… ... PhysicsQ&A LibraryWater (specific gravity 1.02; viscosity 0.0102 grams per centimeter second) is pumped through 0.4 meter ... Water (specific gravity 1.02; viscosity 0.0102 grams per centimeter second) is pumped through 0.4 meter diameter pipe. If the ... Water (specific gravity 1.02; viscosity 0.0102 grams per centimeter second) is pumped through 0.4 meter diameter pipe. If the ...
Plasma viscosity is determined by water-content and macromolecular components. Plasma is a highly concentrated protein solution ... Evaluation of plasma viscosity has been underutilized in the clinical practice. ... Evaluation of plasma viscosity has been underutilized in the clinical practice. Plasma viscosity is determined by water-content ... the higher plasma viscosity results. Plasma is a Newtonian fluid, its viscosity does not depend on flow characteristics, ...
Fluid simulator adds viscosity, new Ocean Force daemon, support for the Arnold renderer. Price down too. Read More » ...
Moynos 2000 G2 pump is designed to tackle applications with medium viscosity slurries and sludges with solids in suspension ... Moynos 2000 G2 pump is designed to tackle applications with medium viscosity slurries and sludges with solids in suspension ...
Handling is improved by the addition of a very high viscosity linear vinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane which reduces ... Improved very high viscosity (putty) two component polymerizable polyorganosiloxane composition for use in making dental ... The low viscosity material also hardens within about five minutes. Typically the low viscosity material forms a thin partial ... A very high viscosity putty polyvinylsiloxane impression material useful to record hard and soft tissues in the mouth. The new ...
saliva viscosity synonyms, saliva viscosity pronunciation, saliva viscosity translation, English dictionary definition of ... saliva viscosity. n. The watery mixture of secretions from the salivary and oral mucous glands that lubricates chewed food, ... As evident from Fig 1, all the substitutes had viscosities away from the natural saliva viscosity.. Comparison of artificial ... Saliva viscosity - definition of saliva viscosity by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/saliva+viscosity ...
  • Hence, viscosity modifiers should have high tolerance and low sensitivity to temperature. (spe.org)
  • The viscosity of a supramolecular solution is less sensitive (about three times so) to temperature changes than that of polyacrylamide solution. (spe.org)
  • It is an excellent alternative to conventional capillary viscometers for fast and economical measurement of the low-shear kinematic viscosity over a wide temperature range. (anton-paar.com)
  • With viscosity lowered by increasing temperature, a greater flow is generally required to create actuation pressure differential. (gemssensors.com)
  • MiniVisc 3000 viscometers use a patented Hele-Shaw cell design that enables direct measurement of kinematic viscosity at a regulated temperature (40˚C), using only a few drops (60μL) of oil. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The MiniVisc addresses the unmet need of direct kinematic viscosity determination at regulated temperature in the field. (environmental-expert.com)
  • NYP Steam Jacketed High Viscosity Liquid Internal Gear Pump The conveying liquid is stable no pulsation low vibration and low noise Has a strong self priming performance Proper selection of parts and materials can transport a variety of corrosive media the use temperature can reach 200 C The inner and outer rotors. (gearpump.nl)
  • After shifting the temperature to account for the energy of nonequilibrium modes, the remaining divergences are renormalized into local parameters, e.g., pressure and bulk viscosity. (aleksas.eu)
  • The fluctuation-induced bulk viscosity reflects the nonconformal nature of the equation of state and is modestly enhanced near the QCD deconfinement temperature. (aleksas.eu)
  • The steady and dynamic shear viscosity of fish muscle protein paste obtained from Alaska pollock surimi at 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, and 75% of moisture contents were measured in the temperature range of 5°C to 20°C. To estimate the steady shear viscosity at high shear rate from dynamic shear viscosity, the modified Cox-Merz rule was applied by introducing a frequency shift factor. (elsevier.com)
  • The viscous flow behavior was independent of temperature (5°C to 20°C), and addition of starch decreased the flow index and viscosity of the paste, compared to the pure surimi paste. (elsevier.com)
  • Using our app, engineers simply select the oil being used, along with the system temperature (°C) and pressure (bar), hit the 'submit' button and up pops the viscosity (cSt). (webtec.com)
  • If you want to see the effects on viscosity of fluctuations in temperature or pressure, simply alter the values in these fields accordingly. (webtec.com)
  • Consequently, ASTM D2270 references ASTM D7042 for the determination of kinematic viscosity. (anton-paar.com)
  • ASTM D8092 "Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Kinematic Viscosity Using a Microchannel Viscometer" applies to the Spectro Scienitific MiniVisc 3000 (formerly SpectroVisc Q3000) method of directly measuring the kinematic viscosity of in-service lubricants. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In ex vivo rabbit cornea, there was a trend toward an increasing cross-linking effect with higher viscosity albeit mild differences. (portlandpress.com)
  • In addition, pumping high-viscosity displacing fluids tends to lead to clogging in oil wells, which results in a major economic well operating loss. (spe.org)
  • One potential solution is to use displacement fluids with an adjustable viscosity, with the fluid having a low viscosity at the injection site and a high viscosity upon reaching the oil phase. (spe.org)
  • It is recommended for application of low viscosity fluids such as cyanoacrylate adhesives, anaerobic adhesives, conformal coatings and solvents. (intertronics.co.uk)
  • Case Study 16: In the modern pump industry, processed fluids are characterized by a wide spectrum of viscosity values. (tamu.edu)
  • Expanding the range of PCM500 fluid cleanliness monitors, the PCM500 X357 measures the cleanliness of system fluids with viscosities between 0.5 and 40 cSt . (pall.com)
  • Furthermore, having an adjustable--viscosity displacement fluid can help to reduce pumping-related operational costs because pumping efficacy generally decreases as fluid viscosity increases. (spe.org)
  • A unique patented piston with Gems™ FS-930 Series switches accommodates these changes in fluid viscosity while maintaining accurate switch actuation. (gemssensors.com)
  • The present Case Study illustrates a real case story of incorrect evaluation of the process fluid viscosity and pump geometry deviations, both determining performance deteriorations, described through a detailed evaluation of the internal pump losses. (tamu.edu)
  • We report a reversible photoinduced fluid viscosity change. (elsevier.com)
  • Automation of viscosity measurements provides several benefits over conventional manual measurements due to reduced handling errors, higher reproducibility, reduced costs per sample and increased productivity in the laboratory. (anton-paar.com)
  • AMETEK Brookfield , the world standard for viscosity measurement and control, is offerings its Practical Course on Viscosity Measurements. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The one-day Practical Course on Viscosity Measurements will help you get the most out of your AMETEK Brookfield Viscometer and Rheometer measurements by providing you with information, activities and techniques that you can easily understand and immediately put to practical use. (coatingsworld.com)
  • Viscosizer TD provides automated relative viscosity measurements with high reproducibility at low viscosity, to help identify molecules with abnormally high viscosity-concentration profiles at low sample concentrations as early as possible in the development pipeline. (malvern.com)
  • Viscosity measurements of well-defined mixtures are useful in order to evaluate existing viscosity models. (dtu.dk)
  • Lucideon's wide range of instruments from rotational to capillary rheometers allow rheological characterization and viscosity measurements across the full range of shear rates encountered in production, from pouring or gentle mixing through to spraying and spinning. (lucideon.com)
  • With a wide inlet and a single auger feed into the pumping elements, Moyno's 2000 G2 pump is designed to tackle applications with medium viscosity slurries and sludges with solids in suspension where bridging is a concern. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Medium Viscosity) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (megazyme.com)
  • High viscosity systems utilize various blade configurations, such as double and triple shaft designs for high and medium viscosity substances, to consistently ensure movement of all product involved and a homogeneous mix throughout with no dead spots. (superbarticles.org)
  • The Anton Paar viscometer series in combination with an Xsample are reliable in determination of both kinematic and dynamic viscosity and additional calculation of the Viscosity Index (VI) according to ASTM D2270 with one filling. (anton-paar.com)
  • Zhou, H.G. / Dynamic viscosity modeling of methane plus n-decane and methane plus toluene mixtures: Comparative study of some representative models . (dtu.dk)
  • The IDM PP500 pressure pot is capable of feeding low viscosity liquids packaged in up to 500ml bottles (larger pressure pots are available) . (intertronics.co.uk)
  • Pressure fluid reservoir is capable of supplying low viscosity liquids packaged in industry standard bottles for dispensing. (intertronics.co.uk)
  • Lube oil's viscosity and/or VI are more reliable indicators for the condition of the lube oil than mileage or time of use. (anton-paar.com)
  • The current heuristics suggest that polymer flooding should be applied in reservoirs with oil viscosities between 10 and 150 cP (Taber et al. (spe.org)
  • The key factor limiting the recommended range is that for oil viscosities greater than 150 cP, the injected-water-viscosity values required for a favorable mobility ratio correspond to prohibitively low values of polymer injectivity. (spe.org)
  • It is also well-established that both polymer- and biopolymer-based viscosity modifiers usually degrade under high salinity and high temperatures. (spe.org)
  • In this work, we describe a novel adjustable viscosity modifier that can overcome the limitations of polymer-based -viscosity modifiers. (spe.org)
  • This popular course was created to help AMETEK Brookfield Viscometer users comprehend the functionality of their instrument, solve the mysteries of fluid behavior and Rheology, and create successful and repeatable viscosity test methods for use in both R&D and QA/QC environments. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The concentration dependence of zero-shear viscosity showed power-law dependence with an exponent of 3.5, and the universal behavior of viscosity at different protein concentrations was observed by a introducing reduced variables. (elsevier.com)
  • Chelmsford, MA -- A new ASTM Standard Test Method supports the simple, convenient, and accurate viscosity measurement method employed in portable MiniVisc 3000 Series viscometers from Spectro Scientific. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Hydraulic fluid suppliers provide oils with different viscosities. (webtec.com)
  • Units can detect flow rates with 20% accuracy for fluid viscosities between 40 to 1000 SSU. (gemssensors.com)
  • The MiniVisc 3000 viscometer is a component of Spectro's comprehensive MiniLab Series system that provides elemental and chemical analysis in addition to viscosity, particle analysis and total ferrous content. (environmental-expert.com)
  • We also confirm that the renormalization of the pressure and bulk viscosity is universal by computing them for a Bjorken expansion. (aleksas.eu)
  • 3M™ Dyneon™ Ultra High Viscosity Fluoroelastomer FC 2299 is designed for use in applications such as O-rings, gaskets and seals requiring higher strength than achievable with lower-viscosity FKM copolymers. (3m.com)
  • When appropriately formulated, Dyneon ultra high viscosity fluoroelastomer FC 2299 can provide higher tensile strength, improved tear resistance, and lower compression set than comparably formulated, lower viscosity fluoroelastomer copolymers. (3m.com)
  • We report a novel type of viscosity modifier relying on the supramolecular assemblies that have pH-adjustable viscosities and robust tolerance against high temperatures and salinities, and are resistant to shear-induced degradation. (spe.org)
  • Tuning various properties of the many-particle correlations, we investigate how the robust microscopic features are translated into the macroscopic observables like shear viscosity and entropy density. (scienceopen.com)
  • In common parlance, however, a liquid is said to be viscous if its viscosity is substantially greater than that of water, and may be described as mobile if the viscosity is noticeably less than water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Infinity Bond CA 4095 is a very low viscosity cyanoacrylate (30 cps, think 2% milk thickness) that is great for seeping into tough to reach areas when bonding substrates. (infinitybond.com)
  • Hence, the viscosity modifiers are often added in the displacing fluid, (i.e., water) to better match the viscosity of reservoir oil and enable a uniform advance of the waterfront to effectively sweep the reservoir oil. (spe.org)
  • Currently, for oil recovery applications, most commonly used viscosity modifiers are water-soluble polymers such as hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, polyvinyl alcohol, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (Taylor and Nasr-El-Din 1998). (spe.org)
  • While the above-mentioned viscosity modifiers can satisfy part of the oil recovery needs, these polymers still experience some challenges that hinder their effectiveness. (spe.org)
  • Hence, high salt tolerance is a critical factor in the design of viscosity modifiers. (spe.org)
  • 10%) in the viscosity observed up to 5 wt% salinity at typical shear rates experienced during the sweeping processes. (spe.org)
  • A thermal constraint on the fluidity measure, the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, is discussed. (scienceopen.com)
  • Our new web app for hydraulic oil viscosity calculation can be found here . (webtec.com)
  • While surface viscosity was found to depend on the surface pressure in both lipids, we detect an order of magnitude higher surface viscosity for DMPE films even in the so called liquid coexistence region. (aiche.org)
  • LC self priming high viscosity liquid lobe pumpg Product Description Brief introduction LC self priming high viscosity liquid lobe pumpis widely used in carrying oil and oil products when deliver the gasoline the copper pump leaves are needed and transport various oil and liquid in plant such as crude oil paint. (gearpump.nl)
  • For a given pH, the viscosity of the supramolecular solution can also be strongly controlled, in the range of 100-100,000 cP, with the solution concentration. (spe.org)
  • An unpredicted variation of actual process fluid properties, including viscosity, may lead to unexpected pump performance alteration. (tamu.edu)
  • MiniVisc 3000 viscometers provide accuracy and repeatability of +/- 3 percent on NIST-certified viscosity standards, enabling immediate detection of viscosity variations caused by contamination, fluid mix-ups and oil degradation. (environmental-expert.com)