Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Casuistry: A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Galphimia: A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE. G. glauca is the source of 'Galphimia glauca extract' and contains 'galphimine B' and tetragalloylquinic acid.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Mice, Inbred C57BLMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.QuinolizinesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Tinea Pedis: Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Gardenia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.RNA-Binding Protein FUS: A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Hydroxymercuribenzoates: Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Motor Neurons, Gamma: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).DEAD Box Protein 20: A multifunctional protein that is both a DEAD-box RNA helicase and a component of the SMN protein complex.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Research found that the CB1 receptor is expressed presynaptically by motor neurons that innervate visceral organs. Cannabinoid- ... CB1 is present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons in the ... Emerging data in the field also points to FAAH being expressed in postsynaptic neurons complementary to presynaptic neurons ... Neuron. 54 (5): 801-12. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.05.020. PMC 2001295 . PMID 17553427. Bacci A, Huguenard JR, Prince DA (2004 ...
Nkx 2.9 is a transcription factor responsible for the formation of the branchial and visceral motor neuron subtypes of cranial ... "Nkx2.2 and Nkx2.9 Are the Key Regulators to Determine Cell Fate of Branchial and Visceral Motor Neurons in Caudal Hindbrain". ... that Nkx 2.9 and Nkx 2.2 proteins do not play a role in branchial or visceral motor neuron development in the portion of the ... and a partial loss of the glossopharyngeal and facial motor nerves. However, the somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor nerves ...
The lateral grey column is composed of sympathetic preganglionic visceral motor neurons which are part of the autonomic nervous ... The lateral grey column plays an important role in the sympathetic division of the visceral (autonomic) motor system. Neuron ... Neurons in the upper and middle thoracic segments control sympathetic activity in organs in the head and thorax, while neurons ... The nervous system is the system of neurons, or nerve cells, that relay electrical signals through the brain and body. A nerve ...
It then decussates in the spinal cord and synapses at the anterior horn to the lower motor neurons of the skeletal muscles. The ... visceral pain, and vibration. This tract begins in the dorsal nerve root where the signal is transmitted through the dorsal ... This tract begins in the precentral gyrus of the motor cortex where a signal is transmitted from the upper motor nerve through ... It synapses with a third order neuron and transmits the signal to the postcentral gyrus of the somesthetic cortex. Pronator ...
However, unlike most neurons, somatic efferent motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle, and are always excitatory. Visceral ... A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target-non-neuronal-cell. This ... Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) - non-muscular cells of mesenchymal origin-were proposed as potential mediators in motor ... There is no reason to assume a priori that responses to neurotransmitters released from neurons and exogenous transmitter ...
Topographic organization of embryonic motor neurons defined by expression of LIM homeobox genes. 1994. Cell. 79: 957-970.http ... Lim1 is required in both primitive streak derived tissues and visceral endoderm for head formation in the mouse. Develop. 126: ... http://dev.biologists.org/content/develop/131/3/539.full.pdf Lumsden, A. A 'LIM code' for the motor neurons?. 1995. Curr. Biol ...
In the peripheral nervous system, cholinergic neurons are implicated in the control of visceral functions such as, but not ... The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common motor neuron diseases. A significant loss of ChAT ... Choline Acetylcholine It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for motor neurons (motoneurons). Mutants of ChAT have ... Wang J, Fu X, Zhang D, Yu L, Li N, Lu Z, Gao Y, Wang M, Liu X, Zhou C, Han W, Yan B, Wang J (2017). "ChAT-positive neurons ...
Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are found in the medulla oblongata where they form visceral motor nuclei; the dorsal ... Primary sensory neurons project (synapse) onto "second order" visceral sensory neurons located in the medulla oblongata, ... All this visceral sensory information constantly and unconsciously modulates the activity of the motor neurons of the ANS. ... general visceral efferent) neurons and are the preganglionic neurons. There are several locations upon which preganglionic ...
It extends from T1 to L2, and contains the autonomic motor neurons that give rise to the preganglionic fibers of the ... sympathetic nervous system, (preganglionic sympathetic general visceral efferents).. ...
Single-unit visceral smooth muscle is myogenic; it can contract regularly without input from a motor neuron (as opposed to ... Single-unit smooth muscle, or visceral smooth muscle is a type of smooth muscle found in the uterus, gastro-intestinal tract, ... its contraction must be initiated by an autonomic nervous system neuron). A few of the cells in a given SUVSM unit may behave ...
In general, motor nuclei are closer to the front (ventral), and sensory nuclei and neurons are closer to the back (dorsal). ... Another area, not on the dorsum of the brainstem, is where the special visceral efferents nuclei reside. These formed from the ... motor Abducens nucleus (VI) - motor Trigeminal motor nucleus (V) - motor Main trigeminal nucleus (V) - sensory (fine touch and ... motor Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (X) - visceromotor Nucleus ambiguus (IX, X, XI) - motor Solitary nucleus (VII, IX, X ...
Somatic motor neurons Special visceral motor neurons General visceral motor neurons Somatic motor neurons originate in the ... Types of lower motor neurons are alpha motor neurons, beta motor neurons, and gamma motor neurons. The term 'motor neuron' is ... There are two types of motor neuron - upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Axons from upper motor neurons synapse onto ... the command of visceral muscles is disynaptic (involving two neurons: the general visceral motor neuron located in the CNS, ...
... and special visceral efferent fibers (SVE). Subtypes of these fibers include (GSE): alpha motor neurons (α) - these target ... The cell body of the motor neuron is satellite-shaped. The motor neuron is present in the grey matter of the spinal cord and ... and motor neurons. The efferent nerve fibers of motor neurons are involved in muscle control, both skeletal and smooth muscle. ... and gamma motor neurons (γ) that target intrafusal muscle fibers. Beta motor neurons target both types of muscle fiber and ...
... refers to the efferent neurons of the autonomic nervous system that provide motor innervation to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle ... The term general efferent fibers (GVE or visceral efferent or autonomic efferent) ...
Like all lower motor neurons, cells of the facial motor nucleus receive cortical input from the primary motor cortex in the ... the facial motor nucleus is considered part of the special visceral efferent (SVE) cell column, which also includes the ... Upper motor neurons of the cortex send axons that descend through the internal capsule and synapse on neurons in the facial ... By contrast, a lower motor neuron lesion to the facial motor nucleus results in paralysis of facial muscles on the same side of ...
... which gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve and preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that ... The cell bodies of visceral afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are located bilaterally in the inferior ganglion of the vagus ... The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibres to all the organs (except the adrenal glands), from the neck down to the ... de Lartigue G, Ronveaux CC, Raybould HE (2014). "Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in hyperphagia ...
Visceral pain Nucleus ambiguus: The lower motor neurons for the stylopharyngeus muscle Inferior salivatory nucleus: ... special visceral efferent) - supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle. Visceral motor (general visceral efferent) - provides ... visceral, and special sensation. The visceral motor fibers pass through both ganglia without synapsing and exit the inferior ... The visceral motor fibers pass through this plexus and merge to become the lesser petrosal nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve re- ...
In the peripheral nervous system, neural tissues forms the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, inclusive of the motor neurons. ... Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, found in the inner linings of organs; ...
The DLF, carries both ascending and descending fibers, and conveys visceral motor and sensory signals. The DLF ascending tract ... dorsal motor nucleus of the Vagus and salivatory nuclei for the eyes), 5) thoraco-lumbar preganglionic sympathetic neurons, and ... The tract is composed of a diffuse brainstem pathway located in the periventricular gray matter comprising ascending visceral ... These fibers synapse onto the hypothalamus and carry visceral information to the brain. Brainstem afferents in DLF include ...
Urbain, N.; Deschênes, M. (Nov 2007). "Motor cortex gates vibrissal responses in a thalamocortical projection pathway". Neuron ... "limbic-motor integration". Visceral survival activities. Zona incerta controls such activities as water and food intake, ... zona incerta output to the ventral lateral nucleus neurons in the cerebello-thalamocortical loop and to brainstem motor neurons ... Zona incerta neurons have dendrites with a wide span 0.8 mm and their axons give off collaterals that arborized locally within ...
The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ... to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Iplex treatment with the primary goal of determining the effects of Iplex on visceral ... Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. ...
... s are highly expressed in basal ganglia structures as well as neurons in the motor areas of the thalamus ... inflammatory pain and visceral pain. Increased neuronal bursting occurs throughout the central motor system in both human forms ... Neuron. 73 (3): 523-536. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.11.032. PMC 3463873 . PMID 22325204. Xiang, Zixiu; Thompson, Analisa D.; ... In fact, neurons isolated from the reticular nucleus of the thalamus of the GAERS showed 55% greater T-type currents, and these ...
PNS efferents are the axons of spinal cord motor neurons that carry motor-movement signals out of the spine to the muscles. In ... Types of afferent fibers include the general somatic (GSA), the general visceral (GVA), the special somatic (SSA) and the ... This process is carried out through the activity of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. A touch or painful ... Afferent neurons are pseudounipolar neurons that have a single long axon with a short central and a long peripheral branch. ...
... and lower motor neuron (LMN). A nerve signal travels down the upper motor neuron until it synapses with the lower motor neuron ... The dorsal roots are afferent fascicles, receiving sensory information from the skin, muscles, and visceral organs to be ... The VM lower motor neurons control the large, postural muscles of the axial skeleton. These lower motor neurons, unlike those ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ...
Intestinal neuronal dysplasia: a disease of motor neurons leading to the bowels. Bowel obstruction: mechanical or functional ... Guzé CD, Hyman PE, Payne VJ (January 1999). "Family studies of infantile visceral myopathy: a congenital myopathic pseudo- ...
In "kindling", repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in ... such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects ... "Visceral organ cross-sensitization - an integrated perspective". Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical. 153 (1-2): 106-15. ... In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue ...
Here we demonstrate that the formation of branchial and visceral motor neurons critically depends on the transcription factors ... progenitors of branchiovisceral motor neurons in the ventral p3 domain of hindbrain are transformed to somatic motor neurons, ... visceral, and somatic motor neurons, which develop in typical patterns along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of ... and partial loss of the facial and glossopharyngeal motor nerves, while the purely somatic hypoglossal and abducens motor ...
spinal cord motor neuron cell fate specification Source: Ensembl. *visceral motor neuron differentiation Source: Ensembl ... negative regulation of neuron differentiation Source: Ensembl. *neuron development Source: BHF-UCL ,p>Traceable Author ... neuron fate specification Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based propagation of ... peripheral nervous system neuron development Source: BHF-UCLTraceable author statementi*. "Brn3a regulates neuronal subtype ...
A) a visceral motor neuron. B) a somatic motor neuron. C) a sensory neuron. D) an interneuron ... Which effectors are innervated by visceral motor neurons?. A) cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. B) somatic effectors ... Sensory neurons in which of the following locations receive and transmit only visceral input?. (1) skin (2) joints (3) heart (4 ... Which nervous system divisions or components contain no afferent neurons?. A) somatic and visceral sensory. B) CNS and PNS. C) ...
produce the appropriate visceral motor and somatic motor response that minimizes the damage. That potentially might be done ... Some of these neurons will very quickly integrate an appropriate motor response, ... local circuits, that coordinate an appropriate visceral motor response. In the case of corneal irritation that response would ... movement, and motor control is the topic of unit four. So, I look forward to seeing you on the other side of the unit three ...
... it contains neuroblasts giving rise to somatic and visceral motor neurons.. Synonym(s): basal plate of neural tube, lamina ...
Visceral motor neuron diversity delineates a cellular basis for nipple- and pilo-erection muscle control. Nat. Neurosci. 19, ... For neuron-specific expression, 214 neuronal cell types with Neuron in the highest class in the original dataset were ... For excitatory neuron-specific expression, 60 excitatory neurons which contained a word excitatory in the description of the ... or only excitatory neurons (green). c Association of P-values of TEGLU4 (subtype of excitatory neurons from cortex) from Mouse ...
Cells bodies for Efferent/motor neuron. The dorsal root contains?. ALL SENSORY (somatic and visceral) GVA, GSA. ...
includes all visceral motor neurons. Term. preganglionic fibers. Definition. axons extending from CNS to ganglion (cell bodies ... multiple motor unit summation; steady increase in muscular tension produced by increasing the number of active motor units. ... spread of info from one neuron to several neurons of from one neuronal pool to several neuronal pools. ... information relayed from one neuron to another in a stepwise fashion or one neuronal pool to another neuronal pool. ...
BP] visceral motor neuron differentiation *[CC] cytoplasm *[CC] intracellular *[CC] intracellular part *[CC] nucleus *[MF] DNA ... BP] spinal cord motor neuron cell fate specification *[BP] spinal cord motor neuron differentiation *[BP] trigeminal nerve ... BP] neuron differentiation *[BP] neuron fate commitment *[BP] neuron fate specification *[BP] outflow tract morphogenesis *[BP ... BP] negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process *[BP] negative regulation of neuron differentiation *[BP] negative ...
Visceral motor reflex. To test the hypothesis that gonadal hormones modulate colorectal sensitivity, the magnitude of the ... The mean magnitude of response of dorsal horn neurons to graded intensities of CRD. A, ABRUPT neurons.B, SUSTAINED neurons. ... 14 neurons) and intact (n = 22 neurons) female rats. From the intact rats, 11 neurons were recorded from rats in diestrus, and ... 2000) Acute inflammation differentially alters the activity of two classes of rat spinal visceral nociceptive neurons. Neurosci ...
Evidence for the Interaction between Levator Ani and Pudendal Motor Neurons in the Coordination of Pelvic Floor and Visceral ... Paper 12: Efficacy of Botulinum-A Toxin in the Treatment of Motor Urge Incontinence: A Prospective Non-Randomized Study. Werner ...
somatic (from skin) and visceral (from organs and glands) 6 Autonomic motor neurons divide into ... Single post synaptic neuron receives signal from many pre synaptic. Transmembrane is combination of all ... CNS, blood/brain barrier, provides nutrients and support to neurons, most abundant, guide neural development, damage repair, 3D ...
Facial Visceral Motor Neurons Display Specific Rhombomere Origin and Axon Pathfinding Behavior in the Chick John Jacob and ... The "Waiting Period" of Sensory and Motor Axons in Early Chick Hindlimb: Its Role in Axon Pathfinding and Neuronal Maturation ... Selective Fasciculation and Divergent Pathfinding Decisions of Embryonic Chick Motor Axons Projecting to Fast and Slow Muscle ...
Visceral motor neuron diversity delineates a cellular basis for nipple- and pilo-erection muscle control. ... Classes and continua of hippocampal CA1 inhibitory neurons revealed by single-cell transcriptomics. ...
6. Lower Motor Neuron: General Somatic Efferent, Cranial Nerve. 7. Lower Motor Neuron: General Visceral Efferent System. 8. ... 5. Lower Motor Neuron: Spinal Nerve, General Somatic Efferent System. ... Upper Motor Neuron. 9. General Sensory Systems: General Proprioception and General Somatic Afferent. 10. Small Animal Spinal ... Visceral Afferent Systems. 17. Nonolfactory Rhinencephalon: Limbic System. 18. Seizure Disorders: Narcolepsy. 19. Diencephalon ...
Emotional expression reflects the coordination of both somatic motor and visceral motor activities. And this is not so much a ... Well, theyre controlled by a set of neurons that we call upper motor neurons. And these upper motor neurons exist in the motor ... These we call lower motor neurons. And so, these lower motor neurons exist with in a lower motor neural circuitry that is found ... Now, in addition to the motor cortex, there are also upper motor neurons in the brainstem and these motor neurons are involved ...
All mGluR are found in the mammalian nervous system but some are absent from sensory neurons. The focus here is on mGluR in ... Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of ... Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of ... There are many unanswered questions about mGluR along visceral afferent pathways, the answers to which may reveal many more ...
The activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and the medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in rats in response to ... A diagram of motor neuron pool of ventral horn of spinal cord gray matter in toad was first delineated. Different ... The activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and the medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in rats in response to ... The role of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and medullary visceral zone in response to restraint water-immersion ...
Lateral Neurons Of The LMC Rostral Brachial Lateral Motor Division * Anterior Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Motor Neurons Caudal ... Anterior Visceral Endoderm Cells Extraembryonic Visceral Endoderm * Extraembryonic Endoderm Cells Extraembryonic Endoderm ... Lateral Neurons Of The LMC Rostral Brachial Lateral Motor Division * Anterior Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Motor Neurons Caudal ... Scapulohumeralis Posterior Muscle Motor Neurons Rostral Brachial Lateral Motor Division * Lateral Neurons of the LMC Lumbar ...
What is autonomic motor neuron? Meaning of autonomic motor neuron medical term. What does autonomic motor neuron mean? ... Looking for online definition of autonomic motor neuron in the Medical Dictionary? autonomic motor neuron explanation free. ... somatic motor neuron directly synapse with striated muscle fibers by motor endplates; visceral motor neuron or autonomic motor ... visceral motor neurons or autonomic motor neurons (preganglionic motor neurons), by contrast, innervate smooth muscle fibers or ...
What is cholinergic neuron? Meaning of cholinergic neuron medical term. What does cholinergic neuron mean? ... Looking for online definition of cholinergic neuron in the Medical Dictionary? cholinergic neuron explanation free. ... These motor neurons are called somatic efferent neurons. Visceral efferent neurons form synapses with smooth muscle, cardiac ... unipolar neuron. A neuron whose cell body bears one process. upper motor neuron. A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found ...
somatic or visceral. 5 minimum number of elements in a reflext. receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, ... sensory and motor neruson. cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons make up the internal gray matter of the CNS, whereas ... motor (efferent) neurons conduct impulses. AWAY from the CNS. interneurons (association neurons)lie in the. CNS between sensory ... direction in which they conduct impulses (sensory, motor, interneruons). sensory (afferent) neurons conduct impulses. TOWARDS ...
This is as internuclear neurons are also affected.. *These neurons normally project to the MLF to the motor neurons controlling ... General Visceral Afferent (GVA). *These fibres are related to the receptors of the visceral structures such as the walls of the ... Spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory components.. *Some of each kind may be related to visceral or somatic structures. ... As this is a lower motor neuron lesion, that side of the tongue will also atrophies. ...
16:Lower Motor Neuron Circuits and Motor Control. 17:Upper Motor Neuron Control of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord. 18:Modulation ... 20:Eye Movements and Sensory Motor Integration. 21:The Visceral Motor System. UNIT IV. THE CHANGING BRAIN. 22:Early Brain ... 7:Molecular Signaling within Neurons. 8:Synaptic Plasticity. UNIT II. SENSATION AND SENSORY PROCESSING. 9:The Somatosensory ...
... fibers found laterally are preganglionic visceral motor neurons and somatic motor fibers are found anteriorly 4. ... contain the corticospinal tracts which are the principal motor pathway connecting the cerebral cortex to spinal motor neurons ... The grey matter contains the cell bodies of neurons and glia and is enlarged in the cervical and lumbosacral regions to provide ...
  • Recent findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies also emphasize that the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways play important roles in the development of post-mitotic neurons, including neurite and dendritic outgrowth, modulation of synaptic physiology, and regulation of cognitive behavior (reviewed in . (plos.org)
  • Inhibition of muscle contraction is achieved through inhibitory synaptic input to motor neuron cell bodies from the CNS. (coursehero.com)
  • Historically, vagovagal neurocircuits and reflexes were believed to be 'static' in their contribution to the control of gastrointestinal functions, whereby sensory signals conveyed from the gut to the brainstem generate a motor response that is relayed back to the gut in a reflexive manner (that is, the synaptic signal is not modulated by input from other neurocircuits). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The efferent fibres from the nucleus ambiguus and the DMV form synaptic contacts with postganglionic neurons located in the target organ and, ultimately, modulate gastric motility as well as other visceral functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendrite branching results in several synaptic terminals and allows a neuron to receive and integrate multiple impulses. (nysora.com)
  • gap between the pre synaptic and post synaptic neurons c. (philoid.com)
  • They also carry autonomic nerous system signals from the visceral organs ( heart, lungs, vessels, etc ). (getbodysmart.com)
  • The visceral circuits are responsible for sensing parameters of the interior milieu, such as arterial pressure, blood gases and various chemosensory modalities including taste, and feedback regulation of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3) It dictates a response to activate the effector organs by means of motor output. (scribd.com)
  • Lower urogenital organs receive complex extrinsic efferent (motor) and afferent (sensory) innervation. (edu.au)
  • Our main research interest is to determine the anatomical and functional properties of major classes of sensory neurons that innervate lower urogenital organs in normal condition and to identify the mechanisms of their changes in various disease states. (edu.au)
  • For this, we use a variety of in vitro and in vivo techniques and approaches, allowing detailed characterization of sensory and motor innervation of the lower urogenital organs in animal models of human diseases such as experimentally-induced cystitis and bladder outlet obstruction. (edu.au)
  • Spencer NJ, Zagorodnyuk V, Brookes SJ, Hibberd T (2016) Spinal afferent nerve endings in visceral organs: recent advances. (edu.au)
  • D) output to visceral organs would be blocked. (coursehero.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS), through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, regulates the human body's visceral organs via the innervation of three kinds of tissues: Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle , and glands . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is involved in regulating the involuntary functions of organs and other visceral components, by mediating the activity of smooth muscle fibers, cardiac muscle fibers and glands. (kenhub.com)
  • Information from the continuous monitoring activities of the visceral sensory component are sent to the ANS, so that the visceral motor component can make the needed adjustments for the correct functioning of organs. (kenhub.com)
  • The function of our visceral organs is controlled by a. (philoid.com)
  • The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are all colocalized collectively comprise the endocannabinoid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventral division of the lateral walls of the neural tube in the embryo, containing the neuroblasts that give rise to the somatic and visceral motor neurons. (dictionary.com)
  • Despite considerable divergence in overall neural architecture, a molecular underpinning for the functional allocation of neurons to interactions with the environment or to homeostasis was inherited from the urbilaterian ancestor by contemporary protostomes and deuterostomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neural gut-brain axis consists of viscerosensory and autonomic motor neurons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our goal in this study was to comprehensively characterize the central sensory and motor circuitry associated with the neural gut-brain axis linked to a segment of the small intestine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results indicate that even though sensory and motor information can be processed by separate neuronal populations, there is neuroanatomical evidence of direct sensory-motor feedback in the neural gut-brain axis throughout the entire caudal-rostral extent of the brain. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This is the first study to exhaustively investigate the sensory-motor organization of the neural gut-brain axis, and is a step toward phenotyping the many central neuronal populations involved in GI control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Central sensory-motor crosstalk in the neural gut-brain axis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The earliest steps in the development of the brain occur at about 17 days of gestation when the neural plate, a thickening of the ectoderm, forms in the dorsal midline of the embryo and begins to differentiate into neurons. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In this project we unravel which mechanisms, myogenic (due to changes in bladder muscle function) and/or neural (due to changes in motor and/or sensory nerve function), account for bladder overactivity in obstruction, using animal models of gradual partial bladder outflow obstruction. (edu.au)
  • The motor division of the glossopharyngeal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic medulla oblongata , while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ANS consists of strictly visceral motor neurons and is divided into two divisions called sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic . (kenhub.com)
  • Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of gastro-esophageal reflux, via an action on mechanosensory gastric afferents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Postganglionic components consist of postganglionic neurons and their fibers. (kenhub.com)
  • They were potent, systemically active NMDA receptor antagonists in vivo against responses of single neurons in the rat spinal cord to microelectrophoretic application of NMDA with ID 50 values in the low milligram per kilogram i.v. range. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Avivi C, Goldstein RS (2003) Differing patterns of neurotrophin-receptor expressing neurons allow distinction of the transient Frorieps' ganglia from normal DRG before morphological differences appear. (springer.com)
  • The axons leave the ganglia and project onto visceral effectors , where they release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine . (kenhub.com)
  • Studies have implicated muscarinic receptor-dependent mechanisms in the central modulation and integration of vagal regulation of visceral functions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, DMNX contains vagal neurons capable of producing bradycardia with a response latency associated with the baroreceptor reflex. (umd.edu)
  • This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
  • Sensory neurons transmit nutrient-related and non-nutrient-related information to the brain, while motor neurons regulate GI motility and secretion. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We found that across nearly all brain regions assessed, PRV + HSV immunoreactive neurons comprised the greatest percentage of labeled cells compared with single-labeled PRV or HSV neurons. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Input to motor neurons comes through spinal reflexes or via descending pathways from the brain to spinal cord. (coursehero.com)
  • These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. (nature.com)
  • During improvisation, activated brain regions were found in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area, the rostral portion of the dorsal premotor cortex and the left posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus compared to the reproduction period 16 . (nature.com)
  • Fifty micrograms of estrogen did not further increase the magnitude of the vmr or neuronal response 48 hr after estrogen but did extend the period of the increased ABRUPT neuron response to 14 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, we performed visualization of subpopulations of lamina X neurons stained by retrograde labeling with aminostilbamidine dye to identify sympathetic preganglionic and projection neurons in the lamina X. Thus, the elaborated approach provides a reliable tool for investigation of functional properties and connectivity in specific neuronal subpopulations, boosting research of lamina X of the spinal cord. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this article we describe the methodological approach of an ex vivo spinal cord preparation for functional studies of lamina X neurons and provide evidence of the reliable use of the preparation for electrophysiological recordings from individual lamina X neurons combined with primary fiber stimulations, calcium imaging and retrograde labeling of specific neuronal subpopulations to boost lamina X research. (frontiersin.org)
  • This clearly manifests itself in patients with partial hexosaminidase (HexA) deficiencies, who exhibit symptoms of motor neuron disease, or spinocerebellar degeneration with other neuronal function (such as vision and intelligence) relatively intact. (springer.com)
  • Cortex neurons have been used in understanding the mechanism of neuronal plasticity. (lonza.com)
  • Dendrites are elaborations of the receptive plasma membrane of the neuron. (nysora.com)
  • Most neurons possess multiple dendrites that typically arise from the cell body as single short trunks that ramify into smaller branches that taper at the ends. (nysora.com)
  • Although much is known about the events that govern specification of somatic motor neurons, the genetic pathways responsible for the development of vMNs are less well characterized. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CB1 has also been noted to form a functional human receptor heterodimer in orexin neurons with OX1, the CB1-OX1 receptor, which mediates feeding behavior and certain physical processes such as cannabinoid-induced pressor responses which are known to occur through signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have approached this issue at multiple levels: from the genes involved in specifying defined visceral lineages, to their functional output and integration into mature circuits. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Functional properties of lamina X neurons in the spinal cord remain unknown despite the established role of this area for somatosensory integration, visceral nociception, autonomic regulation and motoneuron output modulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, the predominant bulk of this knowledge relies on a set of morphological and immunohistochemical techniques while studies of functional properties of lamina X neurons remain rather exceptional. (frontiersin.org)
  • The main aim of this project is to determine which pro-inflammatory mediator(s) underlie functional and anatomical changes of sensory neurons, in experimental animal model of cystitis induced by instillation of zymosan (a derivative of yeast cell walls) in the guinea pig bladder. (edu.au)
  • Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. (nature.com)
  • Almost all of the structural and functional protein molecules are synthesized in the cell body and are transported to distant locations within a neuron in a process known as axonal transport. (nysora.com)
  • Moreover, CB1 is colocalized on orexin projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures of the orexin system, where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1-OX1 receptor heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the paired-like homeobox 2b ( Phox2b ) gene, which is expressed in both proliferating progenitors and post-mitotic motor neurons, is essential for the development of vMNs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although the vagus nerve is a "classical" cholinergic regulator of visceral functions in which peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have a major mediating role, the vagus-nerve cytokine-inhibiting activity (which is termed "the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway") requires signaling through nicotinic α 7 subunit-containing receptors ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
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