Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing acute enteritis in swine. Infections have been seen mostly in Europe, where it is endemic, and in China.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Pestivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Bovine: Clinically severe acute disease of cattle caused by noncytopathic forms of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (DIARRHEA VIRUS 2, BOVINE VIRAL). Outbreaks are characterized by high morbidity and high mortality.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine: A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mannheimia haemolytica: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Border disease virus: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.Enzootic Bovine Leukosis: A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.DNA Virus InfectionsChikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine: A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.RNA Virus InfectionsPorcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Haemophilus somnus: A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

*Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

Aebischer, Andrea (2014). "Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal ... and RPA for detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which effectively makes the point that each ... A recent international quality assessment of molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus performed as well as the best RT- ... "A Portable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus ...

*Veterinary virology

Pestiviruses have a single stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... The gastrointestinal tract and lymphatic system can be affected at any age, leading to vomiting, diarrhea and immunosuppression ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ...

*Pestivirus

Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Viruses in ... This means that these viruses have no post-transcriptional modifications, and have simple RNA genomes.) The genome contains RNA ... Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 3 (BVDV-3) (HoBi group) List of viruses Virology Animal virology "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ... There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1. Diseases associated ...

*Pestivirus NS3 polyprotein peptidase

... bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 endopeptidase, BVDV NS3 endopeptidase, classical swine fever virus NS3 endopeptidase, CSFV NS3 ... NS4B-NS5A and NS5A-NS5B cleavage sites The genomes of Cytopathogenic pestivirus strains express at least one additional protein ... Xu, J.; Mendez, E.; Caron, P.R.; Lin, C.; Murcko, M.A.; Collett, M.S.; Rice, C.M. (1997). "Bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 ... Tautz, N.; Kaiser, A.; Thiel, H.J. (2000). "NS3 serine protease of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization of active site ...

*Bovine viral diarrhea

1998). Insertion of a bovine SMT3B gene in NS4B and duplication of NS3 in a bovine viral diarrhea virus genome correlate with ... Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD ... Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, expert reviewed and published by Wikivet at http://en.wikivet.net/Bovine_Viral_Diarrhoea_Virus, ... Animal viruses Fray; et al. (2000). The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease ...

*DNA virus

"Small circular single stranded DNA viral genomes in unexplained cases of human encephalitis, diarrhea, and in untreated sewage ... also discovered using viral metagenomics, includes the species bovine stool associated circular virus and chimpanzee stool ... diarrhoea and sewage. Two viruses have been isolated from human faeces - circo-like virus Brazil hs1 and hs2 - with genome ... A virus with a novel method of genome packing infecting species of the genus Sulfolobus has been described. As this virus does ...

*Canine minute virus

It is similar to bovine parvovirus in its protein structure and DNA. A virus causing respiratory disease in humans has been ... Carmichael, L. (2004). "Neonatal Viral Infections of Pups: Canine Herpesvirus and Minute Virus of Canines (Canine Parvovirus-1 ... The genome is 5.4 kilobases in length. The termini are palindromic. There is a single P6 promoter which through the mechanism ... Symptoms are seen most commonly between the ages of one to three weeks and include severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and ...

*Bocaparvovirus

Genomes are linear, around 5.5kb in length "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". ... Other viruses in this genus continue to be described. Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to ... diarrhea and mild respiratory symptoms. Bocaviruses were first described in animals in the early 1960s. Like the other members ... In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the ...

*Flaviviridae

Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Unclassified Other ... The genome encodes a single polyprotein with multiple transmembrane domains that is cleaved, by both host and viral proteases, ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Apoi virus Aroa virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus Bukalasa bat virus Cacipacore virus Carey Island virus Cowbone ...

*Coronavirus

... es also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be ... Pantropic canine coronavirus Another new veterinary disease, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, has emerged around the world. Its ... Bovine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronavirus diverged from a common ancestor in 1951. Bovine coronavirus and human ... After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Corona Virus-Erasmus Medical ...

*Coronaviridae

... is a family of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kb in length. Virions are ... White bream virus Genus: Torovirus Bovine torovirus Equine torovirus Human torovirus Porcine torovirus There are currently a ... Diarrhea is also present but there is limited evidence of damage to the intestinal epithelium. The damage to the respiratory ... In common with the genomes of all other RNA viruses, coronavirus genomes contain cis-acting RNA elements that ensure the ...

*Thomas Henry Flewett

He described a virus causing diarrhoea in calves. I realized we had much the same in children. We found his virus and ours were ... Flewett was educated at a time when very little was known about viruses and viral illness and when there were no laboratory ... Pereira, H. G.; Flewett, T. H.; Candeias, J. A.; Barth, O. M. (1988). "A virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome in ... Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ...

*Enterovirus E

The virus may also be referred to as enteric cytopathic bovine orphan virus (ECBO). It is endemic in cattle populations ... The virus is spread horizontally by either the oral-fecal route or by the respiratory route. Viral shedding may occur for ... Enteric signs include diarrhea and weight loss, and respiratory infection can produce a mucoid nasal discharge. As clinical ... To replicate, BEV must attach to the host cell surface receptor, penetrate into the cell cytoplasm, and the genome must be ...

*José Esparza

By this stage Esparza had attained hands-on command of many aspects of viral research techniques (i.e., virus-isolation, ... Polypeptide composition and topography of bovine rotavirus. Molecular cloning of a human rotavirus genome. Antigenic variation ... He also applied such tools to the study of rotaviruses, a leading worldwide cause of infantile diarrhea which severely affects ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this ...

*Schmallenberg virus

The virus causes two different profiles of Schmallenberg: Fever of short duration, diarrhoea and reduced production of milk in ... "Schmallenberg virus confirmed in a bovine foetus in County Cork". Department of Agriculture, Food & the Marine. 30 October 2012 ... A commercial kit is now available from AdiaVet which targets the L region of the tripartite ssRNA genome of the virus. The ... Dongyou Liu: Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens, Schmallenberg virus, S. 563, CRC Press, 2016, ISBN 9781498700368 ...

*Parvovirus

The virus is named for the patient code of one of the blood bank samples involved in the discovery. The viral capsid of a ... Parvoviruses are linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses, with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. They are ... Aleutian mink disease virus), vii) Aveparvovirus (e.g. chicken parvovirus) and viii) Copiparvovirus (e.g. bovine parvovirus 2 ... Feline panleukopenia is common in kittens and causes fever, low white blood cell count, diarrhea, and death. Infection of the ...

*Virology

Viral diseases List of viral diseases Wikipedia:WikiProject Viruses Crawford, Dorothy (2011). Viruses: A Very Short ... "Virus hiding in our genome protects early human embryos". New Scientist. 20 April 2015. Villarreal, L. P. (2005) Viruses and ... many forms of diarrhea, hepatitis, Dengue fever, yellow fever, polio, smallpox and AIDS. Herpes simplex causes cold sores and ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease"), are caused by prions, hepatitis D is due to ...

*History of virology

Peterhans E, Bachofen C, Stalder H, Schweizer M (2010). "Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses ... non-B viral hepatitis genome". Science. 244 (4902): 359-62. Bibcode:1989Sci...244..359C. doi:10.1126/science.2523562. PMID ... and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years. In 1946, Bovine virus diarrhea was discovered, which is still ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans. The second ...

*Human bocavirus

In this process NS1 acts as an ATP powered helicase to resolve terminal hairpin structures of the viral genome. In addition to ... respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses. The name bocavirus is derived from bovine and canine, referring to the two known ... The latter two may merely reflect viral shedding, although diarrhoea has been described in animal bocaviral infections, and ... After nuclear import the single stranded genome is converted to double stranded DNA and production of the viral NS1 protein ...

*Porcine parvovirus

Viral antigen is detected in the cytoplasm of cells soon after infection if the inoculum contains a high titer of virus and ... The viral genome is single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 (i.e., about 26.5% of the ... PPV and other structurally similar viruses have been identified in the feces of pigs with diarrhea. However, there is no ... wherein the DNA polymerases of cell origin needed for viral replication are available. If either fetal or adult bovine serum is ...

*Virus

Viruses with larger genomes may encode much of this machinery themselves. In eukaryotes the viral genome must cross the cell's ... and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years. In 1957, equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhoea ( ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... but rather its DNA genome (in case of a DNA virus), or a cDNA copy of its genome (in case of RNA viruses). For many virus ...

*Kobuvirus

... positive-sense RNA genomes with lengths of approximately 8.2-8.3 kb. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus ... Three species of the genus include Aichivirus A (formerly Aichi virus), Aichivirus B (formerly Bovine kobuvirus) and Aichivirus ... Arch Virol 154:101-108 Oem JK et al (2014) Novel Kobuvirus species identified from black goat with diarrhea. Vet Microbiol. 172 ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which ...

*Norovirus

The cloning and sequencing of the Norwalk virus genome showed that these viruses have a genomic organization consistent with ... Researchers Discover Primary Sensor That Detects Stomach Viruses Newswise, Retrieved on July 20, 2008. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. ... "Traveler's Diarrhea". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved 21 February 2016. "Winter vomiting bug cases up 40 per cent: ... Genogroups I, II and IV infect humans, whereas genogroup III infects bovine species, and genogroup V has recently been isolated ...

*Vaccine

... therefore increasing vaccine potency against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness ... had deletions in their viral genome (among which the gE gene). Monoclonal antibodies were produced against that deletion and ... Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, ... the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein,[ ...

*Influenza

HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA ... A fourth family of influenza viruses has been proposed - influenza D. The type species for this family is Bovine Influenza D ... Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu ... Negative-sense vRNAs that form the genomes of future viruses, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and other viral proteins are ...
Paper: Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves , Author:Mahmoud Atef Youssef Helal ; Hiroyuki Okamatsu ; Motoshi Tajima · , Year:2012 , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ,Department of Animal medicine ,Benha University
Biology Assignment Help, Bovine viral diarrhoea, Bovine viral diarrhoea Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) and mucosal disease (MD) are clinically dissimilar disease syndrome yet have a common viral etiology. The acute disease is called as BVD. The term mucosal disease is reserved for chronic diseas
Read "Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The invention disclosed herein presents an antigen-capture immunoassay that utilizes serum, plasma, milk, urine, saliva, or other bodily fluid samples to identify cattle infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). The results of this assay allow an effective, reliable, quick, and cost efficient way to identify, and thereby remove, infected cattle and/or other ruminants from otherwise uninfected herds. The BVD virus causes an acute enteric disease with a variety of clinical manifestations, and is closely related to sheep border disease virus (BDV) and hog cholera virus (HCV). The traditional method of detecting infected animals, including persistently infected (PI) carriers, has been through .the .use of virus isolation procedures. While .this older test methodology can detect infected animals, the virus isolation test can only be performed by highly trained technicians in a highly specialized laboratory facility. The kit disclosed herein uses ELISA ...
BioAssay record AID 436478 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against Bovine viral diarrhea virus infected in MDBK cells assessed as inhibition of virus-induced cytopathicity after 3 to 4 days by MTT assay.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is a member of the Pestivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. BVD infection results in a wide variety of clinical signs, due to its immunosuppressive effects, as well as having a direct effect on respiratory disease and fertility. In addition, BVD infection of a susceptible dam during a certain period of gestation can result in the production of a persistently infected (PI) fetus. PI animals recognise intra-cellular BVD viral particles as self and shed virus in large quantities throughout life; they represent the cornerstone of the success of BVD as ...
A cross-sectional study was made in a major cattle-breeding area of Switzerland to investigate the prevalence and local distribution of animals antibody positive to bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus and of persistently infected animals. The sample size and statistical analysis took into account the possible clustering of persistently infected animals on individual farms. Of 3440 animals tested on 121 farms, 1982 were found to have antibodies to BVD virus (95 per cent confidence interval for the population prevalence: 57.6±4.5 per cent) and 22 were persistently infected (estimate for the population prevalence: 0.64±0.34 per cent). The detection of persistent infection in animals less than seven months old was improved either by retesting one year later, by using an antigen-capture ELISA or, in selected cases, by the analysis of original serum samples by reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that the prevalence of persistent infection may be underestimated by as much ...
NJIRO, S M and NKOSI, C M. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.229-232. ISSN 2224-9435.. Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide ...
A limited number of scientific publications dealing with aspects of BVDV infection have emanated from southern Africa. This study describes the isolation of BVD viruses, gene sequence analysis of the 5 non-translated region (5 NTR) of the genome, the generation of phylogenetic data of local strains and the recording of clinical signs associated with each isolate. Specimens (n=352) collected during 1998-1999, from live and dead animals from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens from buffaloes (cerus caffer the Kruger National Park were included as specimens from dead animals. Three cell lines and 200 tubes of pooled foetal bovine sera were also processed. Standard cell culture techniques to isolate virus were followed. Techniques designed to detect BVDV antigen or nucleic acid such as antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ...
Accepted name: pestivirus NS3 polyprotein peptidase. Reaction: Leu is conserved at position P1 for all four cleavage sites. Alanine is found at position P1 of the NS4A-NS4B cleavage site, whereas serine is found at position P1 of the NS3-NS4A, NS4B-NS5A and NS5A-NS5B cleavage sites. Other name(s): border disease virus NS3 endopeptidase; BDV NS3 endopeptidase; bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 endopeptidase; BVDV NS3 endopeptidase; classical swine fever virus NS3 endopeptidase; CSFV NS3 endopeptidase; p80. Comments: The polyprotein of noncytopathogenic pestiviruses is cleaved co- and post-translationally into at least 11 proteins (Npro, C, Erns, E1, E2, p7, NS2-3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) [2]. The genomes of cytopathogenic pestivirus strains express at least one additional protein, called NS3 (p80) [2]. This enzyme, which resides in the N-terminal region of NS3 (nonstructural protein 3), is essential for ...
We propose a stochastic model of BVDV spread in a structured beef cow-calf cattle herd. Originally, we accounted for a variation in exposure of animals (especially adults) between the indoor period, during which a homogeneous contact structure is assumed, and the outdoor period, during which groups are formed and raised on different pastures. Moreover, we accounted for a risk of continuous virus introduction in the herd through animal purchases and contacts with neighboring infected herds. This enabled the model to represent a large range of possible situations, from a single introduction into a naive herd to endemic situations potentially maintained by an external risk of virus reintroduction. Lastly, the model was flexible enough to represent beef herds of different sizes and management types, as illustrated by the different types of herds observed in Bourgogne, one of the main beef cattle farming regions in France. Such a model was pertinent to investigate the impact of BVDV spread on the ...
Discussion. The game farming industry is important for the Namibian economy and encourages tourism through hunting safaris and trophy hunting expeditions. Kudu comprise a large portion of the game farming industry in Namibia and also come into contact with several domestic species. Thus the prevalence of BVDV in kudu may pose a threat to the cattle farming industry in Namibia and neighbouring countries.. BVDV serology results showed a high seropositivity (68%) amongst all samples (kudu and eland). In this study, BVDV seropositivity of kudu in Namibia was determined to be 71% (27/38), which was similar to previous studies in Namibia (Depner et al. 1991; Soiné et al. 1992). For the South African samples, a seroprevalence of 71% (5/7) was observed. As no other study regarding the seroprevalence of BVDV in kudu in South Africa has been performed, these results can be compared only with those from other countries in the southern African region, such as Namibia (66%) (Depner et al 1991; Soiné et al. ...
The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16). From these positive samples, 12(13.48%), 54 (60.68%) and 23 (25.84%) samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48%)
  Pestiviruses are known to exist in ruminants worldwide; however in Sudan, sparse work has been published. This study is aimed at investigating the existence of pestivirus, particularly bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in small ruminants in Sudan through the detection of its antibodies in sheep and goat sera. A total of 424 sheep and 209 goat sera were collected from different localities in Sudan representing north, east, west, central and southern parts of the country. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), seroprevalence of pestivirus in sheep was found to be 39.1% while in goats it was 14.8%, in sheep the highest percentage of positives (70.2) was found in Kassala and AlAzazi (47.6%) at the east then Darfur in the west (46.7). In goats highest seroprevalence (28.6) was detected in sera collected from Rabak at the center, then River Nile (23.5) in the northern part of the country. This is the first ...
Background The genus pestivirus within the family Flaviviridaeincludes bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus. The two...
Virions from hog cholera virus (HCV), a member of the genus Pestivirus, were analyzed by using specific antibodies. The nucleocapsid protein was found to be a 14-kDa molecule (HCV p14). An equivalent protein could also be demonstrated for virions from another pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus. The HCV envelope is composed of three glycoproteins, HCV gp44/48, gp33, and gp55. All three exist in the form of disulfide-linked dimers in virus-infected cells and in virions; HCV gp44/48 and gp55 each form homodimers, whereas gp55 is also found dimerized with gp33. Such complex covalent interactions between structural glycoproteins have not been described so far for any RNA virus. ...
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated.. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project ...
occurs in South America, Asia (including Indonesia) and certain European countries. Information on current country status can be obtained from the OIE World Animal Health Information Database. The last time CSF occurred in Australia was in 1962. Outbreaks have recently been reported in Bulgaria (in wild species), Israel and Lithuania.. Classical swine fever virus is a highly contagious Pestivirus which only infects swine, and is antigenically related to border disease virus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Pig to pig transmission is most common but CSF can also be spread by aerosol, swill feeding and mechanically by insects and fomites. Swill feeding of peri-urban pigs is a likely method of re-introduction of this virus to Australia and hence CSF may first be encountered by a veterinary practitioner servicing these areas. Strains vary greatly in their virulence. The last outbreak in Australia was caused by a mild strain that was detected only by a reported increase in ...
Kansas State University. Kelly Foster: Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus transmission from persistently infected cattle to non-persistently infected cattle when commingled: An evaluation of serum neutralizing antibody titers Feraidon Ataie: Utilization of high lignin residue ash(hilra) in concrete materials. University of Kansas. Grifin Roberts: Integrated approach to algal biofuels:Overcoming challenges for new industry Lei Shi: Mutlichannel sense-and-avoid radar for small uavs. University of Kansas Medical Center. Stephanie Bishop: A click chemistry-mediated approach to understanding surviving:Caspase-9 protein-protein interactions Natalie Tarbutton & Alison Nuttle: Retrospective chat review of distress among cancer survivors ...
Gerl M. J, Bittl V, Kirchner S, Sachsenheimer T, Brunner HL, Lüchtenborg C, Ozbalci C, Wiedemann H, Wegehingel S, Nickel W, Haberkant P, Schultz C, Krüger M, Brügger B (2016). Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase deficient cells as a tool to study Protein lipid interactions. PloS one. 11:e0153009. Callens N, Brügger B, Bonnafous P, Drobecq H, Gerl MJ, Krey T, Roman-Sosa G, Rümenapf T, Lambert O, Dubuisson J, Rouillé Y (2016). Morphology and molecular composition of purified bovine viral diarrhea virus envelope. PLoS Pathog. 12(3):e1005476. Hacke M, Bjorkholm P, Hellwig A, Himmels P, de Almodovar CR, Brügger B, Wieland F, Ernst AM (2015). Inhibition of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cytotoxicity by targeting its transmembrane and cholesterol. Nat Commun. 6,7688, PMID 26158910. Gerl MJ, Sachsenheimer T, Grzybek M, Coskun U, Wieland FT, Brügger B (2014). Analysis of transmembrane domains and lipid modified peptides with matrix-assisted laser desorption ...
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: current insights Chaochao Lv,1,* Yan Xiao,1,* Xiangdong Li,1 Kegong Tian,1,2 1National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, Luoyang, People's Republic of China; 2College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this review Abstract: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, can infect pigs of all ages and causes acute and watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal piglets. This disease was first observed in England in 1971 and was subsequently reported in many swine-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe, the disease has remained a major cause of diarrhea outbreaks on swine farms in Asia. Since late ...
see ORCID database. Selected publications:. Kaiser, V., Nebel, L., Schüpbach-Regula, G., Zanoni, R.G., and Schweizer, M. (2017) Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland. BMC Veterinary Research 13, 21. (PubMed). Lussi, C., and Schweizer, M. (2016) What can pestiviral endonucleases teach us about innate immunotolerance? Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 29, 53-62. (PubMed). Stalder, H., Hug, C., Zanoni, R., Vogt, H.R., Peterhans, E., Schweizer, M., and Bachofen, C. (2016) A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland. Virus Research 218, 49-56. (PubMed). Braun, U., Hilbe, M., Janett, F., Hässig, M., Zanoni, R., Frei, S., and Schweizer, M. (2015) Transmission of border disease virus ...
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt.
A wave of abortions, stillbirths and deformities in sheep occurred at the Al-Ahsa oasis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia in the second half of 1999. The abortions were recorded in August and September and stillbirths and deformities in neonates were observed in October. Adult sheep were clinically normal. A virus was isolated in chicken embryos, adapted to Vero cell culture and further identified as bluetongue (BT) virus. The virus isolated was not neutralised by the Akabane virus. Reference hyperimmune serum against antibodies to BT virus detected in the sera of the dams gave positive results for BT but negative results for both Akabane and bovine viral diarrhoea virus. It was concluded that the outbreak was caused by a virus of the BT serogroup. The authors present the clinico-pathological and epidemiological situation of the disease outbreak.. ...
How BVDV affects fetal development depends on the timing of maternal infection during pregnancy. The eyes and central nervous system are targets of the virus, and characteristic deformations of the brain and skull are observed. These deformities include hydranencephaly, hydrocephalus, and microencephaly [6].. BVDV is not transmissible to people but can infect a number of ruminants. Other species in the pestivirus family - siblings to bovine viral diarrhea - include border disease of sheep and classical swine fever in pigs. All of these pestiviruses can cause birth deformities.. Another fascinating aspect of pestiviruses is that they can affect host immunity during infection. BVDV is capable of becoming a "persistent infection" that is never fully cleared from the body. Persistent infection can happen in a number of ways. BVDV can manipulate the mechanisms that identify pathogens in the body. ...
Looking for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis? Find out information about Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis. a viral disease in cattle characterized by general inhibition, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract , and by the development of... Explanation of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
The pestivirus genome encodes a single polyprotein which is subject to co- and posttranslational processing by cellular and viral proteases. The map positions of all virus-encoded proteins are known with the exception of a hypothetical peptide (p?) which interlinks the glycoprotein E2 and the nonstructural protein NS2-3 approximately between amino acid positions 1060 and 1130. Expression studies with recombinant vaccinia viruses bearing a set of C-terminally truncated E2-p?-NS2-encoding sequences derived from a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain led to the identification of a minor fraction of E2 which had an increased molecular mass due to a C-terminal extension. This larger form of E2 (E2p7) was specifically recognized by an antiserum raised against the amino acid sequence from 1065 to 1125. In addition, the antibodies revealed a BVDV-encoded 7-kDa protein (p7) in infected cells. By ...
The USDA has reported another 296 cases of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) last week. That brings the number of cases in the last 10 months to 4,757. The disease was first reported in the U.S. hog population in May 2013, with animals in 27 states infected. Unfortunately, each case report can mean just one animal has been sickened, or an entire herd at one farm is sick. The virus, which is deadly for baby pigs, doesnt affect adult hogs. The disease has killed more than 4 million piglets in this country since May 2013. This is most likely going to cause dramatic price increases at the consumer level in the next year, since hog prices are at record highs.The USDAs estimate of hog slaughter on March 21, 2014 was 360,000, down 51,000 head from a week ago. Scientists say that the … [Read more...] ...
In late 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection recurred in South Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates from the outbreaks were most closely related to emergent US strains of PEDV. These US strain-like PEDV variants are prevalent in South Korea and responsible for recent outbreaks in the country.
Treatment of Diarrhea is more than three loose, liquid stools in a single day. Diarrhea can be, Acute - occurring suddenly, and lasting briefly, Chronic - long-term, Recurring - occurring in recurrent episodes, Diarrhea depletes your body of fluids and electrolytes. If you lose too much fluid, you can become dehydrated. Diarrhea is particularly dangerous for babies, young children, and elderly people, Diarrhea, Acute Diarrhea, Bloating Diarrhea, Blood Diarrhea, Causes Of Diarrhea, Diarrhea Symptoms, Diarrhea Treatment, Chronic Diarrhea, Diarrhea Cures, Diarrhea Disease, Diarrhea Infection, Diarrhea Medicine, Diarrhea Pain, Diarrhea Rash, Sickness And Diarrhea, Stomach Virus, Bacterial ...
The services of the Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI) at the facilities in Bern include the diagnostics of viral diseases of cattle, horses and small ruminants with focuses on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and lentivirus infections, as well as equine viral diseases. The Swiss reference center for rabies (Swiss Rabies Center) is in charge of rabies diagnostics and rabies serology both in the veterinary and human sectors.. For the services of our Institute at the location in Mittelhäusern, see Diagnostics Mittelhäusern site. Our Institute plays an important role in the eradication and surveillance of specific animal diseases. We cooperate mainly with veterinarians, cantonal officials and the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO). The Institute also teaches apprentice laboratory technicians in general virology, serology, immunology and molecular biology.. ...
Competitive ELISA for the detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea / Mucosal Disease / Border Disease anti-p80-125 (anti-NSP2-3) antibodies in serum, plasma and milk from cattle, sheep, goats and other susceptible species ...
The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015
Subject: BVD staining Forwarded to: [email protected] To: [email protected] > I am experiencing problems with our BVD (bovine viral diarrhea) stain. My controls are precut, sometimes a week in advance. Slides are not heated until right before they are stained. At first the control stains very nice, but over time the staining on subsequent runs is diminished. Only a few cells will stain. I make up the antibody dilution fresh each time I use it. Is anyone else doing this stain and if so have you experienced this problem? Any suggestions, anyone? > > > > Cindy Chard-Bergstrom B.S.,HT(ASCP),QIHC > Microbiologist III > Kansas State University > [email protected] ...
The intention of this collaborative project was eradication of pestivirus from the Norwegian cattle population of about 30,000 dairy and beef herds, primarily by identification and culling of persistently infected (PI) animals. Testing was performed in four tiers, with examination for pestivirus antibodies by indirect ELISA in (1) bulk milk, (2) pooled milk from primiparous dairy cows and (3) pooled blood from young stock. The herds positive in the third tier were examined for pestivirus antigen in blood from all antibody-negative individuals by -antigen-capture ELISA, and these animal composed tier (4). Following culling of the PI animals, a herd was considered free from pestivirus when pooled blood from young stock was antibody-negative on two sampling occasions three months apart. Number of herds with PI animals peaked at about 3000 (10 per cent) in the 2nd project year, then decreased steadily; only three herds (0.01 per cent) contained PI animals 10 years later. Solid, continuous ...
Looking for online definition of enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus in the Medical Dictionary? enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus explanation free. What is enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus? Meaning of enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus medical term. What does enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus mean?
The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more.
BROOKINGS - South Dakota swine producers and veterinarians have been closely monitoring the developments surrounding Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) virus infections over the past several months.
Preliminary results from studies on immunity, directed by the National Pork Board, confirm "immunity does appear not to be very long lived," said Lisa Becton, director of swine health information for the board. The board has collected more than $2 million for research on PEDv.. …. Veterinarians and others have been unable to predict the duration of immunity to PEDv in hogs following exposure, in part because the disease had never been in the United States before last year.. Ackerman had thought hogs would have a natural immunity to PEDv for three years after being infected because that is the case for a similar disease called Transmissible Gastroenteritis. "Just because a farm broke with PEDv last year doesnt mean that they are protected from re-breaking with it this year," he said in a telephone interview.. Ackerman said he did not know why the female pigs, or sows, on the Indiana farm were re-infected after being exposed to the virus during the original outbreak last year. At the time, they ...
We use cookies to help personalize content, tailor and measure ads, and provide a safer experience. By navigating the site, you agree to the use of cookies to collect information. Read our Cookie Policy ...
Merck Animal Health and Harrisvaccines, Inc. announced the companies have entered into an agreement under which Merck Animal Health will acquire Harrisvaccines, a privately-held company …. ...
The goal of treatment is to prevent dehydration by giving liquids to replace fluids that are lost in the diarrhea. This is especially important if vomiting is also present. If your child is vomiting, follow the instructions in the education sheet, "Vomiting", before treating for diarrhea.. If there is no vomiting, follow these instructions. You cannot cure the diarrhea with diet changes but you can decrease symptoms and discomfort.. Start treatment after your child has 4 or more loose stools in 24 hours. It may take several days for stools to be normal again. Viral diarrhea often lasts 5 to 9 days but diarrhea stools should be less frequent and smaller in size with treatment.. To help restore the normal healthy bacteria in the bowel, you can give lactobacillus GG, (such as Culturelle®) available over the counter at the drug store, 1 capsule twice a day sprinkled in food. Other types of lactobacillus have not ...
We saw a strong reactivity against LV infected cells when using a BVDV E2-specific antibody termed 6A5 (12). This antibody detected the E1-E2 heterodimer of LV (75 kDa) as well as the E2 monomer (50 kDa) in Western blot analysis, although the reactivity against BVDV-1 E2 was much stronger (Figure 2, panel A). With the help of this antibody, we were able to study the in vitro growth of LV. E2 antigen signals of LV were detectable in the cytoplasm of SK-6 and MDBK cells after infection, but the antigen-positive foci were 10-fold larger in SK-6 than in MDBK cells (Figure 2, panels B,C). Already in the primary passage on porcine cells, considerably high infectious titers of LV were measured in the supernatant (,107 50% tissue culture infectious dose/mL). Using monoclonal antibody 6A5 in immunohistochemical analysis, we detected pestiviral antigen in CT-affected piglets in regions with histological lesions. Specific stains in neurons of the nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Figure 2, panels D,E), ...
The genomic RNA contains a single large ORF encoding a polyprotein of about 3900 aa that is preceded by a 5′-NCR of about 370-385 nt and followed by a 3′-NCR of about 185-273 nt. The gene order is 5′-Npro-C-Erns-E1-E2-p7-NS2-3(NS2-NS3)-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-3′ (Figure 2.Pestivirus) (Tautz et al., 2015, Abbas et al., 2013).. Pestivirus replication is initiated by receptor-mediated endocytosis involving more than one cell surface molecule and the viral glycoproteins Erns and E2. CD46 has been shown to function as a cellular receptor for BVDV but is not by itself sufficient to mediate infection (Maurer et al., 2004, Krey et al., 2006, Krey et al., 2006, Krey et al., 2005). After endocytosis and uncoating, the genome RNA serves as mRNA; there are no subgenomic mRNA molecules. Translation initiation occurs by a cap-independent internal initiation mechanism involving a type IV IRES within the 5′-NCR of the RNA (Lozano and Martinez-Salas 2015). Polyprotein processing occurs co- and ...
Border disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Border disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Border disease according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species concerned by Border disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, Border disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in ...
Stools from subjects with diarrhea were examined microscopically for leukocytes, using methylene blue stain. The study included 169 patients: 114 volunteers who ingested known enteric pathogens and 55 patients with naturally acquired disease. Fecal leukocytes were found in patients with shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, invasive Escherichia coli colitis, and idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The exudates of shigellosis, salmonellosis, invasive E. coli colitis, and ulcerative colitis were primarily polymorphonuclear, whereas that of typhoid was mononuclear. There were no leukocytes in stools of patients with cholera, viral diarrhea, noninvasive toxigenic E. coli diarrhea, and naturally acquired "nonspecific" diarrhea and in those of 65 healthy control subjects. Examination of stool for leukocytes is a rapid and reliable procedure that may be a valuable aid toward early diagnosis of the cause of ...
Diarrhea is a very common illness that may vary from as being a mild inconvenience to existence threatening. Loose watery stools, lasting a couple of days to days, are frequently the norm, most abundant in significant complication being lack of fluids. We at Bel Marra recognized the severity that getting diarrhea can placed on an individuals health, therefore we have compiled a summary of our very best articles about them. Youll find info on osmotic, explosive, and travelers diarrhea.. Individuals which have experienced burning diarrhea already understand how uncomfortable it may be. If the idea of powerful bowel evacuation isnt disheartening enough, additionally a burning sensation within the rectum or anus and you may roughly gauge the amount of discomfort burning diarrhea sufferers face.. Thankfully, burning diarrhea isnt any more severe than more typical types of diarrhea. Continue ...
Immunohistochemistry on ear notch samples pinpoints BVDV persistent infection. It is appropriate for cattle of all ages and is considered the test of choice for young animals.. Suggestions from the Academy of Veterinary Consultants have been published to help practitioners and producers in making decisions related to BVDV control strategies for their herds.. Immunohistochemistry on ear notch samples is one potential testing option.. ...
The genus pestivirus in the Flavivirus family is comprised of single-stranded RNA viruses that infect domestic and wildlife hosts. The
We are amending the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations regarding the packaging and labeling of veterinary biological products to provide for the use of an abbreviated true name on small final container labeling for veterinary biologics; require labeling to bear a consumer contact telephone number; change the format used to show the establishment or permit number on labeling and require such labeling to show the product code number; change the storage temperature recommended in labeling for veterinary biologics; require vaccination and revaccination recommendations in labeling to be consistent with licensing data; require labeling information placed on carton tray covers to appear on the outside face of the tray cover; remove the restriction requiring multiple-dose final containers of veterinary biologics to be packaged in individual cartons; require labeling for bovine virus diarrhea vaccine containing modified live virus to bear a statement warning against use in pregnant ...
Last night I went to Taco Bell Since then I havent been feeling well I shouldnt have eaten that one last chalupa The gas Ive had you wouldnt believe But even the farts just couldnt relieve The pain that comes from having diarrhea Diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhe…..a I had a big lunch this afternoon And then I ate twelve macaroons Followed by a calzone from the pizzeria Thats when my stomach started to hurt I had the runs, the shits, the squirts My butthole burned because I had diarrhea Diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhe…..a We went out on Christmas Day To an all-you-can-eat Chinese buffet Eating my weight in kung pow was a bad idea I felt a rumble as I licked my plate I ran for the bathroom but it was too late My pants were already filled with diarrhea Diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhea, diarrhe…..a ...
Acute infectious diarrheal diseases are increasingly recognized as a significant global public health problem despite major advances and improvements in hygiene, the quality of food, water and sanitation, detection of foodborne pathogens, and the surveillance systems during the last century. They not only cause millions of gastroenteritis cases annually in individual countries, but also are a social and economic burden. The continued emergence, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance among these diarrheal diseases are also a major concern. The proposed research program is intended to develop new and improved diagnostic methods and related materials and tools as systems for rapid, sensitive and definitive detection, diagnosis and characterization of some of the most important causes of infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea. The working hypothesis for this research project is development of rapid and sensitive identification and ...
We know that a very small part of the population had severe allergy reactions on some vaccines. For some diseases the possible reactions are far more dangerous than the expected danger from the disease that is to be prevented. In the latest years there are vaccines for low risk diseases (viral diarrhea), that rarely have severe complications if correctly treated. Similar risks are true even for a trivial flu (influenza), you can even die if you have a too high fever. Fur such low risk diseases, usually on optional vaccine list, it might be less risky to not vaccinate. People that wants to be "early adopters" could do it, of course. It might be even recommended for people with severe immune problems, but it should not be mandatory. Its just to hard to calculate exactly the probabilities here ...
The mechanisms potentially responsible for viral diarrhea include lysis of enterocytes, interference with the brush border function that leads to malabsorption of electrolytes, stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and carbohydrate malabsorption. For bacterial gastroenteritis, the pathophysiology involves the elaboration of toxin by enterotoxigenic pathogens and the invasion and inflammation of mucosa by invasive pathogens. Parasitic organisms invade epithelial cells and cause villus atrophy and eventual malabsorption.. Clinical Manifestations:. ...
Unfortunately, no parent can escape the peril of infant diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is one of the most common problems in childhood. Each year in the United States, 37 million cases of childhood diarrhea occur in children ages 5 years and younger. On average, every child experiences two bouts of diarrhea a year. Annually in the United States, infant diarrhea results in almost 4 million doctors office visits, over 200,000 hospital admissions, and several hundreds of preventable deaths (1). Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of microbes, or parasites, but most often it is caused by viruses. Among all microbes causing diarrhea in infants and children, rotavirus frequently produces more severe diarrhea. Approximately 10% of all cases of childhood diarrhea are caused by a rotavirus; however, among children with severe ...
Chronic diarrhea is a common ailment that some seniors suffer with and the elderly may also be more prone to acute diarrhea than younger adults. However, some elderly people are more prone to the other extreme of bowel habit - constipation. When diarrhea does arise, it has to be established whether it is acute or chronic. The causes of both acute and chronic diarrhea can differ significantly and some of these causes may not be easily treated.. Acute diarrhea refers to diarrhea that arises suddenly, is intense but for a short period of time and resolves thereafter. It may require medical treatment or resolve on its own without ay treatment. Chronic diarrhea persists for long periods of time. Usually this is defined as diarrhea that persist for more than 4 weeks. However, recurrent diarrhea (diarrhea that comes and goes) may also be considered ...
In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.
Rabbit Polyclonal to HOXD8. (A) IFN-α/β biological activity detected in the supernatant of single-cell suspensions (5 × 105 cells/well) of bovine prescapular lymph nodes after 48 h in culture. Single-cell suspensions from lymph nodes were enriched over Iodixanol … The response of cells lacking CD3 CD21 or STA-9090 Ig purified from blood to STA-9090 dsRNA and CpG DNA are shown in Fig. ?Fig.3B.3B. Lymph node cells also produce equivalent quantities of IFN-α/β in response to CpG DNA and dsRNA (data not shown). Clearly you will find cells present in these sorted populations from blood and lymph nodes that produce IFN-α/β in response to dsRNA and CpG DNA; however only ncpBVDV induced IFN-α/β from lymph node-derived cells. Detailed phenotypic analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter of the CD4+ CD3? cells from lymph nodes did not identify cells that experienced a phenotype consistent with the phenotype of high IFN-α-generating cells plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) recognized in other species ...
Ebook How To Stop Diarrhea In A Toddler :: How to stop diarrhea naturally quickly and effectively, Image gallery toddler diarrhea, Diarrhea in toddlers causes symptoms treatments, Image gallery toddler diarrhea, Image gallery toddler diarrhea, How to stop diarrhea cure treatment medicine what, How to spot and treat baby diarrhea, When to start potty training 10 signs your child is ready, 25 best ideas about diarrhea remedies on pinterest, Baby has diarrhea moms and babies
However, Monroe says that the threat of something being introduced into a water supply--including viruses--is a real possibility. After all, common but nasty diarrhea viruses like Rotavirus exist in lakes and pools. "People on the anti-terrorism side are concerned about what could be introduced into the water supply, realizing that it would have to be something to make it through purification," he says. "In terms of viruses, they vary quite a bit in their stability in the environment. Hepatitis A, for instance, is quite stable in the environment. If introduced into water, it would persist for a long time. Other viruses like HIV are not strong at all and dont persist.". However, there are instances where viruses have switched modes of infection. Monroe recalls a cluster of peculiar severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ...
Investigators are exploring whether something in pig feed could be a conduit for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, which has spread to 27 states and killed millions of young pigs since it was first identified in the U.S. last April.
Investigators are exploring whether something in pig feed could be a conduit for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, which has spread to 27 states and killed millions of young pigs since it was first identified in the U.S. last April.
Pig farmers in the U.S. are working to protect their pigs from the deadly Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv). This comes as the EU toughens rules on pig imports. Reuters Jillian Kitchener reports. - Kelly OShea, Philadelphia NDN
816-231-4020 Order ID medium 7125. 2. Snap-cap milk tubes [please do not use whirl-pac bags].. 3. Shipping container rack that organizes individual tubes in slots.. 4. Submission form: Use the Ruminant Health Test Request form found here.. 5. Vaccination and tattoo ink do not affect ...
In Stafford County, which has more pigs than people, Scott Pfortmiller recalls the devastating scene that swept through his familys hog operation about four years ago.For several weeks in the spring of 2014, sickness ravaged the farms farrowing barns. Piglets were dying from a very contagious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus that was affecting countless hog producers across America.The farm combatted the virus by feeding diluted fecal matter to their sows and disinfecting barns.
5-day outlook: Recent pressure on the cash hog market is likely to continue next week as supplies are building and packers will be working with a shortened slaughter schedule. With nearby hogs trading at a premium to the cash market, the price pullback should extend. If futures drop through the recent lows after this weeks pause, it would signal the market is ready to move the next leg lower.. 30-day outlook: Seasonally, pork demand typically is strong through the holidays. With hog slaughter rising and average hog weights at record highs, there will be increased pressure on demand to chew through those extra supplies.. 90-day outlook: Hog numbers should climb into mid- to late December and then start to gradually ease. If the impact from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) proves to be meaningful, hog numbers could decline more rapidly than anticipated. Thats keeping us out of longer-term hedges at this time.. Hedgers: 100% of expected 4th-qtr. production is hedged in Dec. lean hog ...
While porcine epidemic diarrhea virus has caused both physical and emotional damage, the silver lining is that its bringing increased attention to biosecurity importance.
Mexico reported outbreaks of thedeadly Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv) in 17 states outof 19 tested, the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) said.
The disinfectant Virocid, manufactured by Cid Lines, has been successfully tested against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv).
US - USDA announced on Friday that it would require reporting of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus (PEDv) and Swine Delta Coronavirus (SDCv) cases to federal officials, write Steve Meyer and Len Steiner.
The first day of the annual Danish Swine Congress (Svinekongres) had a series of nice, informative presentations on pig health, touching on topical issues like Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
US - A unique egg yolk immunoglobulin formulation has proven effective against porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDv) in university research and field studies, according to Provanco Feeds.
BioAssay record AID 295871 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against acyclovir resistant TK positive HSV1 KOS-induced cytopathogenicity at 16 ug/mL.
Diarrhea is a common ailment in cats, indicated by frequent, loose bowel movements. It is not a disease, rather a symptom of minor to severe illnesses. Diarrhea is caused by food passing too quickly through the digestive tract, not allowing it to completely digest and preventing the body from absorbing any fluid the food contained. Because of this lack of absorption, it is very easy for cats with diarrhea to become dehydrated. The cause of diarrhea in felines ranges from a bacterial infection or parasite, to a systemic illness or cancer; however, a sporadic case could be caused by something as simple as a change in diet. The condition can be acute or chronic, where acute diarrhea occurs suddenly and for a short period of time, and chronic diarrhea is a continuing ailment over a period of a few weeks. If you witness your cat having diarrhea, it is important to monitor the issue, and schedule ...
We have over 8,500 individual animal cell lines represented in our Frozen Zoo®, a cell line collection started in 1975 by San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research founder Kurt Benirschke and his laboratory technician, Arlene Kumamoto.
ElephantVoices Mission is to inspire wonder in the intelligence, complexity and voices of elephants and to secure a kinder future for them through research and the sharing of knowledge.
IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ 50μg; FITC IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies IgY to...
Viral infections are a common cause of diarrhea. Children under the age of 2 that experience diarrhea usually get infected by rotavirus. Fortunately, there has been a significant drop in children who get this intestinal infection since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced back in 2006. Pediatricians suggest that kids who get vaccinated may still get rotavirus but will recover faster and have milder symptoms.. Antibiotics are also one of the popular infant diarrhea causes. One out of ten children who take antibiotics develops stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhea. As you probably know, antibiotics target both bad and good bacteria in our stomachs. This leads to diarrhea and other stomach troubles. You should always consult with your doctor if you think antibiotics are causing your babys diarrhea. This baby diarrhea treatment is different than others. Suddenly stopping giving ...
Persistent young kitten or puppy diarrhea is one of the most challenging problems that foster programs face.There can be multiple different causes and solutions to kitten or puppy diarrhea.During this class, foster caregivers will learn to understand how to recognize diarrhea, some common causes of diarrhea, when a kitten or puppy with diarrhea needs veterinary attention, and how to help prevent and address kittens or puppies with diarrhea.. Watch Diarrhea in Kittens and Puppies. ...
Diarrhea can be isolated or happen as a result from another illnesses or health problem. Fortunately in most cases, a bout with diarrhea is only temporary and doesnt stick around for long. Still, it can make things uncomfortable and put a significant strain on your day to day activities.. Do you have trouble managing diarrhea when it strikes? If so, take a look below to learn more about how to handle and treat diarrhea. You will also find out what to do if it continues and shows no signs of letting up, too!. Managing Diarrhea Symptoms. Dealing with a case of diarrhea can leave you feeling weak and tired. Your body also loses a large amount of nutrients and water in the process. That is why it is absolutely crucial to up your fluid intake, so make sure you keep a bottle of water by your side at all times. Sports drinks are also helpful in restoring essential nutrients like sodium and potassium.. If your ...
Diarrhea patch are mainly for peoples common diarrhea disease patch drugs, diarrhea stickers specifically for baby diarrhea. When the baby appears diarrhea symptoms, you can paste in the babys abdomen paste diarrhea, can ease the babys diar
Indirect immunofluorescence staining of MDBK cells infected with either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, CpHV-1, CvHV-1, CvHV-2, or the Anlier isolate. Cells were incubated unti
Define stress induced diarrhea of the horse. stress induced diarrhea of the horse synonyms, stress induced diarrhea of the horse pronunciation, stress induced diarrhea of the horse translation, English dictionary definition of stress induced diarrhea of the horse. n. 1. Importance, significance, or emphasis placed on something. See Synonyms at emphasis. 2. Linguistics a. The relative force with which a sound or...
Fast Shipping. Great Low Price. IBR, BVD Types I and II, PI3 and BRSV. Give 2 ml SQ or IM. Repeat in 2-4 weeks and once annually. Calves vaccinated before 6 months of age should be revaccinated at 6 months of age. Safe for pregnant cows.Triangle 5 formerly Triangle 4 + Type II BVD Cattle Vaccine Boehringer Ingelheim Killed Virus |
The use of a high quality probiotic that helps to restore the natural balance of "good" bacteria in the gut can go a long ways towards both treating existing diarrhea, and preventing future attacks. This is an especially good strategy for antibiotic-related diarrhea. Probiotic use for diarrhea has even been embraced by mainstream medical to some degree. A recent report (1996) in the Journal of the American Medical Association cited its effectiveness.. It is best to continue to take in small amounts of mild solid foods while treating diarrhea. This will help to restore your nutrients and strength. One diet that is often recommended is called the BRAT diet, and is composed of Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, and Toast. These foods provide mild forms of both soluble and insoluble fiber. Some folks even suggest burning the toast a bit so that the charcoal can pull toxins out of the body and help cure the condition that is causing the ...
Map directions to Magnolia Bvd Meadow Heights, VIC 3048. Easily find directions to Magnolia Bvd in Meadow Heights, VIC 3048 using Whereis®.
Knowledge , Attitudes and Practice of Diarrhea Management, 978-613-9-88973-0, This One of the best research which was done in Diarrhea since the prevalence of diarrhea is very high and we know the factors contributing diarrhea this research emphasize knowledge,attitude and practice of diarrhea management in children under five years in Hargaisa hospital , the Ministry of health, Non governmental Institutions, and other researchers should have to get the benefit of this research.
What is diarrhea? Diarrhea describes loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than usual. It usually means more-frequent trips to the toilet and a greater volume of stool. At one time or another, every child experiences this condition. In most cases, diarrhea lasts a couple of days. But when it persists for longer than a week, diarrhea can be a sign of a irritable bowel syndrome, or a more serious disorder like inflammatory bowel disease. A number of diseases and conditions can cause diarrhea:
Got a cold? Then you can still muddle through and leave the house to buy supplies/run errands. A broken bone? Then you just need to be careful not to bash the limb and to rest up whenever possible.. But if you have diarrhea, then you are going to have no option other than to stay at home or at least make sure you stay near a toilet.. So, in that way, diarrhea is actually one of the most disruptive conditions. On top of that, it can actually be dangerous if it leads to dehydration, making it even more important that you deal with the problem quickly and effectively.. With that in mind, this post has collected 21 highly effective home remedies for diarrhea that can help you to overcome the condition or at least gain some relief. Lets take a look at them…. First though, what is it that causes diarrhea in the first place? Actually, there are a number of different issues which can make it somewhat difficult to treat.. In many cases, ...
Experiencing diarrhea or travelers diarrhea? Learn what causes diarrhea, diarrhea symptoms, and how Pepto-Bismol can help provide relief.
Diarrhea in infants and toddlers are a very common issue as their stomach is not as much developed as adults. Its not a matter of being worried too much as diarrhea can be cured by the home remedy. But most of the parents fear dehydration and painful diaper rash during diarrhea. Some parents are thinking about foods, what to feed or what not to. In this article, you will get details about the causes of diarrhea and how to stop diarrhea in babies fast.. ...
Another area would be to look at "normal" non-disease producing viruses in "ancient cattle digs" like some of the Herpesviruses of cattle, Chase adds. Most every species has its own Herpesviruses; cattle have five. "Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not recognized as a clinical entity until the 1950s," Chase explains. "What changed in the non-disease IBR virus to make it become a pathogen? One then could see if those new or different viral genes would be good targets for vaccines or preventive therapies ...
1) Are liquid preparations being administered? a) diarrhea can be caused by the lactose and sucrose contained in liquid preparations b) usually, the first episode of diarrhea occurs when therapy is initiated c) crush medications (refer to Appendix 4, page 52) instead of using liquid 2) Is the diarrhea caused by a viral infection? a) rotavirus season is between February to May and is a common cause of diarrhea b) send viral stool culturesc) an example of diarrhea that is more likely caused by a virus than the medications is if the child develops diarrhea after previously tolerating the medicine for aprolonged time period "Have you had problems with diarrhea in the past?""Did you eat/drink anything unusual within 1-2 days of the onset of diarrhea?""When does the diarrhea occur in relation to taking your TB medications?""How ...
Runners diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose bowel movements during or immediately after a run. Runners diarrhea is most common in long-distance runners.. The cause of runners diarrhea isnt clear. Contributing factors likely include the physical jostling of the organs, decreased blood flow to the intestines, changes in intestinal hormone secretion, increased amount or introduction of a new food, and pre-race anxiety and stress. What is clear is that food moves more quickly through the bowels of athletes in training.. Often, simple dietary changes can help prevent runners diarrhea:. ...
Most effective herbal treatment for Diarrhea and herbs for Diarrhea. Causes and Symptoms of Diarrhea. Herbal treatment of Diarrhea by natural herbs is given in repertory format.
Looking for epizootic porcine diarrhea? Find out information about epizootic porcine diarrhea. frequent discharge of watery feces from the intestines, sometimes containing blood and mucus. It can be caused by excessive indulgence in alcohol or other... Explanation of epizootic porcine diarrhea
Learn about diarrhea from the Cleveland Clinic. Find out what causes diarrhea, treatments to stop diarrhea, problems with chronic diarrhea & more.
Secretory diarrhea is usually characterized by a large volumes of watery diarrhea. There is usually little pain and notably the diarrhea continues even in the absence of food intake ...
Enough with the Normal Saline! So its been about a year since a JAMA article (http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1383234) finally showed that the downside of 0.9% saline isnt just theoretical, but has some associated clinical morbidity (bad for the kidneys!). Sadly enough, it still seems to be the routine fluid used for boluses. Whether the ER, hospitalist or intensivist, residents,…

Patent US5601816 - Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus insertion mutants, vaccines ... - Google PatentsPatent US5601816 - Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus insertion mutants, vaccines ... - Google Patents

The present invention also relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-based viral vectors useful for the coexpression of ... vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis containing the same and methods for production and use of same. ... The present invention relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses which fail to produce any functional thymidine ... into the genome of IBRV to produce IBRV-based viral vectors according to the present invention are bovine diarrhea virus (a ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US5601816

Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b - Semantic ScholarComplete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b - Semantic Scholar

The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report ... we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. ... we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome ... Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1g Strain Isolated in Italy. *Moira Bazzucchi. , Luigi ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Complete-Genome-Sequence-of-Bovine-Viral-Diarrhea-Soltan-Wilkes/dbe7d8693d19eb5853305d0f2fa156eb2e76dca6

Complete Genomic Sequence of Border Disease Virus, a Pestivirus from Sheep | Journal of VirologyComplete Genomic Sequence of Border Disease Virus, a Pestivirus from Sheep | Journal of Virology

1988) Proteins encoded by bovine viral diarrhea virus: the genome organization of a pestivirus. Virology 165:200-208. ... bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus from sheep (BDV). In this ... 1992) Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a pestivirus genome, noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus strain SD ... Border disease virus (BDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus, which also comprises bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/72/6/5165

Koren S[au] - PubMed - NCBIKoren S[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain, SLO/2407/2006, Isolated in Slovenia. ... Complete Genome Sequence of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain SLO/JH-11/2015. ... Analysis of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 genome provides insight into cell line utility for viral propagation. ... A draft genome sequence for the Ixodes scapularis cell line, ISE6.. Miller JR, Koren S, Dilley KA, Harkins DM, Stockwell TB, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Koren+S%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium - Volume 18, Number 6-June 2012 - Emerging Infectious...Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium - Volume 18, Number 6-June 2012 - Emerging Infectious...

... bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus and BTV-8 genomes were not detected. The new virus genome load was 1.61 × 104 ... and 3 independent real-time PCR protocols were conducted to detect genomes of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus, ... Unlike the viruses mentioned above (3,4), and provided this case is not an exception, the SBV genome seems to persist in the ... Akabane virus. In: Dinter Z, Morein B, editors. Virus infections of ruminants. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990. p ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/6/12-0104_article

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 prime uninfected macrophages for lipopolysaccharide-triggered apoptosis...Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 prime uninfected macrophages for lipopolysaccharide-triggered apoptosis...

BVD virus. Here, supernatants of both Mφ infected with a wider range of cp BVD virus and Mφ infected with bovine herpesvirus-1 ... virus exists in two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and non-cytopathic (ncp), defined by their effect on cultured cells. Cp BVD virus ... Macrophages (Mφ) infected with cp, but not ncp, BVD virus release a factor(s) in the supernatant capable of priming uninfected ... First, supernatants of Mφ infected with cp BVD virus contained much less IFN than is required for priming for apoptosis. Second ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-and-bovine-prime-for-Perler-Schweizer/2b585ad5a841064adf19a36de3aad94198b158f7

Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. | Journal of VirologyRecovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. | Journal of Virology

After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. ... Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs.. G Meyers, N Tautz, P ... Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. ... Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/70/12/8606?ijkey=e71a44fc689560bdaae0133420bbadeca6eacec6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Ganwu  Li | Iowa State UniversityGanwu Li | Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line. Genome ... Pathogenesis comparison between the United States porcine epidemic diarrhea virus prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains in ... Full-Length Genome Sequences of Senecavirus A from Recent Idiopathic Vesicular Disease Outbreaks in United States Swine. Genome ... Complete genome sequence of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain APEC O78. Genome Announcement. 2013 Mar 21; 1 (2): ...
more infohttps://vetmed.iastate.edu/users/liganwu

Federal Register
       :: 
      Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for LicensingFederal Register :: Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

... and bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). The chimeric viruses are produced by replacing the structural region or a structural ... The current invention provides nucleic acid sequences comprising chimeric viral genome of hepatitis C Virus (HCV) ... Murine Monoclonal Antibodies Effective To Treat Respiratory Syncytial Virus *Cloned Genomes of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus and ... Cloned Genome of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus of Genotype 2a and Uses Thereof Jens Bukh, Masayuki Yanagi, Robert H. Purcell, ...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2002/10/16/02-26211/government-owned-inventions-availability-for-licensing

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Genome polyprotein - Q01499 (POLG BVDVS)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Genome polyprotein - Q01499 (POLG BVDVS)

Q01499 - Bovine viral diarrhea virus (strain SD-1) 2 ×Close. Find Sequence Motif ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q01499

A phylogenetic analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) isolates from six different regions of the UK and links to...A phylogenetic analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) isolates from six different regions of the UK and links to...

The current study investigated 104 viral isolates from forty farms across the UK. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence ... Studies investigating the molecular epidemiology of BVDV can give invaluable information about the diversity of viral strains ... it was possible to link animal movements to the viral isolates present on several premises and, for the first time, begin to ... Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects cattle populations worldwide and is recognised as a ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-44-43

Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks | springermedizin.deMolecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks | springermedizin.de

Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, ... Detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and characterization of genomes of BVDV from Brazil. Vet ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-bovine-viral-diarrhe/10188336

Recombinase Polymerase Amplification - WikipediaRecombinase Polymerase Amplification - Wikipedia

Aebischer, Andrea (2014). "Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal ... and RPA for detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which effectively makes the point that each ... A recent international quality assessment of molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus performed as well as the best RT- ... "A Portable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombinase_Polymerase_Amplification

KAKEN - Research Projects | Identification of cellular factors responsible for virus growth by a novel genome editing...KAKEN - Research Projects | Identification of cellular factors responsible for virus growth by a novel genome editing...

Journal Article] Physical interaction between bovine viral diarrhea virus nonstructural protein 4A and adenosine deaminase ... To identify these factors, we used a novel genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 system in combination of viral vectors. We constructed a ... Identification of cellular factors responsible for virus growth by a novel genome editing technology. Research Project ... Then, following infection of influenza or Akabane virus, we selected cells resistant to virus infections. Through these ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-26660227/

Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium - Volume 18, Number 6-June 2012 - Emerging Infectious...Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium - Volume 18, Number 6-June 2012 - Emerging Infectious...

... bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus and BTV-8 genomes were not detected. The new virus genome load was 1.61 × 104 ... and 3 independent real-time PCR protocols were conducted to detect genomes of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus, ... Unlike the viruses mentioned above (3,4), and provided this case is not an exception, the SBV genome seems to persist in the ... Akabane virus. In: Dinter Z, Morein B, editors. Virus infections of ruminants. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990. p ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/6/12-0104

Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Cells in...Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Cells in...

The BPAE line of endothelial cells is positive for bovine diarrhea virus, one of the most important known bovine viral ... 3T3 cells are negative for the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, indicating the lack of integral retrovirus genomes. Within ... Recent tests have demonstrated that the cells produce both detectable bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigens and ... including Meleagrid herpes virus 1, fowlpox virus, reovirus, avian sarcoma leukemia virus, and Rous sarcoma virus. The cells ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/fluorescence/gallery/cells/index.html

Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland ...Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland ...

Scott, T.P., Fischer, M., Khaiseb, S., Freuling, C.M., Hoper, D., Hoffmann, B. et al., 2013, Complete genome and molecular ... Anderson, E.C. & Rowe, L.W., 1998, The prevalence of antibody to the viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1 ... Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland ( ... Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282013000100040&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Institute of Virology and Immunology: 
          Publications 2015 (IVI) - 
          University of BernInstitute of Virology and Immunology: Publications 2015 (IVI) - University of Bern

Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotype 1e strain isolated in Switzerland. Genome Announcements 3 ... Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome ... Hofmann, M.A., Mader, M., Flückiger, F., and Renzullo, S. (2015) Genetic stability of Schmallenberg virus in vivo during an ... Braun, U., Frei, S., Schweizer, M., Zanoni, R., and Janett, F. (2015) Transmission of border disease virus to seronegative cows ...
more infohttp://www.ivi.unibe.ch/research/publications/publications_2015_ivi/index_eng.html

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science | Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of | University of Nebraska -...Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science | Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of | University of Nebraska -...

Resolving Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected U.S. beef calves with complete genome sequence, Aspen ... Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2, Thomas Passler, Kay P. Riddell, Misty ... Novel Gammaherpesvirus Functions 1 Encoded by Bovine herpesvirus (Bovine Lymphotropic virus), J. Jia, G. Delhon, E. R. Tulman, ... Complete Genome Sequence of Moraxella bovis Strain Epp-63 (300), an Etiologic Agent of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.unl.edu/vetscipapers/

Vol. 06, No 03, 1991 -- Virologica SinicaVol. 06, No 03, 1991 -- Virologica Sinica

The journal will feature articles on new virus discovery, molecular characterization of viruses, viral pathogenesis and host ... The journal welcomes studies on viruses as well as on viral infections and diseases. ... including the research on the viruses of animals, plants and microbes. ... to determine sites of 71 species of restriction enzymes in the sequence of cDNA from Bovine viral diarrhea virus NADL genome, ...
more infohttp://virosin.org/Paper/1991/06/03/

Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the...Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the...

... in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection against the ... This was done with a deep sequencing protocol that generated sequences of multiple RNA virus genomes simultaneously. Analysis ... Based on virus neutralization using polyclonal antisera, there were antigenic differences between viruses from these genotypes ... and the BPI3Va viruses that are included in currently marketed bovine vaccines. Further study of these viruses is warranted to ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-015-0431-8

Subject: molecular genetics / Journal: Veterinary microbiology / Publication Year: 2010 / Subject: microbial genetics - PubAg...Subject: 'molecular genetics' / Journal: Veterinary microbiology / Publication Year: 2010 / Subject: microbial genetics - PubAg...

... genome; genomics; Bovine viral diarrhea virus; China; Show all 21 Subjects. Abstract:. ... Eighteen bovine viral diarrhea ... 1. Genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cattle in China between 2005 and 2008 ... molecular genetics, etc ; cattle; bovine viral diarrhea; strains; pathotypes; genotype; epidemiological studies; disease ... molecular genetics, etc ; seals; Phoca; viral diseases of animals and humans; Canine distemper virus; wildlife diseases; ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?f%5Bjournal_name%5D%5B%5D=Veterinary+microbiology&f%5Bpublication_year_rev%5D%5B%5D=7990-2010&f%5Bsubject_term%5D%5B%5D=microbial+genetics&q=%22molecular+genetics%22&search_field=subject

Visual and equipment-free reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification method for rapid detection of foot-and...Visual and equipment-free reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification method for rapid detection of foot-and...

... encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( ... The assay could detect FMDV serotypes O, A and Asia1, and there were no cross-reactions with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), ... PRRSV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The analytical sensitivity was 1.0 × 102 copies in vitro ... which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-018-1594-x

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces apoptosis in blood mononuclear cells by a mechanism largely dependent on monocytes. |...Bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces apoptosis in blood mononuclear cells by a mechanism largely dependent on monocytes. |...

Taken together, these results suggest that bovine monocytes play an important role in apoptosis induced by cytopathic BVDV. ... cytopathic virus also induces apoptosis in BoCD4+, BoCD8+ and BoWC1+ T cells in whole PBMC cultures but not in purified T cell ... was examined in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) incubated with an antigenically homologous pair of non- ... suspensions; (3) the degree of apoptosis of BoCD4+ and BoCD8+ T cells incubated with the cytopathic virus was significantly ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-79-7-1745
  • the BPI3Vb were 93 % similar to the Australian Q5592 strain and the BPI3Vc viruses were 98 % similar to the 12Q061 strain that was described in South Korea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-neutralization studies using an APHIS/NVSL BPI3V reference serum showed that neutralization titers against the genotype B and C viruses were 4- to ≥16-fold less then the titer against the APHIS BPI3Va reference strain, SF-4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Journal Article] Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus entry mechanism, using a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyping system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The assay could detect FMDV serotypes O, A and Asia1, and there were no cross-reactions with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Real-time PCR detected the genomic RNA of the new and emerging virus, tentatively designated Schmallenberg virus (SBV), in the blood of adult cattle, abdominal fluid of a stillborn calf, and brains of lambs born with birth defects on dozens of farms in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium. (cdc.gov)
  • Virus in Calf Born PCR detected the genomic RNA of the from mild to severe depression. (cdc.gov)
  • At optimal temperatures (37-42 °C), the reaction progresses rapidly and results in specific DNA amplification from just a few target copies to detectable levels, typically within 10 minutes, for rapid detection of viral genomic DNA or RNA, pathogenic bacterial genomic DNA, as well as short length aptamer DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunogenic comparison of three grass carp hemorrhage viruses, GCHV873, GCHV875 and GCHV876 derived from different areas has been carried out on the basis of the levels of the elicited serum antibodies in rabbits. (virosin.org)
  • A recent international quality assessment of molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus performed as well as the best RT-PCR tests, detecting less concentrated samples missed by some PCR tests and an RT_LAMP test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Molecular epidemiological analyses of Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1 (CSpV1), asymbiotic virus of Cryptosporidium parvum, in Japan. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In BHV-1/SigE2 syn - infected cells, the 54 kDa E2 glycoprotein formed a dimer with an apparent molecular mass of 94 kDa, which was further modified to a 101 kDa form found in the envelope of recombinant virus particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. (asm.org)
  • Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS)viral RNA in specimens of urine cells, serum and peripherial blood lymphoeytes(PBL)from patients was detected by dot-blot hybridization with photobiotin-labelled Rs cDNA probe. (virosin.org)
  • Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of birds both in the wild and in commercial aviaries, where significant losses result. (cbd.int)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of wild and domesticated cloven-hoofed animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FMDV is a highly contagious virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improved reference genome of Aedes aegypti informs arbovirus vector control. (nih.gov)
  • A fast adaptive algorithm for computing whole-genome homology maps. (nih.gov)
  • The popular fibroblast line was originally utilized in research focusing on the transformation of the cancer-causing Rous sarcoma virus ( RSV ), but now is a very useful host for acquired immunodeficiency disease ( AIDS ) research, as well as transfection experiments with simian virus 40 and recombinant plasmid vectors. (fsu.edu)
  • Cellular factors are essential for viral growth. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Through these procedures, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycan as an cellular attachment factor for Akabane virus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Viruses can exist in two forms: extra cellular virion particles and intracellular genomes. (intechopen.com)
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Cp BVD virus-infected cells undergo apoptosis and may promote apoptosis in uninfected cells by an indirect mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Macrophages (Mφ) infected with cp, but not ncp, BVD virus release a factor(s) in the supernatant capable of priming uninfected Mφ for activation-induced apoptosis in response to lipopolysaccharide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Distinct mechanisms trigger apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and in uninfected bystander T lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To identify these factors, we used a novel genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 system in combination of viral vectors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • More recently, African green monkeys have been of significant interest because of the high levels of simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( SIV-1 ) that frequently occur in their blood, which may be distantly related to the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) that causes AIDS. (fsu.edu)
  • Based on virus neutralization using polyclonal antisera, there were antigenic differences between viruses from these genotypes and the BPI3Va viruses that are included in currently marketed bovine vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)