Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Fusion Proteins, gag-pol: Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.Gene Products, vif: Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein PrecursorsLentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Saquinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genes, vpr: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects only human T cells, because its surface protein, gp120, can only ... Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and archaea. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses officially ... Vaccines may consist of either live or killed viruses. Live vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus, but these vaccines ... which gives them the ability to mutate and evolve. Over 5,000 species of viruses have been discovered. The origins of viruses ...
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) damages the body's immune system, which interferes with its ability to fight off disease- ... More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity.[1] Bacterial STIs include ... Herpes is spread through skin contact with a person infected with the virus. The virus affects the areas where it entered the ... The two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-1 is typically acquired orally ...
Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed. Immunology made ... by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells. Evolution of ... Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. The ability of the immune system ... Some bacteria form biofilms to protect themselves from the cells and proteins of the immune system. Such biofilms are present ...
Examples of retroviruses include the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Creation of ... In bacteria, the primer is synthesized during replication. Valerian Dolja of Oregon State argues that viruses, due to their ... HIV infects humans with the use of this enzyme. Without reverse transcriptase, the viral genome would not be able to ... The tRNA primer is unwound between 14 and 22 nucleotides and forms a base-paired duplex with the viral RNA at PBS. The fact ...
A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. infected or cancerous) cells in ... Cytotoxic (Killer) CD8 +ve Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and ... They are also able to recognize and eliminate some tumor cells and cells infected with herpes viruses.[citation needed] Mucosal ... The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ ...
The first human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case was reported in the United States in the early 1980s. Many drugs have been ... The body uses its immune system to protect itself from bacteria, viruses and other disease-causing beings, and when it fails to ... If it were possible to exclude certain proteins from the PIC it would block the ability of the virus to integrate into the host ... Viral DNA may well form a part of the inhibitor binding site. The binding is a form of allosteric inhibition as it implies ...
XLA patients are specifically susceptible to viruses of the Enterovirus family, and mostly to: polio virus, coxsackie virus ( ... "X-Linked agammaglobulinemia patients are not infected with Epstein-Barr virus: implications for the biology of the virus". ... human IgG antibodies) every 3-4 weeks, for life. IVIg is a human product extracted and pooled from thousands of blood donations ... As the form of agammaglobulinemia that is X-linked, it is much more common in males. In people with XLA, the white blood cell ...
... "two compounds that act on novel binding sites for an enzyme used by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that ... There are two targets: a surface protein used by the virus to infect human cells, and "transformer" proteins which change shape ... The project aims to examine close to 200 million genes from many life forms and compare them with known genes in order to find ... Help Stop TB was launched in March 2016 to help combat tuberculosis, a disease caused by a bacterium that is evolving ...
There is evidence that animal rotaviruses can infect humans, either by direct transmission of the virus or by contributing one ... the viruses survive between 9 and 19 days. Sanitary measures adequate for eliminating bacteria and parasites seem to be ... The virus enter cells by receptor mediated endocytosis and form a vesicle known as an endosome. Proteins in the third layer ( ... The ability to grow rotavirus in culture accelerated the pace of research, and by the mid-1980s the first candidate vaccines ...
... activation precedes the inflection point of CD4 T cells and the increased serum virus load in human immunodeficiency virus ... Abscess formation A cavity is formed containing pus, an opaque liquid containing dead white blood cells and bacteria with ... Some act as phagocytes, ingesting bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris. Others release enzymatic granules that damage ... of CD4 T cells and secretion of pro-inflmammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 can be blocked in HIV-infected human ...
... s can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to ... They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds ... In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. Sexually active males are ... The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Opportunistic infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that are normally controlled by the immune ... The most common initial conditions that alert to the presence of AIDS are pneumocystis pneumonia (40%), cachexia in the form of ... During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the ...
Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture assays. Clinical trials have indicated a potential ... One of the best-known of this class of drugs are interferons, which inhibit viral synthesis in infected cells. One form of ... For instance, public schools require students to receive vaccinations (termed "vaccination schedule") for viruses and bacteria ... One anti-viral strategy is to interfere with the ability of a virus to infiltrate a target cell. The virus must go through a ...
Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... In contrast, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) kills its victims very slowly by attacking their immune system. As a result ... this limits the ability of PCR to detect the presence of any bacteria. Given the wide range of bacteria, viruses, and other ... There are some viruses that can maintain a persistent infection by infecting different cells of the body. Some viruses once ...
PDT has proven ability to kill microbial cells, including bacteria, fungi and viruses.[1] PDT is popularly used in treating ... Another metallo-porphyrin complex, the iron chelate, is more photoactive (towards HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus in MT-4 ... "J Infect Chemother. 13 (2): 87-91. doi:10.1007/s10156-006-0501-8. PMC 2933783. PMID 17458675.. Maisch, T; S Hackbarth; J ... but this form of therapy is usually classified as a separate form of therapy from photodynamic therapy.[47][48] ...
HIV only displays host tropism for humans. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus similar to HIV, is capable of infecting ... Bacteria infect hosts differently than viruses do. Unlike viruses, bacteria can replicate and divide on their own without entry ... Various factors affect the ability of a pathogen to infect a particular cell, including: the structure of the cell's surface ... Type III secretion is the main mode of pathogenesis for these two pathogenic forms of E. coli, which involves the adherence of ...
These methods were successfully used to isolate the virus, now called the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and to demonstrate ... "Trans-acting Transcriptional Activation of the Long Terminal Repeat of Human T Lymphotropic Viruses in Infected Cells". Science ... With help from the Centers of Disease Control, this group formed the hypothesis that AIDS was caused by a human retrovirus ... unique ability to differentiate into all the cell types of the human body (pluripotency) opened the door for the first time in ...
June 1992). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with ... Bacteria, viruses, and other organisms are able to be passed from mother to child. Several vertically transmitted infections ... but the hepatitis B virus is a large virus and does not cross the placenta, hence it cannot infect the fetus unless breaks in ... Because a pathogen's ability to pass from parent to child depends significantly on the hosts' ability to reproduce, pathogens' ...
Place For An Antioxidant Therapy In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Baruchel S., Bounous G., Gold P. Oxidative ... against viruses), anti-apoptotic (impede cell death) and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. ... The plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells was found to be enhanced in mice fed a formula diet containing 20 g ... HIV infected PBMCs cultured in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml of WPC were less prone to die of apoptosis than untreated ...
... techniques have also been used to target other viruses, such as the human papilloma virus, the West Nile virus, ... Unlike viruses, bacteria are not as susceptible to silencing by siRNA. This is largely due to how bacteria replicate. Bacteria ... RNAi has been used to target genes in several viral diseases, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis. In ... A similar technique was used to decrease the amount of the detectable virus in hepatitis B and C infected cells. In hepatitis B ...
Perhaps the best example of the importance of CD4+ T cells is demonstrated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. ... typically bacteria or viruses), which undergoes processing, then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes. Once at the ... The importance of helper T cells can be seen from HIV, a virus that primarily infects CD4+ T cells. In the advanced stages of ... The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can ...
2003). "Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons." ... Good hygiene selects against highly virulent viruses by lowering the ability of pathogens to transmit. The H5N1 virus is a ... Changing the virulence of SARS in this way was important, because without a virulent form of SARS to infect laboratory animals ... Serial passage refers to the process of growing bacteria or a virus in iterations. For instance, a virus may be grown in one ...
... animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages (viruses infecting bacterium, which include the most complex ... "Virus hiding in our genome protects early human embryos". New Scientist. 20 April 2015. Villarreal, L. P. (2005) Viruses and ... Some viruses, known as oncoviruses, contribute to the development of certain forms of cancer. The best studied example is the ... The first human studies attempted to correct the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but clinical success ...
February 1998). "Immunological and Virological Analyses of Persons Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 while ... Because of the virus' ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune system, the population of virus ... using a genetically modified form of the HIV virus. The new method involves manipulating the virus' codons, this is a sequence ... Viruses collected from vaccinated participants possessed mutations in the V2 region. Tests of a vaccine for SIV in monkeys ...
... human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[44]. The sexual processes in bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses all ... Humans can be infected with many types of pathogens including prions, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Viruses and bacteria that ... A pathogen may be described in terms of its ability to produce toxins, enter tissue, colonize, hijack nutrients, and its ... which can cause a severe form of meningitis. The typical fungal spore size is ,4.7 μm in length, but some spores may be larger. ...
... or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage therapy has many potential applications in human medicine as well as dentistry, veterinary science, and agriculture. If the target host of a phage therapy treatment is not an animal, the term "biocontrol" (as in phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria) is usually employed, rather than "phage therapy". Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics. They are typically harmless not only to the host organism, but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut flora, reducing the chances of opportunistic infections. They have a high therapeutic index, that is, phage therapy would be expected to give rise to few side effects. Because phages replicate in vivo, a smaller effective dose can be used. On the other hand, this ...
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of closely related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, and GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage very similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be completely sequenced. This was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be completely sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA. The first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 ...
... (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, Φ15, BS32, B103, M2Y (M2), Nf and GA-1.[1][2] These phages, which form part of the Podoviridae family, are the smallest Bacillus phages isolated to date and are among the smallest known dsDNA phages.[3] ...
Because of the lack of homology between the amino acid and DNA sequences of these viruses these factors are precluded from being used as taxonomic markers as is common for other organisms, the three families discussed below (Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae) are defined on the basis of morphology. This classification scheme was originated by Bradley in 1969 and has been extended since.[2]. All viruses in this order have icosahedral or oblate heads but differ in the length and contractile abilities of their tails. The Myoviridae have long tails that are contractile; the Podoviridae have short noncontractile tails; and the Siphoviridae have long noncontractile tails.[3] Siphoviridae constitute the majority of the known tailed viruses.[2][4]. Bradley referred to what is now known as the Myoviridae as type A, Siphoviridae as type B, and the Podoviridae as type C. He also divided his groups on the basis ...
A phagemid or phasmid is a plasmid that contains an f1 origin of replication from an f1 phage. It can be used as a type of cloning vector in combination with filamentous phage M13. A phagemid can be replicated as a plasmid, and also be packaged as single stranded DNA in viral particles. Phagemids contain an origin of replication (ori) for double stranded replication, as well as an f1 ori to enable single stranded replication and packaging into phage particles. Many commonly used plasmids contain an f1 ori and are thus phagemids. Similarly to a plasmid, a phagemid can be used to clone DNA fragments and be introduced into a bacterial host by a range of techniques, such as transformation and electroporation. However, infection of a bacterial host containing a phagemid with a 'helper' phage, for example VCSM13 or M13K07, provides the necessary viral components to enable single stranded DNA replication and ...
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monographs on or related to phages. Rakonjac, J., Das, B. Derda, R. 2017. Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. ISBN 9782889450954 Allen, H. K., Abedon, S. T. 2015. Viral Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms. ISBN 978-2-88919-448-3 Google Books Wei, H. 2015. Phages and Therapy as published as a special issue in Virologica Sinica consisting of four reviews, three research articles, six letters, and one insight article. Weitz, J.S., 2015. Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN ...
... is a biotechnology company based in Baltimore, Maryland. Intralytix specializes in bacteriophage-based products used to control bacterial pathogens in environmental, food processing, and medical settings. ListShield is an Intralytix product that is applied to food for the prevention of listeriosis by killing strains of food-borne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes bacteria. Listeriosis is a serious disease with a high rate of mortality in susceptible individuals. It is almost exclusively contracted by consuming contaminated food. Since the L. monocytogenes bacteria are omnipresent in nature, even the most thorough hygiene concepts fail to guarantee that food products are free of listeria. Bacteriophages are among the best studied organisms in the natural world. This is because their molecular biology is relatively simple. Many molecular principles were first studied in bacteriophages prior to being found in higher organisms. Bacteriophages are ...
... is an endolysin that hydrolyzes peptidoglycan, a major constituent in bacterial membrane. OBPgp279 is found in Pseudomonas fluorescens phage OBP, which belongs in the Myoviridae family of bacteriophages. Because of its role in hydrolyzing the peptidoglycan layer, OBPgp279 is a key enzyme in the lytic cycle of the OBP bacteriophage; it allows the bacteriophage to lyse its host internally to escape. Unlike other endolysins, OBPgp279 does not rely on holins to perforate the inner bacterial membrane in order to reach the peptidoglycan layer. Although OBPgp279 is not a well-studied enzyme, it has garnered interest as a potential antibacterial protein due to its activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism of OBPgp279 is predicted to be analogous to glycoside hydrolase family 19 due to the presence of a conserved sequence motif (general sequence motif = F/H/Y-G-R-G-A/P-X-Q-I/L-S/T-F/H/Y/W-H/N-F/Y-N/Y, X = ...
The phage group started around 1940, after Delbrück and Luria had met at a physics conference. Delbrück and Luria began a series of collaborative experiments on the patterns of infection for different strains of bacteria and bacteriophage. They soon established the "mutual exclusion principle" that an individual bacterium can only be infected by one strain of phage. In 1943, their "fluctuation test", later dubbed the Luria-Delbrück experiment, showed that genetic mutations for phage resistance arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.[4][5] The traditional wisdom among bacteriologists prior to 1943 was that bacteria had no chromosomes and no genes. The Luria-Delbrück experiment showed that bacteria, like other established model genetic organisms, have genes, and that these can spontaneously mutate to generate mutants that ...
A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate. Unlike most living things, viruses do not have cells that divide; new viruses are assembled in the infected host cell. But unlike still simpler infectious agents, viruses contain genes, which gives them the ability to mutate and evolve. Over 5,000 species of viruses have been discovered. The origins of viruses are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others ...
... (synonyms c2-like viruses, c2-like phages) is a genus of viruses in the family Siphoviridae, unassigned to a sub-family. Bacteria serve as the natural host, with transmission achieved through passive diffusion. There are currently two species in this genus, including the type species Lactococcus phage c2. Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Siphoviridae Genus: C2likevirus Lactococcus phage bIL67 Lactococcus phage c2 C2likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. The prolate head is about 56 nm long and 41 nm wide and has a collar. The tail is cross-banded, is about 86-111 nm long, 8 nm wide, and has short tail fibers. Genomes are linear, around 22kb in length. Both species have been fully sequenced. They range between 22k and 23k nucleotides, with 37 to 39 proteins. Both complete genomes are available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The ...
... is the collection of viruses in and on the human body. Defining the virome is thought to provide an understanding of microbes and how they affect human health and disease. Viruses in the human body infect both human cells as well as other microbes such as bacteria. For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be asymptomatic. Certain viruses are integrated in the human genome. Viruses evolve rapidly and hence the human virome changes ...
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery. The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release ...
However, it has infected 7,000 people worldwide and has killed over 500. It poses an enormous health risk in China, and there ... Thanks in part to the quick response and collaborative effort of a team of international scientists, the virus has remained ... The outbreak of a new virus responsible for what is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) raises a number of ... As the case of AIDS demonstrates, the growing international integration of human society increases the ability of viruses to ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): The virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). HIV weakens a persons ... A person can become infected when the bacteria enter any opening in the body, including the penis, anus, vagina or mouth. ... One form caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is often just called "herpes" infection. These infections also are spread by ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV): A group of more than 70 types of viruses that can cause warts (papillomas). ...
HIV was originally formed in chimpanzees in Central Africa, and spread to humans through infected blood (What is HIV/AIDS?, ... The absence of white blood cells make it easier for otherwise benign bacteria, viruses, and infections to take hold of the ... This causes a drastic decrease of the bodys ability to fight of infection.. The low immune system presence leaves plenty of ... Essay Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ). Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become more ...
... these viruses cause a form of acquired immunodeficiency (like human AIDS). One result is that secondary infections with other ... However, detecting virus in live birds by culture or by other virus demonstration techniques is essential if we are to find out ... EPA has labeled our product as a disinfectant that controls Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi. Attached you will find the MSDS of the ... The ability of the PCR to detect circovirus in samples of intestine suggests that the next logical development would be to test ...
... is a fatal disease that destroys the bodys ability to fight bacteria and viruses. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency ... Pozgar, 2012, p. 353) AIDS is contracted by direct contact with infected blood or bodily fluids. The AIDS virus cannot be ... AIDS is caused by a highly contagious blood-borne virus as is the most severe form of the HIV infection. This is a deadly ... is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people ...
... and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus." The most effective screening method remains the tuberculin skin test, ... The bacterium is particularly virulent due to its ability to prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion after engulfment by macrophages ... Since a phagolysosome is not formed, the bacterium is able to escape degradation. However, when the adaptive immune system is ... as well as viruses such as cytomegalovirus and epstein-barr virus.. Kaufmann discusses the mechanism of bacterial killing for ...
... estimated that 3.2 million girls between the ages of 14 and 19 in the US are infected with at least one sexually transmitted ... HIV/AIDS refers to infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, which destroys the bodys ability to fight infections and ... is caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis. An estimated 2.8 million Americans are infected with chlamydia each year, ... Human papillamoviruses (HPV) are common viruses that cause warts. About 30 types of HPV are transmitted sexually, and as many ...
HIV/AIDS: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This kills or impairs ... Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, may become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body. ... Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi and can be spread, ... you will need to fill out a form, giving us your written permission to do so. You may indicate on the form that you want us to ...
RNA virus explanation free. What is RNA virus? Meaning of RNA virus medical term. What does RNA virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of RNA virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... simian-human immunodeficiency virus a chimeric, engineered virus with the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus and the ... RNA virus. any of a group of viruses whose genome is composed of RNA, including most viruses that infect animal cells. RNA ...
What is encephalomyocarditis virus? Meaning of encephalomyocarditis virus medical term. What does encephalomyocarditis virus ... Looking for online definition of encephalomyocarditis virus in the Medical Dictionary? encephalomyocarditis virus explanation ... simian-human immunodeficiency virus a chimeric, engineered virus with the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus and the ... Few viruses produce toxins, although viral infections of bacteria can cause previously innocuous bacteria to become much more ...
Is this STD a bacteria or a virus? Get the answers to the most common questions about viral infections. ... viruses such as the common cold, influenza, chickenpox, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and others. Viruses can affect many ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus thats most commonly transmitted by infected mosquitos. Most people (70% to 80%) with WNV ... to set the newly-formed virus particles free. In other cases, virus particles "bud" off the host cell over a period of time ...
Usually these humans are in close contact with infected birds, so this virus remains limited in its ability to spread through ... Antibiotic Resistance: Bacteria and viruses evolve rapidly because they have a short generation time. E. coli generates ... Humans have little resistance to this form of flu virus. Currently the virus passes between birds, and only occasionally ... HIV: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) evolves so rapidly in response to the selective pressure of anti-viral drugs that ...
ALALVRMLI) [24], the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein (HIV p. , AISPRTLNA) [25], the Salmonella enterica serovar ... TCR interactions induce T lymphocytes to kill cells that are infected by viruses or some intracellular bacteria. MHC class Ia ... and in human tendon cells during H2O2 exposure. In melanoma cells, Prdx5 expression can be upregulated by different forms of ... Table 1: Both the HLA class I host haplotype and the infecting CMV strain can affect the ability of different individuals to ...
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mainly infects the CD4 cells in the immune system. Over years of HIV infection, CD4 cell ... A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are two forms of TB: latent TB infection and TB disease ( ... The immune systems different cells work together to protect the body against pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. ... In fact, the illness is thought to be caused by an improvement in the immune systems ability to respond to infection. Your ...
Students also learn how the immune system responds to viral invasions, eventually defeating the viruses-if all goes well. ... Students learn how viruses invade host cells and hijack their cell-reproduction mechanisms in order to make new viruses, which ... HIV: Acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... When they contact them, they produce a chemical that causes holes to form in the infected cell membranes. With their membranes ...
Molecular Kochs postulates are used to determine what genes contribute to a pathogens ability to … ... AIDS is an example of such a disease because the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) only causes disease in humans. ... For example, the predominant form of the bacterium Escherichia coli is a member of the normal microbiota of the human intestine ... Viruses and certain bacteria, including Rickettsia and Chlamydia, are obligate intracellular pathogens that can grow only when ...
Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) ... This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and ... can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched ... such as viruses and bacteria 1. Mucosae are also inductive sites in the host to generate immunity against pathogens, such as ...
... is a fatal disease that destroys the bodys ability to fight bacteria and viruses. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency ... HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed ... Financial Aid Appeal Form. 653 Words , 3 Pages. My name is __________________and I am writing this appeal letter in hope that ... is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people ...
Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which ... dormant form to which the bacterium can reduce.... for weeks. In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a host ... Koch did not believe that bovine (cattle) and human tuberculosis were similar, which delayed the recognition of infected milk ... The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs ...
HIV is an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV interferes with your bodys ability to effectively fight off ... Bacteria (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia). • Parasites (trichomoniasis). • Viruses (human papillomavirus, genital herpes, HIV) ... The organism usually infects the urinary tract in men, but often causes no symptoms in men. Trichomoniasis typically infects ... Eventually, scabs form and the ulcers heal.. In women, sores can erupt in the vaginal area, external genitals, buttocks, anus ...
Although viruses share several features with living organisms, such as the presence of genetic material (DNA or RNA), they are ... Virus A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. ... Host cell: The specific cell that a virus targets and infects.. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus): The retrovirus that causes ... This form of pneumonia has a high mortality rate. Bacterial pneumonia may develop when bacteria accumulate in the lungs. This ...
... infected) individual. Viruses with high mutation rates such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... Spraying these bacteria on crops may prevent freezing-related damages.. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): A form of gel ... Mating type: Genetically determined characteristics of bacteria, ciliates, fungi and algae, determining their ability to ... Virus: An entity that is capable of reproducing only by infecting a bacterial or eukaryotic cell. Viruses are incapable of ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). One of the most terrifying and difficult infectious diseases currently posing a health ... virus or other agents and on the reaction of the bodys immune system. Basically, bacteria or viruses can invade the body ... A source may be an infected person, an animal, an insect or even an inert object. Transmission also depends on the ability of ... These infections often include various forms of pneumonia and/or cancer.. Transmission. HIV can be transmitted by a person who ...
A DsrA-deficient mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is impaired in its ability to infect human volunteers. Infect. Immun.69:1488- ... Informed consent was obtained from the subjects for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 serology and participation in ... Papules formed at all sites inoculated with live bacteria. We biopsied four sites per subject 48 h after inoculation. RNA was ... viruses, and bacteria cause a pathogen-specific transcript response (16, 30). These studies employ APC from normal volunteers ...
Virus,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... but they are not suitable for human use due to the potential that the vaccine viruses could mutate and reacquire the ability to ... A noninfectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine that protects macaques against AIDS. Journal of Virology, 79. 6 ... Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are viruses that infect the liver, and in some cases can cause liver failure requiring a ...
  • The Ebola virus, for example, attacks in particular the cells lining blood vessels, causing catastrophic bleeding and often death. (wsws.org)
  • Tetracistronic minigenomes, which consist of Ebola virus non-coding regions, a reporter gene, and three Ebola virus genes involved in morphogenesis, budding, and entry (VP40, GP 1,2 , and VP24), can be used to produce replication and transcription-competent virus-like particles (trVLPs) containing these minigenomes. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, the tetracistronic trVLP assay represents the most comprehensive lifecycle modeling system available for Ebola viruses, and has tremendous potential for use in investigating the biology of Ebola viruses in future. (jove.com)
  • While the impact of this outbreak in death, human suffering, and fear was catastrophic, this essay raises the question of what might the impact of an Ebola outbreak have been if it had occurred not in 2013 but in 2000, when Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia were embroiled in brutal civil wars. (amacad.org)
  • Unlike the virus of Ebola or the bacterium of pulmonary anthrax which kill too rapidly for the disease agents to acquire many new hosts, the HIV has the entire world population to choose from! (faem.com)
  • Unlike the other MHC class Ib molecules, HLA-E is transcribed virtually in all human tissues and cell lines, although at lower levels than MHC class Ia antigens [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bacterium that causes tuberculosis, the fungus Candida, and the gastrointestinal parasite Shigella have all responded to St. John's wort. (healthy.net)
  • Extensive testing has been conducted with live vaccines to determine if immunization would be effective at prevention, but they are not suitable for human use due to the potential that the vaccine viruses could mutate and reacquire the ability to cause disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is this almost unique ability of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus to change its biologic appearance endlessly that makes it unlikely that a cure or vaccine will ever be found. (faem.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is currently the most common opportunistic pathogen found in HIV-1-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. (asm.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Certain bacteria and viruses, including the Lyme disease causative agent, have exploited the protection afforded from the deleterious effects of the complement system by carrying a binding site on their surfaces for factor H. 9 This site is typically antigenic and recognized by the immune system as non-self. (townsendletter.com)
  • Escherichia coli , or E. coli -- A common bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of culture in the laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the fact that the virus, on its own, can't survive in an open-air environment, HIV is always transmitted through contact with some sort of body fluid. (brightkite.com)
  • In one study, Neely and Maley showed that bacteria such as VRE and MRSA injected into sterile textiles can survive anywhere from one to 90 days, provided that textile has not been cleaned, laundered or otherwise decontaminated during that time. (scribd.com)
  • Viruses can be found either inside a cell (intracellular) or outside of a cell (extracellular). (omninoggin.com)
  • Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) formed intracellularly by a process of endosome membrane invagination which generates multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Like other flu viruses, the avian flu also evolves through mutations and picking up pieces of other viruses (recombination). (nescent.org)
  • The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants ether, chloroform, acid, alcohol, and heat (56'C, or 132.8'F, for thirty minutes)but is susceptible to Clorox bleach. (maxshouse.com)