RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Virus InfectionsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Testing of software 76.76.T49.....Text editors 76.76.T55.....Threads 76.76.T83.....Translators 76.76.U84.....Utilities 76.76. ... Computer viruses 76.76.C69.....Configuration management 76.76.C73.....Costs 76.76.D47.....Development 76.76.D49.....Device ... V47.....Verification and validation of software 76.76.C68.....Viruses 76.76.W56.....Windows 76.76.S64.....Year 2000 date ...
Immunological tests[edit]. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and sequence technology tests have ... Kuruppu, D; Tanabe, KK (May 2005). "Viral oncolysis by herpes simplex virus and other viruses". Cancer Biology & Therapy. 4 (5 ... Virus isolation[edit]. Samples[edit]. For routine isolation of NDV from chickens, turkeys, and other birds, samples are ... Viruses: The new cancer hunters. isracast.com. 1 March 2006 *^ Mansour, M.; Palese, P.; Zamarin, D. (2011). "Oncolytic ...
"AV-Test release latest results". Virus Bulletin. Virus Bulletin Ltd. 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2011-04-27. Vamosi, Robert (2008-04- ... The second beta test versions were released January 9, 2010, and the third on June 10, 2010. On September 13, 2010, ESET ... Official website Virus Radar, a service run by ESET using NOD32 statistics The official German ESET Support Forum. ... Virus signature database updates and customer support was discontinued on February 1, 2012. On a network, NOD32 clients can ...
Garcia, Viri. "Test Spin: BTS - Love Yourself: Her". The Cornell Daily Sun. Retrieved October 20, 2017. Melendez, Monique. " ... Viri Garcia of The Cornell Daily Sun commended BTS for "trying to achieve a sound closer to pop while keeping their own ...
File Detection Test March 2014 AV-Comparatives Advanced+ Three Star Rating - File Detection Test September 2014 Virus Bulletin ... Performance Test April 2016 Virus Bulletin VB100 Certification Cyber Defense Magazine - Editor's Choice Anti-Virus Solution ... "Last ten VB100 tests for Ad-Aware Free Antivirus +". virus bulletin. Retrieved 2017-12-05. "Ad-Aware Free Antivirus+". giga ... "Performance Test" (PDF). av-comparatives. Retrieved 2016-05-23. "Last ten VB100 tests for Ad-Aware Free Antivirus +". Retrieved ...
". "AV-TEST - The Independent IT-Security Institute". AV-TEST GmbH. "Virus Bulletin :: VB100 comparative review on Windows 7 ... In September 2010, the free version of ZoneAlarm started showing a "Global Virus Alert" popup as a scareware tactic to get ... ZoneAlarm Extreme Security 2015 received a score of 17.5/18 in AV-TEST's Best Antivirus Software for Windows Home User. The ... In August 2015, the company introduced a 100% virus-free guarantee to users of this product. ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 2016 was ...
Google offers free Google Analytics IQ Lessons, Google Analytics certification test, free Help Center FAQ and Google Groups ... "The Virus Filters". Forbes. Government health care website quietly sharing personal data. Associated Press "Analytics Academy ... ". "Google Testing Center". "Analytics Help". "Analytics Blog". "Google Analytics Partner Services and Technologies". "Google ...
Weigle, J. J. (1953). "Induction of Mutations in a Bacterial Virus". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 39 (7):628-636.PDF file "So Weigle ... A Slot Machine, A Broken Test Tube: An Autobiography. Harper & Row, New York: 1984. Pp. 228. ISBN 0-06-015260-5 (USA and Canada ... Induction of Mutations in a Bacterial Virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1953 Jul;39(7):628-36. PMID 16589315 Benzer, Seymour. " ... A nonhereditary, host-induced variation of bacterial viruses. J Bacteriol. 1952 Oct;64(4):557-69. PMID 12999684 Salvador E. ...
Laboratory testing is of little clinical benefit in determining the degree of dehydration. Thus the use of urine testing or ... Gastroenteritis can be due to infections by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungus. The most common cause is viruses. In ... Viruses cause about 70% of episodes of infectious diarrhea in the pediatric age group. Rotavirus is a less common cause in ... Testing to confirm the diagnosis is typically not needed. Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, ...
Some viruses have evolved ways of subverting the restriction modification system, usually by modifying their own DNA, by adding ... A Slot Machine, A Broken Test Tube: An Autobiography. Harper & Row, New York: 1984. Pp. 228. ISBN 0-06-015260-5 (USA and Canada ... Research is on REases and ZFN that can cleave the DNA of various human viruses, including HSV-2, high-risk HPVs and HIV-1, with ... Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes. To counteract these ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... Influenza virus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the viruses that cause influenza. The species ... Influenza viruses, like all viruses in the Orthomyxoviridae family, are enveloped RNA viruses with single stranded genomes. The ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only influenza virus C produces esterase, In ...
... he reported in 1970 that a cancer-causing virus of birds had extra genetic material compared with non-cancer-causing viruses, ... ISBN 0-89526-399-8. Sithole, Emelia (July 4, 2000). "S.Africa AIDS panel to validate HIV tests". Reuters. Archived from the ... Duesberg's early work on cancer included being the first to identify the oncogene v-src from the genome of Rous sarcoma virus, ... Duesberg, PH (1996). Inventing the AIDS Virus. Regnery. p. 179. ... "passenger virus" that has not caused deaths in South Africa or ...
Plants can be doubly infected with high plains virus and wheat streak mosaic virus. High plains virus is spread by wheat curl ... An ELISA test is available to detect high plains disease. Infection can be avoided by elimination of volunteer crop and wild ... It is caused by the negative-sense ssRNA virus wheat mosaic virus. Symptoms are similar to wheat streak mosaic virus, with leaf ... Stanley G. Jensen (July 26, 2012). "The high plains virus". University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved October 10, 2012. Hoy, ...
Viruses cause 20 percent of CAP cases. The most common viruses are influenza, parainfluenza, human respiratory syncytial virus ... Several tests can identify the cause of CAP. Blood cultures can isolate bacteria or fungi in the bloodstream. Sputum Gram ... Viruses include human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, human parainfluenza viruses, ... CAP-causing viruses may also be transferred from mother to child; herpes simplex virus (the most common) is life-threatening, ...
"VB100 award from Virus Bulletin". virusbtn.com. "RAP detection chart for December 2011 comparative tests by Virus Bulletin". ... In December 2011 comparative test performed by the independent antivirus software certification authority Virus Bulletin, ... It placed among the top 10 programs out of 54 antivirus packages included in the test, with reactive and proactive (RAP) ... The program can also check a computer's vulnerability status, provide privacy controls, real-time virus protection and ...
Introduction to blood tests". American Social Health Association. Retrieved 2008-09-28. "Hepatitis Virus Test or Panel". UCSF ... and surrounding areas to test for herpes Urethra to test for gonorrhea and possibly chlamydia Vagina to test for chlamydia and ... Find local testing resources "National HIV and STD Testing Resources". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... possibly gonorrhea Cervix to test for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (a Pap test) Rectum to test for gonorrhea and possibly ...
... even if these tested negative for the swine flu virus. Since November 2009, 14 deaths as a result of swine flu in Northern ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ... Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not ...
Studies are inconclusive, but several somewhat common viruses were identified as possible triggers for PMR. The viruses thought ... Another test that checks the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood may also be conducted. CRP is produced by the liver ... To test for this additional disorder, a biopsy sample may be taken from the temporal artery. Prednisone is the drug of choice ... One blood test usually performed is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) which measures how fast the patient's red blood ...
"Test and Review of Carbonite Online Backup". PC Backup Review. Retrieved 2009-04-23. "Restoring Previous File Versions". ... "CryptoLocker / Crypto Virus". Carbonite. Retrieved 2016-03-01. "Online Backup Providers Add Mac Support". Byte and Switch. 2008 ... "CryptoLocker / Crypto Virus & Other Ransomware". support.carbonite.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14. "Carbonite 3.5 online backup ... Carbonite offers telephone support to recover from ransomware viruses. Terms also disclaim any warranties and damages, require ...
The German organization AV-Test.org tested 25 anti-virus programs. The testers found that AhnLab, Microsoft Windows Defender ... Test results indicate version 1.0 of PCKeeper Antivirus was tested. This appears to be a typographical error as the test also ... "VB 100 Antivirus Test - VB100 Single Product Test (May 2013)" (PDF). "On-Demand File Detection Test - (May 2013) - Anti-Malware ... According to Virus Bulletin, PCKeeper Antivirus PRO has scored 96.1% in RAP tests and set a stability level at Stable. PCKeeper ...
EICAR test file - a similar test for computer viruses. Official website. ... The GTUBE ("Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email") is a 68-byte test string used to test anti-spam systems, in particular ... The contents of the string are as follows: XJS*C4JDBQADN1.NSBN3*2IDNEN*GTUBE-STANDARD-ANTI-UBE-TEST-EMAIL*C.34X and should be ...
In January 2008 Anti-Malware Test Lab gave Avira "gold" status for proactive virus detection and detection/removal of rootkits ... In February 2010 testing by firm AV-TEST, Avira tied for first place (with another German company) in the "malware on demand" ... "Factsheet August 2014 Real-World Protection Test" (PDF). av-comparatives.org. Retrieved 24 September 2014. "Virus Bulletin: ... "Anti-Malware Test Lab". Anti-malware-test.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010. " ...
"Antenatal Testing For Human Immunodeficiency Virus". The Lancet. 334: 1442-1444. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)92045-X. Retrieved ... "Mother-to-Child Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus". New England Journal of Medicine. 333: 298-303. doi:10.1056/ ...
"Independent Tests of Anti-Virus Software". www.av-comparatives.org. Retrieved 23 Dec 2016. Neil P. Rubenking. "The Best Free ... "AV-test Lab tests 16 Linux antivirus products against Windows and Linux malware". www.networkworld.com. Retrieved 23 Dec 2016. ... Comodo Penetration Testing - Comodo Penetration Tests will identify critical attack paths present in network infrastructure ... In fact you have to go all the way back to 2006 to find an AV roundup where viruses were missed by some companies." Symantec ...
Viruses observed before the development of the condition include Epstein-Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, herpes zoster ... The Multiple Sleep Latency Test has yielded inconsistent results when given to KLS patients. In many cases, hours are spent in ... The onset of the condition usually follows a viral infection; several different viruses have been observed to trigger KLS. It ... KLS must be differentiated from substance abuse by toxicology tests. The use of Electroencephalography (EEG) can exclude ...
Feri kloridni test je tradicionalen kolorimetričen test za fenole. Zanj se uporablja 1 % raztopina FeCl3, ki se nevtralizira z ... Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71. izdaja. CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990. ...
Biobest is the only GLP compliant laboratory in the UK offering the EIA Coggins test for horses. ... Biobest provides serological testing for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus (EIA). ... Whilst ELISA tests are quicker than other techniques the OIE recommend that all positive tests are confirmed by the Agar Gel ... Tests will be performed daily Monday to Thursday and results available after a 24 hour incubation period. Urgent tests may be ...
... screening among adults in the United States along with testing sequence information. ... HCV test. People testing anti‑HCV positive/reactive should have follow-up testing with an FDA‑approved nucleic acid test (NAT) ... Recommended Testing Sequence for Identifying Current Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection pdf icon[PDF- 1 page] ... Interpretation of Results of Tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions pdf icon[PDF- 1 page] ...
A Positive Zika Virus Test. What does it mean for me?. Youve just learned from your doctor or healthcare provider that you ... positive Zika test result, which means that you have Zika virus. Zika is spread through mosquito bites and through sex, from a ... infected with Zika virus, and spread the virus to other people. You should use condoms correctly every time you have sex or do ... A man infected with Zika can spread Zika virus during sex with a pregnant woman, and the virus can pass to her fetus. The fetus ...
... but viruses for testing is a crime against humanity? ... they created a test bed of 5,500 new viruses in order to test ... The anti-virus community is abuzz in controversy over the tests performed recently by Consumer Reports on anti-virus products. ... Ive been involved in many tests of anti-virus products, and its always tough. There are many ways you can go about the testing ... Opinion: How come discovering vulnerabilities and writing exploits is research, but viruses for testing is a crime against ...
... health officials said Wednesday.Positive test results on the horse were confirmed Tuesday, said Randy ... The first equine case of West Nile virus in Ventura County has been reported in Camarillo, ... Horse Tests Positive for Virus. Health officials confirm that the privately owned Camarillo animal is the first equine West ... It began showing symptoms July 30 and was tested Aug. 5.. "Hopefully, a lot of people will take that step and get their horses ...
The case is the first time a patient apparently cleared of the virus has subsequently tested positive for it, a local official ... A woman in Japan who contracted the new coronavirus and was released from hospital after recovering has tested positive again, ... The case is the first time a patient apparently cleared of the virus has subsequently tested positive for it, a local official ... The driver of the bus was also diagnosed with the virus.. After being discharged from hospital she tested negative for the ...
Testing for the virus that causes COVID-19 involves taking a mucus sample from your upper respiratory tract. This test is used ... This test is used to diagnose COVID-19.. The COVID-19 virus test is not used to test your immunity to COVID-19. To test if you ... Antigen tests detect specific proteins on the virus that causes COVID-19. Antigen tests are rapid diagnostic tests, which means ... Test for current infection (viral test). www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/diagnostic-testing.html. Updated January 21 ...
Current: Rapid Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Testing. Rapid Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Testing. Rapid HCV Project. The Rapid HCV Project ... For individuals testing positive for Hepatitis C, you will be referred to a clinician in the community for follow-up evaluation ... Who Should be Tested for HCV. *Persons who ever injected illegal drugs, including only once ... People can choose to either walk in or schedule an appointment and be tested to learn their Hepatitis C status. ...
... scientists in New York have built an infectious polio virus from scratch, raising the grim prospect that bioterrorists could ... Polio Virus Created in Test Tube. Science: Its the first time a functional virus has been made from scratch. Critics call the ... But he added that a military laboratory could easily create and test viruses. "You would need very good people," he said. "You ... "The polio virus is a pretty small genome," Zilinskas said. "To get a larger virus, you would have to do everything correctly in ...
... but the test might benefit women who are too scared to have a conventional smear test ... urine-based HPV testing is unlikely to replace cervical HPV testing completely. "The actual test in itself isnt a better test ... Dread going for a smear test? A simple urine test can pick up the human papilloma virus (HPV) that causes cervical cancer. ... More recently, DNA tests have been developed that test for HPV directly - again by taking a sample from the cervix. This is ...
The surreal standoff is the latest flashpoint in a broader battle between a president who has repeatedly tested the limits of ... Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro says he twice tested negative for the coronavirus but many, including a federal judge, are ... In fight over Brazil leaders virus test, crisis looms. Read full article. *. ... Virus Outbreak Brazil. Water utility workers from CEDAE disinfect the Mare Complex slum in an effort to curb the spread of the ...
... and places Microsofts OneCare anti-virus solution squarely at the bottom of the list. ... A well-regarded anti-virus testing laboratory releases its latest quarterly results, ... A well-regarded anti-virus testing laboratory releases its latest quarterly results, and places Microsofts OneCare anti-virus ... Microsofts OneCare Finishes Last in Anti-virus Tests By: Mark Hachman , March 05, 2007 ...
Truckers who patronised the restaurant in Kubang Pasu affected by the Covid-19 outbreak have been urged to be tested. ... Dr Hayati also advised those who have been tested positive to stay put at home as instructed and not to roam freely outside. ... It was important for those who visited the place to undergo screening to help prevent an outbreak of the virus, said state ... Truckers who patronised the restaurant in Kubang Pasu affected by the Covid-19 outbreak have been urged to be tested. ...
Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a cause of the ... Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a cause of the ... The test is done to detect an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV causes mononucleosis or mono. The EBV antibody ... Another test for mononucleosis is called the spot test. It is done when a person has current symptoms of mononucleosis. ...
West Nile Virus symptoms usually act much like the flu but can be more severe. Keep in mind that if one suspects a possible ... The West Nile Virus blood test is offered to anyone who is experiencing symptoms of West Nile Virus. ... West Nile Virus Blood Test. A patient suspected of West Nile Virus symptoms will undergo a blood test that measures a sample ... The West Nile Virus blood test is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. ELISA is a biochemistry technique in which ...
Microsoft OneCare fails virus test By Daniel Fleshbourne Administrator Neowin @dfleshbourne · Feb 6, 2007 11:08 EST. · Hot! ... The tests conducted in our secure labs were against the most significant viruses and worms affecting real-world users, said ... Independent security certification body Virus Bulletin tested 15 security suites on Windows Vista against a set of malware from ... picking up on all macro viruses. But it failed to stop some viruses, file infectors and polymorphic malware which constantly ...
... can indicate whether the positive test has picked up active virus which can reproduce and spread, or just dead virus fragments ... The main test used to diagnose coronavirus is so sensitive it could be picking up fragments of dead virus from old infections, ... The PCR swab test - the standard diagnostic method - uses chemicals to amplify the viruss genetic material so that it can be ... This in turn appears to be linked to how likely the virus is to be infectious - tests that have to go through more cycles are ...
A UK study provides the strongest evidence yet that testing for the human papilloma virus could catch more cancers than ... The study of 11,000 women found testing for human papilloma virus (HPV) detected 97% of all pre-cancerous cases. Conventional ... Screening women for the sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer could catch more cases than using smear tests, ... This means that the HPV test is less specific than the smear test - producing warnings for women who are in good health. But ...
... issued another 90-day extension regarding free COVID-19 testing. The free COVID-19 testing requirement was set to expire on ... Thermal Testing: Privacy Considerations for Businesses. WilmerHale on 7/29/2020. In the wake of COVID-19, businesses have a ... FDA authorizes first diagnostic test for screening people without known or suspected COVID-19 infection. Hogan Lovells on 7/31/ ... Free COVID-19 Testing Extended for Another 90 Days. Snell & Wilmer on 7/30/2020. ...
... the latest round of testing is again negative for viruses. ... Latest round of tests on dead herring negative for viruses. ... Latest round of tests on dead herring negative for viruses. As fisheries scientists continue to investigate fish kills in ... The latest round of tests from fish kills in southwest Nova Scotia have not found any viruses. ... the latest round of testing is again negative for viruses. ... The viral tests, the long-term ones we were waiting for, all of ...
Yankees All-Star infielder DJ LeMahieu and right-hander Luis Cessa tested positive for the coronavirus before traveling to New ... Freeman is the biggest star in the sport so far to have his positive virus test publicly announced by his team. ... Top-ranked Novak Djokovic and three other pro players had tested positive for the virus after playing in a similar exhibition ... Snitker said Freeman had a negative intake test before having a positive test on Friday. Snitker said the first baseman has a ...
The White House tests anyone who will be in close proximity to the president, which is how Gohmert found out he had the virus. ... A Justice Department spokeswoman said Barr was tested Wednesday and the test came back negative. ... On testing, Pelosi and McConnell have remained firm that there should be no special access for lawmakers as long as the general ... Raul Grijalva, D-Ariz., said in a statement that he has the virus but, like Gohmert, has no symptoms. He is at least the 11th ...
A tennis player entered for the Palermo Ladies Open tested positive for the coronavirus and has withdrawn from the tournament, ... "In addition, all those who may have been in close contact with the individual are undergoing testing per WTA protocols," the ... "The efficiency of the protocols and the related tests allowed us to intercept a positive case," said Dr. Antonio Cascio, an ... PALERMO, Sicily (AP) - A tennis player entered for the Palermo Ladies Open tested positive for the coronavirus and has ...
At least 36 crew members confined on a Norwegian cruise ship have tested positive for coronavirus, the company Hurtigruten said ... 36 crew test positive for virus on Norwegian cruise ship Updated / Saturday, 1 Aug 2020 19:55 ... of the MS Roald Amundsen was quarantined on board the ship yesterday after four staff members tested positive for the virus and ... One person died of the virus last night, bringing the countrys death toll to 256. It was the first coronavirus-related death ...
Bloomberg) -- While no cases of the new SARS-like virus have been confirmed in Canada, a major spread of the disease couldnt ... The latest virus has killed at least 17 people so far. It was first detected in Wuhan, China, and cases have since been ... The latest respiratory virus outbreak is reminiscent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2003. Toronto had the ... Bloomberg) -- While no cases of the new SARS-like virus have been confirmed in Canada, a major spread of the disease couldnt ...
  • A man looks at over paperwork he was given after being tested for the coronavirus as the leaves the testing tent while others wait in line to be tested outside Elmhurst Hospital Center, Tuesday, March 24, 2020, in the Queens borough of New York. (pressherald.com)
  • Dion Silva tests samples looking for COVID-19 in a lab at the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley on Monday, April 6, 2020, in Edinburg. (brownsvilleherald.com)
  • A person is tested for the COVID-19 Coronavirus Tuesday, July 28, 2020 at Cesar Chavez City Park in Phoenix. (chron.com)
  • Two vaccine candidates from Pfizer and BioNTech being developed to help protect against the virus that causes COVID-19 have received fast track designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (yahoo.com)
  • Djokovic, who has previously said he was against taking a vaccine for the virus even if it became mandatory to travel, was the face behind the Adria Tour, a series of exhibition events that started in the Serbian capital and then moved to Zadar. (theepochtimes.com)
  • With China having largely curbed its growth of new infections, its drugmakers will need to seek international cooperation to test their vaccine candidates in other countries - a task that may be complicated by tensions between China and some nations, especially the US, over how and where the virus originated. (indiatimes.com)
  • Rapid testing for its frontliners will be conducted every two weeks until a vaccine becomes available, it said. (bworldonline.com)
  • There is no specific treatment and no vaccine available for Bourbon virus disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • There is no vaccine or drug to prevent or treat Bourbon virus disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The creation of the man-made polio virus came just a month after the World Health Organization had declared polio eradicated from Europe and projected total eradication of the disease by 2005. (latimes.com)
  • The test protocol is being made available through the World Health Organization, and laboratories can order a molecule from the German team to compare patient samples with a positive control, he said. (nytimes.com)
  • The virus, along with eastern equine encephalitis, is transmitted from the bite of an infected mosquito. (necn.com)
  • People testing anti‑HCV positive/reactive should have follow-up testing with an FDA‑approved nucleic acid test (NAT) for detection of HCV RNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Microsoft also ranked third from the bottom in detection of polymorphic viruses, which included such worms as W32/Insane.A, which can produce varied copies of itself, defeating a static signature file. (eweek.com)
  • in January, the software package was updated with improved backup and language options, as well as integrated spyware and virus detection. (eweek.com)
  • But it failed to stop some viruses, file infectors and polymorphic malware which constantly changes in an effort to avoid detection by security software. (neowin.net)
  • He believes the detection of traces of old virus could partly explain why the number of cases is rising while hospital admissions remain stable. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Global IT security and data protection company Sophos announced today that AV-Comparatives, a non-profit independent organization that performs comparative detection capability tests of various popular anti-virus products, awarded Sophos Anti-Virus - part of Sophos Endpoint Security and Data Protection - the highest certification levels in two of the organization's latest tests. (sophos.com)
  • Sophos automatically guards against zero-day threats using Sophos Genotype® virus detection, which proactively blocks families of viruses while Behavioral Genotype® Protection analyzes the behavior of code before it executes. (sophos.com)
  • Plex PCR ® kits are highly multiplexed qPCR tests for detection of infectious diseases. (financialpost.com)
  • During the 2014 outbreak, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services declared that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of in vitro diagnostics for detection of Ebola virus. (prnewswire.com)
  • They will be required to test negative for COVID-19 before leaving Abu Dhabi or other UAE airports. (indiatimes.com)
  • It gives a false sense of security and is potentially dangerous, since people who think they've tested negative for COVID-19 could still be carrying it and infecting others, he said. (brownsvilleherald.com)
  • Tourists visiting Dubai will have to undergo a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nasal swab test before flying from their home country, and need to carry test-result documentation with them. (indiatimes.com)
  • In this case, I am in the rare position of having known, spent time with, and interviewed the inventor of the method used in the presently available Covid-19 tests, which is called PCR, (Polymerase Chain Reaction. (freerepublic.com)
  • The virus cannot be spread from infected horses to other horses or people, he added. (latimes.com)
  • At least 186 people in Japan have so far contracted the virus, with four deaths in the country linked to the outbreak. (yahoo.com)
  • Aside from domestic cases, at least 705 people have been diagnosed with the virus on board a cruise ship that was quarantined off Japan, including passengers who were allowed to leave the boat after testing negative. (yahoo.com)
  • People can choose to either walk in or schedule an appointment and be tested to learn their Hepatitis C status. (in.gov)
  • People have for the first time really come to realize that written information that is available in the public domain about viruses can be used to regenerate the real virus," Wimmer said. (latimes.com)
  • Most people are infectious only for about a week, but could test positive weeks afterwards. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The latest virus has killed at least 17 people so far. (yahoo.com)
  • Early diagnosis and treatment with anti-HIV drugs can help people with HIV stay healthy for a long time and can decrease the chance of passing the virus to others. (acog.org)
  • The vast majority of people recover from the new virus. (nba.com)
  • In mainland China, where the virus first exploded, more than 80,000 people have been diagnosed and more than 58,000 have so far recovered. (nba.com)
  • Canyon Creek's operator, Koelsch Communities of Olympia, Washington, hasn't directly said why it turned down free testing at the facility, which has seen 55 positive cases among the 59 people who lived there when the deaths began. (go.com)
  • In Washington state, where 10 people have died, Insurance Commissioner Mike Kreidler moved to dispel doubts Thursday by ordering insurers in the state not to charge copays or deductibles to people who require coronavirus tests. (pbs.org)
  • Responding to a question about concerns, she said, "We're going to continue to look at that, that if it becomes an issue, I would say that's something we want to make sure people have access to tests. (pbs.org)
  • Many people would prefer to not get tested. (thestar.com)
  • Latinos are disproportionately at risk for the virus because of health problems like diabetes, a tendency to live in larger groups and be employed in hospitality and other work that puts them in contact with more people. (thestar.com)
  • We'd like to partner more with the state to better educate our communities about testing opportunities and how people can better protect themselves," said state Sen. Tony Navarrete, one of the Latino lawmakers and health care leaders who discussed the issue with Gov. Doug Ducey's staff in a recent online conference. (thestar.com)
  • If that happens, Brevard would join 14 counties in northern Florida already on alert for the viruses that can cause potentially fatal brain infections in people. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • So far, more than 570 people have fallen ill with the virus and 172 have died, most of them in Saudi Arabia. (medicinenet.com)
  • Camels have been identified as carriers of MERS, but it's not known how the virus is being spread to people. (medicinenet.com)
  • Trump told supporters at his campaign rally that the U.S. has tested 25 million people, far more than any other country. (indiatimes.com)
  • After struggling to ramp up coronavirus testing, the U.S. can now screen several million people daily, thanks to a growing supply of rapid tests. (necn.com)
  • Experts pushed for more "point-of-care" rapid testing that could be done in doctors offices, clinics and other sites to quickly find people who are infected, get them into quarantine and stop the spread. (necn.com)
  • Make no mistake about it, what you see today is that America is going back to work and the American people are finding a way every day to put this coronavirus farther in the past," he told CNBC the same day the country reported more than 55,000 new virus cases, a daily record. (columbian.com)
  • The reason Bill Gates wants you to believe a Corona Virus will exterminate over 450 million people is that he hates nature, God, and you. (freerepublic.com)
  • The tests are meant to be used to diagnose such infections in people who are sexually active and expectant mothers. (fdanews.com)
  • People acquire infections with the virus when it transfers during a tick bite or possibly other insects. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A few of these viruses can cause people to get sick. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • How do people get infected with Bourbon virus? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We do not yet fully know how people become infected with Bourbon virus. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • People likely become infected with Bourbon virus when they are bitten by a tick or other insect. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • How can people reduce the chance of becoming infected with Bourbon virus? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We are pleased that the information regarding the testing sites has penetrated communities, and we have a consistent flow of people being tested at each site," Bellone said. (newsday.com)
  • The quarantine applies to people coming from states with a positive test rate higher than 10 per 100,000 residents on a seven-day average, or with a 10% or higher positive rate over seven days. (iol.co.za)
  • The virus causes COVID-19, a disease that primarily requires hospital care in the elderly and people with compromised immune systems. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Latino leaders say governments need to do more to communicate effectively with Hispanic communities to ensure people know where to get tested and encourage them to participate. (chron.com)
  • It was reported on October 17 that all the other people suspected of being infected in Spain had tested negative for the Ebola virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tens of thousands of coronavirus test kits that went unused during a 12-day testing blitz in Phoenix's hardest-hit Latino neighborhoods shows a failure to spread the word to a community that's often distrustful of government. (abc15.com)
  • On the last day of testing in a state that's a national COVID-19 hot spot, just four vehicles lined up on a sweltering morning while a half-dozen uniformed members of the Arizona National Guard milled outside large white tents at a huge desert park in Phoenix. (thestar.com)
  • Suspicion over uniformed National Guard members at the testing site and initial requirements to show IDs and pre-register also stopped many Latinos from getting a free test in the national COVID-19 hot spot. (abc15.com)
  • Using a genetic recipe from the Internet and mail-order DNA, scientists in New York have built an infectious polio virus from scratch, raising the grim prospect that bioterrorists could eventually create their own virulent diseases in test tubes. (latimes.com)
  • While the virus contains genetic material, it is not considered a living entity, meaning the scientists did not "create life. (latimes.com)
  • Wimmer agreed that it is unlikely terrorists would resort to sophisticated genetic techniques to create viruses since many of them are easily obtainable. (latimes.com)
  • The PCR swab test - the standard diagnostic method - uses chemicals to amplify the virus's genetic material so that it can be studied. (bbc.co.uk)
  • FiveThirtyEight writes that most who take a direct-to-consumer BRCA1/2 genetic test won't learn much from it. (genomeweb.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A quick new genetic test has helped identify mysterious germs that sickened dozens of New Yorkers in a 2004 outbreak, researchers reported on Thursday. (biospace.com)
  • Early in the outbreak, nearly all U.S. testing relied on genetic tests that could only be developed at high-tech laboratories. (necn.com)
  • It withstands toxic, microbial inundation on a grand scale at all times, while operating a super-highway of adaptive life-sustaining genetic information, on cellular bridges, emitting telegrams of vital evolutionary code, slandered as viruses or retroviruses. (freerepublic.com)
  • Arriving at the northern Norwegian port of Tromso from the archipelago of Svalbard, the crew of the MS Roald Amundsen was quarantined on board the ship yesterday after four staff members tested positive for the virus and were hospitalised. (rte.ie)
  • Wood's diagnosis became known one week after he played against the Utah Jazz - spending much of that night matched up with Rudy Gobert, who was the first NBA player known to test positive for the virus . (nba.com)
  • Utah's Donovan Mitchell has also tested positive for the virus. (nba.com)
  • INDIANAPOLIS (AP) - Just days after public schools around the state reopened their doors for the first time since March, at least one student and one school staff member have tested positive for the virus. (ap.org)
  • In the Greenfield-Central Community School Corporation, 20 miles east of Indianapolis, a student tested positive for the virus on the first day back to class. (ap.org)
  • Superintendent Harold Olin sent an email to parents of students at Greenfield-Central Junior High School Thursday afternoon notifying them that a student at the school had tested positive for the virus. (ap.org)
  • The minke whale, which was tagged with graffiti the night it washed up on the beach, is the first whale that tested positive for the virus in New Jersey. (cnn.com)
  • The top-ranked Serb is the fourth player to test positive for the virus after first playing in Belgrade and then again last weekend in Zadar, Croatia. (theepochtimes.com)
  • For an anterior nasal test, the swab will be inserted into your nostril no more than 3/4 of an inch (2 centimeters). (medlineplus.gov)
  • At-home testing kits are also available that collect a sample using a either nasal swab or sample of saliva. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We carried out 190 nasal swab tests," Dr. Antonio Cascio, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Palermo who is the tournament's anti-virus coordinator, said Friday. (espn.com)
  • EVD, which is caused by the Ebola virus, is a severe, often fatal disease in humans that can spread through direct contact with blood or body fluids or objects contaminated with body fluids, as well as from the bodies of those who have died from the virus. (prnewswire.com)
  • At the time, the FDA worked with CDC and test developers to make diagnostic tests, including the OraQuick Ebola Test, available through the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) pathway. (prnewswire.com)
  • Today's marketing authorization of the first EVD presumptive rapid diagnostic test for Ebola virus antigens through the De Novo review pathway reflects the ongoing collaboration between the U.S. Government and test developers to gather additional data on EUA products. (prnewswire.com)
  • For the OraQuick Ebola Test submission, the FDA reviewed data from multiple clinical studies of blood samples and cadaveric oral fluid from the 2014 West African outbreak and from a variety of analytical studies. (prnewswire.com)
  • Based on these data, the FDA determined that general and special controls were necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the OraQuick Ebola Test when intended to identify antigens associated with Ebola virus in blood from symptomatic patients and oral fluid of cadavers. (prnewswire.com)
  • No one both contracted and died of Ebola virus disease while in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 15, 2014, the family of Marthalene Williams, who later died of Ebola virus disease, could not call an ambulance to transfer the pregnant Williams to a hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2014, María Teresa Romero Ramos, an auxiliary nurse who had cared for Manuel García Viejo at the Hospital Carlos III had become unwell and on 6 October tested positive for Ebola at her local hospital in Alcorcón, the Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. (wikipedia.org)
  • On October 20 it was announced that Teresa Romero had tested negative for the Ebola virus, suggesting she may have cleared the virus from her system. (wikipedia.org)
  • BERLIN (AP) - German soccer club Union Berlin is offering free coronavirus tests for more than 20,000 fans as part of a plan to hold games in a full stadium in September. (ap.org)
  • This test is used to diagnose COVID-19. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Christian Drosten, the director of the Institute for Virology at Berlin's Charite hospital, said the test developed by his team will allow labs to reliably diagnose the so-called novel coronavirus 'in a very short period of time. (nytimes.com)
  • Drosten, who was one of the co-discoverers of SARS, said the two viruses are so closely related that laboratories which have control samples for SARS in stock can use it to diagnose the new virus, cutting the time required to create a functioning test. (nytimes.com)
  • Most scientists do not consider viruses to be life because they depend on their hosts for survival. (latimes.com)
  • As fisheries scientists continue to investigate fish kills in southwest Nova Scotia, the latest round of testing is again negative for viruses. (cbc.ca)
  • Scientists hope that learning more about the virus will help them address factors that may facilitate its spread. (cnn.com)
  • Scientists injected a genetically-modified virus into guinea pigs to turn part of their heart into a new, working pacemaker. (slashdot.org)
  • A team of scientists from eight research institutes (including Harvard and the Max Planck Institute in Germany) have just devised the new test, made possible by advancements in robotics and DNA sequencing technologies. (popularmechanics.com)
  • That dramatically lowers the cost of the test-the scientists say it could be performed for only $25 and in just a few days. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Scientists do not yet know what animals can get infected or become sick from Bourbon virus. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (infectious mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignant diseases, and other diseases). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This in turn appears to be linked to how likely the virus is to be infectious - tests that have to go through more cycles are less likely to reproduce when cultured in the lab. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The efficiency of the protocols and the related tests allowed us to intercept a positive case," said Dr. Antonio Cascio, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Palermo who is the tournament's anti-virus coordinator. (yahoo.com)
  • While the virus is generally spread through the air or through contact with other animals, it is not infectious to humans. (cnn.com)
  • Further, the materials required for the test do not require refrigeration and may be applicable in testing for other emerging infectious diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • When we developed the HIV test, we knew we could use the same model for any infectious disease. (nyu.edu)
  • Roque was referring to the Sansure Natch CS Fully Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System purchased by the private sector for Project ARK (antibody rapid test kits) priced at P1.75 million per unit and the Thermo Scientific King Fisher Flex Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Machine, amounting to P4 million per unit. (inquirer.net)
  • Many in the anti-malware community are adamant that creating viruses is always a bad thing, and never necessary in order to test anti-virus software. (eweek.com)
  • Independent security certification body Virus Bulletin tested 15 security suites on Windows Vista against a set of malware from the WildList database. (neowin.net)
  • Here are some tips From a SANS "OUCH" article on anti-malware choices & testing: "Get some good bets by reading comparative reviews of competing products published by third-parties, such as PCWorld, Consumer Reports, and MacWorld. (techtarget.com)
  • I tried with a test email address some time ago to try and attract as much malware as possible to it, but all I ever got was masses of spam adverts and not a single malware sample, so I guess the spammers that mass-distribute malware use different to the spamming lists for viagra etc. (wilderssecurity.com)
  • P.S. I'd be interested in suggestions from anyone who knows a good way of setting up a test email address to attract as much mass-mailed malware as possible. (wilderssecurity.com)
  • Why should pregnant women be tested for human immunodeficiency virus? (acog.org)
  • However, the institute, a branch of the National Academy of Sciences here, recommends making the test available to pregnant women in areas where the human immunodeficiency virus that causes the disease is especially prevalent. (edweek.org)
  • Today we are re-issuing our advisory to pregnant women not to travel down to the Central and South American countries where the virus is rampant, and want to make the broader Houston community aware the virus can be transmitted sexually. (click2houston.com)
  • Dread going for a smear test? (newscientist.com)
  • Traditional cytology-based smear tests involve using a speculum to hold the vagina open, while a small brush is used to collect cells from the cervix, which are then assessed for pre-cancerous changes using a microscope. (newscientist.com)
  • Unfortunately, data doesn't exist that would allow urine testing to be compared with more traditional smear tests - something Pathak says should be investigated in any future trials. (newscientist.com)
  • For the conventional "Pap" smear test, cells are scraped from around the cervix - the neck of the womb - and "smeared" on to a slide. (newscientist.com)
  • All women enrolled in the study were given both the conventional smear and the HPV test, so that the two could be compared. (newscientist.com)
  • This means that the HPV test is less specific than the smear test - producing warnings for women who are in good health. (newscientist.com)
  • As of June 2018, a limited number of Bourbon virus disease cases have been identified in the Midwest and southern United States. (emedicinehealth.com)