The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Diseases of plants.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing subcutaneous localized swellings in rabbits, usually on the feet.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
During the 19th century, the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same ... Species: †Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the ... Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature.[23] ... The clinical definition of smallpox is an illness with acute onset of fever equal to or greater than 38.3 °C (101 °F) followed ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Common fecal-oral transmitted pathogens include Vibrio cholerae, Giardia species, rotaviruses, Entameba histolytica, ... Smallpox and Vaccinia. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived June 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ... In the latter case, the disease may only be defined as a "disease" (which by definition means an illness) in hosts who ...
"Herpesviruses: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)". Understanding Viruses (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-7637-8553- ... "Definition of Chickenpox". MedicineNet.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2006.. ... Humans are the only known species that the disease affects naturally.[7] However, chickenpox has been caused in other animals, ... This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ...
Examples of viruses that undergo this process are herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[44] ... It is common to speak of an entire species of bacteria as pathogenic when it is identified as the cause of a disease (cf. ... Definitions: pathogenicity vs virulence; incidence vs prevalence". COLOSS. Archived from the original on 2017-04-24. Retrieved ... Vaccines exist for viruses such as the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the influenza virus.[30] Some viruses such as ...
The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells.[49] Viruses are now ... Infection in other species. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has ... Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ...
Subgenus (-virus) Species. As of 2018, 14 orders, 143 families, 64 subfamilies, 846 genera, and 4,958 species of viruses have ... The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells.[50] Viruses are now ... Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Examples of viruses that undergo this process are herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[9] ... Definitions: pathogenicity vs virulence; incidence vs prevalence". COLOSS.. *^ Carl Nathan (2015-10-09). "From transient ... It is common to speak of an entire species of bacteria as pathogenic when it is identified as the cause of a disease (cf. ... Viruses may also undergo sexual interaction when two or more viral genomes enter the same host cell. This process involves ...
Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from these species to other species, and may then cause outbreaks in domestic poultry or ... Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus ... The phases are defined by the spread of the disease; virulence and mortality are not mentioned in the current WHO definition, ... Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II By Jonathan Nor, TheHistoryNet Smallpox and Vaccinia Archived 1 ...
"From ONYX-015 to Armed Vaccinia Viruses: The Education and Evolution of Oncolytic Virus Development". Current Cancer Drug ... One non-species C oncolytic adenovirus currently in development is ColoAd1. It was created using a process of "directed ... Definition of ONYX-015 - National Cancer Institute Drug Dictionary John Nemunaitis; Ian Ganly; Fadlo Khuri; James Arseneau; ... Oncolytic virus Oncolytic AAV Oncolytic herpes virus Virotherapy Pandha, K. J. Harrington; edited by Richard G. Vile, Hardev ( ...
Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells. Viruses are now recognised as ... Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Dobson BM, Tscharke DC (November 2015). "Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus". The ... 4000 bacterial species for predicting essential genes. Although most essential genes encode proteins, many essential proteins ... Most of the essential genes in viruses are related to the processing and maintenance of genetic information. In contrast to ... presented a similar approach and identified 3,450 domains that are essential in at least one microbial species. Essential amino ...
These results are discussed in light of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses species definition, as well ... The species Cowpox virus has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report ... Data support the recognition of five monophyletic clades of Cowpox viruses as valid species. ... a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. ...
... is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high ... Vaccinia Virus. The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used ... Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions. Cowpox Virus. A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is ... Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is ...
RNA virus explanation free. What is RNA virus? Meaning of RNA virus medical term. What does RNA virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of RNA virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... vaccinia virus a species of orthopoxvirus that does not occur in nature and has been propagated for many years only in the ... wild-type virus street virus.. RNA vi·rus. a group of viruses in which the core consists of RNA; a major group of animal ...
The compositions are derived from Fomitopsis, Piptoporus, Ganoderma resinaceum and blends of medicinal mushroom species and are ... useful in preventing and treating viruses including Pox and HIV viruses. ... the virus immunologically. Most poxviruses are host-species specific, but Vaccinia is a remarkable exception. True pox viruses ... A case definition of AIDS for national reporting was first published in 1982 and AIDS was declared a new epidemic. Since that ...
Preliminary data indicate that the MPXV strain isolated during this outbreak was a novel virus belonging to the Congo Basin ... This finding will enhance understanding of the ecologic niche for this virus. ... To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a ... Assays designed to detect generic-level and species-specific DNA signatures and virus culture procedures have been described ( ...
The species ,i,Cowpox virus,/i, has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this spec … ... a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. ... These results are discussed in light of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses species definition, as well ... Keywords: Cowpox virus; Vaccinia virus; misnomers; monophyly; phylogenomics; polyphyly; poxvirus; smallpox; species ...
Vaccinia Laboratory Diagnostics The smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus, a species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, ... The majority of the case definitions for vaccinia adverse reactions were drafted by the Vaccinia Case Definition Development ... specific testing also should be completed for these viruses. ... might acquire vaccinia infection. Vaccinia virus is shed from ... fetal vaccinia; generalized vaccinia; accidental autoinoculation, nonocular; ocular vaccinia; progressive vaccinia; erythema ...
DNA from viruses is more infectious than the intact virus itself.. * Routine chemical inactivation of genetically engineered ... Viral genomes, eg, cauliflower mosaic virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia, baculovirus, adenovirus, SV40, many bacteriophages ... many are shuttle-vectors designed for replication in more than one species, pantropic vectors cross many species barriers ... They are, by definition, xenobiotics substances foreign to nature - with the potential to cause harm. Some, such as gene ...
... such recombinant viruses being generated by established techniques involving recombination between wild-type vaccinia virus and ... A. Definitions. As used herein, "β-amyloid core protein" means the protein described by Masters, C. L., et al Proc Natl Acad ... Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bakers yeast, are most used although a number of other strains or species are ... The infectious recombinant vaccinia virus may then be used to immunize mice. Two weeks after infection, mice are sacrificed and ...
... of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus ... Spots in pre-treated wells display improved definition, and there is a reduction in the number of spots in medium/DMSO negative ... Laddy, D. J., et al. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation ... Todo, H. Transdermal Permeation of Drugs in Various Animal Species. Pharmaceutics. 9, (3), 33 (2017). ...
One emerging class in both primary and salvage therapy is oncolytic viruses. This therapy offers a multimodal approach to ... Intratumor injection of oncolytic viruses, in contrast, has a markedly lower rate of serious adverse effects and perhaps ... Early stage clinical trials using oncolytic viruses show induction of effector anti-tumor immune responses and suggest that ... and limitations of oncolytic viruses. It will be with this foundational understanding that the future of oncolytic viral ...
virus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... tumor virus. A virus that causes malignant neoplasms. Viruses suspected of causing tumors in humans include Epstein-Barr virus ... vaccinia virus. A double-stranded DNA virus, the causative agent of cowpox and a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus. Vaccines ... Banna virus. ABBR: BAV The type species of the southeast Asian genus Seadornavirus (family Reoviridae). It is transmitted to ...
Viruses. The WR strain of vaccinia virus was obtained from Dr. Bernard Moss (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious ... Definition of an HLA-A3-like supermotif demonstrates the overlapping peptide-binding repertoires of common HLA molecules. Hum. ... Species-specific differences in proteasomal processing and tapasin-mediated loading influence peptide presentation by HLA-B27 ... hepatitis C virus; ORF, open reading frame; VARV, variola virus; WR, Western Reserve; VACV, vaccinia virus WR strain; SI, ...
Maitland grew vaccinia virus in. During this process the virus complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by ... Cross-species transmission Glossary of virology. HIV is dependent Virion a different agents which can be Virion due to the ... More Definitions for virion. Se, kuinka suuri osa nist mukaan viranomaisille ei ole tss saakka Pro-keskus ei ole perinyt ELSA ... Replication of viruses involves primarily viruses, pandemics might result. Cells in which the virus Virion latent and inactive ...
... and vaccinia ) causes AIDS species of the word virus. and )... Or tick bite June Almeida and David Tyrrell who first observed ... s largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search-ad!... Illness are known corona viruses ( which can ... www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virus. Definition; VIRUS: Vital Information Resources Under Siege (slang) VIRUS: Very ... Any virus that, after infecting a cell, lyses it. Viruses suspected of causing tumors in humans include Epstein-Barr virus ( ...
We have analyzed the distributions of the block entropies of viruses and plant genomes. A distinct pattern for viruses and ... The analysis of the JS distances between all genomes that infect the chlorella algae shows the host specificity of the viruses ... We illustrate the efficacy of this entropy-based clustering technique by the segregation of plant and virus genomes into ... The viruses PBCV-1, NY2A and AR158 replicate exclusively in the chlorella species C. NC64A. The hosts for the remaining viruses ...
Application to vaccinia virus. Participant 9 from a previous report (47) was re-vaccinated with vaccinia 20 months prior to ... Definition of HSV-1 peptide epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells enriched by cross-presentation. To test for the presence of ... Herpes simplex viruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology . Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Lippincott, Williams, ... In addition to MHC class I peptide binding preferences, these differences may reflect species-specific effects of HSV-1 HLA ...
Black rectangles represent the 18-nt deletion shared by group 1 Brazilian vaccinia virus (BRZ-VACV) and VACV-Institute Oswaldo ... A) Strict consensus of the 6 most parsimonious trees derived from Orthopoxvirus species on the basis of B19R, E3L, and A56R ... Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins Giliane S. Trindade*1, Ginny L. Emerson*1, Darin S. Carroll*, Erna G.†, and Inger ... See Table 2 for other definitions.. Main Article. 1These authors contributed equally to this work. ...
... and basics of a Novel Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Carrying the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter . care of a radical online acne ... Intraluminal viruses may normally deal it, but works ahead protect it. Chang E, Alexander HR, Libutti SK, et al. full awesome ... When I let through all of the latest nature on president event, I established to my material that there were 30 species of ... and came noted to eventually try really and remain useful definition in agreement to print my Increases and supplies. ...
1995) A vaccinia virus-vectored Hantaan virus vaccine protects hamsters from challenge with Hantaan and Seoul viruses but not ... Different species, and different individuals within a species, appear to exhibit differing levels of cross-neutralizing ... Hamster 2119 exhibited cross-neutralizing antibodies, but was not protected by definition because there was a detectable anti-N ... Four hantaviruses-Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Dobrava virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus-are known to cause ...
The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells.[49] Viruses are now ... Infection in other species. Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has ... Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ...
Influenza viruses can be spread among various animal species, and infection from non-human species (such as avians, porcines, ... adeno-associated virus, baculovirus, parvovirus, retrovirus, vaccinia, poxvirus, and the like), algae, protozoans, protists, ... DEFINITIONS. The terms "about" and "approximately" as used herein, are interchangeable, and should generally be understood to ... influenza A virus. In the process of antigenic shift, two or more different strains of a single virus (or of different viruses ...
Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. ... Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses ... A vaccinia virus-vectored Hantaan virus vaccine protects hamsters from challenge with Hantaan and Seoul viruses but not Puumala ... Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol 11: 318-321.[ ...
The SARS virus, which also originated in a market in China, infected a total of 8,098. Middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) ... mers virus origin: swine flu: mers virus definition: zika virus: Prev. 1 234 5. Next 46 results. Top News Videos for mers virus ... Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a safety-tested strain of vaccinia virus for preclinical and clinical vaccine research, ... The China virus, MERS and SARS are all RNA viruses. It means that instead of DNA, the viruses have RNA as their genetic ...
Definition:. Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and ... Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature. ... However, unlike variola species, molluscum infection is benign. The lifecycle of poxviruses is complicated by having multiple ... Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ...
As evidence of this, he reports that "While doctors now accept that Vaccinia can activate other viruses, they are divided about ... West Nile virus, Dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever, Palm Creek virus, and Parramatta River virus. ... A disease was either defined by its symptoms or by its associated anatomical lesions [6]. Neither sort of definition ... attributable to the fungus species Pneumocystis carinii. He notes that while this is commonly found in the human body, it can ...
Vaccinium corymbosum ) - Cultivar Susceptibility Cultivar Mummy Berry* 1° Mummy Berry* 2° Blueberry Scorch Bacterial Canker ... Recommendations for Broadcast Spraying for Control of Listed Species. *Recommendations for Directed Spot Spray, Tree Injection ... Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Definitions. *Pesticide Spills and Cleanup. *Cleaning, Recycling, and Disposing of ... Susceptibility to a strain of the virus found in BC.. *** Based on Poloshock et al. 2005 ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
Andean potato latent virus. *Andean potato mottle virus. *Arracacha virus B oca strain ... Multiple Species Diseases *Anthrax in Animals. *Aujeszkys disease. *Bluetongue. *Echinococcosishydatidosis. *Foot and mouth ... info , definition Language Selection. For any category/filter, users can choose:. *the language of the categorized news items ( ... Diaporthe vaccinii. *Diplocarpon mali. *Draeculacephala minerva. *Unknown Pests Filtered. *Elm yellows phytoplasma ...
  • Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines expressing foreign (RSV) neutralizing epitopes or conserved M2e epitopes that are capable of providing broader cross-protection against influenza virus and/or protecting against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) without vaccine-enhanced RSV disease (ERD). (patents.com)
  • 1. A recombinant influenza virus comprising a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein, wherein the HA fusion protein comprises a HA protein or fragment thereof, and one or more tandem repeats of three or more heterologous influenza virus matrix protein 2 extracellular (M2e) domains, or a neutralizing polypeptide domain of attachment (G) or fusion (F) proteins derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
  • 2. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises one or more M2e domains from a human influenza A subtype, one or more M2e domains from a swine influenza A subtype, and one or more M2e domains from an avian influenza A subtype. (patents.com)
  • 3. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises the RSV G or F neutralizing domains derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
  • 5. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein further comprises a signal peptide at the N-terminus or in the middle HA head domain of HA protein. (patents.com)
  • The data in figure 1 are results from monkeys that were immunized with several doses of a recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus (modified vaccinia Ankara) that expresses many of the structural proteins of SIV. (cjscons.com)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge relating to APVs, including classification, morphogenesis, host-virus interactions, diagnostics and disease, and also highlights the use of APVs as recombinant vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge of APVs as avian pathogens, including classification, morphogenesis, host-virus interactions, diagnosis, as well as issues relevant to their use as recombinant vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here an optimized protocol for generating recombinant viruses. (jove.com)
  • By streamlining the generation of fluorescent recombinant viruses, we are able to facilitate downstream applications such as advanced imaging analysis of many aspects of the virus-host interplay that occurs during virus replication. (jove.com)
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Julkaisun nimi: VPg-eIF(iso)4E interaction, coat protein production and virion formation in potato virus A infection. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • Julkaisun nimi: Discovery of salt-loving pleolipoviruses infecting archaea: vesicle-like virion in potato virus A infection. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in origins of viruses: [49] [50].Aikataulut Varaukset Valmistettavat maailmassa kuin se heikko, avuton tiistaina klo 12 Edeltvn viikon joka valvoo Sinua aamuun surun torstaina klo 12 Uudiskohdeliite Mrpaikat kondomi hieronta forhold lieksa play. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • After initial contact with the skin or mucous membranes, the virus migrates along nerve fibers to sensory ganglia, where it establishes a latent infection. (softups.com)
  • Beijerinck, in studying tobacco mosaic virus, mistakenly believed that the agent was a fluid (contagium vivum fluidum, "living fluid infection") because it passed through filters capable of trapping bacteria. (softups.com)
  • Analysis of measles virus (MV) pathogenesis requires the development of an adequate small animal model of MV infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This suggests the existence of intracellular factors, acting posterior to virus entry, that could limit MV replication in murine lymphocytes and should be considered when creating new animal models of MV infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • ZMapp, an experimental therapeutic drug developed by Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc., is designed to treat people infected with Ebola virus and is not designed to prevent infection. (nvic.org)
  • Most infecting viruses check if the host file already has an infection. (everything2.com)
  • Abortive infection in mammalian cells (no production of progeny viruses) and their ability to accommodate multiple gene inserts are some of the characteristics that make APVs promising vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Daclatasvir plus simeprevir with or without ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. (labome.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate time course infections of HeLa cells with Vaccinia virus and sampling RNA at several time points post-infection. (jove.com)
  • Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes respiratory disease throughout life, with infants and the elderly at risk of severe disease and death. (bmj.com)
  • We also describe a Western blot technique in which up to 3 diagnostic bands may be used to distinguish between vaccinia and monkeypox infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibodies against the external proteins of influenza can prevent the virus from infecting cells and either prevent infection or limit the spread of infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Once a cell has been infected with the virus, it is then vulnerable to T cell attack resulting in the destruction of infected cells so that no more virus can be produced and the infection is controlled. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Seasonal influenza infection results in a T cell response to the virus which can protect against subsequent infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When you eliminate NS1 from influenza, the virus is - as you'd expect - greatly weakened, and infection with these defective viruses cranks up interferon and thereby, in turn, cranks up the rest of the immune response. (iayork.com)
  • A few require co-infection with helper viruses from other families. (ictvonline.org)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Purification and characterization of a GTP-pyrophosphate exchange activity from vaccinia virions. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope , as they are one-hundredth the size of most bacteria. (popflock.com)
  • In a number of animal and plant viruses the replication and transcription complexes as well as nucleocapsids, assembly intermediates and virions, accumulate in specific virus induced structures within the host cell cytoplasm described as 'virus assembly factories' or 'virus inclusion bodies' (VIBs) [ 1 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors of Mekelle blood bank, Northern Ethiopia: A three year retrospective study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, it has been shown that human responses to infections with different viruses (Flu, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV)) tend to be multispecific (directed against multiple proteins derived from a given pathogen) and broad (directed against multiple determinants within a given protein) ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These nucleic acids range from oligonucleotides consisting of less than 20 nucleotides to artificial constructs thousands or millions of basepairs in length, typically containing a heterogeneous collection of genes from pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites belonging to practically every kingdom of living organisms. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The constructs typically contain antibiotic resistance marker genes plus a heterogeneous array of genes from pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites belonging to practically every kingdom of living organisms on earth (2).Most of the naked nucleic acids and constructs have either never existed in nature, or if they have, not in such large amounts. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. (ajtmh.org)
  • Kinetics of lymphocyte proliferation during primary immune response in macaques infected with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: preliminary report of the effect of early antiviral therapy. (labome.org)
  • We have analyzed the rate of discovery of pathogenic viruses, the preeminent source of newly discovered causes of human disease, from 1897 through 2010. (pnas.org)
  • Live Attenuated Influenza Viruses Containing NS1 Truncations as Vaccine Candidates against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. (iayork.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (tabers.com)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25] In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a group of viruses that infect bacteria, now called bacteriophages[26] (or commonly phages), and the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle described viruses that, when added to bacteria on an agar plate, would produce areas of dead bacteria. (metal-invest.pl)
  • He accurately diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions (lowest virus concentrations), rather than killing all the bacteria, formed discrete areas of dead organisms. (metal-invest.pl)
  • A virus is a small animals and plants to bacteria and archaea . (gutenberg.us)
  • But this theory does not explain the presence of genetically engineered viruses and bacteria in chemtrail residue, or the resulting epidemic of flu-like symptoms. (kindness2.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (tabers.com)
  • In this study we use a multipronged approach to understand the diversity of CTL responses to vaccinia virus, a prototypic poxvirus with a genome ∼20-fold larger than that of the model RNA viruses typically studied in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • The system proposed Virion Lwoff, Horne and Tournier was initially not accepted by the Ruotsinsalmen Taistelu because the small genome size of viruses and their high rate of mutation made it difficult to determine their ancestry beyond order. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • A virus such as the HIV, influenza virus, and polio virus whose genome is ribonucleic acid (RNA). (softups.com)
  • L protein) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV;family Bunyaviridae ) is a 238 kDa protein that is crucial for the life cycle of the virus, as it catalysesboth transcription of viral mRNAs and replication of the tripartite genome. (idslide.net)
  • A common feature of all Mononegavirales viruses is the possession of a nonsegmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome. (asm.org)
  • Since the genome organizations of the different nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses are quite similar, it is presumed that the transcription process follows a general mechanism. (asm.org)
  • The nucleocapsid proteins have a dual function in the viral replication cycle: they are involved in virus morphogenesis as structural components ( 22 ), and they catalyze replication and transcription of the RNA genome. (asm.org)
  • African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Animals that were previously infected with 1 B clade strain were protected to various degrees against challenge with a second B clade strain [46], but the superinfecting virus always infects, as evidenced when sensitive methods are used to detect its genome in peripheral blood cells [46, 47]. (cjscons.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV), the live vaccine used in the eradication of smallpox, is particularly amenable to fluorescent live-cell microscopy owing to its large virion size and the ease with which it can be engineered at the genome level. (jove.com)
  • Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are encoded: early, intermediate, and late. (jove.com)
  • In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. (jove.com)
  • Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the immune responses associated with Epstein-Barr virus infections, and to find out the possible immunodeficiencies that may be linked to severe. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a retrospective investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (tabers.com)
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (tabers.com)
  • Recent concerns that variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, could potentially be reintroduced into nature as a bioterrorism weapon, as well as recent outbreaks of zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infections, have led to renewed interest in poxvirus vaccination ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in phase II trials, there has been little difference between virus loads for immunized and control subjects among vaccinees undergoing breakthrough infections [13, 14]. (cjscons.com)
  • We used cross-adsorption to develop a simple and quantitative postadsorption ELISA for distinguishing between monkeypox and vaccinia infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Two clinical conditions of human hantavirus infections have been recognized worldwide: 1) hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) primarily reflecting infections with Hantaan virus (HTNV) in Asia, Dobrava and Puumala (PUUV) viruses in Europe, and Seoul virus worldwide [ 3 - 4 ] and 2) hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) primarily reflecting infections with Sin Nombre (SNV) and Andes (ANDV) viruses in North and South America, respectively [ 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent for human monkeypox, a viral disease with clinical signs in humans similar to those seen in past smallpox patients ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On January 24, 2003, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) implemented a preparedness program in which smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine was administered to federal, state, and local volunteers who might be first responders during a biologic terrorism event. (cdc.gov)
  • As part of the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, CDC in consultation with experts, established surveillance case definitions for adverse events after smallpox vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • This report provides uniform criteria used for the surveillance case definition and classification for these previously recognized adverse reactions used during the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program. (cdc.gov)
  • The smallpox vaccine surveillance case definitions presented in the report can be used in future vaccination programs to ensure uniform reporting guidelines and case classification. (cdc.gov)
  • Uniform criteria for classification of adverse reaction reports after smallpox (vaccinia) vaccination have been established. (cdc.gov)
  • These case definitions and reporting guidelines were used by CDC and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs during the mandatory Department of Defense (DoD) and voluntary U.S. DHHS smallpox vaccination programs that were designed to increase national preparedness in the event of a biologic terrorism attack ( 4-- 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly all of the determinants identified have identical counterparts encoded by modified vaccinia virus Ankara as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings have implications for the design of new smallpox vaccines and the understanding of immune responses to large DNA viruses in general. (jimmunol.org)
  • Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor . (archive.li)
  • Geneticists often use viruses as vectors to introduce genes into cells that they are studying. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • The period of highest arbovirus discovery coincided with a comprehensive program supported by The Rockefeller Foundation of isolating viruses from humans, animals, and arthropod vectors at field stations in Latin America, Africa, and India. (pnas.org)
  • viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by vectors. (gutenberg.us)
  • MVA is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate efficiently in human cell lines and most mammalian cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scF. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Black rectangles represent the 18-nt deletion shared by group 1 Brazilian vaccinia virus (BRZ-VACV) and VACV-Institute Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) and where it maps on the tree. (cdc.gov)
  • Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. (jove.com)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other viruses, however, such as the herpesviruses , actually enter a time known as "viral latency," when little or no replication is taking place until further replication is initiated by a specific trigger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although viral pandemics are rare events, Vatkain evolved from viruses found in monkeys and chimpanzees-has been pandemic since at least the s. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • Efforts to prevent the catastrophic impact of AHS began soon after the determination of its viral etiology in 1900, at which time it was only the second animal virus ever described (8,9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Tagging of viral proteins with fluorescent proteins has proven an indispensable approach to furthering our understanding of virus-host interactions. (jove.com)
  • RSV001 is a phase 1 (first-in-man), open-label, dose-escalation, clinical trial of novel genetic viral-vectored vaccine candidates PanAd3-RSV and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-RSV. (bmj.com)
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (tabers.com)
  • A single-stranded RNA virus that is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease in infants, children, and the older population. (softups.com)
  • Nearly 85% of these emergent viruses had single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genomes ( 7 ), which are prone to uncorrected errors during replication ( 8 ), and the majority were zoonoses ( 7 ), pathogens capable of being transmitted to people from other vertebrates. (pnas.org)
  • Members of family Parvoviridae are small, resilient, non-enveloped viruses with linear, single-stranded DNA genomes of 4-6 kb. (ictvonline.org)
  • Another mushroom recognized for its antiviral activity is Fomes fomentarius , a hoof-shaped wood conk growing trees, which inhibited the tobacco mosaic virus (Aoki et al. (justia.com)
  • 1999) found antiviral activity from the methanol-soluble fractions of Reishi mushrooms ( Ganoderma lucidum ), selectively inhibiting Herpes simplex and the vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV). (justia.com)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These techniques were based on diagnostic approaches such as radioimmunoassays and neutralization assays that used a preadsorption step to remove or reduce cross-reactive orthopoxvirus antibodies before detection of species-specific antiviral antibodies ( 13 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. (uottawa.ca)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using this panel in conjunction with CTLs from vaccinia virus-infected HLA transgenic mice, we identified 14 HLA-A*0201-, 4 HLA-A*1101-, and 3 HLA-B*0702-restricted CD8 + T cell determinants distributed over 20 distinct proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) particles consist of seven structural proteins that are organized into two capsids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, BTV also encodes three non-structural (NS) proteins of which protein 2 (NS2) is the RNA binding protein and is also the major component of virus encoded inclusion bodies (VIBs), which are believed to be virus assembly sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tests have been developed and optimized for serologic differentiation between monkeypox- and vaccinia-induced immunity. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical symptoms of monkeypox can be similar to those of chickenpox (caused by varicella-zoster virus), and these symptoms can cause difficulties in diagnosing cases on the basis of clinical symptoms alone ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Monkeypox confirmation was based on the standard case definition and confirmation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, during the outbreak ( 4 ) or by subsequent immunologic tests ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • ABBR: AAV A genus in the parvovirus family whose members cannot replicate without the presence of another virus. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: BAV The type species of the southeast Asian genus Seadornavirus (family Reoviridae). (tabers.com)
  • The type species of the genus Seadornavirus (family Reoviridae), isolated in Asia. (softups.com)
  • Hantaan virus (HTNV) (genus Hantavirus , family Bunyaviridae ) is the causative agent of the most severe form of a rodent-borne disease known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). (asm.org)
  • A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. (jove.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal disease of equids that is caused by AHS virus (AHSV), a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The virus is transmitted to horses by biting midges in the genus Culicoides (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hantaan virus (HTNV), the prototype of Hantavirus genus, is a rodent-borne pathogen that causes human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, with mortality rate of approximately 15% in Asia. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine Cowpox viruses and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of Cowpox viruses and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species. (mdpi.com)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent investigations associated with gene therapy and vaccines leave little doubt that naked and free nucleic acids are readily taken up by the cells of all species including human beings, and may become integrated into the cell s genetic material. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • DNA is a two-strand molecule that is found in all organisms, such as animals, plants and viruses, and which holds the genetic code, or blueprint, for how these organisms are made and develop. (softups.com)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection , but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanobe Cancer cell HeLa Clonally viruses that have an Virion. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • Virus is a broad, general term for any aspect of the infectious agent which can a part of it can parasitewhereas a virion is an infectious particle in the extracellular phase of the. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • More Definitions for virion. (f-nagasaki.com)
  • Similar to other members of the Reoviridae family, orbiviruses use such specific sites for virus replication and the assembly of virion particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since West Nile virus was identified in the U.S. in 1999, it has produced a nationwide epidemic of encephalitis. (softups.com)
  • Surveillance guidelines that include standardized case definitions for reporting of notifiable infectious diseases are important public health tools that contribute to the assessment of disease trends, measurement of intervention effectiveness, and detection of disease outbreaks ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Before the 2014 outbreak, these outbreaks were assumed to be caused by illegal movement of viremic animals into the controlled area, although the source was established for only 2 of these outbreaks: a type 7 virus for the 1999 outbreak in the surveillance zone and a type 5 virus for the 2006 outbreak in the PZ (Figure 1) (18,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • More recently, derivatives of the Gypsy mushroom, Rozites caperata , were found by Piraino & Brandt (1999) to have significant inhibition against the replication and spread of varicella zoster (the 'shingles' and 'chickenpox' virus), influenza A, and the respiratory syncytial virus but not against HIV and other viruses. (justia.com)
  • Research by Dr. Byong Kak Kim showed that extracts of Reishi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) prevented the death of lymphocytes infected with HIV and inhibited the replication of the virus within the mother and daughter cells (Kim et al. (justia.com)
  • The minimal requirements for targeted homologous recombination during vaccinia replication were determined, which allows the simplification of construct generation. (jove.com)
  • To investigate the contribution of NS2 in virus replication and assembly we have constructed inducible mammalian cell lines expressing full-length NS2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike full-length NS2, neither the amino-, nor carboxyl-terminal fragments formed complete IB structures and each appeared to interfere in overall virus replication when similarly expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these data demonstrate that NS2 is sufficient and necessary for IB formation and a key player in virus replication and core assembly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two types developed from separate strains of simian immunodeficiency virus. (softups.com)
  • Attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), although capable of protecting against virulent strains of SIV, often retain residual pathogenicity. (cjscons.com)
  • Virus has a property to replicate itself and spread itself from one computer to another computer. (softups.com)
  • Viruses replicate only within cells of living hosts. (softups.com)
  • The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (jove.com)
  • Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 neutralizing epitope mapping. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results are discussed in light of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses species definition, as well as immediate and future implications for poxvirus taxonomic classification schemes. (mdpi.com)
  • Covid-19 definition, a potentially severe, primarily respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus and characterized by fever, coughing, and shortness of breath. (softups.com)
  • The molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was studied over four consecutive seasons (1997-2000) in a single tertiary hospital in South Africa: 225 isolates were subgrouped by RT-PCR and the resulting products sequenced. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), is a major global health problem. (bmj.com)
  • Any of a kingdom (Virus) of prokaryote s, usually ultramicroscopic, that consist of nucleic acid , either RNA or DNA , within a case of protein . (everything2.com)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • A) Strict consensus of the 6 most parsimonious trees derived from Orthopoxvirus species on the basis of B19R, E3L, and A56R sequences and rooted with ectromelia virus from Moscow (ECTV-MOS). (cdc.gov)
  • At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. (bioportfolio.com)
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (tabers.com)
  • Because the virus does not infect animals, it is considered a safe vehicle for antigen display in humans and other species. (softups.com)
  • The analysis of the JS distances between all genomes that infect the chlorella algae shows the host specificity of the viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike a worm , a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. (everything2.com)
  • They infect and cause diseases in poultry, pet and wild birds of many species which result in economic losses to the poultry industry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses in two subfamilies, the Parvovirinae and Densovirinae , are distinguished primarily by their respective ability to infect vertebrates (including humans) versus invertebrates. (ictvonline.org)
  • Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is well-illustrated by our prior studies on cowpox virus (CPXV) that encodes po. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arabinoxylane inhibits HIV indirectly through the enhancement of NK cells that target the virus. (justia.com)
  • Intratumor injection of oncolytic viruses, in contrast, has a markedly lower rate of serious adverse effects and perhaps greater specificity to target tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early stage clinical trials using oncolytic viruses show induction of effector anti-tumor immune responses and suggest that such therapies could also morph and redefine both the local target cells' niche as well as impart distant effects on remote cells with a similar molecular profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination ofrecombinant virus-infected cells by immunofluorescence revealed a punctate perinuclear orcytoplasmic distribution of the polymerase that co-localized with the nucleocapsid protein. (idslide.net)
  • It's tempting to think of viruses as incredibly cunning organism s - in fact, it's probably more accurate to think of them as a self-sustaining chemical reaction which happens to involve animal cells. (everything2.com)
  • 24] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. (metal-invest.pl)
  • [18] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus . (gutenberg.us)
  • The present invention relates to methods and products useful in restricting the growth, spread and survivability of viruses in animals, especially humans. (justia.com)
  • Furthermore, nearly all viruses extensively studied in humans and mice contain relatively small genomes (10-20 kb). (jimmunol.org)
  • In an analysis of 188 viruses first found to cause human disease between 1900 and 2005 ( 9 ), the rate at which new viruses were identified in humans appeared to quicken between 1950 and 1970 but then to slow. (pnas.org)
  • Briefly, we used source reports for each virus ( Table S1 ) to document not only the year it was first incriminated as a cause of human disease, but also the year of discovery in a nonhuman animal (if that preceded when it was found in humans), the country of discovery, and the institutional home of the discoverer. (pnas.org)
  • The primary criteria for inclusion were that a virus be a proven pathogen of humans and that it be a taxonomically accepted species. (pnas.org)
  • History Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921 Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope. (metal-invest.pl)
  • The true situation is that lentiviruses are rapidly replicating and spawning dozens of quasi-species until a particularly effective one overruns the ability of the host's immune system to defeat it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is imperative for the modern immuno-oncologist to understand the biological processes underlying the immune dysregulation in cancer as well as the effects, uses, and limitations of oncolytic viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (tabers.com)
  • Such extreme immunodominance is frequently observed in immune responses to various mouse viruses ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Viruses don't think, yet are capable of defeating a highly evolved immune system and everything modern science can throw at them. (everything2.com)
  • the lack of security on these machines enables viruses to spread easily, even infecting the operating system (Unix machines, by contrast, are immune to such attacks). (everything2.com)
  • 3. In 1983, when B-S et al published their paper entitled, "Isolation of a T-lymphotrophic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)", and called the 1.16g/ml band "pure labelled virus", did they mislead the scientific community? (theperthgroup.com)
  • Mediates production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. (genecards.org)
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (tabers.com)
  • The nucleocapsid protein VP30 of Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filovirus family, is known to act as a transcription activator. (asm.org)
  • Ebola virus (EBOV) and the closely related Marburg virus (MBGV) are the only members of the family Filoviridae , which belongs to the order Mononegavirales . (asm.org)
  • Comparable surveillance guidelines for the classification and reporting of adverse reactions after vaccination are nominal and have not commonly include standardized case definitions ( 2, 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We have analyzed the distributions of the block entropies of viruses and plant genomes. (mdpi.com)
  • A distinct pattern for viruses and plant genomes is observed. (mdpi.com)
  • We illustrate the efficacy of this entropy-based clustering technique by the segregation of plant and virus genomes into separate bins. (mdpi.com)
  • Preliminary data indicate that the MPXV strain isolated during this outbreak was a novel virus belonging to the Congo Basin clade. (cdc.gov)
  • [5] [6] The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] [8] The study of viruses is known as virology , a subspeciality of microbiology . (popflock.com)
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (tabers.com)
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • and indeed, NS1-defective influenza viruses are apparently effective and safe vaccines. (iayork.com)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an interview published in late 1998 which Montagnier gave to the French journalist Djamel Tahi, Montagnier was asked why he and his colleagues did not publish electron micrographs proving that the 1.16g/ml band (the "purified virus")contained isolated HIV particles. (theperthgroup.com)
  • This has largely been inferred from electron microscopy data on the localization of incomplete virus particles within VIBs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Perrier M, Desire N, Deback C, Agut H, Boutolleau D, Burrel S. Complementary assays for monitoring susceptibility of varicella-zoster virus resistance to antivirals. (labome.org)
  • Insertion of the 14 aa epitope into the polymerase sequence at aa 1852 resultedin a polymerase that retained functionality in a minigenome assay, and we were able to rescuerecombinant viruses that expressed the modified L protein by reverse genetics. (idslide.net)
  • 1995). Comparison of bunyavirusL protein sequences with those of other RNA polymerasesenabled the definition of four amino acid motifs, called Ato D, that comprise the 'polymerase module' that isconserved in all RNA polymerases (Delarue et al. (idslide.net)
  • The empty virus capsule (protein coat, sheath, etc) is discarded. (everything2.com)
  • We conclude from our experiments that the role of bank voles as an efficient and exclusive CPXV reservoir seems questionable, and that CPXV may be maintained in most regions by other hosts, including other vole species. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A virus with reduced pathogenicity as a result of treatment or repeated passage through hosts. (tabers.com)
  • By the end of the 19th century, viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity, their ability to be filtered, and their requirement for living hosts. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Clade-specific and cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses in 10 subjects naturally infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from different clades. (cjscons.com)
  • Four hantaviruses-Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Dobrava virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus-are known to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. (asm.org)
  • Other hantaviruses that are known to cause HFRS include Seoul virus (SEOV), which causes disease primarily in Asia, and Dobrava virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus (PUUV), which cause disease in Europe, Scandinavia, and western Russia ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • A California serogroup virus of the Bunyaviridae family. (softups.com)
  • For instance, a novel agent or treatment that kills the virus but also harms the human host is neither medically practicable nor commercially attractive. (justia.com)
  • If the definition is limited-as it will be in this report-to only newly recognized causes of human disease, viruses now predominate. (pnas.org)
  • To examine if changes in approach or methods might account for the change in pace, we compiled a list of the viruses found to cause human illness from 1897, when the first virus infecting vertebrates (foot-and-mouth disease virus) was discovered, through 2010 ( Table S1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", [8] and as replicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • A computer virus is basically a snippet of code that replicates and ocassionally does something else. (everything2.com)