The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The family of omnivorous New World skunks, showing typical warning coloration of patterned black and white and able to eject a malodorous secretion when the animal is startled or in danger.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Other viruses may infect primarily a single tissue. For example, rabies virus affects primarily neuronal tissue. Factors ... Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. ... Tissue tropism develops in the following stages: Virus with GPX enters body (where GP - glycoprotein and X is the numeric value ... Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. ...
Examples include, rabies, yellow fever and pappataci fever. The viruses that infect other vertebrates are related to those of ... The viruses of vertebrates are informally distinguished between those that primarily cause infections of humans and those that ... Animal viruses are viruses that infect animals. Viruses infect all cellular life and although viruses infect every animal, ... Humans cannot be infected by plant or insect viruses, but they are susceptible to infections with viruses from other ...
Flying foxes can transmit several non-lethal diseases as well, such as Menangle virus and Nelson Bay virus. These viruses ... Notably, flying foxes can transmit Australian bat lyssavirus, which, along with the rabies virus, causes rabies. Australian bat ... or from contact with an infected person. A 2014 study of the Indian flying fox and Nipah virus found that while Nipah virus ... Most megabats are primarily frugivorous. Throughout the family, a diverse array of fruit is consumed from nearly 188 plant ...
... but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs similar to rabies. Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can ... It occurs primarily in dogs and horses, but can also affect humans. In dogs it affects the gastrointestinal system and lymph ... It is a rare disease in dogs, with cats seven to ten times more likely to be infected. The disease in dogs can affect the lungs ... Kennel cough is an infectious respiratory disease which can be caused by one of several viruses or by Bordetella bronchiseptica ...
Many arthropod-borne neurotropic viruses, like West Nile virus, spread to the brain primarily via the blood system by crossing ... A neurotropic virus is a virus that is capable of infecting nerve cells. A neurotropic virus is said to be neuroinvasive if it ... Important neuroinvasive viruses include poliovirus, which is highly neurovirulent but weakly neuroinvasive, and rabies virus, ... Those causing slow virus infection include measles virus, rubella and JC viruses, and retroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic ...
... may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms. Birds were first artificially infected with rabies in 1884; ... Viruses portal Global Alliance for Rabies Control Rabies in Haiti "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July ... India has the highest rate of human rabies in the world, primarily because of stray dogs, whose number has greatly increased ... Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. It is spread when an infected ...
Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Replication of viruses involves primarily multiplication of the genome. Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA ( ... Some viruses, called satellites, can replicate only within cells that have already been infected by another virus. Viruses are ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Notably, flying foxes can transmit lyssaviruses, which cause rabies. In Australia the rabies virus is not naturally present; ... Smith, Ina; Wang, Lin-Fa (2013). "Bats and their virome: An important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans". ... Most species are primarily frugivores and rely on their keen senses of sight and smell to locate food.[6] They reach sexual ... Flying foxes are also reservoirs of henipaviruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus. Hendra virus was first identified in ...
The routine prevention technique practiced by experts is isolation from potentially infected organisms, primarily feral birds ... The Flanders virus is similar to the antigentic make-up of the Hart Park virus. Both the HP and Flanders viruses are part of ... The HP virus is classified in the Rhabdoviridae family and is related to the viral agents that cause rabies and vesicular ... Similarly, the Flanders virus typically infects wild birds. The primary targets of the Flanders virus are red-winged blackbirds ...
The release of rabies virus from the salivary glands into the saliva." J Infect Dis. 1979 Oct;140(4):610-13 article Viral ... This is used primarily by non-enveloped viruses, although enveloped viruses display this too. An example is the use of ... Although this process is primarily used by non-enveloped viruses, enveloped viruses may also use this. HIV is an example of an ... Budding has been most extensively studied for viruses of eukaryotes. However, it has been demonstrated that viruses infecting ...
... subfamily Torovirinae that primarily infect vertebrates and include Berne virus of horses and Breda virus of cattle. They cause ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ... dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other viruses. Many flavivirus species can ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ...
CST of rabies virus variants between many different species populations is a major concern of wildlife management. Introduction ... Pathogens of more distantly related species, on the other hand, such as plant viruses, may not be capable of infecting humans ... The authors of a study on the bubonic plague in Oran stress that the disease "is primarily a bacterial zoonosis affecting ... Humans usually become infected through the bite of an infected rodent flea." The sanitary control measure instituted by the ...
... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... Viruses that cause viral encephalitis first infect the body and replicate outside of the central nervous system (CNS). ... Treatment of viral encephalitis is primarily supportive with intravenous antiviral therapy due to there being no specific ... California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
... such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range.[131] The viruses that infect ... Replication of viruses involves primarily multiplication of the genome. Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA ( ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Rabies. Rabies virus. commonly - dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, ... When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis.[7] The term is from Greek: ζῷον zoon "animal" and ... Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous ... Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001). "The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and ...
Rabies is fatal after symptoms develop. It is caused by a lyssavirus transmitted through wounds or bites from infected animals ... The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952. Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and ... viruses (dengue and chikungunya, rabies).[citation needed] The World Health Organization recognizes the twenty diseases below ... There are limited data available on the prevalence of yaws, although it primarily affects children. The mortality risk is very ...
In many Asian countries which still have a high prevalence of rabies, such as Vietnam and Thailand, the virus is primarily ... strain of rabies virus in the US does not eliminate the need for dog rabies vaccination as dogs can still become infected from ... "World Survey of Rabies No.34 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-10. Medicine portal Viruses portal. ... Rabies is a zoonotic disease, caused by the rabies virus. The rabies virus, a member of the Lyssavirus genus of the ...
Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been ... Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in turn, infects others. ... Dangerous animal viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses are ... Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous ...
... such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range.[131] The viruses that infect ... Replication of viruses involves primarily multiplication of the genome. Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA ( ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
In nature, neurotropic viruses are usually transmitted through bites or scratches, as in the case of Rabies virus or certain ... Once introduced into the nervous system, the virus will begin to infect cells in the local area. The viruses function by ... Viral tracing is primarily used to trace neuronal circuits. Researchers use one of the previously mentioned viruses to study ... Viruses which can infect the nervous system, called neurotropic viruses, spread through spatially close assemblies of neurons ...
Nipah virus infection Nipah virus (NiV) bats, pigs direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs ... Rabies Rabies virus commonly - dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, groundhogs ... Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous ... Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001). "The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and ...
... it can only prevent the development of rabies in a person if given before the virus reaches the brain. Because the rabies virus ... Wildlife species, primarily bats, raccoons, skunks, and foxes, act as reservoir species for different variants of the rabies ... Rabies Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Medicine portal Viruses portal. ... Adenovirus, a common viral pathogen that infects the GI tract and causes diarrhea is genetically altered to express rabies ...
... increase parasite survival or increase the host's likelihood of being infected with more parasites. Rabies causes the host to ... providing nutrients for the virus's replication. When the virions (virus "units") are ready to leave the host, the caterpillar ... Viruses from the family Baculoviridae induce in their hosts changes to both feeding behavior and environment selection. They ... primarily the amygdala and the hypothalamus, and although parasites may be capable of stimulating specific neurochemical ...
... yet no gene for the toxin has been found on the genome of the virus. The virus manipulates the infected cell to express its own ... SAgs are produced by some pathogenic viruses and bacteria most likely as a defense mechanism against the immune system. ... Similar results have been found with rabies, cytomegalovirus, and HIV. Llewelyn M, Cohen J (March 2002). "Superantigens: ... supporting the hypothesis that SAg production evolved primarily as a mechanism of immune evasion. When the structure of ...
The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate dogs against are: Rabies CDV (canine distemper) CAV-2 (canine hepatitis ... Humans and dogs become infected through contact with water, food, or soil containing urine from infected animals. This may ... Hip dysplasia is a common problem that primarily affects larger breeds. Hip dysplasia is a defect in the shape of the hip joint ... parainfluenza virus, and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a veterinarian, taking into account factors ...
Lyssaviruses (including the Rabies virus), Henipaviruses, Menangle and Tioman viruses, SARS-CoV-Like Viruses, and Ebola viruses ... Genome sequencing has revealed the virus to be very similar to the type that infects humans. Environmental reservoirs include ... or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. A reservoir is usually a living host of a certain species, such ... Viruses of the taxon Ebolavirus, which causes Ebola virus disease, are thought to have a natural reservoir in bats or other ...
... ebola virus, HIV, influenza viruses, and the rabies virus. These viruses and others have been prominent throughout history, ... Brome mosaic virus, while not causing significant economic losses, is found throughout much of the world and primarily infects ... phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ... Plant viruses in the realm are numerous and infect many economically important crops. Tomato spotted wilt virus is estimated to ...
With 16% of people infected with rabies from exposure to rabid cats, cats have been the primary animals responsible for ... feline panleukopenia virus, external and internal parasites, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV ... Farm cats primarily live outdoors and usually shelter in barns. They are partially supplied with food and milk, but mainly ... Research has shown that the prevalence of these viruses among feral cat populations is low and is similar to prevalence rates ...
... the Ebola virus, influenza viruses, the measles virus, and the rabies virus. The first virus to be discovered, tobacco mosaic ... Brome mosaic virus, while not causing significant economic losses, is found throughout much of the world and primarily infects ... Those three groups are Group III: dsRNA viruses, Group IV: +ssRNA viruses, and Group V: -ssRNA viruses. RNA viruses are ... Rhinoviruses Rift Valley fever phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ...
... but viruses differ in that they must also enter into the host's actual cells. Once the virus has gained access to the host's ... These are primarily used to culture bacteria and fungi.. *Liquid culture: Cells are grown inside a liquid media. Microbial ... This provides them with a stable environment from which the bacteria can disperse and infect other parts of the host. ... fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation.[3] ...
Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature.[23] ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Early on, donations of vaccine were provided primarily by the Soviet Union and the United States, but by 1973, more than 80 ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... the medium in this case being cells grown in culture that the virus can infect, and then alter or kill. In the case of viral ... Oral transmission, Diseases that are transmitted primarily by oral means may be caught through direct oral contact such as ... and developed a vaccine for rabies. Robert Koch, provided the study of infectious diseases with a scientific basis known as ...
EVD in humans is caused by four of five viruses of the genus Ebolavirus. The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus ( ... The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to ... Treatment is primarily supportive in nature.[135] Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... Infect. 64 (5): 449-77. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2011.11.013. PMID 22120594.. ... Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349). Inflammation. ... lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses.[10][11] The Powassan virus is a rare ...
Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir ... Less pathogenic viruses are controlled by vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks (ATCvet codes: QI01AA23 (WHO) ... There are many subtypes of avian influenza viruses, but only some strains of five subtypes have been known to infect humans: ... Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ...
The immunization was called vaccination because it was derived from a virus affecting cows (Latin: vacca 'cow').[5][7] Smallpox ... Since then, it has been found that, in people with healthy immune systems, four doses of rabies vaccine over 14 days, wound ... These pathogens could possibly infect vaccinated people, due to the pathogen's ability to mutate when it is able to live in ... They focused on 11 diseases which cause relatively few deaths at present and primarily strike the poor which have been ...
... virus primarily interferes with the functions of the liver by replicating in hepatocytes. A functional receptor is ... The virus is one of the smallest enveloped animal viruses. The 42 nm virions, which are capable of infecting liver cells known ... "Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis B virus associated with oral surgery". J. Infect. Dis. 195 (9): 1311-4. doi: ... Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... the medium in this case being cells grown in culture that the virus can infect, and then alter or kill. In the case of viral ... Oral transmission, Diseases that are transmitted primarily by oral means may be caught through direct oral contact such as ... Louis Pasteur proved beyond doubt that certain diseases are caused by infectious agents, and developed a vaccine for rabies. ...
V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... worldwide: one of the most common human parasites; estimated to infect between 30-50% of the global population.[7][8] ingestion ... Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109) ... Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ...
"Infect. Immun. 36 (1): 123-8. PMC 351193. PMID 7042568.. *^ a b c d e Alouf JE, Müller-Alouf H (February 2003). "Staphylococcal ... yet no gene for the toxin has been found on the genome of the virus. The virus manipulates the infected cell to express its own ... SAgs are produced by some pathogenic viruses and bacteria most likely as a defense mechanism against the immune system.[1] ... supporting the hypothesis that SAg production evolved primarily as a mechanism of immune evasion.[25] ...
MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Treatment is primarily supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to ... The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle.[25] ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ...
... which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). The condition primarily affects children and young adults. It has ... "Emerg Infect Dis. 6 (4): 377-81. doi:10.3201/eid0604.000409. PMC 2640885 . PMID 10905971.. ... Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
... and four known to infect humans including West Nile virus.[9] The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and ... Countries which have had major epidemics in the past, but which have controlled the disease primarily by vaccination, include ... part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 genetically and antigenically related viruses, some which are particularly ... The virus appears to have originated from its ancestral virus in the mid-1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved ...
The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ... Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect and replicate in bacteria. They were discovered in the early 20th century, by the ... Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ...
Of the 120 known human papilloma viruses, 51 species and three subtypes infect the genital mucosa.[74] 15 are classified as ... Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ... They found high-risk HPV on 60% of these men, primarily the penis. "The specimens were obtained using a vigorous motion of the ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
... primarily lymphocytes) and a mildly elevated protein level. Detection of virus in the CSF is diagnostic of paralytic polio, but ... In addition to protecting the virus' genetic material, the capsid proteins enable poliovirus to infect certain types of cells. ... Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV). This group of RNA viruses ... Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2. Myelitis. *Poliovirus *Poliomyelitis ...
This is the Poxvirus family, which comprises highly pathogenic viruses that infect vertebrates. Viruses that fall under this ... This type of virus usually must enter the host nucleus before it is able to replicate. Some of these viruses require host cell ... These viruses consist of two types, however both share the fact that replication is primarily in the cytoplasm, and that ... which includes rabies). A well-studied family of this class of viruses include the retroviruses. One defining feature is the ...
Because the rabies virus is almost always caught from animals, rabies eradication has focused on reducing the population of ... Nonetheless, the last 1% may be the hardest, and cases have increased from 2015 (22) to 2019 (54). The worm is able to infect ... primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine. The final, successful campaign was led by the Food and Agriculture ... measles and rubella outbreaks are occurring in many areas of the world where people have no immunity to these viruses. The ...
How is rabies transmitted?. Rabies virus is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. Infection occurs primarily ... What is rabies virus?. Rabies virus belongs to the genus Lyssavirus, a group of viruses responsible for causing encephalitis. ... How does rabies virus spread within the body?. The virus will generally remain at the entry site in the body for a period of ... What is rabies?. Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including humans. The virus is ...
Rabies. Rabies is a deadly neurologic disease caused by a virus that spreads primarily through bites of infected animals. ... Ferrets can be infected with influenza A and B viruses (human flu), just like people. People can spread flu to ferrets, and ... Unvaccinated ferrets are at risk for rabies and can spread rabies to you if they become infected. ... How it spreads: Rabies spreads through contact with saliva or brain/nervous system tissue from an infected animal, usually ...
Other viruses may infect primarily a single tissue. For example, rabies virus affects primarily neuronal tissue. Factors ... Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. ... Tissue tropism develops in the following stages: Virus with GPX enters body (where GP - glycoprotein and X is the numeric value ... Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. ...
... but primarily in nervous tissue. Irrefutable virus transmission by bite could not be demonstrated because of equivocal results ... Ornithodoros moubata nymphal ticks were exposed to viremic mice but failed to become infected. ... Mokola virus underwent nine mosquito-mosquito passages at approximately monthly intervals and was thus maintained in insects ... Virus antigen was detected by immunofluorescence in a variety of mosquito tissues and organs, including salivary glands, ...
To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) ... Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012-2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. ... After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, ... Meng S, Sun Y, Wu X, Tang J, Xu G, Lei Y, Evolutionary dynamics of rabies viruses highlights the importance of China rabies ...
Rabies is a severe disease caused by the rabies virus belonging to family Rhabodoviridae. Rabies is primarily a disease found ... Rabies virus infects the central nervous system causing disease in the brain, ultimately leading to death. The early symptoms ... There are special polysaccharide coatings on some bacteria and viruses that help them to escape the immune system. An immature ... Juniper berry oil is mostly used in food and beverage industry where it is primarily used as a flavor in food cuisines and due ...
... transmitted by saliva through bites and scratches of infected mammals. The infection primarily circulates among domestic, feral ... Selective Vaccinations: Rabies. Description Rabies is a viral infection caused by viruses belonging to the Lyssavirus genus. It ... you will require 2 additional post-exposure doses if you were exposed to the virus. The preferred vaccines for rabies pre- ... Rabies and Related Viruses. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunters Tropical Medicine and Emerging ...
Source for information on Viruses: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... VirusesDefinitionA virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a ... Viroid- An unconventional virus that is made of uncoated RNA.. Zoonotic- A type of virus that primarily infects an insect or ... Measles, rabies, and influenza are virulent viruses. Other less virulent viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, which causes ...
The virus is transmitted from monkeys to people primarily by means of bites and scratches and through contact of infected body ... Rabies. All mammals are susceptible to the rabies virus, which is almost always fatal in people. Transmission is usually ... This group of fevers (Yellow Fever, Dengue, Marburg Virus, Ebola, Hantavirus) is caused by RNA viruses. Transmission is via ... Infected people demonstrate severe neurologic signs with a 70% fatality rate. Although the risk of acquiring a B-virus ...
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of global importance. Rabies virus is shed in the saliva of infected hosts and is primarily ... was the predominant virus isolated, with serotype 2 (EHDV-2) representing 66% (135/205) of all isolated viruses. Viruses within ... KEYWORDS: Bait density, oral rabies vaccination, Procyon lotor, rabies, rabies virus neutralizing antibodies, raccoon. ... Isolation of Rabies Virus from the Salivary Glands of Wild and Domestic Carnivores during a Skunk Rabies Epizootic ...
Rabies. These are emerging infectious diseases where the viruses have jumped from one animal species into another and now ... infect humans. This is a phenomenon known as cross-species transmission and scientists are working to determine what drives it ... is one of those scientists and has made a groundbreaking discovery into how viruses jump from host to host. ... McCracken and his colleagues used this database to document the cases in which a rabies virus jumped from one species of bat to ...
Rabies Category: We Help Your Pet With, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Rabies is also fatal to humans, there has been only one case of a person surviving rabies when treatment was started after ... If you have a friend who camps or fishes, you may have heard that they had been infected with Giardia. Or your veterinarian may ...
Eradication of rabies is not feasible, primarily because of the extensive, varied animal reservoirs of the virus and the ... The First International Conference on the Varicella-Zoster Viruses. J Infect Dis 1992;166(suppl 1):51-68. * The summaries were ... Rabies. More than 50,000 persons die of rabies each year, mostly in China and India (35). Humans are infected by saliva ... 100 asymptomatic persons carry the virus and can infect others. This virus is transmitted mostly by airborne droplets from ...
It is transmitted from animal-to-animal or from animal-to-human primarily through the bite of an infected animal. Rabies virus ... A single vaccine offering protection against three highly contagious upper respiratory viruses: Herpesvirus, Calicivirus, and ... Rabies Vaccine All dogs must be vaccinated for Rabies Virus. Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system that can ... Rabies Vaccine (adjuvanted) A vaccine for rabies, a contagious and uniformly fatal viral disease that is transmissible to ...
It is transmitted from animal-to-animal or from animal-to-human primarily through the bite of an infected animal. Rabies virus ... A single vaccine offering protection against three highly contagious upper respiratory viruses: Herpesvirus, Calicivirus, and ... Rabies Vaccine All dogs must be vaccinated for Rabies Virus. Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system that can ... Rabies Vaccine (adjuvanted) A vaccine for rabies, a contagious and uniformly fatal viral disease that is transmissible to ...
Rabies. Rabies is an acute disease, caused by a virus (rhabdovirus), that can infect all warm-blooded animals, and is usually ... Rabies virus is transmitted primarily via the saliva during the bite of a rabid animal. However, other methods of transmission ... Occasionally, infected mosquitoes will feed on human or equine hosts that are "dead ends" for the viruses, with little or no ... Infected rodents shed virus in their urine, feces, and/or saliva and can remain chronically infected. The contaminated excreta ...
Rabies. Rabies is an acute disease, caused by a virus (rhabdovirus), that can infect all warm-blooded animals, and is usually ... Rabies virus is transmitted primarily via the saliva during the bite of a rabid animal. However, other methods of transmission ... Occasionally, infected mosquitoes will feed on human or equine hosts that are "dead ends" for the viruses, with little or no ... Infected rodents shed virus in their urine, feces, and/or saliva and can remain chronically infected. The contaminated excreta ...
Considering how bats appear to be vectors for both Ebola and rabies… ... Previously we covered vampire bats and their role in spreading rabies to humans and livestock in South America. ... to be infected with different types of influenza viruses is why there are new outbreaks of the flu every year and why the virus ... Classes B and C primarily infect humans while class A infects a range of hosts including birds, mammals, and reptiles. However ...
Diseases And Viruses in Boothwyn, PA. Conchester Animal Hospital is your local Veterinarian in Boothwyn serving all of your ... Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. Skunks, bats, raccoons, and foxes are the ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ...
... in Lucedale, MS. Singing River Animal Clinic is your local Veterinarian in Lucedale serving all of your ... Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. Skunks, bats, raccoons, and foxes are the ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Diseases And Viruses in Savannah, GA. Crossroad Animal Hospital is your local Veterinarian in Savannah serving all of your ... Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies Category: Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. Skunks, bats, raccoons, and foxes are the ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ... Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know Category: Feline, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses ...
Rabies: Rabies is a deadly virus that affects the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). With a mortality rate of ... Vaccines give your pet the best defense against rabies, distemper, and other life-threatening viruses. Call (903) 300-1547 to ... The bacteria can be found in water and soil and infects animals that either drink the contaminated water or have a small open ... Leptospirosis: Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection primarily affecting dogs. ...
Examples of these viruses include rabies, influenza and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV is special because it ... It is made a different way if the immune system can reach the infected cells and tissues differently. And then it is made a ... whole other way if you need the immune response to be primarily antibodies versus a whole immune system response. Just as the ... The main ones are DNA and RNA viruses. DNA viruses include, among others, the herpes viruses that cause genital herpes, ...
It is transmitted primarily by mosquitos which suck the blood from human beings. There are four kinds of malaria parasite that ... Ideally, you should get vaccinated at least 21 days (sometimes more for others such as the Rabies vaccine) before you travel to ... Therefore, if youre ever exposed to the bacteria or virus, then your defense system will kill it before any harm can be done ... When you travel to a more exotic destination, you may be exposed to viruses and bacteria that your body does not have ...
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and ... or another body fluid from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This ... Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease that is transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. ... It is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, meaning it is related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. Skunks, bats, raccoons, and foxes are the ... In particular, they occur when an infected animal passes on bacteria, parasites, fungi or viruses to humans through scratches, ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ...
Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. The virus affects primarily the lungs ... Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. Skunks, bats, raccoons, and foxes are the ... In particular, they occur when an infected animal passes on bacteria, parasites, fungi or viruses to humans through scratches, ... Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect ...
The neglected tropical diseases are characterized in the majority (exceptions among others dengue virus or rabies) by the fact ... Hörauf, in which regions of the world are Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) primarily a health problem? Hörauf: Primarily in ... At times when dangerous Corona viruses (SARS-1, MERS) were thought to remain in Asia and not affect us, the issue was largely ... Here it is not looked whether the individual is infected, if the medicines have hardly side effects, and the advantage for the ...
... is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus is also present in Panama and Trinidad and Tobago. ... Rabies, pre-exposure vaccination, if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas, such as might occur ... Travelers diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, which are found throughout East Africa and can ... Yellow fever, a viral disease that occurs primarily in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, ...
Rabies Vaccine. Rabies is a fatal virus spread by the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite. The symptoms of ... But a few viruses and bacteria, those dangerous enough to have warranted the arduous process of vaccine research and ... About the author: Laurie Bouck is an award winning writer focused primarily on health and medicine. She has co-authored a book ... Like typhoid, the hepatitis A virus is spread by contact with infected human feces, or food or drink contaminated with infected ...
Take action azulfidine pills online if an infected person (2). The most common cause of rabies into wildlife. Keep Pets ... higher VE against several circulating influenza viruses, particularly influenza A(H3N2) viruses have caused severe disease and ... Subsequently, this virus into the initiative. If prophylaxis is delayed (i. Are we talking about emergency preparedness and ... primarily during the one that has on cancer control. ... Rabies Positive Skin BiopsyThe DFA test is not responsible for ...
1885: Rabies. Rabies is a virus mainly found in animals including bats, raccoons, dogs and cats. Humans can become infected via ... Fourteen strains of HPV are known to cause primarily cervical cancer, but also throat, penile, tongue, and anal cancers (almost ... A few months later, Doctor Jenner attempted to infect the boy with the deadly smallpox virus via pus taken from an existing ... Doctor Jenner observed that milkmaids infected with a mild virus called cowpox seemed to be immune from acquiring smallpox. To ...
  • The preferred vaccines for rabies pre-exposure vaccination and post-exposure therapy are HDCV (Human Diploid Cell Rabies Vaccine) and PCECV (Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine). (iamat.org)
  • Travellers who have not received the pre-exposure series need 4 to 5 shots of the rabies vaccine (depending on your health status) and the Human Rabies Immune Globulin (HRIG) which is calculated as 20 IU (International Units) per kilo of body weight. (iamat.org)
  • Call your healthcare provider for guidance in reporting the attack and to determine whether additional treatment, such as antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rabies vaccine is needed. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • First, inactivated vaccines are ones in which the infectious agent involved in the vaccine has been treated in some way (usually by chemicals), so that it no longer can infect and replicate within the host. (maxshouse.com)
  • A second type of vaccine is the modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine (also referred to as an attenuated vaccine), which contains viruses that have been altered by various techniques, so that they no longer produce clinical disease. (maxshouse.com)
  • In some cases, vaccine virus may be shed from the vaccinated cat to infect other cats that may come in contact with the vaccinated cat. (maxshouse.com)
  • In this type of vaccine, a portion of the infectious agent is separated from the rest of the agent and serves to stimulate the immune system of the cat to develop antibodies against the whole virus or agent. (maxshouse.com)
  • Vaccinated cats shed vaccine viruses for long periods after IN vaccination. (maxshouse.com)
  • A single vaccine offering protection against three highly contagious upper respiratory viruses: Herpesvirus, Calicivirus, and Panleukopenia. (vippetcare.com)
  • An effective vaccine for prevention of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), a highly contagious and lethal retrovirus. (vippetcare.com)
  • A vaccine for rabies, a contagious and uniformly fatal viral disease that is transmissible to humans. (vippetcare.com)
  • The minimum age is determined by state law and varies throughout the U.S., so please check with a veterinarian to determine the appropriate time to begin your pet's rabies vaccine series. (vippetcare.com)
  • The 5-in-1 Vaccine helps protect puppies and dogs against many diseases including Canine Parvovirus, Canine Distemper Virus, Canine Infectious Hepatitis caused by Canine Adenovirus type-1, respiratory disease caused by Canine Adenovirus type-2, and Canine Parainfluenza Virus. (vippetcare.com)
  • The analytic approach used was negative binomial regression, with exclusion of those counties that had not experienced RRV cases in the study period, and with further examination of those counties where oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits had been distributed as compared with non-ORV counties. (peerj.com)
  • All 3 of these viruses are the the feline "distemper" vaccine. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • It is estimated that by vaccinating 70% of the dogs where infection is still rife, rabies could be eradicated in dogs and the number of human cases would rapidly drop to almost zero. (oie.int)
  • reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical staining excluded the possibility of infection with the canine distemper virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Rabies is a viral infection caused by viruses belonging to the Lyssavirus genus. (iamat.org)
  • Cercopithecine herpesvirus I (formerly Herpesvirus simiae or B-virus) is found most commonly in Old World monkeys as a latent infection and is especially prevalent in macaque monkeys. (rochester.edu)
  • Although the risk of acquiring a B-virus infection from macaques is very low, the seriousness of this disease warrants extreme care when handling macaques. (rochester.edu)
  • An acquired defect or cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (bdipharma.com)
  • Rabies is a widespread, viral infection of warm-blooded animals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Once the infection is established in the brain, the virus travels down the nerves from the brain and multiplies in different organs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is transmitted primarily through bite wounds. (parktownvet.com)
  • Psittacosis: Also known as "parrot fever," this infection is passed from an infected bird through feces or dust in the cage. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ringworm: Also known as tinea , this fungal infection is carried on the skin of infected pets. (wisegeek.com)
  • Parainfluenza Virus Canine parainfluenza virus is one of the most common causes of infectious tracheobronchitis, also called "kennel cough", an infection of the windpipe (trachea) and its lower branches (the bronchi). (pet360.co.za)
  • Rabies Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system that can affect all mammals, including humans, and is 100% fatal if left untreated. (pet360.co.za)
  • Animal borne rabies virus is a source of infection in humans, and raccoons ( Procyon lotor) are the primary terrestrial reservoir in West Virginia (WV). (peerj.com)
  • Rabies lyssavirus causes an almost invariably fatal infection in any mammal, including humans. (peerj.com)
  • Subsequently, it was shown that RNA transcribed in vitro from cloned cDNA copies of a number of positive-strand genomes is a much more efficient initiator of infection, and these studies have revolutionized experimental analysis of the replication processes of these viruses ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • approximately 70% of cats who encounter the virus are able to resist infection or eliminate the virus on their own. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Although abnormal behavior is not diagnostic for rabies (other diseases, like distemper, cause similar behavioral changes), atypical behavior and signs develop following brain infection, and rabies should be suspected whenever wild animals display unusual behavior. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Rabies is a severe acute viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that is transmitted by biting animals. (encephalitis.info)
  • During infection, vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, targets all major processes of the central dogma of genetics, as well as pre-transcription and post-translation steps to hinder host cell protein production. (mdpi.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a huge and growing problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. (artemisonehealth.com)
  • Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by infection with influenza viruses. (nv.gov)
  • While the virus is neither waterborne nor airborne, infection can only occur through direct fluidic contact. (sentientdevelopments.com)
  • Campylobacter most often spreads to animals and people through the feces (poop) of infected animals, contaminated food or water, or the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • It is shed in the feces and infected cysts can persist in the environment for up to one month. (rochester.edu)
  • This virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected dogs or wild members of the dog family, infected feces, or a contaminated environment. (pet360.co.za)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is passed from one cat to another through saliva, blood, and to some extent, urine and feces. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Infected rodents shed virus in their urine, feces, and/or saliva and can remain chronically infected. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Many of these organisms (and their eggs or larvae) are eventually expelled in feces, where they can infect other animals. (petwave.com)
  • Excellent anti-rabies vaccines for dogs, developed according to OIE standards, are nowadays available. (oie.int)
  • Be aware that if you are in a remote area and are offered daily rabies treatment injections lasting 14 to 21 days, it may be one of the older animal brain-derived vaccines. (iamat.org)
  • Viruses in these vaccines can replicate within the host and stimulate a rapid and excellent immune response. (maxshouse.com)
  • Because there is no living virus or agent present, subunit vaccines are considered to be safe. (maxshouse.com)
  • Most rabies vaccines must be given by the IM route. (maxshouse.com)
  • With regards to the Feline leukemia and Feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, use is evaluated on the individual case basis. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Within these projects Artemis is collaborating with the best scientists in the world, with the aim to study the mechanisms by which the respective viruses are cause disease and to develop vaccines against these diseases. (artemisonehealth.com)
  • Mass vaccination of dogs in infected areas - the only way to permanently interrupt the disease's infectious cycle between animals and humans. (oie.int)
  • Although dogs are considered the principal host of RABV in developing countries, the virus is also dispersed among many species of wild carnivora and chiroptera, especially in those countries of Europe and North America that have well-established vaccination programs ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A series of 3 pre-exposure rabies vaccination shots is advised for persons planning an extended stay or on work assignments in remote and rural areas, particularly in Africa, Asia, Central and South America. (iamat.org)
  • Reduction in human rabies is likely linked with the intensive control of dog rabies during the 1950s and 1960s through massive vaccination campaigns, stray dog control programs, and improvement in human treatment following exposure. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • If your cat bites anyone, you may need to show proof of rabies vaccination. (ktre.com)
  • Prevent rabies through vaccination and by keeping your cat inside. (ktre.com)
  • The virus infects nearly all warm-blooded animals and causes severe neurologic signs, which almost invariably lead to death ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Rabies is an acute disease, caused by a virus (rhabdovirus), that can infect all warm-blooded animals, and is usually fatal. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Influenza, or "flu", is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • H3N8 CANINE INFLUENZA Canine influenza, often referred to as "Dog Flu" is a contagious respiratory disease caused by a specific Type A influenza virus. (pet360.co.za)
  • These viruses are very contagious. (pet360.co.za)
  • The causative agent of Leptospirosis is a bacterial organism that is highly contagious that infects humans and animals. (vippetcare.com)
  • Commonly known as feline distemper, this is a highly contagious viral disease that can be transmitted through contact with humans, infected cats, clothing, hair, paws, food bowls, and even cat carriers. (ktre.com)
  • Around 99% of human cases of rabies are due to bites from infected dogs. (oie.int)
  • Around 99% of human cases of rabies are due to dog bites and unlike many other diseases, we already have all the tools needed to eradicate it. (oie.int)
  • After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. (cdc.gov)
  • Rabies is possibly one of the oldest zoonotic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • These are emerging infectious diseases where the viruses have jumped from one animal species into another and now infect humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although CST events are the source of infectious diseases that kill millions of people each year, the natural reservoirs of viruses in wild animals and how they cross species barriers are poorly known and difficult to observe. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rabies is considered one of the most famous types of dog diseases. (wisegeek.com)
  • FeLV is a fatal infectious virus that affects the immune system and can cause several forms of cancer and other associated diseases. (ktre.com)
  • A virus is an infectious agent, often highly host-specific, consisting of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A major advance in the investigation of positive-strand RNA viruses was the demonstration that cloned poliovirus cDNA was infectious ( 1 ), since in the DNA form viral sequences can be manipulated using recombinant DNA techniques and then reintroduced into viable virus. (pnas.org)
  • Development of analogous techniques to analyze negative-strand virus replication has been slower, in part because neither isolated genome nor antigenome RNA of negative-strand viruses is infectious, in contrast to the positive-strand viruses. (pnas.org)
  • The unsegmented genomes of rhabdoviruses (rabies and vesicular stomatitis viruses) and paramyxoviruses (measles, Sendai, and respiratory syncytial viruses) have been rescued from cDNA to produce infectious virus in a helper-independent manner (i.e., not requiring help from homologous virus) using a different strategy: full-length cDNA clones of antigenomes were transcribed intracellularly and then replicated by expressed recombinant nucleocapsid and polymerase proteins to give genome RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The amplified genomes then acted as template for transcription of all viral mRNAs, thus producing all the viral proteins required for genome packaging and viral assembly, and infectious viruses were recovered ( 8 - 12 , 33 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a type of infectious encephalitis that is caused by a virus spread by ticks. (encephalitis.info)
  • Japanese encephalitis is an infectious encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus transmitted by mosquitoes, called 'Culex' mosquitoes. (encephalitis.info)
  • West Nile encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. (encephalitis.info)
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis which happens when herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters the brain. (encephalitis.info)
  • During the last 2 years, raccoons replaced striped skunks as the major wildlife host in the United States because of the continued expansion of raccoon rabies in the northeastern United States. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Rodents, like hamsters, may carry the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. (cdc.gov)
  • Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • So small that they cannot be seen by a light microscope, viruses range in size from about 30 nanometers (about0.000001 in) to about 450 nanometers (about0.000014 in) and are between 100 to 20 times smaller than bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pregnant women should avoid touching cat litter, because it may contain bacteria, viruses, or parasites. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, may become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Some of the infections pets carry include fungi , bacteria, parasites and viruses. (wisegeek.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Leptospirosis is caused by a bacteria spread through soil, water, and the urine of infected animals, and if not caught early it can be deadly. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Humans and dogs have many of the same types of bacteria, viruses and other microscopic organisms in their mouths. (petwave.com)
  • The virus is particularly present in the saliva and brain of infected animals. (oie.int)
  • It is transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal, most often a dog. (oie.int)
  • It is a zoonosis - an animal disease that can spread to humans - transmitted by saliva through bites and scratches of infected mammals. (iamat.org)
  • The rabies virus enters the body via the animal's saliva either through a cut or scratch, or through mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and eyes), and travels to the central nervous system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. (wisegeek.com)
  • Skunks, much like other wild animals are carriers of many viruses including deadly viruses like rabies. (animalcontrolsandiego.com)
  • Skunks are one of the largest rabies carriers in the animal kingdom. (animalcontrolsandiego.com)
  • Some of the increase in reporting was due to real increases in the number of cases, and some was due to an increased awareness of wildlife rabies, particularly in striped skunks, raccoons, and bats. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • An example of a virus having an icosahedral structure is adenovirus, the virus that can cause acute respiratory disease or viral pneumonia in humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Signs in infected humans are characteristic of acute gastrointestinal disease including diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, fever and abdominal cramping. (rochester.edu)
  • His article, "Host Phylogeny Constrains Cross-Species Emergence and Establishments of Rabies Virus in Bats," will appear in the Aug. 6 edition of Science and will be featured on the issue's cover. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team made their discovery by analyzing hundreds of rabies viruses in 23 species of bats. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the United States, there are at least 45 different species of bats and many different strains of rabies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Not coincidentally, the CDC collects rabid bats after humans or their pets or livestock may have been exposed to the virus -- adding nearly 2,000 bats annually to its database. (eurekalert.org)
  • They verified the cases by genotyping both the viruses and the bats. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, rabies in bats serves as a model to understand events that are critical to public health concerns worldwide," McCracken said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The evolution of megabats has been determined primarily by genetic data, as the fossil record for this family is the most fragmented of all bats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: This virus is carried by rodents, primarily mice and hamsters. (wisegeek.com)
  • Field and commensal rodents are the natural reservoirs for viruses in this group and these viruses are found worldwide. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • The contaminated excreta from infected rodents are thought to be the source of virus for aerosol and direct (animal bite) transmission to other rodents and humans. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Individuals trapping and handling small rodents in this region should take increased precautions to reduce their exposure to this virus. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • It is caused by the rabies virus (RABV), a neurotropic virus in the family Rhabdoviridae , genus Lyssavirus . (cdc.gov)
  • Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous systems of mammals, including humans. (oie.int)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a viral disease which affects the immune system of domestic cats, leaving the infected cat vulnerable to many other infections. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Artemis focuses on virus infections with a major impact on society , with the area of neglected viral disease as an important area of focus. (artemisonehealth.com)
  • Seasonal influenza surveillance currently consists of 8 system components which provide data on influenza viruses, outpatient influenza-like illness, laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations, influenza-associated deaths, and the geographic spread of influenza viruses and will form the foundation of pandemic influenza surveillance. (nv.gov)
  • Different strains of virus only infect certain types of animals. (parktownvet.com)
  • The estimated rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations and influenza-related deaths vary substantially from one influenza season to the next, depending, in part, on the characteristics of the circulating influenza virus strains. (nv.gov)
  • That innate similarity in the defenses of closely related species may favor virus exchange by making it easier for natural selection to favor a virus' ability to infect new hosts," McCracken explained. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spatial analyses of RRV and further examination of the virus in non-raccoon hosts are warranted. (peerj.com)
  • In other words, competition exists between viruses and their hosts to utilize the limited amount of cellular translation machinery. (mdpi.com)
  • Natural selection has, quite disturbingly, produced a number of viruses that, for all intents and purposes, turn their hosts into virtual zombies. (sentientdevelopments.com)
  • These are viruses and simple organisms that have evolved such that they can alter the behavior of their hosts. (sentientdevelopments.com)
  • Shigella is a bacterial organism which commonly infects primates. (rochester.edu)
  • To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Study of the molecular biology of viruses with RNA genomes has been hampered by the inherent limitations imposed by the nature of their genetic material. (pnas.org)
  • In the mid-Atlantic states, where rabies is increasing in raccoons, woodchucks (groundhogs) can be rabid. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Giardia spreads through swallowing microscopic poop containing the parasite after contact with an infected person or animal, or by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated with poop from infected people or animals. (cdc.gov)
  • People become infected by ingestion of fecal contaminated food or water, or by direct contact with infected animals. (rochester.edu)
  • Both infected humans and animals may show no signs at all, or develop illness characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, lethargy and weight loss. (rochester.edu)
  • Some animals need to be captured, confined, and observed for rabies. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family, it attacks the nervous system and, once symptoms develop, is virtually 100% fatal in animals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dogs, cats, other animals and even people can be infected through exposure to urine, bite wounds, ingestion of infected flesh, or contact with contaminated soil, water and even bedding. (parktownvet.com)
  • Canine distemper is caused by a virus that is shed in bodily fluids of infected animals. (parktownvet.com)
  • Infected animals usually display either "furious" or "dumb" rabies, although some animals progress through both stages. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Rabies is a viral illness that is transmitted through bite wounds from infected animals and attacks the nervous system. (ktre.com)
  • Rabies is also an occupational hazard for veterinarians and wildlife researchers. (iamat.org)
  • Rabies in wildlife increased dramatically during the 1960s and now accounts for most of the reported animal rabies cases (91% in 1991). (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Viruses also pose a threat to livestock and wildlife, thereby affecting the economy and endangering public health. (artemisonehealth.com)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are no cures for viral infections, due in part to the difficulty of developing drugs that adversely affect only the virus and not the host. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study found that the majority of viruses from cross-species infections were tightly nested among genetically similar bat species. (eurekalert.org)
  • The virus commonly causes anemia or lymphoma, but because it suppresses the immune system, it can also predispose cats to deadly infections. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. (mdpi.com)
  • they are the natural reservoirs of several viruses than can affect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis , Tick-borne encephalitis , West Nile encephalitis , Dengue virus encephalitis, rabies encephalitis ) and their preventive measures. (encephalitis.info)
  • Usually symptoms appear 1 to 3 months, although they can appear as early as a few days after exposure to the virus. (iamat.org)
  • Although this provides adequate initial protection, you will require 2 additional post-exposure doses if you were exposed to the virus. (iamat.org)
  • In some countries purified Equine Rabies Immune Globulin (ERIG) is used for post-exposure therapy when HRIG is not available. (iamat.org)
  • Nevertheless, thousands of people in the United States continue to receive treatment every year for possible exposure to rabies virus by animal bites. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • The virus is spread in the air and via direct contact through respiratory secretions of an infected dog or wild animal. (pet360.co.za)
  • Hantavirus includes a group of viruses that can cause a febrile illness in humans which can be accompanied by kidney, blood, or respiratory ailments and can sometimes be fatal. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • Influenza types A and B viruses are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter in temperate climates and are often associated with increased rates of hospitalization and death. (nv.gov)
  • Proper care of your pet may prevent him or her from becoming ill and infecting the household. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • However, it is possible to be infected and have no signs of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Rabies is a fatal illness. (ktre.com)
  • For example, rabies virus affects primarily neuronal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus affects primarily the lungs, intestines, and nervous system. (parktownvet.com)
  • Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites that only replicate in host cells. (mdpi.com)
  • If you see a coyote during the day there is a much greater chance that they are carriers of the rabies virus. (animalcontrolsandiego.com)
  • The virus is transmitted from monkeys to people primarily by means of bites and scratches and through contact of infected body fluids with broken skin. (rochester.edu)
  • Bites and/or scratches that break the skin are even more likely to become infected. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In response to a global call to action made in 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) developed the country-centric Zero by 30: The Global Strategic Plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 . (oie.int)
  • 60,000 human deaths, primarily in Africa and Asia ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The virus attacks the Central Nervous System targeting the brain and the spinal cord, and if untreated is fatal. (iamat.org)
  • The rabies virus attacks the brain and central nervous system and is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected animal. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • For example, the Canine Parvovirus (Parvo) will mainly infect dogs and does not cause disease in cats or humans. (parktownvet.com)
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF): This disease is transmitted by infected ticks carrying the Rickettsiabacteria , which are carried indoors by dogs and cats. (wisegeek.com)
  • All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other domestic animal. (ktre.com)
  • Orf virus causes disease in sheep and goats characterized by pustular and necrotic lesions on the lips, gums, nostrils, urogenital orifices, teats and udders. (rochester.edu)
  • Our objective in this study was to clarify whether the current outbreak of the TWFB-associated rabies is an emerging, a reemerging, or a cryptically circulating disease. (cdc.gov)
  • It is transmitted by breathing air infected with particles of the disease. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • No other animal in the animal kingdom has ever spread virus and disease like rats. (animalcontrolsandiego.com)
  • Read about our research on virus ecology , mechanisms of disease and intervention strategies . (artemisonehealth.com)
  • The ELC Program records and analyzes reportable disease information, conducts interviews with infected individuals and their contacts, refers individuals for medical treatment, analyzes data from disease investigations, identifies risk factors, provides education and recommendations on disease prevention, and works in conjunction with appropriate agencies to enforce communicable disease laws. (nv.gov)
  • A cell culture-adapted variant of the rabies-related Mokola virus was demonstrated to replicate in inoculated Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infected people demonstrate severe neurologic signs with a 70% fatality rate. (rochester.edu)
  • Virus antigen was detected by immunofluorescence in a variety of mosquito tissues and organs, including salivary glands, but primarily in nervous tissue. (ajtmh.org)
  • A simple desktop blood test that tests for two feline retroviruses, FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus) and FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus). (vippetcare.com)
  • Feline panleukopenia is often fatal and is in the same family of viruses known as Parvovirus in dogs. (allsaintsanimalhospital.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (ktre.com)
  • Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes species mosquitoes which tend to bite mainly during the day. (encephalitis.info)
  • Giardia is a parasite that can be found on surfaces or in water, food, or soil that has been contaminated by the poop of an infected person or animal. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have a friend who camps or fishes, you may have heard that they had been infected with Giardia. (naturalholistic.com)
  • To assess the behavior and status of raccoon variant rabies virus (RRV) cases in WV, a longitudinal analysis for the period 2000-2015 was performed, using data provided by the state Bureau of Public Health. (peerj.com)
  • Ornithodoros moubata nymphal ticks were exposed to viremic mice but failed to become infected. (ajtmh.org)
  • Rabies is one of the most deadly zoonoses . (oie.int)
  • H3N8 is transmitted from dog to dog through direct contact, or through uninfected dogs coming in contact with contaminated objects or clothing that has been in the presence of infected dogs. (pet360.co.za)
  • All dogs must be vaccinated for Rabies Virus by law. (vippetcare.com)
  • Protects dogs against Rabies Virus. (vippetcare.com)
  • Most human cases have been contracted from rabies-infected dogs. (fallscreekservices.com)
  • In addition, most of them are species-specific, which means that they can infect dogs but not people. (petwave.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rabies is also fatal to humans, there has been only one case of a person surviving rabies when treatment was started after clinical signs were present. (parktownvet.com)